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17 просмотров97 страницAlgebra lesson
1.Complex numbers
2.Matrix Algebra
3.Vector Algebra

Oct 24, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

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Algebra lesson
1.Complex numbers
2.Matrix Algebra
3.Vector Algebra

© All Rights Reserved

0 оценок0% нашли этот документ полезным (0 голосов)

17 просмотров97 страницAlgebra lesson
1.Complex numbers
2.Matrix Algebra
3.Vector Algebra

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 97

1.1 Introduction

To have solutions for all equations ax = b where a, b are integers, a 0, the integers

were extended to the rational numbers. To have a solution for x 2 = 2, we went outside the

rational numbers to the irrational numbers. There is no real number x such that x 2 = 1 since

the square of any nonzero real number must be positive. To have a solution for

x 2 = 1, mathematicians introduced the complex number i with the property i 2 = 1. We also

use 1 to denote i . Thus the equation x 2 + 1 = 0 would have two roots i. Also, the square

root of a negative number, b 2 , is written in the form bi, where b is a real number.

Furthermore, solutions of the equation ( x a ) = b 2 (a, b both real numbers) are given by

x a = bi, that is x = a bi .

2

Complex numbers made their appearance in the mathematical scene in The Great Art, or

in the rules of Algebra (1545) by the Italian mathematician and physician Gerolamo Cardano

(1501 1576). Cardano studied the quadratic problem of dividing 10 into two parts such that

their product is 40 and found the solutions 5 + 15 and 5 15 by standard technique. About

27 years later the engineer Raphael Bombelli (1926 1572) published an algebra text in which

he dealt systematically with complex numbers.

Definition 1.1.1 A complex number z is any expression of the form

z = a + bi

where a and b are real numbers and i = 1. The scalar a is called the real part of z and the

scalar b is called the imaginary part of z .

Notation If z = a + bi, a, b , then we use Re ( z ) to denote the number a and I m( z ) to denote

the number b i.e., Re ( z ) = a and I m( z ) = b .

= {a + bi : a, b

If a = 0, we write 0 + bi as bi and bi is called a pure imaginary number.

Every complex number is the sum of a real number and a pure imaginary number.

Note. 0 stands for 0 + 0i .

Example 1.1.2 If z = 3 + 4i, then Re ( z ) = 3, I m( z ) = 4 (3 is the real part of z and 4 is the

imaginary part of z ).

Definition 1.2.1

Let z1 = a + bi, z 2 = c + di (a, b, c, d

).

(ii) Addition : z1 + z 2 = (a + bi ) + (c + di ) = (a + c ) + (b + d )i .

(iii) Subtraction : z1 z 2 = (a + bi ) (c + di ) = (a c ) + (b d ) i .

(iv) Multiplication: z1 z 2 = (a + bi )(c + di ) = (ac bd ) + (ad + bc )i.

(v) Division : For z 2 0,

z1 a + bi a + bi c di ac + bd bc ad

=

=

=

+

i.

z 2 c + di c + di c di c 2 + d 2 c 2 + d 2

(vi) Conjugation: For z = a + bi , define z = a bi .

z is called the conjugate of z. It is also sometimes denoted by z * .

Note that z z = (a + bi )(a bi ) = a 2 + b 2 .

Theorem 1.2.2

(i) z1 + ( z 2 + z3 ) = (z1 + z 2 ) + z3 z1 , z 2 , z3 .

(ii) z1 + z 2 = z 2 + z1 z1 , z 2 .

(iii) ( z1 z 2 ) z 3 = z1 ( z 2 z 3 ) z1 , z 2 , z 3 .

(Associative law)

(Commutative law)

(Associative law)

(iv) z1 z 2 = z 2 z1 z1 , z 2 .

(v) ( z1 + z 2 ) z 3 = z1 z 3 + z 2 z 3 z1 , z 2 , z 3

(Commutative law)

(Distributive law)

(Distributive law)

(vi) z 3 ( z1 + z 2 ) = z 3 z1 + z 3 z1 z1 , z 2 , z 3

Example 1.2.3

2

(iii) Let z1 = 2 + 4i, z 2 = 1 + 3i. Compute z1 + z 2 , z1 z 2 , z1 z 2 , z 2 z 2 ,

z1

.

z2

Solution.

(i)(a) x 2 + 1 = x 2 i 2 = ( x + i )( x i )

(b) ( x + p ) + q 2 = (x + p ) i 2 q 2 = ( x + p + qi )( x + p qi )

2

(ii) x =

( 2 )

( 2)2 (4)(8)

2

2 28 2 28i

=

=1 7i.

2

2

(iii) z1 + z 2 = (2 1) + (4 + 3)i = 1 + 7i

z1 z 2 = (2 +1) + (4 3)i = 3 + i

z1 z 2 = (2 + 4i )(1+ 3i ) = 2 + 6i 4i +12i 2 = 2 + 2i 12 = 14 + 2i

z 2 = 1 3i, z 2 z 2 = ( 1) + ( 3) =10

2

=

=

=1 i

z2 = z z =

10

10

10

10

2 2

(i)

z+w = z+w

(ii)

zw = z w

(iii)

z z

=

w w whenever w 0.

Proof.

Let z = a + bi and w = c + di. Then z = a bi and w = c di.

(i) Now z + w = (a + c) + (b + d )i .

Then z + w = (a + c) (b + d )i = (a bi ) + (c di ) = z + w .

(ii)

Now zw = (ac bd ) + (ad + bc)i .

Then zw = (ac bd ) (ad + bc)i .

Hence z w = (a bi )(c di )i = (ac bd ) + (ad + bc)i = zw .

(iii) Exercise.

(i)

z1 + z 2 + ... + z n = z 1 + z 2 +L + z n .

z1 z 2 z n = z 1 z 2 z n .

(ii)

Proof.

We prove by mathematical induction.

We shall only prove (i).

Case 1: n = 2

(1)

(2)

By Theorem 1.2.4, z1 + z 2 = z 1 + z 2 .

Case 2: n 2 .

Assume that (1) is true for some n = k 2, i.e.

z1 + z 2 + ... + z k = z 1 + z 2 +L + z k

(3)

= z1 + z 2 + ... + z k + z k +1

= z 1 + z 2 + L + z k + z k +1

(by (3))

We have shown that if (1) is true for some n = k then (1) is true for n = k + 1.

It follows by induction that (1) is true for all positive integers n 2 .

Solution.

(i) Now z + w = (2 7i ) + (3 + i ) = 5 6i .

Then z + w = 5 + 6i .

(ii)

Hence z + w = (2 + 7i ) + (3 i ) = 5 + 6i = z + w .

Now zw = (2 7i )(3 + i ) = 13 19i .

Then zw = 13 + 19i .

Hence z w = (2 + 7i )(3 i ) = 13 + 19i = zw .

z 2 7i 1

(iii) Now =

= (1 23i ) .

w 3 + i 10

z 1

Then = (1 + 23i ) .

w 10

Hence

z 2 + 7i 1

z

=

= (1 + 23i ) = .

w 3 i 10

w

Definition 1.3.1 (The Argand Plane or Complex Plane)

Let z = x + yi ( x, y ) and P be the point ( x, y ) in the xy plane. Then z can be represented

by

1.The point P, or

2 .The vector OP.

Imaginary axis = y - axis

P ( x, y ) representing z = x + iy

This xy plane which represents the complex numbers is called the Argand plane or the

Complex plane. As the points ( x, 0 ) correspond to real numbers x + 0i , the x axis is called

the real axis. Similarly, the y -axis is called the imaginary axis because the points (0, y ) on it

have the form 0 + iy for y real.

Example 1.3.2

z1 = 5 + 2i, z 2 = 3i, z3 = 5 3i, z 4 = 4, z5 = 2 2i .

z

(ii) Let z = 4 + 2i . Represent z , z , 2 z , z and

in the Argand plane.

2

Solution.

(i)

(0, 3) = z 2

(ii)

(5, 2) = z1

(8, 4) = 2 z

(4, 2) = z

( 4, 0) = z 4

(2,1) =

(2, 2) = z5

( 5, 3) = z3

( 4, 2) = z

1

z

2

(4, 2) = z

Then z1 + z 2 = (a + c ) + (b + d )i and z1 z 2 = (a c ) + (b d )i .

Let z1 be represented by the point P (a, b ).

Let z 2 be represented by the point Q (c, d ).

Draw the parallelograms OPRQ and OPST as follows:

y

Q (c, d )

P (a, b )

x

T ( c, d )

OR = OP + PR = OP + OQ.

In the Argand diagram, addition of complex numbers corresponds to addition of vectors.

Then S is the point (a c, b d ) and hence S represents z1 z 2 . Note that

OS = OP + PS = OP + OT = OP OQ.

In the Argand diagram, subtraction of complex numbers corresponds to subtraction of vectors.

Theorem 1.3.3

(i) In the Argand plane, the addition of complex numbers corresponds to the addition of vectors

(ii) In the Argand plane, the subtraction of complex numbers corresponds to the subtraction of

vectors.

Remark

Historically, the geometric representation of complex numbers in the xy plane was due to

Gauss (1777 1855) and two lesser known mathematicians Jean Robert Argand (1786 1822)

and Caspar Wessel (1745 1818).

Definition 1.4.1 (Cartesian form)

The form z = x + yi, x, y , of a complex number z , is called the Cartesian form of z .

