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Teacher training up to the 1960s

Training of elementary school teachers prior to 1900

Early training colleges
The frst training colleges for teachers were set up in the frst half of the 19

century. They were aimed at teachers for elementary schools. By 1850 there
were over 30 all !ut 5 of which were associated with the "hurch of #ngland. $%f
the 5& ' were set up !y "ongregationalists and 3 !y the non(denominational
British )ociety soon after 1850 a *esleyan and a +oman "atholic one were also
set up,. +eligious controversy dogged much of the early training as it also did
educational provision in general across the nineteenth century and into the
twentieth. -any of those who esta!lished the colleges saw the new teachers as
a.in to "hristian missionaries& !ringing enlightenment to the uneducated
masses. /lmost all the early colleges were residential and small $with a
ma0imum of 100 students, and conditions & especially for women& were poor. /nd
most courses were relatively short 1 almost half of them were a year or less.
2istory was one of a large range of su!3ects studied.
Pupil-teaching scheme
This was originally started !y 4r 5 6hillips 7ay $8ater 97ay()huttleworth, who set
up a pupil(teaching scheme in a large 6oor 8aw school in :orwood.
;n 18<= a national pupil(teacher scheme was launched for carefully selected
#lementary school pupils& aged 13 or more& who fulflled certain scholastic& moral
and physical conditions. They would !e apprenticed to selected head teachers
for 5 years. They would teach throughout the school day and !e taught !y the
head teacher !efore or after school hours for at least one and a half hours per
day 5 days a wee.. They would !e e0amined annually !y 2-;. They would !e
paid $>10 pa for !oys during the frst year& with girls receiving a!out two thirds of
this,& and head teachers would !e paid for supervising and teaching them $>5 for
one pupil(teacher& >9 for ' etc,&dependent on the 2-; e0amination !eing
satisfactory. / head teacher could have one pupil teacher for every '5 pupils on
the school roll.
%n completion of their apprenticeship the pupil(teacher would receive a
certifcate which would ena!le him or her to sit the e0amination for the
9?ueens@s )cholarship@ which would Aualify the holder for a place in a training
college with a maintenance grant of >'5 for men& >'0 for women. ;f they could
not aBord to delay wor.ing& or did not wish to& they could ta.e up a position in a
grant(aided elementary school as an 9Cncertifcated Teacher@. Training college
students who successfully completed 1&'& or 3 years of training would !e
awarded 1
class& '
class or 3
class D:B latter the highestE Teacher@s
"ertifcate which would entitle them to annual supplements to their salary.
Developments in second half of the 19
#conomic depression and cut(!ac.s and lac. of status for the profession meant
that training college standards were often seen as mediocre and inadeAuate. /
num!er of men@s training colleges closed during this period. *omen@s were less
aBected as their colleges were cheaper to run $their conditions were very !asic,&
they had few other occupations to choose from& and women teachers were in
demand as their salaries were lower than men@s.
6upil(teachers@ conditions declined and their num!ers dropped until the stimulus
of the 18F0 #lementary #ducation /ct. The decade after 18F0 saw a near
tre!ling $from 1'&<=F to 31&<'', in the num!er of "ertifcated teachers $helped
!y an easing of the system of passing the "ertifcate, a more than dou!ling
$1<&=1' to 3'&1'8, of pupil(teachers and a large proportionate growth in the
num!er of 9/ssistant@ or Cncertifcated teachers $former pupil(teachers who did
not have a "ertifcate, from 1&'=' to F&=5'.
*ithin a few years the num!er of Cncertifcated teachers was !eginning to
e0ceed the num!er of "ertifcated ones in many areas& partly !ecause of the
demand for teachers& !ut mainly !ecause many small )chool Boards and
Goluntary )chool managers wanted the cheapest teachers they could get.
"oncern grew a!out the standard of pupil(teachers and former pupil(teachers&
and two of the larger )chool Boards& 8ondon and 8iverpool& !egan to gather them
into e0ternal classes for their education. This practice spread rapidly and !y the
1890s most pupil(teachers were !eing educated in 6upil(Teacher "entres.
8ondon and 8iverpool also improved the conditions for their pupil(teachers 1
raising their age of entry& reducing their teaching hours etc. The "ommittee of
"ouncil $predecessor to the Board of #ducation, was reluctantly forced to follow
suit and in 18F8 raised the oHcial age of entry for pupil(teachers to 1<& although
not& as 8ondon had already done& to 15 until 1900.
The "ross "ommission on #lementary #ducation& pu!lishing its report in 1888&
considered the issues of pupil(teaching and elementary school teacher training.
