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Q1.

“Today managers need to perform various functions”:


Elaborate the statement.
Managers create and maintain an internal environment, commonly called the
organization, so that others can work efficiently in it. A manager’s job
consists of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the resources of
the organization. These resources include people, jobs or positions,
technology, facilities and equipment, materials and supplies, information,
and money. Managers work in a dynamic environment and must anticipate
and adapt to challenges.
The manager looks after more than one function. Therefore, managerial
practices used successfully in big firms cannot be blindly used in small-scale
units. Basic managerial functions in large and small business are the same.
But the manner in which these functions should be carried out can be
different.

Managing starts with planning. A manager with a definite and well defined
plan has more chances of success than another who tries to start an
enterprise without planning. According to Killen” planning is the process of
deciding in advance what is to be done‚who is to do it‚how it is to be done
and when it is to be done’’. Planning involves thinking and decision and is,
therefore, called a logical process. Planning is a continuous process as
changes in plans have to be made from time to time to take care of changing
environment. Many a times, a vague approach is adapted to planning in a
small firm. There is a false impression that small firms are uncomplicated
and do not require planning. The small-scale manager does not want to
engage his employees in the planning process due to the desire to keep the
secrets with him. Personal accountability for results, lack of expert staff and
not having planning skills are other major obstacles to planning in small
firms. The owner or manager of a small enterprise is too involved in day-to-
day operation to try planning before commencing actual operation. But they
need pre-planning most because small firms have limited resources to
conquer their upcoming problem and cannot afford to finance losses that can
take place while adjusting to unanticipated happenings/changes.

A manager needs an enterprise which can achieve the business objectives.


During the function of organizing he leads human resources to successful
completion of the project, arranging the functions and activities into different
levels in the organization structure, thus facilitating the assignments of
personnel according to their capabilities, skills and motivation. According to
Peter F. Drucker the process of organizing consists of three steps - activities
analysis, decisions analysis and relation analysis.
(i). Activities Analysis: It consists of the following:
a) Determining the main functions for achieving the objectives of the
firm.
b) Various sub-functions in each major function.
c) Amount of work in each major function and its sub-function.
d) The position required to perform the activities.
(ii) Decisions Analysis: It consists of the following:
a) Choosing the basis of departmentalization so that functions could be
grouped into specialized units. Generally, functional departmentation is
appropriate for small-scale units. Customers, Products and territories are
other important base of departmentalization.
b) Choosing the type of organization structure so that departments are
incorporated into a formal structure.

(iii) Relations Analysis: The authority, responsibility and accountability of


every position and its relationship with other positions are clearly defined.
Various positions are manned with persons having the necessary education,
training, experience and other qualifications.
To obtain best possible benefit from each employee it is necessary to
delegate functions as far-down in the organization as possible. Owners of
small firms are often reluctant to delegating authority to their employees
even though they expect them to do all functions allocated to them that
require authority. For effective completion of tasks, it is necessary that
responsibility accompanies the necessary authority.

DIRECTING
In directing a manager has to supervise, guide, lead and motivate people so
that they can achieve set targets of performance. In the process of directing
his subordinates, a manager ensures that the employees fulfill their tasks
according to the set plans. Directing is the executive function of
management because it is concerned with the execution of plan and policies.
Directing commences organized action and sets the whole organizational
machinery into action. It is, therefore, the life giving function of an
organization. This is the area where the mastery of the art and science of
management is put to test. A manager’s leadership style determines the
work atmosphere and culture of the organization. Above all, he must
motivate employees by setting a good example, setting practical targets of
performance and providing satisfactory monetary and non- monetary
benefits.
In directing a manager has to perform the following tasks:
(a) Issuing orders and instructions
(b) Supervising workers
(c) Motivating i.e. inspiring to work efficiently for set objectives
(d) Communicating with employees regarding plans and their
implementation.
(e) Leadership or influencing the actions or employees
CONTROLLING
Controlling is the process of ensuring that the organization is moving in the
desired direction and that progress is being made to wards the achievement
of goals.

The answer to a profitable organization is the skill of the owner or manager


to control operations. He has to establish standards of performance,
procedures, goals and budgets. With these guides, he supervises job
progress, workers performance and the financial condition of the business.
The controlling function of the owner manager includes:

Setting of standards: - Control presumes the existence of standards against


which actual results are to be evaluated. Standards can not control on their
own but they are the targets against which actual performance can be
measured. Therefore they should be set clearly and accurately. They should
be precise, adequate, and feasible.

Measurement of actual performance: - The actual performance is measured


and evaluated in comparison with the set standards. Preferably
measurement should be such that variation may be identified in advance of
occurrence and prevented by suitable action. Where work involved is of
quantitative nature measurement of performance is not difficult. But when
the work is not quantifiable measurement becomes difficult. Periodical
reports test checks and audits are helpful in precise measurement of
performance.