P ( x, y )

r

Figure 1.4.1

Figure 1.4.1 is a representation of the complex number z = x + yi in the Argand plane.

Let be the angle from the positive x axis to the vector OP.

Let r be the distance of the point P ( x, y ) from the origin.

Then

y

(i)

r = x 2 + y 2 , tan =

x

(ii)

x = r cos , y = r sin

(iii)

z = r (cos + i sin )

Definition 1.4.2 (Polar form)

The form z = r (cos + i sin ) of the complex number z , is called the polar form of z .

Definition 1.4.3 (Modulus, argument and principal argument)

Let z = x + yi, z 0.

(i) The modulus or absolute value of z , denoted by z , is defined to be the length of vector

OP = r . Therefore z = r = x 2 + y 2 .

(ii) An argument of z , denoted by arg ( z ) , is defined to be any angle where = tan 1

y

, that

x

y

.

x

Note: The value of arg ( z ) is not unique. If is a value of arg ( z ) , then + 2n , n = 0, 1,...,

are also values of arg ( z ) since tan ( + 2n ) = tan for n = 0, 1,K,

is, tan =

(iii) The principal argument of z , denoted by Arg ( z ) , is defined be the unique angle where

is restricted to the value 0 2 .(We use the capital letter A here.)

Note: Arg ( z ) depends on the quadrant where the point ( x, y ) is located.

Remark

Let z = x + yi, z 0.

2

If ( x, y ) is in the 2nd quadrant, then

Arg ( z ) .

If ( x, y ) is in the 4th quadrant, then

3

.

2

3

Arg ( z ) 2 .

2

Example 1.4.4 Find the modulus, principal argument and the polar form of z = 1 i.

Solution.

y

Then tan = = 1 .

x

But the point (1, -1) is in the fourth quadrant.

7

.

Hence Arg ( z ) =

4

7

7

+ i sin

4

4

(1, 1)

Example 1.4.5 Find the moduli, principal arguments and the polar forms for the following:

(i)

z1 = 3 + i ,

(ii)

z2 = 3 + i ,

(iii)

z3 = 3 i ,

(iv)

z4 = 3 i .

( 3)

+ 12 = 2 = z 2 = z 3 = z 4 .

z 2 3, 1

z1

z 3 3, 1

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

z4

3, 1

3, 1

1

where 0 1 . Therefore Arg ( z1 ) = .

2

6

3

6

6

1

1

Let 2 = Arg ( z 2 ). Then tan 2 =

=

where

2 .

2

3

3

5

Therefore Arg (z 2 ) = =

.

6 6

5

5

6

6

1

1

3

=

where 3 .

Let 3 = Arg ( z 3 ). Then tan 3 =

2

3

3

7

Therefore Arg (z 3 ) = + = .

6 6

7

7

+ i sin

.

6

6

1

3

1

Let 4 = Arg ( z 4 ). Then tan 4 =

=

where

4 2 .

2

3

3

11

Therefore Arg ( z 4 ) = 2 =

.

6 6

11

11

+ i sin

.

6

6

Theorem 1.4.6

Let z1 = r1 (cos1 + i sin 1 ), z 2 = r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 ) .

Then z1 z 2 = r1r2 [cos (1 + 2 ) + i sin (1 + 2 )].

Proof.

z1 z 2 = r1r2 (cos1 + i sin 1 )(cos 2 + i sin 2 )

= r1r2 [(cos1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 ) + i (sin 1 cos 2 + sin 2 cos 2 )]

= r1r2 [cos (1 + 2 ) + i sin (1 + 2 )].

Corollary 1.4.7

Let z1 , z 2 be two complex numbers.

From the above identity, we see that when two complex numbers are multiplied, the

moduli are multiplied and the arguments are added. Notice, however, that the principal argument

of a product may not be the sum of the principal arguments of the factors; the sum of the

principal arguments may be 2 and have to be adjusted to lie between 0 and 2 . Similarly the

following theorem can be similarly shown.

Theorem 1.4.8

Let z1 = r1 (cos1 + i sin 1 ), z 2 = r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 ) where z 2 0 .

z

r

Then 1 = 1 [cos (1 2 ) + i sin (1 2 )] .

z 2 r2

Corollary 1.4.9

Let z1 , z 2 be two complex numbers.

Then

z

z

z1

r

= 1 = 1 , Arg ( z1 ) Arg ( z 2 ) is an argument of 1 .

z2

r2 z 2

z2

3

3

3

3

4

4

z

.

w

Solution.

3

3

(i) zw = 2 3 cos +

+ i sin +

3 4

3 4

13

13

= 2 3 cos

+ i sin

12

12

2 3

z

3

cos + i sin

=

w

3 3 4

3 4

(ii)

2 5

cos

3 12

5

+ i sin

12

2 5

5

cos 12 i sin 12

3

Geometric interpretation

Let z1 = r1 (cos1 + i sin 1 ) and z = r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 ) be represented by the vectors OP1 and

OP2 respectively. The diagram below shows that the vector OP representing z1 z 2 is obtained by

rotating the vector OP2 through the angle 1 in the counterclockwise direction and by

multiplying the length r2 of OP2 with the length r1 of OP1 .

y

r1 r2

P2

r2

r1

P1

1

x

Theorem 1.4.11 (The Triangular Inequality)

For any complex numbers z1 and z 2 , z1 + z 2 z1 + z 2 .

Proof.

y

R

Q

z1 + z 2

z2

z1

Question

(i)

Under what conditions do we have z1 + z 2 < z 2 + z 2 ?

(ii)

The proof given is geometric. Can you give an algebraic proof?

Theorem 1.4.12

Let z , z1 , z 2 , K , z n be complex numbers. Then

(i)

z 0 and z = 0 z = 0 .

(ii)

z=z=z .

(iii)

zz = z = (Re( z )) + (Im( z )) .

(iv)

z1 z 2 z n = z1 z 2 z n .

(v)

z1 z1

=

for nonzero z 2 .

z2 z2

(vi)

z1 + z 2 + K + z n z1 + z 2 + K + z n .

(vii)

z1 z 2 z1 z 2 .

(viii)

If z 0 , then z 1 =

Proof. Exercise.

z

z

Theorem 1.5.1 (De Moivres Theorem)

For any and integer n,

(cos + i sin )n

= cos n + i sin n .

(1)

Proof.

We prove by mathematical induction.

Case 1: n = 0

LHS= (cos + i sin ) =1 . RHS = cos (0 ) + i sin (0 ) = 1 . Therefore LHS=RHS and (1) is true.

0

Case 2: n 0

When n = 1 ,

LHS= (cos + i sin ) = cos + i sin . RHS = cos (1 ) + i sin (1 ) = cos + i sin . Therefore

1

LHS=RHS.

Assume that (1) is true for some n = k 1, i.e.,

(2)

k +1

k

Then (cos + i sin ) = (cos + i sin ) (cos + i sin )

= (cos k + i sin k )(cos + i sin )

(by (2))

= (cos k cos sin k sin ) + i (sin k cos + cos k sin )

= cos(k + ) + i sin(k + )

= cos(k + 1) + i sin( k + 1) .

We have shown that if (1) is true for some n = k then (1) is true for n = k + 1.

It follows by induction that (1) is true for all positive integers n.

Case 3: n < 0. Let n = m. Then m > 0 and

1

=

(cos + i sin ) m

1

=

(cos m + i sin m )

1

cos m i sin

=

(cos m + i sin m ) (cos m i sin m )

m

cos m i sin m

cos 2 m + sin 2 m

= cos m i sin m

= cos( m ) + i sin(m )

= cos n + i sin n .

Therefore (1) is true for all integers n and the theorem is proved.

=

(by (2))

1

(ii) z n = n (cos n i sin n ) .

.

r

Proof. By De Moivres Theorem,

n

n

(i) z n = [r (cos + i sin )] = r n (cos + i sin ) = r n (cos n + i sin n ) .

(ii)

1

1

n

n

z n = [r (cos + i sin )] = r n (cos + i sin ) = n (cos ( n ) + i sin ( n )) = n (cos n i sin n )

r

r

Corollary 1.5.3 Let z = cos + i sin and n be a positive integer. Then

1

1

(i) cos n = (z n + z n ), sin n = (z n z n ) .

2

2i

1

1

(ii) cos = z + z 1 , sin = (z z 1 ).

2

2i

10

1+ 3i

.

Example 1.5.4 Compute

1 3i

Solution.

(

(

)(

)(

) (

)

1 + 3i

1+ 3i 1 + 3i

1+ 3i

z=

=

=

.

4

1 3i

1 3i 1 + 3i

(1+ 3i )

=

20

Therefore z

10

410

3

3

20

2 cos 3 + i sin 3

Therefore z 10 =

10

4

= cos 20 + i sin 20

3

3

2

2

= cos

+ i sin

3

3

1

3

= +

i.

2 2

= 3 .

2

2

+ i sin

3

3

Solution.

12

, find z .

2

2 12

12

z 12 = 212 cos 12 + i sin 12

(Q cos 8 =1, sin 8 = 0)

= 2 (cos 8 ) = 2 .

3

3

Example 1.5.6

(i) Express cos 4 in terms of powers of cos .

(ii) Express sin 4 in terms of powers of sin and cos .