;ts -a3ority +eport was !roadly favoura!le to pupil teaching although the
-inority +eport felt it needed massive changes and a 4epartmental "ommittee
was su!seAuently set up& which in 189= proposed reform not a!olition . /s far as
training colleges were concerned& the "ross "ommission made the inIuential
recommendation that day training colleges !e set up !y universities and
university colleges. The Jovernment accepted this proposal and si0 were opened
in 1890& and four more the following year. By 1900 there were 1= with 1&150
students. This was an important development as it increased the supply of
trained teachers for elementary schools& ended the isolation of training colleges
and the near(monopoly of teacher training !y religious denominations& gave the
study of education academic status as the students could study for a degree at
the same time as their teacher training& although this was complicated and made
the wor.load enormous. ;t also raised the prestige of elementary school teaching
as a profession. The day colleges were not completely restricted to students
living at home 1 they could live in hostels and halls of residence li.e other
university students& !ut they did not have to live in the restrictive atmosphere of
the isolated denominational training college.
Training of Secondary school teachers prior to 1900
There was a vast chasm in prestige and educational e0perience !etween
elementary and secondary school teachers during the nineteenth century and
!eyond. The former were usually of wor.ing class origin and often seen
$somewhat sno!!ishly, as struggling to move out of their class on the !asis of
limited academic and social aptitude and training. )econdary school teachers
were& !y the nature of their 3o!& teaching in either endowed grammar schools or
pu!lic schools. They would usually have a degree in their su!3ect $with the
e0ception sometimes of women teachers in small private girls@ schools in the
earlier years of the century, and they would !e e0pected to !e of a class
reasona!ly close to that of their middle or upper class pupils.
Throughout most of the nineteenth century there was very little training for
teachers in secondary schools it was presumed that a degree in their chosen
su!3ect would suHce. %!viously as there were relatively so few secondary
schools a large supply of teachers for them was not necessary. Towards the end
of the century& as secondary schools for girls were esta!lished& there was a move
to set up training colleges for women teachers -iss Buss and -iss Beale were
among those who initiated these. Jradually universities introduced post(
graduate diplomas in #ducation and some of the day training colleges opened
secondary training departments.
Teacher training post 1900
eginning of the end for pupil-teachers
;n his history of teacher training in #ngland and *ales 2" 4ent saw +o!ert
-orant as a crucial fgure in the reform of teacher training. 2e said of -orantK
his greatest achievement will no dou!t always !e rec.oned his swift !uild(
up of a statutory system of secondary education !ut the changes he
made in the education and training of teachers were of fundamental
importance and it is essential to realise how closely lin.ed the two
reforms were. %ne of -orant@s main reasons for developing secondary
education was to secure !etter teachers for 6u!lic #lementary schools.

The e0perience from the nineteenth century was that to get !etter teachers the
frst necessity was to improve their general education. ;n 1900 nearly a Auarter
of the teaching force were pupil(teachers and they were !y far the largest source
of recruitment to elementary schools. ;f teaching standards were to improve& the
training and education of pupil(teachers must improve frst.
)tarting in 1900& -orant !egan to tighten up the regulations for pupil(teachers
the frst change upped the minimum age to 15 e0cept where 2-; authorised an
earlier age $usually in rural areas,. To !e accepted& they must !e approved !y an
2-;& pass a medical e0am and pass an e0amination set !y the Board of
#ducation in +eading and +ecitation& #nglish& 2istory& Jeography& /rithmetic&
/lge!ra& #uclid $!oys, or :eedlewor. $girls,& and Teaching. 6upil(teachers were
not allowed to teach more than fve hrs a day or '0 per wee. although in some
areas $eg 8ondon, they did less& in others much more. They were e0amined
annually !y 2-;. *hen their term of service was completed they could sit the
?ueen@s $7ing@s from 1901, )cholarship e0am. / 1
or '
class pass in this
Aualifed the holder to enter training college although it didn@t guarantee it as
applicants were far more numerous than places 1 in 1900 !arely <<.5L of eligi!le
pupil(teachers were accepted.
;n 1903 -orant issued further regulations. Mrom 1 /ugust 190< new pupil(
teachers must !e at least 1=. Mrom 1 /ug 1905 their hours of teaching were cut
2" 4ent& The Training of Teachers in England and Wales 1800-1975 $2odder and
)toughton& 8ondon 19FF,& p<F.
again and all must receive 9approved courses of instruction@ amounting to at
least 30 hours per year& given where possi!le in a fully(eAuipped and staBed
6upil(Teacher "entre approved !y the Board of #ducation. *herever possi!le&
intending pupil(teachers should spend 3(< years in a )econdary )chool. There
was a mi0ed reaction to all this 1 some enthusiasm !ut concern for the schools
that were very reliant on pupil(teacher la!our.