Analysis of variances: - Comparison of actual performance with standards


will reveal variation. Variations are analyzed to identify their cause and their
impact on the organization. Corrective action can be possible only where the
causes of the problem spots have been identified. Clarification may be called
for sudden variation.

Taking corrective action: - Control means action on the basis of


measurement and evaluation of results. Wherever possible self- determining
device should be used for bringing back actual results in line with the
standards. Standards should be revised wherever necessary. Other steps to
prevent deviations can be re-organization, improvements in staffing and
directions etc. The real meaning of control lies in the commencement and
follow-up of remedial action. At this stages control unites with planning.

TIME MANAGEMENT
In managing an enterprise time is of essence especially for a small scale
manager who has to perform the dual role of a manager as well as of a
manager in his business. The manager can bring substantial changes in his
firm’s performance by managing time more efficiently. Management of time
involves the following steps.
(i) Time Analysis: First of all a systematic study is made to find out the
proportion of total time spent by the manager and his workers on different
activities.

(ii) Finding Critical Activities: Critical or vital activities should receive greater
time. Activities taking more than the justified time need to be identified.
Irrelevant or time wasting activities should be eliminated.

(iii) Time Allocation: A time schedule should be prepared. Proper time should
be allocated to each activity. The tasks one wants to do but for which he
does not have time should be noted.

(iv) Stick to Time Schedule: The most difficult step in time management is to
complete each activity within the schedule time period. For this purpose, it is
necessary to delegate task to subordinates, to organize every workday and
to continuously evaluate the time management system

Essentially, management implies distinct processes of Planning, Organizing,


Directing, and Controlling resources both human and material, to achieve an
identified objective.

Q.2 “Skills are the tool for performance”-Explain various


management skills.
Management in all business and human organization activity is simply the
act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives.
Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing,
and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or
effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the
deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources,
technological resources, and natural resources.
Basic Skills of management
The main functions of the management are: planning, organizing, controlling,
leading.
Planning: specifying goals to be achieved and preparing how to meet them
analyzing current situation, gathering and analyzing information.
Organizing: devising and allocating roles for respective position within the
manager’s scope of work obtaining and allocating resources delegation
assigning duties and responsibility to subordinates for results defining the
roles and authority of personnel.
Leading: Motivating people to high performance, directing and
communicating with people assisting and inspire then toward achieving team
and organizational goals
Controlling: Set and monitor performance the standard of progress toward
goals indentifying performance problems by comparing data against
standards control tools such as scheduling, charting techniques, standard
operating procedures (SOP), budgeting, disciplinary actions etc.
then besides those functions are important there have three management
skills are important also which are technical, human, and conceptual skills.

Technical skills: Ability to understand and use the techniques, knowledge


and tools to equipment of a specific discipline or department.

Human skills: Interpersonal enable a manager to work effectively through


people.

Conceptual skills: important for top-level managers who must develop long
range plans for future gave a direction to managers to determine the
organization as unified whole and understand each part of the overall
organization interacts with other department or parts.

Q.3 What is negotiation? Explain the process of negotiation.

Negotiation is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes, to produce an


agreement upon courses of action, to bargain for individual or collective
advantage, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is the primary
method of alternative dispute resolution.

Negotiation occurs in business, non-profit organizations, government


branches, legal proceedings, among nations and in personal situations such
as marriage, divorce, parenting, and everyday life. The study of the subject
is called negotiation theory. Professional negotiators are often specialized,
such as union negotiators, leverage buyout negotiators, peace negotiators,
hostage negotiators, or may work under other titles, such as diplomats,
legislators or brokers. Negotiation typically manifests itself with a trained
negotiator acting on behalf of a particular organization or position. It can be
compared to mediation where a disinterested third party listens to each
sides' arguments and attempts to help craft an agreement between the
parties. It is also related to arbitration which, as with a legal proceeding, both
sides make an argument as to the merits of their "case" and then the
arbitrator decides the outcome for both parties.

There are many different ways to segment negotiation to gain a greater


understanding of the essential parts. One view of negotiation involves three
basic elements: process, behavior and substance. The process refers to how
the parties negotiate: the context of the negotiations, the parties to the
negotiations, the tactics used by the parties, and the sequence and stages in
which all of these play out. Behavior refers to the relationships among these
parties, the communication between them and the styles they adopt. The
substance refers to what the parties negotiate over: the agenda, the issues
(positions and - more helpfully - interests), the options, and the agreement(s)
reached at the end.

Another view of negotiation comprises 4 elements: strategy, process and


tools, and tactics. Strategy comprises the top level goals - typically including
relationship and the final outcome. Processes and tools include the steps
that will be followed and the roles taken in both preparing for and
negotiating with the other parties. Tactics include more detailed statements
and actions and responses to others' statements and actions. Some add to
this persuasion and influence, asserting that these have become integral to
modern day negotiation success, and so should not be omitted.