Solution. Let k = cos and s = sin . Then by De Moivres Theorem,

cos 4 + i sin 4 = (cos + i sin )

= (k + is )

= k 4 + 4k 3 ( si ) + 6k 2 ( si ) 2 + 4k ( si ) 3 + ( si ) 4

= k 4 + 4k 3 si 6k 2 s 2 4ks 3i + s 4

= (k 4 6k 2 s 2 + s 4 ) + (4k 3 s 4ks 3 )i .

Comparing the real and the imaginary parts,

cos 4 = k 4 6k 2 s 2 + s 4

= k 4 6k 2 (1 k 2 ) + (1 k 2 ) 2

= 8k 4 8k 2 + 1

= 8 cos 4 8 cos 2 + 1 .

sin 4 = 4k 3 s 4ks 3

= 4 cos 3 sin 4 cos sin 3 .

Example 1.5.7

Let z = cos + i sin and n be a positive integer.

Express sin 4 in terms of multiples of cos n .

1

Solution. From Corollary 1.5.3, sin = (z z 1 ). Then

2i

4

4

1

sin = z z 1

2i

1 4

=

z 4 z 2 + 6 4 z 2 + z 4

16

1 4

=

z + z 4 4 z 2 + z 2 + 6

16

1

= [2 cos 4 8 cos 2 + 6]

16

1

= [cos 4 4 cos 2 + 3] .

8

4

[(

) (

) ]

(Q s 2 + k 2 = 1 .)

x2 x3

x3 x5

x2 x4

e x =1+ x + + + K , sin x = x +

K , cos x =1 + + K

2! 3!

3! 5!

2! 4!

hold when x = i , , we can arrive at

e i

= 1 + i +

(i )2 + (i )3 + (i )4 + (i )5 +K

2!

4!

5!

3 5 7

= 1 + + K + i + + K

3! 5! 7!

2! 4! 6!

3!

Definition 1.6.1 (Eulers Formula)

For , define e i = cos + i sin .

If z = x + yi, x, y

, define e z = e x + iy = e x e iy = e x (cos y + i sin y ) .

Definition 1.6.2 (Exponential form)

The form z = re i of the complex number z = r (cos + i sin ) , is called the exponential form of

z.

Theorem 1.6.3

For

, cos =

Proof.

By Eulers Formula,

e i = cos + i sin .

e i = cos ( ) + i sin ( ) = cos i sin .

Therefore

e i + e i = 2 cos

e i e i = 2i sin

Remark.

( )

(i) e i = e in , n .

(ii)

e i = cos + i sin = 1.

n

1 i

1 i

e + e i , sin =

e e i . (Cf. Cor. 1.5.3)

2

2i

Solution.

2

i

Solution.

( )

Now z = 2 2 + 2 3 = 4 +12 = 4.

i

2 3

= tan 1 3 = .

2

3

Thus z = 4e 3 .

Definition 1.6.6

Let n be a positive integer. A complex number z is called an n th root of another complex

number w if z n = w.

Theorem 1.6.7

Let w = R(cos + i sin ) and z = r (cos + i sin ) .

Let n be a positive integer. Suppose that z n = w.

+ 2k

+ 2k

Then z = n R cos

+ i sin

, k = 0,1,..., n 1

n

n

Proof.

n

By De Moivres Theorem, z n = r n (cos + i sin ) = r n (cos n + i sin n ) = R(cos + i sin ) .

Note that the moduli of all the n th roots of w are identical and is equal to

Also n = + 2k , k

, that is, =

+ 2k

R.

, k .

n

+ 2k

+ 2k

Therefore z = n R cos

+ i sin

, k .

n

n

Note that k has n distinct values with k = 0, 1,..., n 1 and any other value of k will produce a

value identical to one of these.

+ 2k

+ 2k

Therefore z = n R cos

+ i sin

, k = 0,1,..., n 1 .

n

n

2

a different argument. As k increases, the argument grows by increasing

.

n

The n roots can be represented by points on a circle having radius

z3

z2

2

n

z1

2

n

z0

n

Let n be a positive integer. A complex number z is called an n th root of unity if z n =1 .

Example 1.6.9 1, 1, i, i are the fourth roots of unity for they are the solutions of the equation

z 4 = 1.

Example 1.6.10 Find the n th roots of unity with (i ) n = 3 (ii ) n = 6 . Display your solutions in the

Argand plane.

Solution.

Note that 1 = cos 0 + i sin 0.

0 + 2k

0 + 2k

(i) The cube roots of unity are given by z k = cos

+ i sin

, k = 0,1, 2 .

3

3

2

2

1

3

4

4

1

3

Hence z 0 = cos 0 + i sin 0 = 1 , z1 = cos

+ i sin

= +

i , z 2 = cos

+ i sin

=

i.

3

3

2 2

3

3

2 2

(ii)

0 + 2k

0 + 2k

+ i sin

, k = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 .

6

6

1

3

2

2

1

3

Hence z 0 = cos 0 + i sin 0 = 1 , z1 = cos + i sin = +

i , z 2 = cos

+ i sin

= +

i.

3

3 2 2

3

3

2 2

3

3

4

4

1

3

5

5 1

3

= 1 , z 5 = cos

+ i sin

=

=

z 3 = cos + i sin

i , z 6 = cos + i sin

i.

3

3

3

3

2 2

3

3 2 2

by z k = cos

w1

z1

w2

2

3

2

3

2

3

zn

w3

w4

z2

w0

Example 1.6.11 Find the two square roots of w = 2 + 2 3i . Give your answer in Cartesian form

and display your solutions in the Argand plane.

Solution.

( )

Now w = 2 2 + 2 3

= 4 + 12 = 4 .

2 3

= 3.

2

3

3

+ 2k

+ 2k

By Theorem 1.67, z k = 4 cos 3

+ i sin 3

2

2

3 1

7

7

3 1

z 0 = 2 cos + i sin = 2

+ i = 3 + i , z1 = 2 cos

+ i sin

i = 3 i

= 2

6

6 2 2

6

6 2 2

z0

7

6

z1

Example 1.6.13 Solve the equation z 4 = 8i and display your solutions in the Argand plane.

Solution.

3

3

2

2

3

3

+ 2k

+ 2k

, k = 0, 1, 2, 3

By theorem 1.67, z k = 4 8 cos 2

+ i sin 2

4

4

(3 + 4k )

(3 + 4k )

= 4 8 cos

+ i sin

, k = 0, 1, 2, 3 .

8

8

Therefore the fourth roots of 8i are

3

3

7

7

11

11

z 0 = 4 8 cos

+ i sin

+ i sin

+ i sin

, z1 = 4 8 cos

, z 2 = 4 8 cos

,

8

8

8

8

8

8

15

15

z 3 = 4 8 cos

+ i sin

.

8

8

z1

3

8

z 0

z1

4

z2

8

z 3

An equation with complex numbers as variables is called a complex equation. For example, if

z , the following

(i)

z =2 ,

(ii)

Arg ( z ) =

(iii)

z + 2i

=2,

z + 3i

(iv)

z 4i + z + 3 = 2 ,

Letting z = x + iy, the complex equations can be written in term of x and y. The set of all ( x, y )

satisfying a complex equation forms a curve in the xy plane. This curve is called the locus of

the complex equation.

Example 1.7.1 What is the locus of the equation z = 2 ? .

Solution.

x 2 + y 2 = 2 i.e., x 2 + y 2 = 4 .

Therefore the locus of the equation is the circle with centre (0, 0 ) and radius 2 .

Example 1.7.2 What is the locus of the equation Arg ( z ) =

Solution.

Let z = x + iy .

If Arg ( z ) =

, then x 0, y 0 and

3

Therefore y = 3 x, x 0 .

= tan 1 = 3 .

x

3

The locus of the equation is a straight line y = 3 x, x 0 consisting of the points x, 3 x with

x0.

y

z + 2i

=2

z i

Solution.

2

2

The equation can be written as z + 2i = 2 z i or z + 2i = 4 z i

z + 2i = 4 z i ( x + yi ) + 2i = 4 ( x + yi ) i .

2

x + ( y + 2)i = 4 x + ( y i ) .

2

x 2 + ( y + 2) 2 = 4 ( x 2 + ( y 1) 2 .

x 2 + y 2 + 4 y + 4 = 4( x 2 + y 2 2 y + 1) .

3x 2 + 3 y 2 12 y = 0 .

x2 + y2 4 y = 0 .

x 2 + ( y 2) 2 = 4 .

The locus of the equation is a circle with centre (0, 2) and radius 2.

Example 1.7.4 If z = 3 , what is the locus of the complex number 2 z + 1? .

Solution.

1

(z1 1) .

2

1

(z1 1) = 3 z1 1 = 6 .

2

Let z1 = x + yi . Then

Hence z = 3

( x + yi ) 1 = 6 ( x 1) + yi = 6 .

( x 1) 2 + y 2 = 36 .

The locus of the complex number 2 z + 1 when z = 3 , is the circle with centre (1, 0) and radius 6.

2.1 Matrices and their Basic Concepts

For this course we will, unless the contrary is explicitly stated, understand that the underline field

F is either the real field R or the complex field C .