;n 190= 7ingNs )cholarships were a!olished. Mrom 190F there was a 96reliminary
#0amination for the #lementary )chool Teachers@ "ertifcate@ which was in two
parts 1 6art ; had to !e passed& and only those who passed it could ta.e 6art ;;.
/ll of 6art ; was compulsory& in 6art ;;& #nglish& 2istory and Jeography were
compulsory and then candidates would sit 3 or more options from 3 groups 1
#lementary -aths& #lementary )cience and Moreign 8anguages.
;n /pril 190F -orant went much further in dismantling the e0isting system when
he issued +egulations 9for the 6reliminary #ducation of #lementary )chool
Teachers@. This introduced an alternative to the traditional method of 6upil(
Teacher training. Mrom /ug 190F selected pupils at )econdary )chools could !e
awarded 9Bursaries@ 1 grants to ena!le them to stay an additional year at school
!etween 1= and 18. %n completing this year they could either enter training
college straight away& or could serve in schools as 9)tudent Teachers@ for up to
one year and then enter college.
Mrom /ug 1909 Board of #ducation would only recognise applicants who had
!een pupils at recognised )econdary schools for at least the 3 previous years
and would only pay a grant to Bursars who passed $either during their Bursary
year or within one year after, one of the e0ams Aualifying them for entry to
training college. Bursars could !e accepted at training college at 1F& a year
earlier than pupil(teachers. This measure was partly in reaction to the growing
criticism of the pupil(teacher system. 8#/) li.ed the Bursar system although
teachers were often much more negative& !elieving that it would lead to falling
standards. There was also criticism that it was unfair to wor.ing class children
whose families could not wait for them to start earning until they were '0 or '1.
2owever the new system spelt the !eginning of the end of the pupil(teacher
system 1 in 190=(0F the num!er of newly recognised pupil(teachers was 11&018
whereas !y 1913(1< it was only 1&=91 $the num!er supplemented !y only 3&01'
new !ursars,. 4ent says that although the pupil(teacher system lingered on to
the out!rea. of **' Oit was pretty well e0tinct !y the out!rea. of the MirstP.
/s seen in the previous section& the status of elementary school teachers was
!eginning to rise& partly as the profession !ecame more attractive to lower
middle class women and even middle class women $from 18F0 onwards women
!egan to outnum!er men as elementary school teachers
,. Cpper class women
were unli.ely to teach in elementary schools #glantyne 5e!!& founder of 9)ave
the "hildren@ was one of the few who attempted it& and she only lasted a few
months. The esta!lishment of the day training colleges towards the end of the
nineteenth century mentioned a!ove meant that middle class women could train
while continuing to live at home& and as the physical conditions of elementary
schools improved& middle class parents were more li.ely to fnd teaching in them
an accepta!le profession for their daughters. The decline of the pupil(teacher
e0perience as the main route into elementary school teaching also opened up
the profession to girls from social classes who would not favour their children
starting wor. so early in life. ;ndeed once the main route into elementary
teaching was via the training college the profession was inevita!ly going to !e
mainly recruited from a higher class level than uns.illed wor.ing class !ecause
from 1900(19'5 Othe wages of a s.illed wor.man were roughly the minimum
which would allow a family to send a daughter to training collegeP #ven for these
families& Mrances *iddowson points out& Othe strain on the family !udget was
continuous until the girl left college at '0P.
;n her interviews with retired
teachers who trained during this period& *iddowson also points out that a
num!er of them were of a diBerent social class from the men who trained with
them at training college. )he Auotes one lady saying that the men at Joldsmiths
"ollege were Overy uneducated 1 uncivilised 1 put it that wayQ; wouldn@t mi0
with them out of college 1 not that lotP.
!ther developments prior to the "irst #orld #ar
Mrom 190< the Board of #ducation allowed 8#/s to get involved with providing
teacher training. The 8ondon "ounty "ouncil too. this on
& although other 8#/s
;!id& p5=.
Mrances *iddowson& 9P#ducating TeacherPK *omen and #lementary Teaching in 8ondon&
1900(191<@& in 8eonore 4avidoB R Belinda *estover& Our Work, Our Lives, Our Words:
Woen!s "is#or$ and Woen!s Work, $-acmillan #ducation& Basingsto.e& 198=,.& p101.