Skilled negotiators may use a variety of tactics ranging from negotiation


hypnosis, to a straight forward presentation of demands or setting of
preconditions to more deceptive approaches such as cherry picking.
Intimidation and salami tactics may also play a part in swaying the outcome
of negotiations.

Another negotiation tactic is bad guy/good guy. Bad guy/good guy tactic is
when one negotiator acts as a bad guy by using anger and threats. The other
negotiator acts as a good guy by being considerate and understanding. The
good guy blames the bad guy for all the difficulties while trying to get
concessions and agreement from the opponent.

This is a unique combination framework that puts together the best of many
other approaches to negotiation. It is particularly suited to more complex,
higher-value and slower negotiations.
Prepare: Know what you want. Understand them.

Open: Put your case. Hear theirs.


Argue: Support your case. Expose theirs.
Explore: Seek understanding and possibility.
Signal: Indicate your readiness to work together.
Package: Assemble potential trades.
Close: Reach final agreement.
Sustain: Make sure what is agreed happens.

There are deliberately a larger number of stages in this process as it is


designed to break down important activities during negotiation, particularly
towards the end. It is an easy trap to try to jump to the end with a solution
that is inadequate and unacceptable.

Note also that in practice, you may find variations on these, for example
there may be loops back to previous stages, stages overlapping, stages
running parallel and even out of order.
The bottom line is to use what works. This process is intended to help you
negotiate, but do not use it blindly. It is not magic and is not a substitute for
thinking. If something does not seem to be working, try to figure out why and
either fix the problem or try something else. Although there are
commonalities across negotiations, each one is different and the greatest
skill is to be able to read the situation in the moment and adapt as
appropriate.

Q.4 Explain Classical Conditioning Theory?

Classical conditioning is a form of associative learning that was first


demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. The typical procedure for inducing classical
conditioning involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a
stimulus of some significance. The neutral stimulus could be any event that
does not result in an overt behavioral response from the organism under
investigation. Pavlov referred to this as a conditioned stimulus (CS).
Conversely, presentation of the significant stimulus necessarily evokes an
innate, often reflexive, response. Pavlov called these the unconditioned
stimulus (US) and unconditioned response (UR), respectively. If the CS and
the US are repeatedly paired, eventually the two stimuli become associated
and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to the CS. Pavlov
called this the conditioned response (CR).

Popular forms of classical conditioning that are used to study neural


structures and functions that underlie learning and memory include fear
conditioning, eyeblink conditioning, and the foot contraction conditioning of
Hermissenda crassicornis.
Types
Forward conditioning
Diagram representing forward conditioning…

Diagram representing forward conditioning.

The time interval increases from left to right. During forward conditioning the
onset of the CS precedes the onset of the US. Two common forms of forward
conditioning are delay and trace conditioning.
Delay Conditioning
In delay conditioning the CS is presented and is overlapped by the
presentation of the US
Trace conditioning
During trace conditioning the CS and US do not overlap. Instead, the CS is
presented, a period of time is allowed to elapse during which no stimuli are
presented, and then the US is presented. The stimulus free period is called
the trace interval. It may also be called the "conditioning interval"
Simultaneous conditioning
During simultaneous conditioning, the CS and US are presented and
terminate at the same time.
Backward conditioning
Backward conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus immediately
follows an unconditioned stimulus. Unlike traditional conditioning models, in
which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus, the
conditioned response tends to be inhibitory. This is because the conditioned
stimulus serves as a signal that the unconditioned stimulus has ended,
rather than a reliable method of predicting the future occurrence of the
unconditioned stimulus.
The onset of the US precedes the onset of the CS. Rather than being a
reliable predictor of an impending US (such as in Forward Conditioning), the
CS actually serves as a signal that the US has ended. As a result, the CR is
said to be inhibitory.
Temporal conditioning
The US is presented at regularly timed intervals, and CR acquisition is
dependent upon correct timing of the interval between US presentations. The
background, or context, can serve as the CS in this example.
Unpaired conditioning
The CS and US are not presented together. Usually they are presented as
independent trials that are separated by a variable, or pseudo-random,
interval. This procedure is used to study non-associative behavioral
responses, such as sensitization.
CS-alone extinction
Main article: Extinction (psychology)
The CS is presented in the absence of the US. This procedure is usually done
after the CR has been acquired through Forward conditioning training.
Eventually, the CR frequency is reduced to pre-training levels.

Q.5 How is culture and society responsible to built value system?