2.1.1 Definition

An m n matrix over a field F , or simply an m n matrix, is a rectangular array of

mn objects, denoted by

a11 a12 L a1n

a 21 a 22 L a 2 n

A=

M

M O M

m1 a m 2 L a mn

The size of the matrix A is m n where m is the number of rows, and n is the number of

columns. The objects a11 , a12 , K , amn in the array, which are from a field F , are called entries

or components in A . The element a ij , called the (i, j ) entry (or the (i, j ) component) of A ,

is the entry in the i th row and j th column of A . The notation A = (aij ) that displays a

typical entry is usually used. We will use M m, n to denote the set of all m n matrices over F .

2.1.2 Definition

Then A = B m = p, n = q and aij = bij for all 1 i m , 1 j n .

(2) Addition of matrices: Let A = (aij ) and B = (bij ) be m n matrices.

Then A + B = (aij + bij ) for all 1 i m , 1 j n .

Then A = (aij ) for all 1 i m , 1 j n .

r

Then AB = ai1bi1 + ai 2b2 j + ... + air brj = aik bkj for all 1 i m, 1 j n

k =1

2.1.3 Example

1

2

2 1 1 0

1 1 2 1

Let A =

, B = 4 1 6 2 and C = 1

0

3

1

2

12

2 + 1

A+B=

0+4

8

1

. Then

1

1 + 1 1 + 2 0 + 1 1 2 1 1

3 0 3 1

=

, AB=

,

3 + 1 1 + 6 2 + 2 4 4 7 4

4 2 5 0

1 1 2 1

BC =

4 1 6 2

1

2

12

8

1

2

1 15 17

=

, CB =

1

1 28 51

6

12

8

1

1

31 7 46 15

1 1 2 1 6 3 10 4

4 1 6 2 = 5 2 8 3

36 18 60 24

2.1.4 Theorem

(1)

A + B = B + A.

(Commutative Law)

(2)

(A + B)

(Associative Law)

+ C = A + (B + C ) .

(3)

( AB )C = A (B C ) .

(Associative Law)

(4)

( A + B )C =

AB + AC .

(Distributive Law)

(5)

A(B + C ) = AC + AB .

(Distributive Law)

Remark

The multiplication of matrices does not satisfy the commutative law, i.e., in general, AB BA .

2.1.5 Example

1 1

0 1

Let A =

and B =

. Then

2 2

0 1

1 1 0 1 0 0

AB =

=

but BA =

2 2 0 1 0 0

0 1

0 1

2

1 1 2

2 2 = 2 2

In this example we see that there exist matrices A 0 and B 0 such that AB = 0 . Hence it is

not true, in general, that AB = 0 A = 0 or B = 0 and also AB = 0 BA = 0 .

2.1.6 Theorem

(1)

( A + B ) = A + B .

(2)

( + ) A = A + A .

(3)

( AB ) = (A)B = A(B ) .

2.1.7 Definition

The transpose of a matrix A , written as AT , is the matrix obtained by writing the rows of A , in

order, as columns, i.e., if A = (aij ) is an m n matrix then AT = (bij ) is an m n matrix where

bij = a ji for all i = 1, K , n and j = 1, K , m .

2.1.8 Example

3

6

1 0 8

1

2 3

2 1 4

T

If A = 3 2 5 , then A = 0 2 9 ; B = 1 2 and B T =

3 2 5

6 9 7

8 5 7

4 5

Properties of the transpose

2.1.9 Theorem

(1)

( A + B )T

(2)

( AC )T

= C T AT .

(3)

(A )

= A.

(4)

(A)T

= AT , where F .

T T

= AT + B T .

Proof of (2)

T

We first note that AC is of size m p , and so, ( AC ) is of size p m , and also C T AT is of

size p m . Let A = (aij ), C = (cij ) , and AC = (d ij ) . Then, by our definition, we see that the

(i, j ) entry of

On the other hand, the j th row of C T consists of the element from j th column of C , and

the i th column of AT consists of the element from i th row of A . So, the (i, j ) entry of the

matrix C T AT is given by c1 j a i1 + c 2 j a i 2 + K + c nj ain = a i1c1 j + a i 2 c 2 j + K + ain c nj = d ij .

Therefore, ( AC ) = C T AT .

T

2.1.10 Definition

A matrix where the number of rows is the same as the number of columns is called a square

matrix. A square matrix with n rows and n columns is said to be of order n , and is called an

n n (or n -square or square) matrix. We shall write the set of all n n matrices M n instead

of M n ,n . The diagonal of a n n matrix A = (aij ) consists of the elements a11 , a 22 , K, a nn .

Some special types of square matrices

(1)

Diagonal Matrix

A diagonal matrix is a square matrix whose non-diagonal entries are all zero.

That is, a ij = 0 for all i j .

(2)

Identity Matrix I n

The identity matrix of order n (or unit matrix) is a n n matrix with 1' s on the diagonal

and 0s elsewhere, and is denoted by I n .

That is, aii = 1 for all i = 1, 2, K , n, and aij = 0 for all i j .

Remark I n A = A = A I n for any A M n

(3)

An upper triangular matrix is a square matrix whose entries below the main diagonal are

all zeros.

That is, a ij = 0 for all i > j .

(4)

A lower triangular matrix is a square matrix whose entries above the main diagonal are

all zeros.

That is, a ij = 0 for all i < j .

(5)

Symmetric matrix

A symmetric matrix is a square matrix whose transpose equals itself, i.e., if A is a

symmetric matrix, then AT = A .

That is, a ji = aij for all i, j .

(6)

Skew-symmetric matrix

A skew-symmetric matrix is a square matrix whose transpose equals the negative of

itself, i.e., if A is skew-symmetric, then AT = A .

That is, a ji = aij for all i , j .

Problem Prove the following:

(1)

A + AT is a symmetric matrix.

(2)

A AT is a skew-symmetric matrix.

2.1.11 Example

Let

1 8

1 3 8

0

A = 3 0 5 and B = 1 0

5 .

8 5 7

8 5 0

Then

0 1 8

1 3 8

T

0 5 = B .

A = 3 0 5 = A and B = 1

8 5

8 5 7

0

T

2.2 Determinants

2.2.1 Definition

follows:

a

If A = 11

a21

a12

a

then A = 11

a22

a21

a11

a

If A = 21

M

a

n1

a12

a22

M

an 2

L a1n

L a2 n

then

O M

L ann

a11 a12 L

a21 a22 L

A =

M

M O

a n1 a n 2 L

=

( 1)

k =1

a12

= a11a22 a12 a21 .

a11

j+k

j th row

a1n

a2n

M

= (1) j +1 a j1 M j1 + (1) j + 2 a j 2 M j 2 + L + ( 1) j + n a jn M jn

a nn

a jk M jk

a12

a21

a22 L a2 n

an1

=

L a1n

a11

an 2 L ann

( 1)

j+k

j =1

a jk M jk

where M jk is the (n 1) (n 1) submatrix of A obtained by deleting its j th row and its k th column.

The determinant M jk of M jk , is called the minor of a jk in A .

Remark

We may expand by any row or column to obtain A . The equation (1) gives A by expanding

the j th row, and the equation (2) gives A by expanding the k th column.

2.2.2 Theorem

Let A = (aij ) be an n n matrix. Then the determinant of A is unique.

So

A=

( 1)

j+k

k =1

n

and A = ( 1)

j =1

j+k

a jk M jk

a jk M jk

( j = 1 or 2 or K or n )

(k = 1 or 2 or Kor n )

2.2.3 Example

1 2 4

+ +

3 1 2

+ +

Expanding by the first row, we have

1 2 4

0 3

1 3

1 0

1 0 3 = 1

2

+4

= (0 3) (2 9) + 4 ( 1 0 ) = 7 .

1 2

3 2

3 1

3 1 2

1 2 4

0 3

2 4

2 4

1 0 3 = 1

( 1)

+3

= (0 3) + (2 4) + 3(6 0) = 7 .

1 2

1 2

0 3

3 1 2

2.2.4 Theorem

(1)

(2)

(3)

If A is an upper triangular (or lower triangular) matrix,

then A = product of the diagonal elements. In particular, I n = 1 .

(4)

AB = A B .

(5)

AT = A .

(6)

A = n A , where F .

2.3 Adjoint

2.3.1 Definition

Let A = (aij ) be an n n matrix. Then the adjoint of A , denoted by adj A , is defined as

A11

A

adj A = 12

M

A1n

Aij = ( 1)

i+ j

L An1

L An 2

,

O M

L Ann

is the minor of a jk in A , i.e.,

M ij = ( 1)

i+ j

a11

M

ai 1,1

ai +1,1

M

an1

A21

A22

M

A2 n

L a1, j 1

O

M

L ai 1, j 1

L ai +1, j 1

O

M

L an , j 1

a1, j +1

M

ai 1, j +1

ai +1, j +1

M

an, j +1

L a1n

O

M

L ai 1, n

L ai +1,n

O

M

L ann

2.3.2 Theorem

(1)

A(adj A) = A I n = (adj A) A .

(2)

adj A = A

n 1

if A 0 .

(3)

(4)

adj ( AT ) = (adj A) .

(5)

Note that A I n = 0

0

0

A

0

0

A

2.3.3 Example

3 1 2

Let A = 1 2 1 . Find adj A .

1 1 1

Answer

2 1

1 1

1 2

M 11 =

, M 12 =

, M 13 =

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 2

3 2

3 1

M 21 =

, M 22 =

, M 23 =

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 2

3 2

3 1

M 31 =

, M 32 =

, M 33 =

2 1

1 1

1 2

Hence

M 11 = 1 , M 12 = 0 , M 13 = 1 ,

M 21 = 1 , M 22 = 1 , M 23 = 2 ,

M 31 = 3 , M 32 = 1 , M 33 = 5 .