*iddowson& p103.
?uoted in *iddowson& p105(10=.
The 8"" controlled the 8ondon 4ay Training "ollege $actually founded in 190', which in
193' !ecame the ;nstitute of #ducation of the Cniversity of the 8ondon. The 84T" had a
were less involved& and !y 191< there were only '0 8#/ colleges. 8#/s started to
provide hostels for teaching training students& mainly for women& and the old
distinction !etween residential and non(residential colleges gradually declined.
This period saw an attempt !y the Board of #ducation to end the inIuence of the
diBerent religious denominations in training colleges. The /nglicans and
"atholics were utterly opposed& the :on("onformists supportive. The result was a
.ind of compromise.
Secondary School Teacher Training
Mrom 1908 onwards the Board of #ducation issued +egulations for the Training of
Teachers for )econdary )chools. There was no reAuirement or compulsion that a
proportion of staB in a school $or any individual teachers, must !e trained !ut
the form of training that would !e recognised was now laid downK this would !e
via a CT4 $Cniversity Training 4epartment,& a Training "ollege or a Teacher
Training 4epartment or a )econdary school. This training would !e restricted to
graduates and 9graduate(eAuivalents@. ;t must last one academic year& consist
solely of professional training& and include 1, a special study of at least one
su!3ect in the )econdary )chool curriculum and ', at least =0 days of school
practice& of which two thirds or more must !e in a )econdary school approved for
the purpose !y the Board. The training was not widely ta.en up 1 men were very
unwilling to train& and various Board stipulations put colleges oB. The num!er of
)econdary school teachers trained up to 191< averaged under '00 a year& of
whom c 1=0 were women.
;n 191'(13 only '1= teachers $1F8 women and 38
men, were trained for secondary school teaching in #ngland and *ales
4uring the 1** many male teachers and students 3oined up& and various
schemes $short training courses etc, to replace them were set up to encourage
women into teaching. 4espite this& 2" 4ent sees the teaching shortages in
schools during the second half of the Mirst *orld *ar getting much more
Teacher training during the inter$ar years
prestigious staB from the !eginning with a strong research function although the 8""
saw its purpose as !eing Oto train former pupils from the schools of 8ondon to !ecome
teachers for service in 8ondon schoolsP +ichard /ldrich& 9The Training of Teachers and
#ducational )tudies K the 8ondon 4ay Training "ollege& 190'(193'& %aedagogica
"is#orica, Gol <0& :os 5 R =& %ct '00<& p='1. )ee this article and +ichard /ldrich@s history
of the ;o# for more information a!out the 84T".
;!id& pF3.
The situation after the "irst #orld #ar
There was a wave of enthusiasm for teaching and education after the *ar. The
9Burnham@ national salary scales for teachers removed the worst anomalies in
their pay and large num!ers of men applied for teacher training in the aftermath
of the *ar. 2owever the economic crisis of the early 19'0s !rought the
enthusiasm to an end training colleges and 8#/s faced fnancial pro!lems as the
cuts came into force following the Jeddes "ommittee +eport in Me! 19''.
There was also growing discussion a!out the nature of teacher training. 2ow
academic should it !eS 2ow longS *hat Aualifcations were necessary etcS . ;n
-arch 19'3 a 4epartmental "ommittee was appointed under Giscount Burnham
to review arrangements for the training of teachers in elementary schools $it did
not consider secondary school teacher training,. The "ommittee made =9
recommendations although there was some dissent 1 < of the 18 mem!ers didn@t
sign it.
The main outcomes were the a!olition of the /cting Teacher@s "ertifcate and
6reliminary #0amination for the "ertifcate. -ost importantly& a regional system
of 3oint e0amining !oards was hammered out 1 11 groups of training colleges
were now each lin.ed with a university or university college. #ach region would
have a 3oint e0amining !oard for e0ams in academic su!3ects and the theory of
education. The Board of #ducation would continue to assess practical teaching
!ut a "entral /dvisory "ommittee for the "ertifcation of Teachers&
representative of the university institutions& the training colleges& the 8#/s and
the teachers@ professional associations& would see that standards in the 11
groups were compara!le. /ll 11 of the groups were in operation !y 1930.
The Board of #ducation also accepted the "ommittee@s recommendation that
wherever practica!le intending teachers should stay in full time secondary
education until they were 18 !ut realised that in many rural areas this would not
wor.. ;n those areas pupil(teacher and student(teacher schemes continued& with
special arrangements for e0amining them.