A value system is a set of consistent ethic values (more specifically the


personal and cultural values) and measures used for the purpose of ethical
or ideological integrity. A well defined value system is a moral code. The
values identify those objects, conditions or characteristics that members of
the society consider important; that is, valuable. One or more people can
hold a value system. Likewise, a value system can apply to either one person
or many. Groups, societies, or cultures have values that are largely shared
by their members. The values identify those objects, conditions or
characteristics that members of the society consider important; that is,
valuable. A personal value system is held by and applied to one individual
only.

A communal or cultural value system is held by and applied to a


community/group/society. Some communal value systems are reflected in
the form of legal codes or law.

The values of a society can often be identified by noting which people


receive honor or respect. Values are related to the norms of a culture, but
they are more general and abstract than norms. Norms are rules for behavior
in specific situations, while values identify what should be judged as good or
evil. Flying the national flag on a holiday is a norm, but it reflects the value of
patriotism. Wearing dark clothing and appearing solemn are normative
behaviors at a funeral. They reflect the values of respect and support of
friends and family. Different cultures reflect different values. "Over the last
three decades, traditional-age college students have shown an increased
interest in personal well-being and a decreased interest in the welfare of
others. Values seemed to have changed, affecting the beliefs, and attitudes
of college students. Members take part in a culture even if each member's
personal values do not entirely agree with some of the normative values
sanctioned in the culture. This reflects an individual's ability to synthesize
and extract aspects valuable to them from the multiple subcultures they
belong to. If a group member expresses a value that is in serious conflict
with the group's norms, the group's authority may carry out various ways of
encouraging conformity or stigmatizing the non-conforming behavior of its
members. For example, imprisonment can result from conflict with social
norms that have been established as law.

Q.6 Write short notes on


o Locus of control
o Machiavellianism
Locus of Control: It is a term in psychology which refers to a person's belief
about what causes the good or bad results in his or her life, either in general
or in a specific area such as health or academics. Locus of control refers to
the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that
affect them. Individuals with a high internal locus of control believe that
events result primarily from their own behavior and actions. Those with a
high external locus of control believe that powerful others, fate, or chance
primarily determine events. Those with a high internal locus of control have
better control of their behavior, tend to exhibit more political behaviors, and
are more likely to attempt to influence other people than those with a high
external locus of control; they are more likely to assume that their efforts will
be successful. They are more active in seeking information and knowledge
concerning their situation.
One's "locus" (Latin for "place" or "location") can either be internal (meaning
the person believes that they control their life) or external (meaning they
believe that their environment, some higher power, or other people control
their decisions and their life).

Machiavellianism: Machiavellianism has tremendous influence on modern


business communities, especially in the U.S.A. and European countries.
Businessmen today, it is said, prefer to follow the directions of pragmatism
and expediency rather than the dictates of individual conscience. In
principles and practices, Indian management by and large follows the
Western line. Therefore, the question arises whether Machiavellian
influences are perceptibly high on Indian managers. This question is more
relevant in the light of a few surveys conducted on the ethical attitudes of
Indian managers. These identified a clear contrast between their expressed
behavior and wanted attitudes. The present study on the attitudes of
managers from the major cities of India concludes that Niccolo Machiavelli
inspires and influences Indian managers, but has not become the final
determinant in their decision-making.
Machiavellianism is also a term that some social and personality
psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate
others for personal gain. Machiavellianism is one of the three personality
traits referred to as the dark triad, along with narcissism and psychopathy.
Some psychologists consider Machiavellianism to be essentially a subclinical
form of psychopathy.
Set-2