A21 = (1) 2+1 M 21 = 1 , A22 = (1) 2+2 M 22 = 1 , A23 = (1) 2+3 M 23 = 2 ,

A31 = (1) 3+1 M 31 = 3 , A32 = (1) 3+ 2 M 32 = 1 , A33 = (1) 3+3 M 33 = 5 .

Therefore

0 1

1 3

1

1

adj A = 1

1 2 = 0

1 1

3 1 5

1 2 5

T

2.4 Inverse

2.4.1 Definition

An n n matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists an n n matrix B such that

AB = I n = BA .

The matrix B is called an inverse of A . We note that if a matrix has an inverse, it is unique. To

see this, suppose B and C are inverses of A . Then

B = BI n = B( AC ) = (BA) C = I n C = C .

AA1 = I n = A1 A

An invertible matrix is also called a nonsingular matrix. We remark that not every matrix is

invertible. If A has no inverse, then A is called a non-invertible or singular matrix.

Properties of the inverse

2.4.2 Theorem

Let A and B be n n matrices. Then

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

( AB )1 = B 1 A 1 .

(A )

(A )

T 1

= ( A 1 )T .

1 1

= A.

(A)1 = 1 A1 , 0 .

2.4.3 Theorem (A criterion for the inverse to exist and a formula to find the inverse)

Let A be an n n matrix.

adj A

Then A is invertible (or A is a nonsingular matrix) if and only if A 0 and A 1 =

.

A

Note A is non-invertible (or A is a singular matrix)if and only if A = 0 , i.e., A 1 does not exist.

2.4.4 Example

3 1 2

Let A = 1 2 1 . Is A invertible? If so, find A 1 .

1 1 1

Answer

1 3 1

1 3

1

adj A 1

=

= 0

1 1 = 0

1 1 .

1

A

1 2 5 1 2 5

2.5.1 Definition

The following operations on A are called elementary row operations:

[E1] :

[E 2] :

[E 3] :

Multiply a row by a nonzero scalar : Ri Ri , 0 .

Add a multiple of one row to another row: Ri Ri + R j , 0 .

sequence of elementary row operations.

2.5.2 Example

3 1 3

1 4

R1 R3

[E1] : 2 0 2

2 0

1 4 9

3 1

3 1 3

3

R2 3 R2

[E 2] : 2 0 2 6

1 4 9

1

9

2

3

1

3

0 6

4 9

3 1 3

0 11 24

R1 R1 3 R3

[E3] : 2 0 2 2 0

2

1 4 9

1 4

9

2.5.3 Definition

The row Ri is called a non-zero row of A if Ri has at least one non-zero entry.

The first non-zero entry in Ri is called the distinguished element of Ri .

The matrix A is called a row echelon matrix (or A is in row echelon form) (rem or ref), if

A is a zero matrix or there is a number k , 1 k m such that R1 , R2 , L , Rk are non-

(1)

(2)

zero rows and Rk +1 , Rk + 2 , L, Rm are zero rows (if a zero row or zeros rows exist(s)).

(That is, all non-zero rows are above all zero rows) and

If ci = the number of zeros before the distinguished element in Ri , then

ci < ci + 1 , i = 1, 2, L , k 1.

Furthermore, a row echelon matrix A is called a row reduced echelon matrix (or A is in reduced

row echelon form) (rrem or rref), if the distinguished elements of A

(3)

(4)

are the only nonzero entries in their respective columns.

2.5.4 Example

0

0

B=

0

0

2 0

1

0

0 0

, E=

0

1 1

0 0

0

2 1 0

A = 0 0 0 ,

0 0 1

1

0

D=

0

3 0

0 1

0 0

0 0

1 2 0 0

0 0 0 1 0

0 0 1 0 0

0 2 4 0

,

C=

,

0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

3 0 0 0

0 0 2 0 0 0

0 0 0 4 0 6

0 1 0 0

.

, F =

0 1 0 0 1 2

0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1

The matrices B and D are row echelon matrices but not row reduced echelon matrices.

The matrix E is a row reduced echelon matrix (and hence E is a row echelon matrix)

2.5.5 Theorem

(1)

Every matrix can be reduced to one or more row echelon matrices by elementary row

operations.

(2)

Every matrix can only be reduced to a unique row reduced echelon matrix by elementary

row operations.

(3)

The zero matrix 0 mn is a row reduced echelon matrix and hence a row echelon matrix.

(1)

Suppose the j th column is the first column with a nonzero entry. Suppose a1 j 0 , that

is, the j th entry of the first row is nonzero. (If a1 j = 0 and aij 0 , then interchange the

(2) Use elementary row operations to form a new matrix with aij = 0 for all i = 2, 3, K , m .

(3) Repeat the process with the submatrix formed by excluding the first row.

(4) Continue the process until the matrix is in echelon form.

2.5.7 Example

0 1 0

R1 R2

A = 1 0 2

2 0 1

1 0 2

0 1 0

0 0 1

1

R3 ( ) R3

5

1 0 2

1 0 2

0 1 0

R3 R3 2 R1

0 1 0 (rem)

2 0 1

0 0 5

1 0 0

R1 R1 2 R3

0 1 0 (rrem)

(rem)

0 0 1

Finding the determinant by using elementary row operations

2.5.8 Theorem

(1) If B is obtained from A by interchanging two rows (columns) of A , then B = A .

(2) If B is obtained from A by multiplying a row (column) of A by a scalar , then B = A .

(3) If B is obtained from A by adding a multiple of a row (column) of A to another row

(column) of A , then B = A .

2.5.9 Example

3 1 3

1 4 9

R1 R3

A = 2 0 2

2 0 2 = B . Then B = A .

1 4 9

3 1 3

3 1 3

3 1 3

R2 3 R2

A = 2 0 2 6 0 6 = B . Then B = (3) A .

1 4 9

1 4 9

3 1 3

0 11 24

R1 R1 3 R3

A = 2 0 2 2 0

2 = B . Then B = A .

1 4 9

1 4

9

2.5.10 Example

Use the elementary row operations to find the determinant of the matrix

2 5 9

A = 1 3 3 .

1 1 1

Answer

2

[A ] = 1

1

5

3

1

9

R 3 R1

3

1

1

2

1

R 2 R 2 R1

0

2

1

3 = [B ]. Then B = A

9

1

2

5

1

2 = [C ]. Then C = B

9

1

3

1 1 1

0 2 2 = [D ]. Then D = C

0 3 7

1 1 1

1

R2 R2

1

2

D

0 1 1 = [E ]. Then E =

2

0 3 7

1 1 1

R3 R3 3 R 2

0 1 1 = [F ]. Then F = E

0 0 4

R 3 R 3 2 R1

Hence A = B = C = D = 2 E = 2 F = 8 .

2.5.11 Definition

defined as the m (n + p ) matrix obtained by putting the matrix B on the right-hand side of the

matrix A .

2.5.12 Theorem

[A I ]

n

[I

A 1

2.5.13 Example

Use elementary row operations to determine the inverse of the matrix

1 1 1

A = 1 2 3 .

1 4 9

Answer

1 1 1 1 0 0 R2 R2 R1 1

R3 R3 R1

[A I 3 ] = 1 2 3 0 1 0

0

1 4 9 0 0 1

0

1

R3 R3 3 R2

0

0

1 1 1 0 0

1 2 1 1 0

3 8 1 0 1

1 1 1

0 0

1 2 1 1 0

0 2 2 3 1

0

1 1 1 1

0 1 2 1 1

0 0 1 1 32

R3

1

2

R3

3

1 1 0 0

2

R1 R1 R3

0 1 0 3 4

0 0 1 1 32

R2 R2 2 R3

1 0 0 3 52

R1 R1 R2

0 1 0 1 4

0 0 1 1 3

2

3 52

A1 = 3 4

1 32

1 .

1

2

1

2

0

0

1

2

12

1

1

2

1 = I 3 A 1

1

2

1

2

2.6.1 Definition

a11 x1

a 21 x1

a m1 x1

+

+

a12 x 2

a 22 x 2

M

+ am2 x2

+ K + a1n x n

+ K + a 2n xn

= b1

= b1

+ K + a mn x n

= bn

The above system of linear equations is equivalent to the matrix equation AX = B , i.e.,

a11

a

21

M

a m1

a12

a 22

M

am2

a13 L a1n x1 b1

a 23 L a 2 n x 2 b2

=

,

M

M M M

a m 3 L a mn x n bn

where A = (aij ) is called the coefficient matrix and X = ( xi ) and B = (bi ) are called the

column vectors of the unknowns and of the constants, respectively.

If B 0 (that is, there exists a bi 0 ), the system is called non-homogeneous.

A system of linear equations having no solution is called inconsistent, while a system having

one or more solutions is called consistent.

2.6.2 Theorem

(1) A homogeneous system always has one solution, the trivial solution, or infinite number of

solutions. Any solution not the trivial solution, if it exists, is called a nontrivial solution.

(2) A non-homogeneous system has no solution or one solution or infinite number of solutions.