;n 5uly 19'9 the 8a!our Jovernment announced the school leaving age would
rise from 1< to 15 on 1 /pril 1931. This would o!viously necessitate more
teachers and the Board of #ducation as.ed the training colleges to e0pand their
num!ers in 19'9 and 1930 which they did. 2owever cuts then loomed again and
the school leaving age rise was postponed. /ttempted closures of training
colleges failed following widespread protest& !ut in 193F when the issue of
closures was raised again three women@s colleges were closed.
%verall& throughout the interwar years& the training colleges remained fairly old(
fashioned institutions. They were strictly segregated and usually had very early
curfews for their mem!ers& especially women students. -ost of their courses
were still only two years whereas the university training departments had moved
to three or even four $degree plus diploma, year courses. 6eter Jordon descri!es
the Board of #ducation preferring to .eep the training of elementary and
secondary teachers Auite distinct although even in the interwar years some
training colleges did oBer a four year course in which the student would move to
a CT4 for their fnal year $although they still usually went into elementary
teaching after that& whereas the e0(%0!ridge teachers doing the diploma year
would go into secondary teaching,.
But it should !e remem!ered that even in
193' the ma3ority of graduates teaching in secondary schools& including head
teachers& had received no training in teaching.
The marriage !ar in teaching was in e0istence to a greater or lesser e0tent
throughout the frst half of the twentieth century. ;t wasn@t f0ed in stone& and
would often depend on the current availa!ility of teachers and the Auality of the
married teacher. *iddowson says of her interviewees& Oseveral remem!ered
women who married having to leave teaching &efore the Mirst *orld *ar and the
!an !eing lifted during the war. *omen who married during the war could
continue to teach after 1918& !ut new teachers after 1918 were sometimes
forced to resign. The respondents conformed that !y the 19'0s the marriage !ar
was imposed fairly strictly in most areas. Tet even in this period when there was
a large surplus of new college trained teachers& the rule was sometimes
Mor some single teachers it made sense to stay single. *iddowson
Auotes unmarried respondents who en3oyed Othe sudden increase in wages after
the new Burnham salary levels in 1918 $the starting wage for a trained school
mistress rose from >90pa to appro0imately >150pa,P& and found Othey could
maintain a relatively high standard of living. They all remem!ered having good
holidays and some of them could even aBord to go a!roadP.

6eter Jordon& 9Teaching as a Jraduate 6rofession@& 6roceedings of the 1985 /nnual
"onference of the 2istory in #ducation )ociety of Jreat Britain& 4ec 198=& edited !y 5ohn
*il.es& p88.
/ldrich op cit& p='9.
*iddowson op cit& p111.
*iddowson op cit& p11'.
*omen teachers continued to predominate in elementary school teaching
through the interwar years. ;n 191< they formed F5L of the elementary school
teaching force in 1938& F1L.
/s descri!ed earlier& once the pupil(teacher
training pattern was phased out& teachers tended to come from the lower middle
classes and this continued throughout the interwar years if the fndings of
#liUa!eth #dwards@ research in various training colleges including 2omerton in
"am!ridge and /very 2ill in 8ondon were replicated throughout the country. )he
says that her research Owould seem to indicate that& throughout the period&
students continued to !e predominantly clever girls from lower(middle(class
homes who had received secondary education at maintained grammar
There was continuing de!ate a!out the importance of academic versus
professional training and how far 1 especially for elementary teachers 1 training
should !e child(centred rather than su!3ect(centred. There was now a su!stantial
!ody of academic literature on child development and learning should aspirant
teachers concentrate on this or was e0pertise in their su!3ect and training in
classroom management more importantS These are issues and de!ates that
continue to this day& with many in teacher education concerned that current
Jovernments are uninterested in pedagogic theories and simply want
technicians who can produce good e0am results.
The Second #orld #ar
The %c&air 'eport
*artime had a considera!le eBect on male recruitment into teaching as it had
during the 1**. -en@s training colleges and the Cniversity Training 4epartments
were hard hit& whereas !y 19<3(<< the num!er of women training to !e teachers
e0ceeded the pre(war fgures. -any training colleges were evacuated.