Q.1 “Halo effect and selective perception are the shortcuts in


judging others” Explain.
The halo effect refers to a cognitive bias whereby the perception of a
particular trait is influenced by the perception of the former traits in a
sequence of interpretations. Edward L. Thorndike was the first to support the
halo effect with empirical research. In a psychology study published in 1920,
Thorndike asked commanding officers to rate their soldiers; Thorndike found
high cross-correlation between all positive and all negative traits. People
seem not to think of other individuals in mixed terms; instead we seem to
see each person as roughly good or roughly bad across all categories of
measurement. A study by Solomon Asch suggests that attractiveness is a
central trait, so we presume all the other traits of an attractive person are
just as attractive and sought after. The halo effect is involved in Harold
Kelley's implicit personality theory, where the first traits we recognize in
other people influence our interpretation and perception of later ones
because of our expectations. Attractive people are often judged as having a
more desirable personality and more skills than someone of average
appearance. Thus, we see that celebrities are used to endorse products that
they have no actual expertise in evaluating, and with which they may not
even have any prior affiliation. The term is commonly used in human
resources recruitment. It refers to the risk of an interviewer noticing a
positive trait in an interviewee and as a result, paying less attention to their
negative traits (or vice versa).
The halo effect has to do with judging or evaluating a person, place, or event
by a single trait or experience. This overall impression can be good or bad
but will prejudice our further involvement with the stimulus. Each of us can
remember making a snap judgment about someone based on a first
impression. Often we try to perceive further interaction with the individual
based on this first impression, regardless of whether it was positive or
negative. If this impression is incorrect, it often takes considerable pressure
to concede this fact and break the halo effect. Examples are plentiful in
business. A plush office convinces us someone is an important person in the
organization and must be taken seriously. A sloppily typed letter by our new
secretary proves to us the individual is going to be an unsatisfactory
employee. The halo effect often shows up most conspicuously on
performance appraisals where our overall good or bad opinion of the workers
interferes with our ability to evaluate weaknesses or strengths accurately on
individual job functions.
Selective Perception: Selective perception may refer to any number of
cognitive biases in psychology related to the way expectations affect
perception. For instance, several studies have shown that students who were
told they were consuming alcoholic beverages (which in fact were non-
alcoholic) perceived themselves as being "drunk", exhibited fewer
physiological symptoms of social stress, and drove a simulated car similarly
to other subjects who had actually consumed alcohol. The result is somewhat
similar to the placebo effect. In one classic study on this subject related to
the hostile media effect (which is itself an excellent example of selective
perception), viewers watched a filmstrip of a particularly violent Princeton-
Dartmouth American football game. Princeton viewers reported seeing
nearly twice as many rule infractions committed by the Dartmouth team
than did Dartmouth viewers. One Dartmouth alumnus did not see any
infractions committed by the Dartmouth side and erroneously assumed he
had been sent only part of the film, sending word requesting the rest.
Selective perception is also an issue for advertisers, as consumers may
engage with some ads and not others based on their pre-existing beliefs
about the brand. Seymour Smith, a prominent advertising researcher, found
evidence for selective perception in advertising research in the early 1960s,
and he defined it to be “a procedure by which people let in, or screen out,
advertising material they have an opportunity to see or hear. They do so
because of their attitudes, beliefs, usage preferences and habits,
conditioning, etc.” People who like, buy, or are considering buying a brand
are more likely to notice advertising than are those who are neutral toward
the brand. This fact has repercussions within the field of advertising research
because any post-advertising analysis that examines the differences in
attitudes or buying behavior among those aware versus those unaware of
advertising is flawed unless pre-existing differences are controlled for.
Advertising research methods that utilize a longitudinal design are arguably
better equipped to control for selective perception.
Selective perception is the personal filtering of what we see and hear so as
to suit our own needs. Much of this process is psychological and often
unconscious. Have you ever been accused of only hearing what you want to
hear? In fact, that is quite true. We simply are bombarded with too much
stimuli every day to pay equal attention to everything so we pick and choose
according to our own needs.
For instance