Solving a system of linear equations by elementary row operations

2.6.3 The Gaussian Elimination (A procedure to solve a system of linear equations)

Let A and B be the above matrices. We may write the above system of linear equations in its

augmented matrix form [A B ] . Then the Gauss elimination is a reduction of the augmented

matrix [A B ] by elementary row operations to triangular form, from which we then readily

obtain the values of the unknowns by back substitution.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

a11

a

First form the augmented matrix [A B ] = 21

M

a m1

b1

b2

.

M

bn

Suppose a11 0 , that is, the first entry of the first row is nonzero. (If a11 = 0 and

ai1 0 , then interchange the 1 st row and the i th row.) Call this row the pivot row.

(The pivot row will remain unchanged)

Use elementary row operations to form a new matrix with ai1 = 0 for all i = 2, 3, K , m .

Repeat the process with the submatrix formed by excluding the first row and the first

column.

Continue the process until we form a upper triangular matrix.

Working backward from the last row of this system to obtain the solution.

a12

a 22

M

am2

a13 L a1n

a 23 L a1n

M

M

a m3 L a mn

x1

x2

+ 2 x3

= 2

3x1

x2

x3

= 6

x1

+ 3x2

+ 4 x3

= 4

Answer

1 1 2 2 R2 R2 + 3 R1

3 1 1 6

R3 R3 R1

1 3 4 4

x1 + x 2 + 2 x3

2 x 2 + 7 x3

5 x3

=

2

= 12

= 10

2

1 1 2 2

1 1 2

0 2 7 12

R3 R3 R2

0 2 7

12

0 2 2 2

0 0 5 10

x3 = 2, x 2 = 1, x1 = 1.

3x1

2 x1

6 x1

+ 2 x2

+ x2

+ 2 x2

+ x3

+ x3

+ 4 x3

= 3

= 0

= 6

Answer

3 2 1 3 R2 R2 23 R1

2 1 1 0

R3 R3 2 R1

6 2 4 6

3x1 + 2 x2 + x3

13 x2 + 13 x3

0 x3

= 3

= 2

= 12

3 2 1

0 1 1

3

3

0 2 2

3

R3 R3 6 R2

2

0

3 2

0 1

3

0 0

1

1

3

3

2

12

0 x3 = 12.

Therefore the system has no solution, i.e., it is inconsistent.

2.6.6 Example Solve the following system of linear equations

3x1

2 x1

6 x1

Answer

3 2 1 3 R2 R2 23 R1

2 1 1 0

R3 R3 2 R1

6 2 4 6

3x1 + 2 x2 + x3

13 x2 + 13 x3

0 x3

= 3

= 2

= 0

+ 2 x2

+ x2

+ 2 x2

3 2 1

0 1 1

3

3

0 2 2

+ x3

+ x3

+ 4 x3

= 3

= 0

= 6

3

R3 R3 6 R2

2

12

x2 = x3 + 6, x1 = x3 9

The set of solutions = {x1 = k 9, x2 = k + 6, x3 = k , k R}.

Therefore the system has infinite number of solutions.

3 2

0 1

3

0 0

1

1

3

3

2

0

matrix and X = ( xi ) and B = (bi ) are the column vectors of the unknowns and of the constants,

respectively.

Homogeneous system n n linear equations

2.6.7 Theorem

(1)

(2)

If A = 0 , then AX = 0 has infinite number of solutions.

Proof (of (1))

AX = 0

A 1 ( AX ) = A 0 ( A 0 A1 exists)

( A 1 A) X = 0

In X = 0

X =0

The system has only the trivial solution

Non-homogeneous system n n linear equations

2.6.8 Theorem

(1)

(2)

If A = 0 , then AX = B , B 0 has no solution or infinite number of solutions.

Proof (of (1))

AX = B

A 1 ( AX ) = A1 B ( A 0 A1 exists)

( A 1 A) X = A 1 B

I n X = A1 B

X = A 1 B

The system has a unique solution X = A1 B

2.8.9 Example Determine all the values of k , if such values exist, so that

x 5 y + 3z = 0

5 x y kz = 0

x 2 y + kz = 0

has a nontrivial solution.

Answer

1 5 3 x 0

The homogeneous system is equivalent to AX = 0 , that is, 5 1 k y = 0 .

1 2 k z 0

The homogeneous system has nontrivial solution if A = 0 .

1 5

A = 5 1 k = 0

1 2 k

A = 27 27k = 0

Therefore, the system has a nontrivial solution if k = 1 .

If k 1 , then the system has only the trivial solution x = y = z = 0 .

2.8.10 Example Solve the following system of linear equations

x + y + z = 6

x + 2 y + 3z = 14

x + 4 y + 9 z = 36

Answer

1 1 1 x 6

The non-homogeneous system Is equivalent to AX = B , that is , 1 2 3 y = 14 .

1 4 9 z 36

1 1 1

Since A = 1 2 3 = 2 0 , then the system has a unique solution X = A 1 B .

1 4 9

Since A 1

3 52

= 3 4

1 32

3 52

1 X = A 1 B = 3 4

1

1 32

2

1

2

1

1

2

1

2

6 1

14 = 2 .

36 3

2.8.11 Theorem Cramers Rule

Let AX = B be a system of n linear equations in n unknowns. If A is a n n nonsingular

matrix, then AX = B has a unique solution given by

xk =

a11

a12

L a1(k 1)

x1

a11

a12

L a1(k 1)

x1

a 21

a 22

L a 2(k 1)

x2

a1(k +1) L a 2 n

a 21

a 22

L a 2(k 1)

x2

a1(k +1) L a 2 n

a n 2 L a n (k 1)

a n1

xn

a1(k +1) L a nn

a n1

a n 2 L a n (k 1)

xn

a1(k +1) L a nn

a11

a12

L a1(k 1)

a1k

a 21

a 22

L a 2(k 1)

a 2k

a1(k +1) L a 2 n

a n1

a n 2 L a n (k 1)

M

x nk

= 6

= 14

x + 4 y + 9 z = 36

Answer

1 1 1 x 6

The non-homogeneous system Is equivalent to AX = B , that is, 1 2 3 y = 14 .

1 4 9 z 36

1 1 1

Since A = 1 2 3 = 2 0 , then the system has a unique solution.

1 4 9

By using Cramers rule, the solution is given by

14

36

x=

1

1

1 1

2

4

1

2

3

1 14

9

1 36

=1 y =

1

1 1

3

1 2

3

9

1

3

1 4 9

1 4 9

1

1

1

= 2 and y =

1

1

1

1

2

4

1

2

4

6

14

36

= 3.

1

3

9

a1(k +1) L a nn

x + y + z

x + 2 y + 3z

2.9 Linearly independent, linear combination of row vectors and rank of a matrix

2.9.1 Definition

A row (column) vector is defined as a 1 n ( n 1 ) matrix.

~

~

~

The zero row (column) vector 0 is defined as 0 = (0, 0,..., 0) ( 0 T = (0, 0,..., 0)T ).

(1)

The vectors v1 , v 2 , L, v n are said to be linearly independent if

~

1v1 + 2 v2 + L + n vn = 0 implies that 1 = 2 = L = n = 0 .

2)

The vectors v1 , v 2 , L, v n are said to be linearly dependent if there exist numbers

~

1 , 2 , L, n not all of them zero, such that 1v1 + 2 v2 + L + n vn = 0 .

2.9.2 Example

Suppose 1 (1, 0, 0) + 2 (1, 2, 0 ) + 3 (1, 0, 1) = (0, 0, 0)

Then (1 + 2 + 3 , 22 , 3 ) = (0, 0, 0)

1 + 2 + 3 = 0

22

=0

3 = 0

1 = 2 = 3 = 0

Therefore, (1, 0, 0 ), (1, 2, 0), (1, 0,1) are linearly independent.

(2) Let V = {(1, 0, 0), (1, 2, 2), (1, 4, 4)}.

Suppose 1 (1, 0, 0) + 2 (1, 2, 2) + 3 (1, 4, 4) = (0, 0, 0)

Then (1 + 2 + 3 , 22 43 , 22 43 ) = (0, 0, 0)

1 + 2 + 3 = 0

22 43 = 0

2 = 23 , x1 = 33

The set of solutions = {1 = 3t , 2 = 2t 3 = t , t R}.

Therefore the system has infinite number of solutions.

Choose t =1 . Then 1 = 3, 2 = 2, 3 = 1 .

Hence 3 (1, 0, 0) + 2 (1, 2, 2) + 1 (1, 4, 4) = (0, 0, 0) .

Then, there exists i not all zero such that 1 (1, 0, 0) + 2 (1, 2, 2) + 3 (1, 4, 4) = (0, 0, 0) .

Therefore, (1, 0, 0), (1, 2, 2), (1, 4, 4 ) are linearly dependent.

2.9.3 Definition

Let A be an m n matrix and let each row of A be considered as a row vector of A . Then, the

maximum number of independent row (column) vectors of A is called the rank of A and is

denoted by ( A) or rank A.

2.9.4 Example

0

1 0

Let A = 1 2

2 where v1 = (1, 0, 0), v 2 = (1, 2, 2) , v3 = (1, 4, 4 ). are the rows of A .

1 4 4

Then v1 , v 2 , v3 are linearly dependent by Example 2.92.

However, v1 , v 2 are linearly independent. (Prove it.)

(Are v 2 , v3 linearly independent?) (Are v1 , v3 linearly independent?)

Therefore the maximum number of linearly independent row vectors = 2.

Hence, the rank of A = ( A) = 2 .