There was continuing concern a!out the cali!re of teacher training& and in -arch
19<'& the Gice "hancellor of 8iverpool Cniversity& )ir /rnold $later Baron, -c:air&
was appointed !y 9+a!@ Butler& the 6resident of the Board of #ducation& to chair
a committee to consider the pro!lems of the recruitment& supply and training of
teachers. /t this point there were 83 recognised training colleges& '' university
Migures Auoted in #liUa!eth #dwards& 9The "ulture of Memininity in *omen@s Teacher
Training "olleges 191<(19<5@& in )y!il %ldfeld $education,& This Working-'a$ World:
Woen!s Lives and (ul#ure)s* in +ri#ain 191,-19,5, $Taylor R Mrancis& 8ondon 199<,&
#dwards op cit& p5=.
training departments& and 1= specialist colleges for art teachers. The -c:air
"ommitteeNs most pressing ( and diHcult ( tas. was to unify the diverse
traditions these institutions represented. The "ommittee condemned the
OOe0isting arrangements for the recognition& the training and the supply of
teachersP as Ochaotic and ill(ad3usted even to present needsP
. -ost colleges too
small& poorly housed and eAuipped.
The -c:air +eport was pu!lished in -ay 19<<& three months !efore the 19<<
#ducation /ct received +oyal /ssent and it too. into account many of the
proposed reforms to the education system including raising the school leaving
age& e0pansion of nursery education& reduction in class siUes& ran.ing of all forms
of post(primary schooling& and introduction of compulsory part(time education
!eyond the school leaving age. /s well as its recommendations on training the
-c:air "ommittee also proposed a !asic salary scale for all Aualifed teachers
recognition !y the Board of #ducation of only one grade of teacher 1 the
9?ualifed Teacher@ which would !e for people who had Osatisfactorily completed
an approved course of education and trainingP& or at the discretion of the Board
of #ducation Opersons with good academic or other attainmentsP a!olition of the
96ledge@ $scheme introduced in 1911 where!y some teaching students in
university training departments agreed to wor. for a certain num!er of years in
maintained schools in e0change for grants to cover their studies. ;t was fnally
a!olished in 1951 1 after that they merely had to sign a 94eclaration of intent@ to
teach in maintained schools,.
/s far as teacher training was concerned& the "ommittee were divided as to how
to eBect reform& with half wanting wholesale reorganisation of the training
system& the other half wanting a system of enlarged 3oint regional !oards. The
compromise proposal was that each area would have a federation of approved
training institutions headed !y a university which would house an area training
organisation $/T%, for all of them& serviced !y a department of education in the
university. The CT4s $Cniversity Training 4epartments, now !egan to !e .nown
as C4#s $Cniversity 4epartments of #ducation,. )everal /T%s were esta!lished in
19<F and all were in operation !y 1951.
The area training organisations $/T%s, were soon .nown as 9;nstitutes of
#ducation@ $or 9)chools of #ducation@ in a couple of cases. They varied
considera!ly in siUe and in the num!er of their mem!er institutions !ut all had at
4ent& p11'.
least one CT4. /ll their governing !odies had to report !ac. to their university
which had ultimate control over them. The -inistry of #ducation said every /T%
had fve !asic functions 1
1, supervise training courses in mem!er colleges and further their wor. in
every possi!le way.
', recommend to -inistry of #ducation those students who had
successfully completed training courses in mem!er colleges of
departments of education for ?ualifed Teacher status.
3, plan development of training facilities in their area.
<, provide an education centre for students in training& local serving
teachers& and others interested in education.
5, provide facilities for further study and research 1 including refresher and
other short courses for serving teachers.
%n the whole the system developed well !ut there were pro!lems due to poor
accommodation& shortage of staB and the enormous areas some /T%s covered.
#artime(Post-$ar emergency training scheme
4uring the war it was realised that& given the li.elihood that the school leaving
age would fnally !e raised& there was a need for many more teachers. /n
emergency scheme was devised& aimed particularly at e0(services people. They
would not have to have specifc academic Aualifcations !ut the selection process
would !e rigorous. The training would !e concentrated into one year and there
would !e a two year pro!ationary period. The initial scheme& in 4ec 19<<& was on
a limited scale and with limited eligi!ility !ut it attracted many applicants . ;n
5une 19<5 the scheme was opened to all men and women who had served at
least a year in 2- Morces or in a war industry and applicants poured in 1 5000 a
month !y 4ecem!er 19<5.
This resulted in the pro!lem of fnding college places for them all !ut eventually&
!y 4ec 19<F& ffty fve new temporary colleges had opened& in a varied
assortment of !uildings 1 country houses& hotels and !oarding houses& hospitals
etc 1 oBering nearly 13&500 places. )tudents ranged from '1 to over 50 and
came from a wide range of civilian occupations although clerical wor.ers
predominated. %ver three Auarters had some secondary or technical education
and a!out half had )chool "ertifcate or higher Aualifcations. Training staB came
from all !ranches of teaching& !ut mainly secondary schools. There was
enormous enthusiasm and .eenness to get on in the early years of the scheme&
although many students had pro!lems settling in to systematic study and
wor.ing on their own.