Selective Perception in Public Assessment of the Press and the Presidential


Scandal

Job the press Tot Republic Independe Democra


has done al % ans % nts % ts %%
covering
allegations

Excellent/Good 46 61 46 35
Only fair/Poor 51 35 52 61
Don't 3 4 2 4
Know/Refused

Total 100 100 100 100


Question: How good a job are news organizations doing at reporting about
the allegations against?
President Clinton . . . an excellent job, a good job, only a fair job or a poor
job?
Source: "Popular Policies and Unpopular Press Lift Clinton Ratings," Pew
Research Center for the People & the Press, News Release dated 2/6/98, p. 4.
Q.2 Explain “Emotional Intelligence”.
Emotional Intelligence (EI) describes the ability, capacity, skill or, in the case
of the trait EI model, a self-perceived ability, to identify, assesses, and
manage the emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups. Different
models have been proposed for the definition of EI and disagreement exists
as to how the term should be used. Despite these disagreements, which are
often highly technical, the ability EI and trait EI models (but not the mixed
models) enjoy support in the literature and have successful applications in
different domains. Substantial disagreement exists regarding the definition
of EI, with respect to both terminology and operationalizations. There has
been much confusion regarding the exact meaning of this construct. The
definitions are so varied, and the field is growing so rapidly, that researchers
are constantly amending even their own definitions of the construct. At the
present time, there are three main models of EI:
Ability EI models
Mixed models of EI
Trait EI model
The ability-based model
Salovey and Mayer's conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines
of the standard criteria for a new intelligence. Following their continuing
research, their initial definition of EI was revised to: "The ability to perceive
emotion, integrate emotion to facilitate thought, understand emotions and to
regulate emotions to promote personal growth."
The ability based model views emotions as useful sources of information that
help one to make sense of and navigate the social environment. The model
proposes that individuals vary in their ability to process information of an
emotional nature and in their ability to relate emotional processing to a
wider cognition. This ability is seen to manifest itself in certain adaptive
behaviors. The model proposes that EI includes 4 types of abilities:
Perceiving emotions — the ability to detect and decipher emotions in faces,
pictures, voices, and cultural artifacts- including the ability to identify one’s
own emotions. Perceiving emotions represents a basic aspect of emotional
intelligence, as it makes all other processing of emotional information
possible.
Using emotions — the ability to harness emotions to facilitate various
cognitive activities, such as thinking and problem solving. The emotionally
intelligent person can capitalize fully upon his or her changing moods in
order to best fit the task at hand.
Understanding emotions — the ability to comprehend emotion language and
to appreciate complicated relationships among emotions. For example,
understanding emotions encompasses the ability to be sensitive to slight
variations between emotions, and the ability to recognize and describe how
emotions evolve over time.
Managing emotions — the ability to regulate emotions in both ourselves and
in others. Therefore, the emotionally intelligent person can harness
emotions, even negative ones, and manage them to achieve intended goals.
The ability-based model has been criticized in the research for lacking face
and predictive validity in the workplace. EI is too broadly defined and the
definitions are unstable
One of the arguments against the theoretical soundness of the concept
suggests that the constant changing and broadening of its definition- which
has come to encompass many unrelated elements — had rendered it an
unintelligible concept.
Arguing that EI is an invalid concept, Locke (2005) asked: "What is the
common or integrating element in a concept that includes: introspection
about emotions, Emotional expression, non-verbal communication with
others, empathy, self-regulation, planning, creative thinking and the
direction of attention?" He answered by saying: "There is none."
Commenting on the multiple factors that have been included in the
definition, Locke asked rhetorically: "What does EI not include?"
Other critics mention that without some stabilization of the concepts and the
measurement instruments, meta-analyses are difficult to implement, and the
theory coherence is likely to be adversely impacted by this instability.
EI cannot be recognized as a form of intelligence
Goleman's early work has been criticized for assuming from the beginning
that EI is a type of intelligence. Eysenck (2000) writes that Goleman's
description of EI contains assumptions about intelligence in general, and that
it even runs contrary to what researchers have come to expect when
studying types of intelligence:
"Goleman exemplifies more clearly than most the fundamental absurdity of
the tendency to class almost any type of behavior as ’intelligence’... If these
five 'abilities' define 'emotional intelligence', we would expect some
evidence that they are highly correlated; Goleman admits that they might be
quite uncorrelated, and in any case if we cannot measure them, how do we
know they are related? So the whole theory is built on quicksand: there is no
sound scientific basis".
Similarly, Locke (2005) claims that the concept of EI is in itself a
misinterpretation of the intelligence construct, and he offers an alternative
interpretation: it is not another form or type of intelligence, but intelligence—
the ability to grasp abstractions--applied to a particular life domain:
emotions. He suggests the concept should be re-labeled and referred to as a
skill.
The essence of this criticism is that scientific inquiry depends on valid and
consistent construct utilization, and that in advance of the introduction of the
term EI, psychologists had established theoretical distinctions between
factors such as abilities and achievements, skills and habits, attitudes and
values, and personality traits and emotional states. The term EI is viewed by
some as having merged and conflated accepted concepts and definitions.
EI has no substantial predictive value
Landy (2005) has claimed that the few incremental validity studies
conducted on EI have demonstrated that it adds little or nothing to the
explanation or prediction of some common outcomes (most notably
academic and work success). Landy proposes that the reason some studies
have found a small increase in predictive validity is in fact a methodological
fallacy — incomplete consideration of alternative explanations:
"EI is compared and contrasted with a measure of abstract intelligence but
not with a personality measure, or with a personality measure but not with a
measure of academic intelligence." Landy (2005)
In accordance with this suggestion, other researchers have raised concerns
about the extent to which self-report EI measures correlate with established
personality dimensions. Generally, self-report EI measures and personality
measures have been said to converge because they both purport to measure
traits, and because they are both measured in the self-report form.
Specifically, there appear to be two dimensions of the Big Five that stand out
as most related to self-report EI – neuroticism and extraversion. In particular,
neuroticism has been said to relate to negative emotionality and anxiety.
Intuitively, individuals scoring high on neuroticism are likely to score low on
self-report EI measures. The interpretations of the correlations between EI
questionnaires and personality have been varied, with the trait EI view that
re-interprets EI as a collection of personality traits being prominent in the
scientific literature.