Remark

Let V = { v1 , v2 , L, vn } where v1 , v 2 , L, v n are row vectors. If there exists a zero row vector in

~

V (that is vi = 0 for some i ), then v1 , v 2 , L, v n are linearly dependent.

~

~

If vi = 0 , then i does not to be zero so that 0v1 + 0v2 + L + i vi + 0vi + 1 + L + 0vn = 0 .

2.9.5 Theorem

Let A and B be m n matrices.

(1)

If A is a row echelon matrix, then the rank of A is the number of non-zero rows in A .

(2)

If A is row equivalent to B , then rank of A = rank of B , i.e., ( A) = (B) .

2.9.6 Example

0 1 0

Let A = 1 0 2 and V = { (0, 1, 0), (1, 0, 2), (2, 0, 1)} .

2 0 1

(1) Find the rank of A .

(2) Determine the maximum number of linearly independent row vectors in V .

Answer

0 1 0

1 0 2

1 0 2

R1 R2

R3 R3 2 R1

A = 1 0 2

0 1 0 0 1 0 = B (rem)

2 0 1

2 0 1

0 0 5

Therefore

(1) The rank of A = rank of B = 3. (since B is a row echelon matrix)

(2) The maximum number of linearly independent row vectors in V is also 3.

2.9.7 Theorem

Let A be an n n matrix . Then A is invertible (nonsingular) if and only if the rank of A = n .

i.e., A is invertible A is invertible (nonsingular) if and only if A has n independent row

(column) vectors.

2.9.8 Definition

Let V = { v1 , v2 , L, vn } where v1 , v 2 , L, v n are row (column) vectors. A vector v is a linear

combination of the vectors v1 , v 2 , L, v n if v = 1v1 + 2 v2 + L + n vn where 1 , 2 , L, n are

scalars.

2.9.9 Example

Let v1 = (2, 3, 1), v2 = (3, 4, 1) and v3 = (1, 0, 1) . Then v = (20, 29, 3) is a linear combination

of v1 , v2 , v3 since v = (20, 29, 3) = 3(2, 3, 1) + 5(3, 4, 1) + 1(1, 0, 1) = 3v1 + 5v2 + 1v3 .

2.10 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

2.10.1 Definition

Let A be an n n matrix. A number is called an eigenvalue of A if there exists a nonzero

~

n 1 column vector X 0 such that AX = X . The vector X is called an eigenvector of A

corresponding to (or associated with) the eigenvalue . (Note that the eigenvalue can be the

~

number 0 but the eigenvector X must be a nonzero vector, i.e., X 0 .)

2.10.2 Example

1 2

1

Let A =

, X1 =

4 3

1

1 2 1

Then AX 1 =

=

4 3 1

1

and X 2 = .

2

1

1

1 = 1 1 = X 1 .

~

Therefore 1 = 1 is an eigenvalue of A and X 1 0 is an eigenvector of A corresponding to

the eigenvalue 1 = 1 .

1 2 1 5

1

Then AX 2 =

= = 5 = 5X 2 .

4 3 2 10

2

~

Therefore 2 = 5 is an eigenvalue of A and X 2 0 is an eigenvector of A corresponding to the

eigenvalue 2 = 5 .

Problem

1 0

Let A =

.

0 0

0

1

Determine whether X 1 = , X 2 = are eigenvectors of A .

4

4

2.10.3 Theorem

Let A be n n matrix. A number is an eigenvalue of A if and only if A I n = 0 .

Proof:

is an eigenvalue of A

There exists a nonzero n 1 column vector X such that AX = X

~

The homogenous system has a nontrivial solution Q X 0

The matrix ( A I n ) is singular (not invertible)

( A I n ) X

~

=0

A I n = 0 .

2.10.4 Definition

Let A be a n n matrix. Then,

(1)

For a given A determine the characteristic polynomial p( ) = A I n .

(2)

(3)

~

For each i , solve for X i 0 in the equation AX i = i X i , or equivalently, solve

( A i I n )X i = ~0 and find an eigenvector X i ~0 corresponding to i .

2.10.6 Example

1 1 2

Let A = 1 2 1

0 1 1

(1)

Determine the characteristic polynomial of A .

(2)

Find all the eigenvalues of A and for each eigenvalue of A , find an eigenvector of A

corresponding to it.

Answer

The characteristic polynomial of A is p( ) = A I 3 , that is,

p( ) = 1

0

1

2

1

1

= 3 22 + 2 = ( 2) ( 1)( + 1)

1

Now p( ) = 0 = 2, 1, 1

So the eigenvalues of A are 1 = 2, 2 = 1, 3 = 1 .

~

Next, to find eigenvectors X i corresponding to i we solve the system ( A i I 3 )X i = 0 .

1

this is, solve 1

0

1

2

1

2

1

1

x1 0

x 2 = 0 --------(1).

x 0

3

Case 1. 1 = 2

Now solve equation (1) by substituting 1 = 2 in it.

1

2

0

1 2

1 1 2 0

1 2 2

R3 R3 + R2

R2 R2 R1

1

0 0 1 3 0

0

0

1

1 2 0

1 3 0

1 0 1 0

0 1 3 0

0 0 0 0

x1

+ x3 = 0

x 2 + 3 x3 = 0

x1 = x3 , x2 = 3 x3 .

= 0

0

Let x3 = k be any number. Then x2 = 3k , x1 = k

k

k

Case 2. 2 = 1

Now solve equation (1) by substituting 2 = 1 in it.

1

2

0

1 1

1 1 1 0

1 1 1 0

1 2 1

R1 R2

R3 R3 R2

1

0 0 1 2 0 0 1 2 0

0

0 1 2 0

0 0 0 0

1

1 1 0

x1 + x2 + x3 = 0

x 2 2 x3 = 0

x1 = x2 + x3 , x2 = 2 x3 .

0

= 0

Let x3 = k be any number. Then x2 = 2k , x1 = 3k

3k

k

Case 3. 3 = 1

Now solve equation (1) by substituting 3 = 1 in it.

1

2

0

1 + 1

1 3 1

1 2 + 1

R1 R2

1

0 2 1 2

0

1

1 + 1 0

0 1 0

1 3 1 0

1 3 1

R2 R3

R3 R3 7 R2

0 1 0 0

0 1 0

0 7 0 0

0 0 0

x1 + 3 x2

x2

0

1 3 1 0

R2 R2 + 2 R1

0

0 7 0 0

0

0 1 0 0

0

0

0

+ x3

= 0

= 0

x1 = x3 , x2 = 0 .

0

= 0

Let x3 = k be any number. Then x1 = k .

k

k

2.10.7 Example

cos sin

Let A =

.

sin cos

(1)

Determine the characteristic polynomial of A .

(2)

Find all the eigenvalues of A and for each eigenvalue of A , find an eigenvector of A

corresponding to it.

Answer

The characteristic polynomial of A is p( ) = A I 3 , that is,

p ( ) =

cos sin

= (cos ) 2 + sin 2 = 2 2 cos + 1

sin

cos

Now p( ) = 0 =

2 cos 4 cos 2 4

= cos i sin .

2

~

Next, to find eigenvectors X i corresponding to i we solve the system ( A i I 2 ) X i = 0 .

cos sin

that is, solve

cos

sin

x1 0

= ------------(1).

x2 0

Now solve equation (1) by substituting 1 = cos + i sin in it.

i sin

sin

sin

i sin

0

i sin

R2 R2 i R1

0

0

(i sin ) x1 + ( sin ) x2 = 0

0=0

sin

0

0

0

x2 = i x1

k

, k 0 .

The set of eigenvectors corresponding to 1 = cos + i sin is given by

ik

Now solve equation (1) by substituting 2 = cos i sin in it.

i sin

sin

sin

i sin

0

R2 R2 + i R1

i sin

0

sin

0

0

0

(i sin ) x1 + ( sin ) x2 = 0

x2 = i x1

0=0

Let x1 = k be any number. Then x2 = ik

k

ik

2.11 Diagonlization

Recall that an n n matrix D = (d i , j ) is called a diagonal matrix if d i , j = 0 for all i j , that is,

d11

0

D=

M

0 L 0

d 22 L 0

.

M O M

L 0 d nn

2.11.1 Theorem

d11 0 L 0

w11 0 L 0

0 w

0 d

L 0

L 0

22

22

Let D =

and W =

be two diagonal n n matrices.

M

M

M O M

M O M

L 0 wnn

0

0 L 0 d nn

Then

(1)

DW and WD are also diagonal matrices and

w11d11

0

DW =

M

0

L

0

w22 d 22 L

0

= WD .

M

O

M

L

0 wnn d nn

(2)

(3)

(4)

1

0 L 0

d

11

0

L 0

then D is invertible (or nonsingular) and D 1 =

.

d 22

M

M O M

1

L 0

0

d nn

2.11.2 Definition

Let A be an n n matrix. Then, A is diagonalizable if and only if there exists an n n matrix

P such that P 1 AP is a diagonal matrix. (That is, P 1 AP = D where D is a diagonal matrix)

When such a matrix P exists, we say that P diagonalizes A .

2.11.3 Example

3 2

Let A =

. There exists a matrix P =

3 2

1 3 1 3 2 2 1 1 3

P 1 AP =

=

7 1 2 3 2 1 3 7 1

Therefore, P diagonalizes A .

2 1

1 3 such that

1 8 3 4 0

=

= D , a diagonal matrix.

