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Properties of Sampling Distribution of Sample Mean

1. The mean of the sampling distribution of sample mean is equal to the mean of the
population from which we have sampled. That is,

x
=

2. The variance of the sampling distribution is equal to the variance of the population divided
by the sample size. That is,
H
2
x = H
2
/ n

3. The standard deviation of x is called the standard error of the mean.
H

x = H / ( n)
1/2


4. If a random sample is drawn from any population, the sampling distribution of sample
mean is approximately normal for a sufficiently large sample size. The larger the sample
size, the more closely the sampling distribution of x will resemble a normal distribution.

Z = ( x -
x
) / H

x







Practice Questions:
Example: 1
The supervisor of a dairy milk chocolate factory has observed that the weight of each 32 g
chocolate bar is actually a normally distributed random variable, with a mean of 32.2g and a
standard deviation of 0.3 g.
a. Find the probability that if a customer buys one chocolate bar, that bar will weigh less
than 32 g.
b. Find the probability that if a customer buys a pack of four bars, the mean weight of the
four bars will be less than 32 g.

Example:2
The dean of a business faculty claims that the average weekly income of graduates of this
school three years after graduation is $700.
If the deans claim is correct and if weekly incomes are normally distributed with a standard
deviation of $60, what is the probability that 36 randomly selected graduates have an average
weekly income of less than $675?
Example:3
A sample of n=100 observations is drawn from a normal population, with =1000 and
H =200. Find
a. P(x >1050)
b. P(x< 960)
c. P (x>1100)
Example:4
A sample of 50 observations is taken from a normal population, with =100 and H = 10. If
the population is finite with N=250, find
a. P(x>103)
b. P(98 <x< 101)



Example :5
Given a large population whose mean is 1000 and whose standard deviation is 200, find the
probability that a random sample of 400 has a mean that lies between 995 and 1020.
Example :6
An automatic machine in a manufacturing process is operating properly if the length of an
important sub-component are normally distributed, with mean =117cm and standard
deviation H =2.1 cm.
a. Find the probability that one randomly selected unit has a length greater than 120cm.
b. Find the probability that if three units are randomly selected, all three have lengths
exceeding 120 cm.
c. Find the probability that if three units are randomly selected, their mean length exceeds
120cm.
Example:7
The manufacturer of cans of salmon that are supposed to have a net weight of 120 g tells
you that the net weight is actually a random variable with a mean of 121g and a standard
deviation of 3.6 g. Suppose that you take a random sample of 36 cans.
Find the probability that the sample mean will be less than 119.4g.
Example :8
A shipment of 500 cereal boxes is delivered to a supermarket in Fremantle. The manager is
told that the weight of the cereal boxes are normally distributed, with a mean of 165g and
standard deviation of 5 g.
a. Find the probability that a random sample of 200 boxes has a mean weight of between
164.9 and 165.1 g.
Example :9
The dean of a business faculty claims that the average MBA graduate is offered a starting
salary of $55000. The standard deviation of the offers is $4600. What is the probability that
in a random sample of 38 MBA graduates, the mean starting salary is less than $53000.