Q.3 “A group formation passes through various stages”: Explain the


various stages of group formation.
The formation of some groups can be represented as a spiral; other groups
form with sudden movements forward and then have periods with no
change. Whatever variant of formation each group exhibits, they suggest
that all groups pass through six sequential stages of development. These
stages may be longer or shorter for each group, or for individual members of
the group, but all groups will need to experience them. They are forming,
storming, norming, performing, mourning and retiring.
The terms are pretty self explanatory. When a group is forming, participants
can feel anxious not knowing how the group will work or what exactly will be
required of them. Storming, as the word suggests, is when things may get
stormy. Conflict can emerge, individual differences are expressed and the
leader's role may be challenged. The value and the feasibility of the task
may also be challenged. After the storm comes the calm of norming, where
the group starts to function harmoniously and where participants co-operate
and mutual support develops. This enables the performing stage to occur
where the work really takes off and the group accepts a structure and
method for achieving the common task. When the group retires or adjourns,
much learning happens through informal chat and feedback about the group
performance. Tuckman and Jenson recognize that when groups dismantle
themselves and the loose ends are all tied up, participants often go through
a stage of mourning or grieving.
This model is useful to know, so that when your group appears to be going
nowhere or perhaps members are arguing so much that no work can be
started, you understand that this is normal! Most groups go through these
phases. Understanding this pattern empowers you to work towards moving
the group onto the next phase

Activity for individual reflection or as a group discussion following any group


activity. May be used following W1 DGB (Developing Effective Group
Behavior Exercise)
Think of a group that you have recently been involved with. Considering
each stage of its development, can you recall any evidence of these stages?
A Forming
· What was the task?
· Did you all share the same expectations of the task?
· Did you all have the same attitude to working in a group?
· Did you feel any anxiety at the outset of the activity?
B Storming
· Was there any conflict in the group?
· Did you all agree on the means of carrying out the task?
· Did you have a leader and was his/her authority challenged?
· Did any group members withdraw from the group?
C Norming
· Did you move on to agree methods of working?
· Did you have a common goal?
· Did you cooperate with each other?
· Did you work out how to proceed at all? (If not, you were probably still
storming.)
D Performing
· Did everyone take on a functional role to achieve the task?
· Did you work constructively and efficiently?
· Did the group's activity focus on fulfilling the task?
· Did you experience a sense of achievement?
E Retiring/Adjourning
· Did you stop abruptly and all go your separate ways or did you finish the
task and then go off together and socialize?
· Did you talk about the group and your experience of it?
· What sort of issues did you discuss or think about after the group activity?
· Was it more or less acceptable to give and receive feedback in a relaxed
atmosphere when adjourning?

F Mourning/Grieving
· Have you experienced the mourning stage following the completion of a
show or project?
· Have you ever felt empty or sad when a group activity has finished
· Why might some people feel the mourning stage more acutely than others?
· How do you deal with your own feelings after the project or show?

Q.4 “Power is the ability to make things happen in the way an


individual wants, either by self or by the subordinates. The essence
of power is to control over the behavior of others”: Explain what are
the various bases of Power?
Power is the ability to make things happen in the way an individual wants,
either by self or by the subordinates. The essence of power is control over
the behavior of others. Managers derive power from both organizational and
individual sources. These sources are called position power and personal
power, respectively. Personal power resides in the individual and is
independent of that individual's position.
Three bases of personal power are:
1. Expertise,
2. Rational persuasion,
3. Reference.
Expert power is the ability to control another person's behavior by virtue of
possessing knowledge, experience, or judgment that the other person lacks,
but needs. A subordinate obeys a supervisor possessing expert power
because the boss ordinarily knows more about what is to be done or how it is
to be done than does the subordinate. Expert power is relative, not absolute.
However the table may turn in case the subordinate has superior knowledge
or skills than his/ her boss. In this age of technology driven environments,
the second proposition holds true in many occasions where the boss is
dependent heavily on the juniors for technologically oriented support.
Rational persuasion is the ability to control another's behavior, since,
through the individual's efforts; the person accepts the desirability of an
offered goal and a viable way of achieving it. Rational persuasion involves
both explaining the desirability of expected outcomes and showing how
specific actions will achieve these outcomes.
Referent power is the ability to control another's behavior because the
person wants to identify with the power source. In this case, a subordinate
obeys the boss because he or she wants to behave, perceive, or believe as
the boss does. This obedience may occur, for example, because the
subordinate likes the boss personally and therefore tries to do things the way
the boss wants them done. In a sense, the subordinate attempts to avoid
doing anything that would interfere with the pleasing boss-subordinate
relationship. Followership is not based on what the subordinate will get for
specific actions or specific levels of performance, but on what the individual
represents-a path toward lucrative future prospects.
Charismatic Power is an extension of referent power stemming from an
individual's personality and interpersonal style. Others follow because they
can articulate attractive visions, take personal risks, demonstrate follower
sensitivity, etc.

Q.5 Explain “Organizational Development” process


Organization development (OD) is a planned, top-down, organization-wide
effort to increase the organization's effectiveness and health. OD is achieved
through interventions in the organization's "processes," using behavioral
science knowledge. According to Warren Bennis, OD is a complex strategy
intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values, and structure of
organizations so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets,
and challenges. OD is not "anything done to better an organization"; it is a
particular kind of change process designed to bring about a particular kind of
end result. OD involves organizational reflection, system improvement,
planning, and self-analysis. The term "Organization Development" is often
used interchangeably with Organizational effectiveness, especially when
used as the name of a department or a part of the Human Resources
function within an organization. Organization Development is a growing field
that is responsive to many new approaches including Positive Adult
Development.