Jradually the emergency colleges were transferred into permanent ones and !y
/ugust 1951 the last one closed. 4ent concludes thatK
Mor many years teachers and administrators de!ated the value of the
#mergency )cheme. *hat is certain is that it produced a!out 35&000
?ualifed Teachers& and this made practica!le the raising of the school
leaving age in 19<F. $By 1951 one in si0 of the teachers in maintained
schools was emergency(trained., -any of them proved a!ove(average
teachers& and more than a few frst(class. %n the other hand& there was
possi!ly a higher proportion of wea. teachers than among those produced
!y permanent training colleges.
Developments after the Second #orld #ar
;n 19<= the -inister of #ducation& #llen *il.inson& announced it was Jovernment
policy to have only ?ualifed Teachers in maintained schools. /ll uncertifcated
teachers with 5(15 years@ service were oBered the chance to do a shorter course
leading to the Teacher@s "ertifcate. Those with longer service than 15 years
would !e given the "ertifcate without studying if the reports on their wor. were
satisfactory those with less than fve years@ service had to do the normal two
year course. By 1953 there were under '000 uncertifcated teachers in
maintained schools.
The mid 19<0s saw the Jovernment encouraging 8#/s rather than 9Goluntary@
groups $usually denominational, to esta!lish new teacher training colleges. )o
whereas in 1939 there were =3 Goluntary and 38 8#/ colleges& !y 1951 there
were F= 8#/ and 5= Goluntary. The only Goluntary !ody which increased its
colleges was the +" "hurch 1 from 9 to 13.
By 1951 nearly '5&000 students were training to !e teachers& more than twice as
many as in 1939 !ut even this was not enough to fulfl demand. ;n 19<= -inistry
had oHcially reAuested that colleges overcrowd their accommodation to try to
accommodate some of the e0tra students needed and apart from the years
1950(55 this was what happened for many years. 1950(1955 saw some
;!id& p1'F.
rela0ation in the pressure !ecause the entrants from 2- Morces and war
industries dried up and too few !oys and girls were staying on at school to get
the reAuired entry Aualifcations.
Jirls were in particularly short supply& despite the fact that =0L of all girls
staying at school to 1F and not going to university went to the training colleges.
;n the early 1950s several women@s colleges could not fll their places. Garious
solutions were suggested !ut all meant lowering academic standards $eg
recruitment from )econdary -oderns on personal rather than academic
Aualifcations& revival of the pupil teacher system, and the teachers@ associations
opposed all of them they !elieved that only applicants with $from 1951 when the
J"# was introduced, the stipulated minimum of 5 % 8evel passes 1 should !e
allowed to enter training college& and only ?ualifed Teachers should wor. in
/lthough some of the strictest rules in the residential training colleges were
rela0ed !y the 1950s they remained& especially the women@s ones& relatively li.e
!oarding schools for e0ample& Bishop %tter in "hichester only a!olished its last
dormitory in 195F
. JeoBrey 6artington says that O;n the 1950s the training
colleges still conceived of themselves as moral communities. Jreat concern was
ta.en with the character of the student(teachers& !oth in selection and in
progress through college. )tudent(teachers were closely watched& in groups of a
doUen or so& !y education tutors who had preciously en3oyed success as
classroom teachers or head teachers with the relevant age range of children and
whose Aualifcations for appointment normally included that they were morally
e0emplaryQ;t would !e unfair to depict the 1950s training colleges as anti(
intellectual& !ut most of their staBs considered the formation of character to !e
of pre(eminent importanceP.
/s far as secondary grammar schools in the 1950s were concerned& most
teaching entrants to them in the 1950s had done a three year degree followed
!y a year of teacher education in a university school or department of education
which led to a 6J"# $6ost(Jraduate "ertifcate of #ducation,. By the late 1950s
increasing num!ers of 6J"# holders in 9surplus@ su!3ects such as history and
#nglish were entering secondary modern and technical schools as there were
insuHcient posts for the in grammar schools $eAually there were many non(
#dwards op cit& p58.
