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Technical University Gh.

Asachi Iasi
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services
Assignment no.2
MAPS AND PLANS
!
Technical University Gh. Asachi Iasi
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services
Studying and "ro#ecting of civil engineering \$uildings i%"lies using a co%"lete
to"ogra"hic docu%entation& the %ost i%"ortant thing \$eing constituted of large scale
and %ediu% scale %a"s and "lans.
'uring this a""lication (e (ill study the content of %a"s and "lans and also the
(ay of using the%.
Application theme
For designing certain civil engineering \$uildings it is necessary the )no(ledge of
the content and the (ays of solutioning different "ro\$le%s concerning %a"s and
"lans.
Data
. A "iece of %a" (ith *!+,,, as scale and the e-uidistance e.+ %.
!. The "osition of t(o "oints& / and 0& on the surface that has \$een considered.
The application will consist of:
A. 'escri"tion of the "iece of terrain re"resented on %a" relying on the
)no(ledge of the conventional signs.
B. 'eter%ination of the geogra"hic and "lane rectangular coordinates of the A "oint
1 B.
C. 2evel deter%ination for "oints A and B.
'. 'eter%ination of the hori3ontal distance \$et(een A and B \$y gra"hic
%easure%ent of the corres"onding line on the %a".
E. 'eter%ination of rate of grade 4slo"e5 of the AB line.
F. 2aying out grade line on %a" \$et(een A and B.
G. Constructing the "rofile of the surface \$et(een A and B considering the length
scale for *,,,, and the elevation scale for *,,,.
SOLUTION
A. Description of the piece of terrain represented on map relying on the
knowledge of the conentional signs.
Al%ost in the %iddle of the surface is the /ara village that is crossed \$y the road that
leads north& to(ards Brea3u village& and east(ard& to(ards Ciurea village. 0orth6 east
of /ara there7s an orchard and south of /ara (e have a vegeta\$le garden. 0orth of
/ara the area is crossed \$y the 8iscu 9iver that flo(s east(ards. In the east there7s an
oa) and "ine6tree forest (ith trees having a %ean height of !, % and a %ean stu%" of
,.!, %.The relief is al%ost unifor%& having level differences (ithin ,, %.
!. Determination of the geographic and plane rectang"lar coordinates of the A
and ! point.
The geogra"hic coordinates of A "oint& the longitude :A& and the latitude& ; A& are
calculated (ith reference to the %a" \$order \$y linear inter"olation& in the follo(ing
(ay< Fro% A "oint are ta)en "er"endiculars on the %a" \$order and (ith
reference to these "er"endiculars the values of the coordinates are red de"ending on
the values that are (ritten in the \$order7s corner. The lengths corres"onding for 7 on
=
Technical University Gh. Asachi Iasi
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services
longitude and latitude are %easured (ith a ruler& in %illi%eters& as also the lengths
corres"onding (ith the fractions of %inute >:77 and >;77.
? + =

? + =
:
,
.@
o
,A7=,77
:
A
.@
o
,+7!B.!+77 :
B
.@
o
,+7C=77
;
,
.+C
o
C,7
;
A
.+C
o
C!7C@77 ;
B
.+C
o
C!7!77

The distances fro% the "er"endiculars foot to the corner are %easuring using a ruler
4in %illi%eters5 <
DE
A
.!+%% Dy
A
.=+%%
DE
B
.!=%% Dy
B
.A%%

According to the scale& (e can find out the corres"onding distances on ground<
DE
A
.!+ %% E!+,,,.B!+%
Dy
A
.=+ %% E!+,,,.@A+%
DE
B
.!= %% E!+,,,.+A+%
Dy
B
.@ %% E!+,,,.!,,%
Coordonatele rectangulare "lane ale "unctelor A si B& fata de siste%ul general
de aEe& vor fi<
F
A
.B,B@,,,GB!+.B,B@B!+ %

H
A
.C=,,,,G@A+.C=@A+ %

F
B
.B,B@,,,G+A+.B,B@+A+ %
H
B
.C=,,,GC!+.C=C!+ %
#. Leel determination of points \$ and N

