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23- Lagarteja, Maria Christina


Kinds of Microscopes
1. Simple microscopes- is a microscope containing only one magnifying lens.
2. Compound microscopes is a microscope that contains more than one
magnifying lens.
a. Compound Light Microscope- a compound microscope with built-in
light bulb, which is used as the source of illumination.
3. Bright-Field Microscope- commonly used in microbiology. Consists of two lenses
(objective and ocular lens), which function together to resolve the image.
4. Phase Contrast Microscope- can be used to observe unstained living
5. Dark-Field Microscope- a light microscope in which the lighting system has been
modified to reach the specimen from the sides only through a special condenser.
6. Fluorescence Microscope- used to visualize specimens that fluoresce, which is
the ability to absorb short wavelengths of light (UV) and give off light at a longer
wavelength (visible light)
7. Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) Microscope- employs a polarizer to
produce polarized light. It is used in observing unstained cells because of its
ability to generate images that reveal internal cell structures that are less
apparent by bright-field techniques.
8. Electron microscope- uses an electron beam as a source of illumination and
magnets to focus the beam.
a. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)- employs a beam of
electros projected from an electron gun and directed or focused by an
electromagnetic condenser lens onto a thin specimen.
b. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)- has a lower resolving power
than TEM; however, it is particularly useful for providing three-
dimensional images of the surface of microscopic objects.
9. Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM)- Couples as laser light source to a
light microscope.
10. Scanning Probe Microscopes- measure surface features by moving a sharp
probe over the objects surface.
Parts and Uses of Microscope
Parts Uses
1. Eyepiece or ocular Equipped with one set of lenses that
magnifies the object several times
2. Objectives:
a) Scanner Has the lowest magnification. It is used to
observe wider field of object
b) Low power objective (LPO) Has magnification of 10X, and it is used to
observe general outline of the object.
c) High power objective (HPO) Has magnification of 45X. Used in
observing the details of the specimen
d) Oil immersion objective (OIO) Has 90-100X magnifications. Uses cedar
wood oil, which prevents the refraction or
dispersing of light.
1. Mirror Used to reflect light through objective
lenses and into the eyes.
2. Abbe condenser Used to illuminate, condense or
concentrate the reflected light from the
mirror to the object being examined.
3. Iris diaphragm Used to regulate the amount of light that
enters the condenser.
1. Base Supports the whole instrument.
2. Pillar Vertical extension of the base to which the
arm is attached.
3. Arm Serves as the handle of the microscope
and provides support for the optical parts.
4. Inclination joints Facilitates tilting of the microscope.
5. Stage Platform where the slide containing the
specimen is placed.
6. Stage clips Holds the slide in place
7. Body tube Serves as a passageway of light from the
objective to the eyepiece.
8. Draw tube Holds the ocular or eyepiece
9. Dust shield Protects the objective from dust and dirt.
10. Revolving nosepiece Facilitates the shifting of objectives
11. Adjustment knobs Used to adjust the objectives when
focusing which when turned clockwise or
counterclockwise, lowers or raises the
body tube.
2 types of Adjustment knobs
a) Coarse adjustment knobs or
The larger knobs used for faster movement
of the body tube when focusing the LPO.
b) Fine adjustment knob Smaller knobs used for final focusing
under HPO and in viewing at different

1. Refractive index- measure of the bending of a ray of light when passing from one
medium into another.
2. Parfocal- refers to the objectives and eyepiece where practically no change in
focus has to be made when one objective is substituted for another.
3. Working distance- is the distance between the front lens of the objective lens and
the top of the cover glass when the specimen is in focus. The higher the
magnification, the shorter is the working distance.
4. Magnification- is the process of enlarging something only in appearance, not in
physical size.
5. Total magnification- is determined by multiplying the eyepiece power (usually
10x) by the objective lens in place.
6. Focal length- The distance from the center of the lens to this focal point

Uses of microscopes:
Microscope plays an important role especially in the field of Microbiology. Some of its
uses are:
With the help of Microscope, objects that cannot be seen clearly with the naked eye
like microorganisms can be seen in microscope.
It is used in tissue analysis especially in the diagnosis of diseases.
It is used in examining structures of microorganisms.
It is used in the identification of things that cannot be seen by the naked eye.
Microscopes are used to look at the specimens in better detail.

1. Engelkirk, P., (2007). Burtons Microbiology for the Health Sciences. Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, USA.
2. Brooks, G., et. al., (2010) Medical Microbiology 25
ed. McGraw-Hill Inc: USA.
3. Manual in General Botany with Taxonomy
Authors: Maria Asuncion Crispina S. Cobar, MS Phar.
Ophelia S. Laurente, MS. Biological Sciences
Ross D. Vasquez, MS Biological Sciences