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Vierendeel structures Prof Schierle 1

Vierendeel Bridge Grammene Belgium


Vierendeel structures Prof Schierle 2
Arthur Vierendeel (18521940) born in
Leuven, Belgium was a university
professor and civil engineer.
The Vierendeel structure he developed
was named after him.
His work, Cours de stabilit des
constructions (1889) was an important
reference during more than half a
century. His first bridge was built 1902
in Avelgen, crossing the Scheldt river
Vierendeel structures Prof Schierle 3
Berlin Pedestrian Bridge
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Berlin HBF: Vierendeel frame Vierendeel elevator shaft Vierendeel detail
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1 Base girder
2 Global shear
3 Global moment
4 Bending
5 Chord forces
6 Pin joints
7 Strong web
8 Strong chord
9 Shear
10 Chord shear
1 1-bay girder
2 Gravity load
3 Lateral load
4 Articulated
Inflection points
5 3-bay girder
6 Gravity load
7 Lateral load
8 Articulated
Inflection points
One-way girders
1 Plain girder
2 Prismatic girder
3 Prismatic girder
Space frames
4 2-way
5 3-way
6 3-D
Vierendeel girder and frame
Named after 19
th
century Belgian inventor, Vierendeel girders and frames are bending resistant
Vierendeel structures Prof Schierle 6
Salk Institute, La Jolla
Architect: Louis Kahn
Engineer: Komendant and Dubin
Perspective section and photo, courtesy Salk Institute
Viernedeel girders of 65 span, provide adaptable
interstitial space for evolving research needs
Vierendeel structures Prof Schierle 7
Yale University Library
Architect/Engineer: SOM
1 Vierendeel facade
2 Vierendeel elements
3 Cross section
The library features five-story Vierndeel frames
Four concrete corner columns support the
frames
Length direction span: 131 feet
Width direction span: 80 feet
Faades are assembled from prefab steel
crosses welded together at inflection points
The tapered crosses visualize inflection points
Vierendeel structures Prof Schierle 8
Commerzbank, Frankfurt
Architect: Norman Foster
Engineer: Ove Arup
Floors between sky gardens are
supported by eight-story high
Vierendeel frames which also
resist lateral load
Vierendeel structures Prof Schierle 9
Commerzbank, Frankfurt
Architect: Norman Foster
Engineer: Ove Arup
Vierendeel elevation / plan
Vierendeel / floor girder
joint detail
Vierendeel / floor girder
Vierendeel structures Prof Schierle 10
Hong Kong Shanghai Bank
Architect: Norman Foster
Engineer: Ove Arup
Gravity / lateral load support:
Hanger / belt truss
Vierendeel towers
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Vierendeel steel girder
Assume:
10 tubing, allowable bending stress F
b
= 0.6x46 ksi F
b
= 27.6 ksi
Girder depth d = 6, span 10 e = 10x10 L = 100
DL= 18 psf
LL = 12 psf
= 30 psf
Uniform load w = 30 psf x 20 / 1000 w = 0.6 klf
Joint load P = 0.6 x 10 P= 6 k
Max shear V = 9 P/2 = 9 x 6/2 V = 27 k
CHORD BARS
Shear (2 chords) V
c
= V/2 = 27/2 V
c
= 13.5 k
Chord bending (k) M
c
= V
c
e/2 = 13.5x5 M
c
= 67.5 k
Chord bending (k) M
c
= 67.5 k x12 M
c
= 810 k
Moment of Inertia
I = M
c
c/F
b
= 810 k x 5/27.6 ksi I = 147 in
4
2nd bay chord shear V
c
= (VP)/2 = (27-6)/2 V
c
= 10.5 k
2nd chord bending M
c
= V
c
e/2 = 10.5 x 5 M
c
= 52.5 k
2nd chord bending M
c
= 52.5 k x 12 M
c
= 630 k
WEB BAR (2nd web resists bending of 2 chords)
Web bar bending M
w
= M
c
end bay + M
c
2nd bay
M
w
= 810 + 630 M
w
=1,440 k
Moment of Inertia
I = M
w
c/F
b
= 1440 k x 5/27.6 ksi I = 261 in
4
MF load
MF shear
MF bending
Compare Multiframe vs. schematic results
Schematic results
Vierendeel structures Prof Schierle 13
20 6x10 = 60 20
A B
Vierendeel with overhangs
M
AL
= (2x10/2)(5) = 50 k (Multiframe M
AL
= 61.3
M
AR