JeoBrey 6artington& Teacher Educa#ion in England and Wales, $The ;nstitute of
#conomic /Bairs& 8ondon 1999,& pp'1(''.
graduate teachers in science& mathematical and technical su!3ects teaching in
grammar schools as there were insuHcient graduate candidates for these,. The
6J"# courses concentrated on teaching methods in the one or two su!3ects the
student would teach in school and specialist su!3ect lecturers usually supervised
teaching practice. JeoBrey 6artington says that it was generally assumed that
university graduates would already have complete mastery of their su!3ect
although this was not necessarily correct as large sections of the sylla!us 1
particularly in history 1 would not have !een studied since the frst year of
secondary school. 4escri!ing the content of the 6J"# he says it would also
provide Ocourses in general educational ideas and during the 1950s more
specialised courses were increasingly oBered in philosophy of education& history
of education& sociology of education and psychology of educationVlearning
theory& often as options. 6sychology of education was much more li.ely to !e
compulsory than history or sociology of education.P
By the later 1950s teacher training was !ac. in demand. By 19=0 the training
colleges@ annual inta.e was more than twice that of 19<F $1<&8<< cf F&090,. ;n
)eptem!er 19=0 the two year training college course lengthened to three years
!ut this did not deter applicants 1 in fact the 19=0s were a !oom time for teacher
training students with a large e0pansion of student num!ers 1 '<&000 e0tra
places were authorised !etween 1958(19=0.
*ith the advent of the three year course& the course content changed there was
agreement that the longer period should !e used not to introduce more matter
!ut to ena!le students to wor. in a less hurried fashion. ;t was also agreed that
the num!er of formal classes R lectures should !e reduced and more time given
to seminars& tutorials and private study. The two main elements of educational
training would !e maintained 1 the study of the theory and practice of education&
and the study of one or two su!3ects normally included in school curriculum.
Beyond this consensus there was some disagreement 1 some people wanted
compulsory courses in #nglish& contemporary aBairs& sociological !ac.ground of
education& mathematics and science. /nd there was no agreement as to whether
the main emphasis should !e on personal education or professional training & and
whether in the professional training the emphasis should !e on theory or
practice. /n inIuential -inistry of #ducation 2-; written !oo.let came down on
importance of academic wor. to give teachers standing and confdence to ta.e
6artington& op cit& p'<.
their place !esides graduates . There was also de!ate a!out how much time
should !e given to teaching practice and what this should include. The result was
that courses across the country varied Auite considera!ly $4ent gives some
e0amples of the courses !ut there is no mention of history which was
presuma!ly 3ust an optional su!3ect everywhere,.
The -inistry of #ducation tried to get training colleges to concentrate on training
students for primary school service !ut this met with some resistance. The
compromise was often very popular 95unior()econdary@ courses covering wor. in
upper 5unior and lower )econdary schools.
There was also a huge proliferation of short courses covering all aspects of
education for serving teachers during the ffteen to twenty years after the
)econd *orld *ar. They were provided !y the -inistry and 8#/s& ;nstitutes of
#ducation and teachers@ associations& and varied enormously in Auality.
;n %cto!er 19=3 the +o!!ins "ommittee pu!lished its report on 2igher
#ducation. The "ommittee had !een appointed !y the "onservative Jovernment
to review the system of higher education and recommend changes if necessary.
;t included a section on the education and training of school teachers. ;t
concluded that Training "olleges felt themselves rather outside the system of
higher education despite their standards 3ustifying their claim to !e part of it. ;t
advocated a return to the -c:air "ommittee@s ideas which had !een much
diluted& and recommended that colleges in each ;nstitute of #ducation and
Cniversity 4epartment of #ducation should !e formed into a )chool of #ducation.
The Jovernment welcomed the idea of closer academic ties !etween training
colleges$now to !e called 9"olleges of #ducation@, and universities !ut did not
agree to administrative and fnancial integration or independent governing
!odies for colleges. 2owever it did agree to the proposal of a four year course
leading to a Bachelor of #ducation. 4iscussions a!out this !egan immediately
although there were considera!le administrative and other pro!lems. By 19=8 all
'1 universities with institutes of education had agreed to oBer B#d degrees !ut
only seven agreed to oBer classifed honours degrees three others oBered
unclassifed honours degrees and eleven only Jeneral& %rdinary or 6ass degrees.
The frst Bachelor of #ducation degrees were awarded in 19=8 !ut the num!er
doing them remained small not till 19F' did even 10L of third year students go
on to a fourth year. The many anomalies in the B#d structure were severely
criticised !y a 2ouse of "ommons )elect "ommittee which investigated teacher
education and training during the 6arliamentary session of 19=9(F0.
5enny 7eating
2istory in #ducation 6ro3ect
;nstitute of 2istorical +esearch
Cniversity of 8ondon
4ecem!er '010