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What are the properties of dry powder and wet suspension magnetic particles?

A: They are iron oxide particles, finely divided in sizes varying between 0.125 and 60 microns with a
high permeability (easily magnetized) and low retentivity (ability to stay magnetized). Dry particles
are chemically dyed to provide contrast against the background of the test surface. Stock colors are
gray, red, black and yellow. Application is either with a squeeze bulb or spray gun. Wet suspension
particles are suspended in an oil-based or water-based liquid vehicle or carrier. With water,
operators must add conditioners in addition to a wetting agent and corrosion inhibitors.
Q: What is the sensitivity comparison between wet vs. dry methods?
A: Wet method provides improved sensitivity for the detection of very fine surface flaws. Dry method
provides improved sensitivity for the detection of subsurface flaws.
Glossary
Alternating Current (AC). Electric current flows through a conductor in a back and forth
direction at specific intervals. Note: It provides the best sensitivity for the detection of surface
discontinuities only.
Direct Current (DC). Electric current flows through a conductor in only one direction at
all times. Note: DC from a battery source has been phased out in favor of rectified forms of
AC for surface and subsurface flaw detection.
Flux Density (B). Magnetic field strength per unit volume within a ferromagnetic test part
measured in gauss.
Flux Field Penetration. The ability to establish and drive high-density magnetic lines of
force deep into the test part.
Full-Wave Rectified (FWDC). Electric current flows through a conductor in one direction
only with an increased rate of pulsating surges and drops at specific intervals. Note: FWDC is
recommended for effective surface and subsurface flaw detection when using the wet method
of inspection.
Half-Wave Rectified (HWDC). Electric current flows through a conductor in one
direction only with pulsating surges and drops at specific intervals-hence the name half wave.
Note: It is most effective for surface and subsurface flaw detection when using the dry powder
method of inspection.
Linear Indication. Any indication having a length dimension at least three times greater
than its width.
Magnetic Domains. Ferrous material atoms or molecules normally illustrated as small bar
magnets with north and south poles.
Magnetism. A form of energy directly associated with electrical current, and characterized
by fields or lines of force.
Magnetizing Force (H). Magnetic field strength per unit volume in air, measured in
oersteds.
Particle Mobility. The ability to establish activity or motion to the magnetic particles
applied to the test part surface.
Permeability. The ease with which a material can be magnetized. The ability of a material
to conduct magnetic lines of force.
Reluctance. The opposition of resistance by a material to conduct magnetic lines of force.
Retentivity. The ability of a material to retain magnetic lines of force following
magnetization.
Right Hand Rule. Magnetic lines of force will always travel perpendicular or 90 degrees
to the direction of electrical current flow.
Magnetic Writing .





















Relevant indications
Relevant indications are discontinuities or flaws, which in turn are un-designed imperfections.
When it is considered that a relevant indication will affect the fitness for purpose of a test
specimen, it is classified as a defect, but not all defects are cracks.
Product and process knowledge (a knowledge of product technology and the processes that a
test specimen has been through) is necessary to define and interpret defects more closely. It is
perhaps safer, without that knowledge, to categorise indications by their:
Size
Shape
Orientation
Spurious indications
Indications which are not held on the surface by a flux leakage are called spurious. Lint, scale,
dirt, hairs, drainage lines, etc, are examples.
However, one spurious indication, called magnetic writing, is a little different. If two pieces
of steel touch when one of them is in a magnetised condition, local poles are created at the
areas of contact. If magnetic particles are then sprinkled on the surface the local poles become
visible as fuzzy lines.
Non-relevant indications
Non-relevant indications are true magnetic particle patterns actually formed and held in place
by leakage fields. However, they are caused by design features and the structure of the
specimen and only exceptionally will they affect the fitness for purpose of the specimen.
Below is a non-exhaustive list:
Scores and scratches
Key ways
Internal splines and drillings
Abrupt changes of section
Fine threads
Force fits
Dissimilar magnetic material (HAZ or heat treated material)
Forging flow lines
Grain boundaries
Brazed joints
Cold working


NOTES
1. Guss meter is not used for Multidirectional and Longitudinal Magnetized Fields.
2. Head Shot and Prod Techniques are Direct Magnetized Fields and Coil (Solenoid), Yoke, and
Central Conductor Techniques are In-direct Magnetized Techniques.
3. At and above curie point the ferromagnetic materials become paramagnetic so demagnetize.
4. AC tends to flow the surface of conductor this property of AC is called Skin Effect and so AC
current detect surface discontinuities.
5. Longitudinal techniques: Coil (Solenoid) and Yoke (No North and South Pole and easy to
Demagnetized)
6. Circumferential Techniques: Head ---, Central Conductor & Prod Techniques
7.