= (5x10/2)(5)-50 = 75 k (Multiframe M
AR
= 73.63
Bars @ B are symmetrical
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Chord bars
Moment of Inertia required I= 147 in
4
Use ST10x10x5/16 I= 183>147
Web bars
Moment of Inertia required I= 261 in
4
Use ST10x10x1/2 I= 271>261
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Sport Center, University of California Davis
Architect: Perkins & Will
Engineer: Leon Riesemberg
Given the residential neighborhood, a major objective was to
minimize the building height by several means:
The main level is 10 below grade
Landscaped berms reduce the visual faade height
Along the edge the roof is attached to bottom chords
to articulates the faade and reduce bulk
Assume
Bar cross sections 16x16 tubing, 3/16 to 5/8 thick
Frame depth d = 14 (max. allowed for transport)
Module size: 21 x 21 x 14 ft
Width/length: 252 x 315 ft
Structural tubing F
b
= 0.6 Fy = 0.6x46 ksi F
b
= 27.6 ksi
DL = 22 psf
LL = 12 psf (60% of 20 psf for tributary area > 600 ft
2
)
= 34 psf
Note: two-way frame carries load inverse to deflection ratio:
r = L1
4
/(L1
4
+L2
4
) = 315
4
/(315
4
+252
4
) r = 0.71
Uniform load per bay
w = 0.71 x 34 psf x 21/1000 w = 0.5 klf
Vierendeel structures Prof Schierle 16
Design end chords
J oint load
P = w x 21 = 0.5klf x 21 P = 10.5 k
Max. shear
V = 11 P /2 = 11 x 10.5 / 2 V = 58 k
Chord shear (2 chords)
Vc = V/2 = 58 k / 2 Vc = 29 k
Chord bending
Mc = Vc e/2 = 29x 21x12/2 Mc= 3654 k
Moment of Inertia required
I = Mc c /F
b
= 3654 x 8/27.6 ksi I = 1059 in
4
Check mid-span compression
Global moment
M = w L
2
/8 = 0.5 x 252
2
/8 M = 3969 k
Compression (d=1416=12.67)
C = M/d= 3969 k/ 12.67 C = 313 k
Modules:
21x21x14
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Chord bars
Moment of Inertia required I= 1059 in
4
Use ST16x16x1/2 I= 1200
Check mid-span chord stress
Compression C = 313 k
Allowable compression P
all
= 728 k
313 <<728
Note:
End-bay bending governs
Vierendeel structures Prof Schierle 18
Commerzbank, Frankfurt
Design edge girder
Assume:
Tributary area 60x20
End bay width e = 20
Loads: 70 psf DL+ 30 psf LL =100 psf
Allowable stress F
b
=0.6 x36 F
b
= 21.6 ksi
Girder shear
V = 60x20x 100 psf/1000 V = 120 k
Bending moment
M = V e/2 = 120x20/2 M = 1200 k
Required section modulus
S = M/F
b
= 1200 k x 12/ 21.6 ksi S = 667 in
3
Use W40x192 S = 706 in
3
Note: check also lateral load
Variable bay widths equalize bending stress
Load at corners increases stability
Vierendeel structures Prof Schierle 19
Vierendeel steel girder
Assume:
10 tubing, allowable bending stress F
b
= 0.6x46 ksi F
b
= 27.6 ksi
Girder depth d = 6, span 10 e = 10x10 L = 100
DL= 18 psf
LL = 12 psf
= 30 psf
Uniform load w = 30 psf x 20 / 1000 w = 0.6 klf
Joint load P = 0.6 x 10 P= 6 k
Max shear V = 9 P/2 = 9 x 6/2 V = 27 k
CHORD BARS
Shear (2 chords) V
c
= V/2 = 27/2 V
c
= 13.5 k
Chord bending M
c
= V
c
e/2 = 13.5 x (10x12)/ 2 M
c
= 810 k
Moment of Inertia
I = M
c
c/F
b
= 810 k x 5/27.6 ksi I = 147 in
4
2nd bay chord shear V
c
= (VP)/2 = (27-6)/2 V
c
= 10.5 k
2nd chord bending M
c
= V
c
e/2 = 10.5 x 120/2 M
c
= 630 k
WEB BAR (2nd web resists bending of 2 chords)
Web bar bending M
w
= M
c
end bay + M
c
2nd bay
M
w
= 810 + 630 M
w
=1,440 k
Moment of Inertia
I = M
w
c/F
b
= 1440 k x 5/27.6 ksi I = 261 in
4
Vierendeel structures Prof Schierle 20
Scheepsdale Revolving Bridge Bruges, Belgium 1933
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Railroad Bridge
Dallvazza Bridge Swiss, 1925
Gellik Railroad Bridge Belgium
Anderlecht Railroad Bridge Belgium
Osera de Ebro Bridge, Zaragoza, Spain, 2002
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Pedestrian Bridge
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Vierendeel girder and frame endure