At the core of OD is the concept of organization, defined as two or more


people working together toward one or more shared goal(s). Development in
this context is the notion that an organization may become more effective
over time at achieving its goals.
OD is a long range effort to improve organization's problem solving and
renewal processes, particularly through more effective and collaborative
management of organizational culture, often with the assistance of a change
agent or catalyst and the use of the theory and technology of applied
behavioral science.
Organization development is a "contractual relationship between a change
agent and a sponsoring organization entered into for the purpose of using
applied behavioral science in a systems context to improve organizational
performance and the capacity of the organization to improve itself".[citation
needed]
Organizational development is an ongoing, systematic process to implement
effective change in an organization. Organizational development is known as
both a field of applied behavioral science focused on understanding and
managing organizational change and as a field of scientific study and inquiry.
It is interdisciplinary in nature and draws on sociology, psychology, and
theories of motivation, learning, and personality.

Q6 .Write short note on “Stress Management”


Stress management is the amelioration of stress, especially chronic stress.
Transactional model Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman suggested in 1984
that stress can be thought of as resulting from an “imbalance between
demands and resources” or as occurring when “pressure exceeds one's
perceived ability to cope”. Stress management was developed and premised
on the idea that stress is not a direct response to a stressor but rather one's
resources and ability to cope mediate the stress response and are amenable
to change, thus allowing stress to be controllable.
In order to develop an effective stress management program it is first
necessary to identify the factors that are central to a person controlling
his/her stress, and to identify the intervention methods which effectively
target these factors. Lazarus and Folkman's interpretation of stress focuses
on the transaction between people and their external environment (known as
the Transactional Model). The model conceptualizes stress as a result of how
a stressor is appraised and how a person appraises his/her resources to cope
with the stressor. The model breaks the stressor-stress link by proposing that
if stressors are perceived as positive or challenging rather than a threat, and
if the stressed person is confident that he/she possesses adequate rather
than deficient coping strategies, stress may not necessarily follow the
presence of a potential stressor. The model proposes that stress can be
reduced by helping stressed people change their perceptions of stressors,
providing them with strategies to help them cope and improving their
confidence in their ability to do so.
Health realization/innate health model
The health realization/innate health model of stress is also founded on the
idea that stress does not necessarily follow the presence of a potential
stressor. Instead of focusing on the individual's appraisal of so-called
stressors in relation to his or her own coping skills (as the transactional
model does), the health realization model focuses on the nature of thought,
stating that it is ultimately a person's thought processes that determine the
response to potentially stressful external circumstances. In this model, stress
results from appraising oneself and one's circumstances through a mental
filter of insecurity and negativity, whereas a feeling of well-being results from
approaching the world with a "quiet mind," "inner wisdom," and "common
sense".
This model proposes that helping stressed individuals understand the nature
of thought--especially providing them with the ability to recognize when they
are in the grip of insecure thinking, disengage from it, and access natural
positive feelings--will reduce their stress.
Techniques of stress management
There are several ways of coping with stress. Some techniques of time
management may help a person to control stress. In the face of high
demands, effective stress management involves learning to set limits and to
say "No" to some demands that others make. The following techniques have
been recently dubbed “Destressitizers” by The Journal of the Canadian
Medical Association. A destressitizer is any process by which an individual
can relieve stress. Techniques of stress management will vary according to
the theoretical paradigm adhered to, but may include some of the following:

• Autogenic training
• Cognitive therapy
• Conflict resolution
• Exercise
• Getting a hobby
• Meditation
• Deep breathing
• Nootropics
• Relaxation techniques
• Artistic Expression
• Fractional relaxation
• Progressive relaxation
• Spas
• Stress balls
• Natural medicine
• Clinically validated alternative treatments
• Time management
• Listening to certain types of relaxing music, particularly:
• New Age music
• Classical music
• Psychedelic music
Measuring stress
Levels of stress can be measured. One way is through the use of the Holmes
and Rahe Stress Scale to rate stressful life events. Changes in blood pressure
and galvanic skin response can also be measured to test stress levels, and
changes in stress levels. A digital thermometer can be used to evaluate
changes in skin temperature, which can indicate activation of the fight or
flight response drawing blood away from the extremities.
Stress management has physiological and immune benefit effects. [9]

Effectiveness of stress management


Positive outcomes are observed using a combination of non-drug
interventions:
• treatment of anger or hostility,
• autogenic training
• talking therapy (around relationship or existential issues)
• biofeedback
• cognitive therapy for anxiety or clinical depression