( ) e ab aA z =
z z
A
z
a
+ =
Using the ruler& the seg%ents a\$ and a/ are %easured& in %illi%eters& o\$taining
for this eEa%"les a\$.C %% aA.A&+ %%
C
Technical University Gh. Asachi Iasi
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services
>
I
. 4aA*a\$5Je. 4A.+ %%*C %%5J+*! %..== %
I
A
.!,G.== .!.==%
Using the ruler& the seg%ents cd and cB are %easured& in %illi%eters& o\$taining
for this eEa%"les cd.+ %% cB.!.+ %%
>
I
. 4cB*cd5Je. 4!.+ %%*+ %%5J+ %.!.+ %
I
B
.K,G!.+ .K!.+ %
D. Determination of the hori%ontal distance &etween A and ! &y
graphic meas"rement of the corresponding line on the map.
The hori3ontal distance on ground \$et(een / and 0 is calculated de"ending on its
corres"onding on the %a"& %easured (ith a ruler& and the scale7s si3e. Fro% the
definition of the nu%erical scale.
d.CB.+%% L '.0JCB.+.!+,,,JCB.+.B!.+%

'. Determination of rate of grade (slope) of the A! line.
The rate of grade 4slo"e5 of AB line is calculated using& the for%ula<
( ) D z
B
z D z tg p
A
= = =

( ) ,BK . , + . B! + . K! == . ! = = = m m m tg p
According to this value& the rate of grade 4slo"e5 (ill \$e eE"ressed in several (ays<
6"er cent<
,
,
,
,
BK . ,, = = tg p
6"er thousand M <
,,
,
,,
,
K . B ,,, = = tg p
6as an angular %easure< heEadeci%al or centesi%al<
N
o
.arctg4D3*'5. 6,
o
++7C,77
N
g
.arctg4D3*'5. 6
g
,7+!77
*. #onstr"ction the profile of the s"rface &etween A and !+
considering the length scale for ,-,.... and the eleation scale for
,-,....
The "rofile is the line o\$tained \$y intersecting earth7s surface (ith a vertical "lane
that contains the res"ective direction. For the ela\$oration o) a to"ogra"hic "rofile are
used hori3ontal distances \$et(een "oints and the "oints7 levels.
The ela\$oration of the ground "rofile \$et(een A and B "oints on the %a" is %ade in
the follo(ing (ay.
A and B are united and the intersections (ith the contour lines are (ritten as 6C.
These "oints7 levels (ill \$e e-ual to the contour lines7 levels to (hich they \$elong. Oe
shall dra( an ar\$itrary syste% of rectangular coordinates ta)ing the hori3ontal aEis as
distance scale and the vertical one as the level scale. Usually& the level scale is ten
ti%es \$igger than the distance scale.
Under the distance scale is dra(n a cartouche that contains< the "oints7 nu%\$er& their
levels& the "artial and cu%ulated distances and the rates of grade 4slo"es5 4.Since the
+
Technical University Gh. Asachi Iasi
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services
distance scale 4<,,,,5is different to the %a"7s scale 4<!+,,,5& the distances
%easured on "lan are first transfor%ed in ground distances and then reduced to the
distance scale of the "rofile. The distances transfor%ation (ill \$e done in ta\$le !..
0o(& (e7ll lay off on distance aEis the distances \$et(een "oints A& & !P B and
(e shall fill in the cartouche (ith the "ro"er ele%ents.
Finally& uniting the \$otto%s of the "er"endiculars (e (ill o\$tain the to"ogra"hic
"rofile of the terrain along the AB line.Qn the slo"e line is (ritten the rectangle7s
diagonal in the sense of the slo"e& and a\$ove it is (ritten the rate of grade \$et(een
t(o neigh\$oring "oints.

m
A
z == . ! =
m z !,

=
m z !,+
!
=
m z !,,
=
=
m z K+
C
=
m z
B
+ . K! =
B
'istance
cod
/a"
distance
<!+.,,,
d4%%5
Corres"onding
groud distance
'4%5
'istance
scale
<,.,,,
d4%%5
A6 A.+ @A.+ @.A+
6! !C B,, B,.,,
!6= @ !,, !,.,,
=6C C.+ !.+ .!+
C6B !.+ B!.+ B.!+
Technical University Gh. Asachi Iasi
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Building Services

R A, . ,
+ . @A
!,
,, ,,
== . !

= =

A
A
A
D
z
p
R @== . ,
B,,
+
,, ,,
!
!
!
= = =

D
z
p
R +, .
!,,
+
,, ,, !
= !
= !
= !
= = =

D
z
p
R
+ . !
+
,, ,, CC . C
C =
C =
C =
= = =

D
z
p
R
+ . B!
+ . !
,, ,, C
+ C
+ C
C
= = =

D
z
p
B
A