2 4 9 0 3

2.11.4 Theorem

Let A be an n n matrix. Then A is diagonalizable if and only if A has n linearly

independent eigenvectors.

2.11.5 Theorem

Let A be an n n matrix. If A has n distinct eigenvalues then A has n linearly independent

eigenvectors, i.e., if A has n distinct eigenvalues then A is diagonalizable.

Remark

Note that if A is diagonalizable, it may not necessarily have n distinct eigenvalues.

2.11.6 A procedure to find a matrix P that diagonalizes the matrix A

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

~

~

For each i , solve ( A i I 2 )X i = 0 to find an eigenvector X i 0 corresponding to i .

Form the matrix P = [ X 1 X 2

X n ].

Determine whether the eigenvectors X 1 , X 2 ,... , X n are linearly independent, i.e.,

determine whether P has rank n . (i.e., whether P is invertible, i.e., whether P 0 )

(6)

If P 0 , then P 1

1

0

AP =

M

L 0

2 L 0

.

M O M

L 0 n

0

2.11.7 Example

1 4

1

Let A =

. Find a matrix P and a diagonal matrix D such that D = P AP .

0

3

Answer

The characteristic polynomial is p( ) = A I 2 , that is,

1

4

= 2 2 3 = ( 3)( + 1) .

0

3

Now p ( ) = ( 3)( + 1) = 0 = 1, 3 .

So the eigenvalues of A are 1 = 1, 2 = 3 .

A I 2 =

~

Next, to find eigenvectors X i corresponding to i we solve the system ( A i I 2 )X i = 0 .

4

1

that is, solve

3

0

x1 0

= --------------(1).

x2 0

Case 1. 1 = 1

Now solve equation (1) by substituting 1 = 1 in it.

0

0

4 x2

Let

4

4

=

x1

0 R2 R2 + R1

0 4 0

0

0 0 0

0 x2 = 0 .

= k be any number.

0

1

Choose k = 1 . Then X 1 = is a eigenvector corresponding to 1 = 1.

0

Case 2. 2 = 3

Now solve equation (1) by substituting 2 = 3 in it.

4 4 0

0 0 0 .

4 x1 + 4 x2 = 0 x1 = x2 .

Let x2 = k be any nonzero number. Then x1 = k .

k

k

1

Choose k = 1 . Then X 2 = is a eigenvector corresponding to 2 = 3.

1

1 1

Let P = [ X 1 X 2 ] =

.

0 1

1 1

1 1

Then P =

= 1 0 . Then P 1 exists and P 1 =

.

0 1

0 1

1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 0

Now P 1 AP =

=

= D.

0 1 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 3 0 3

1 1

1 0

Therefore P =

diagonalizes the matrix A and D = P 1 AP =

.

0 1

0 3

2.11.8 Example

1 0 5

Let A = 0 1 0 . Find a matrix P and a diagonal matrix D such that D = P 1 AP .

0 0 2

Answer

The characteristic polynomial of A is p( ) = A I 3 , that is,

p( ) =

0

0

1

0

0

= ( 1 ) (1 ) ( 2 ) .

2

Now p( ) = 0 = 1, 1, 2.

So the eigenvalues of A are 1 = 1, 2 = 1, 3 = 2 .

0

1

1

0

0

0

2

x1 0

x2 = 0 -------------(1)

x 0

3

Case 1. 1 = 1

Now solve equation (1) by substituting 1 = 1 in it.

0

5

0

1 + 1

0 2 0 0

0 2 0 0

1

R3 R3 + R2

R1 R21

0

1+1

0

0 0 0 5 0 5 0 0 5 0

0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

0

2 + 1 0

2 x2

= 0

x2 = 0, x3 = 0

5 x3 = 0

Let x1 = k be any number.

k

0

1

Choose k = 1 . Then X 1 = 0 is an eigenvector corresponding to 1 = 1.

0

Case 2. 2 = 1

Now solve equation (1) by substituting 2 = 1 in it.

0

5

0

1 1

2 0 5 0

0

R2 R3

11

0

0 0 0 3 0

0

0 0 0 0

0

2 1 0

2 x1

+ 5 x3 = 0

x1 = 0, x3 = 0

3x3 = 0

Let x 2 = k be any number.

0

0

0

Choose k = 1 . Then X 1 = 1 is an eigenvector corresponding to 2 = 1.

0

Case 3. 3 = 2

0

5

0 1 0 5 0

1 + 2

0

1+ 2

0

0 = 0 3 0 0

0

0

2 + 2 0 0 0 0 0

x1

+ 5 x3 = 0

x1 = 5 x3 , x2 = 0

3x2

= 0

Let x3 = k be any number. Then x1 = 5k .

5k

k

5

Choose k = 1 . Then X 1 = 0 is an eigenvector corresponding to 3 = 2.

1

1 0 5

Let P = 0 1 0 . Since P = 1 0, then P 1 exists.

0 0 1

1 0 0

Therefore P diagonalizes the matrix A and D = P 1 AP = 0 1 0 .

0 0 2

Remark

If a matrix A has n distinct eigenvalues, then A has n linearly independent eigenvectors and

so A is diagonalizable. (see Theorem 2.11.5) However, there exist many matrices which are

diagonalizable even though they have some repeated eigenvalues. In these matrices, all we need

are n linearly independent eigenvectors of the matrix (see Theorem 2.11.4).

2.11.9 Example

5 4 4

Let A = 12 11 12 . Find a matrix P that diagonalizes A and find the diagonal matrix D

4 4 5

such that D = P 1 AP.

Answer

The characteristic polynomial of A is p( ) = A I 3 , that is,

p( ) = 12

4

11 12 = (1 + )(1 )(3 + ) .

4

5

Now p( ) = 0 = 1, 1, 3.

So the eigenvalues of A are 1 = 1, 2 = 3 .

5

that is, solve 12

4

4 x1 0

11 12 x2 = 0 -------------(1)

4

5 x3 0

Case 1. 1 = 1

Now solve equation (1) by substituting 1 = 1 in it.

4

4

0

5 1

4 4 4 0

12 11 1 12 0 R

2 R2 3 R1

0 0 0 0 .

4

0 0 0 0

4

5 1 0

Therefore x1 x2 + x3 = 0 x1 = x2 x3 .

Let x 2 = s, x3 = t be any numbers. Then x1 = s t.

s t

t

1

Choose s = 1 and t = 0 . Then X 1 = 1 is an eigenvector corresponding to 1 = 1.

0

1

Choose s = 0 and t = 1 . Then X 2 = 1 is an eigenvector corresponding to 1 = 1.

0

Case 2. 2 = 3

Now solve equation (1) by substituting 2 = 1 in it.

4

0

4

5 + 1

8 4 4 0

2 1 1 0

12 11 + 1 12 0 R

R

2 R2 3 R1 / 2

3

0 2 6 0

32 0 2 6 0 .

4

0 2 6 0

0 0 0 0

5 + 1 0

4

2 x1 x2 + x3 = 0

x1 = x3 , x2 = 3x3

x 2 + 3 x3 = 0

Let x3 = k be any number. Then x2 = 3k , x1 = k

k

k

1

Choose k = 1 . Then X 3 = 3 is an eigenvector corresponding to 3 = 3.

1

1 1 1

Let P = [ X 1 X 2 X 3 ] = 1 0 3 . Since P = 1 0, then P 1 exists.

0 1 1

1 0 0

Therefore P diagonalizes the matrix A and D = P 1 AP = 0 1 0

0 0 3

2.12.1 Definition

Let f (t ) = a 0 + a1t + L + a n t n be a polynomial of degree n .

If A is an n n matrix, then

f ( A) =

a A

i=0

2.12.2 Example

1 1

Let f (t ) = 1 t + 3t 2 .Determine f ( A) for A =

.

2 3

1 0

1 1

1 4 3 11

Then f ( A) = I 2 A + 3 A 2 = 1

1

+ 3

=

.

7 22 19

0 1

2 3

8

Every matrix is a zero of its characteristic polynomial, that is, if A is an n n matrix

2.12.4 Example

3 4

Verify Carley-Hamilton Theorem for A =

.

1 2

Answer

The characteristic polynomial of A is

4 2

3

p( ) = A I n =

= 5 + 2 .

2

1

13 20

3 4

1 0

p( A) = A2 5 A + 2 I 2 =

5

+ 2

=

5 8

1 2

0 1

Therefore p( A) = 0 n .

0 0

0 0 .

Finding Ar by using the CayleyHamilton Theorem

A procedure to find Ar for a matrix A

Let A is an 2 2 matrix. Then the characteristic polynomial of A , p( ) = A I n , is a

a A

i=0

= a0 I n + a1 A + a2 A 2 .

3 4

2

For example let A =

. Then p( A) = 5 + 2 . (Example 2.12.4)

1

2

Now

p( A) = 0 2 . (by Cayley-Hamilton Theorem)

A2 5 A + 2I 2 = 02 .

A2 = 5 A 2I 2 .

A3 = A2 ( A) = (5 A 2 I 2 )A = 5 A 2 2 A = 5(5 A 2 I 2 ) 2 A = 23 A 10 I 2 .

A4 = A3 ( A) = (23 A 10 I 2 )A = 23(5 A 2 I 2 ) 10 A = 115 A 56 I 2 .

So to find Ar we need to solve for a0 and a1 .

Note that r = a0 + a1 , r 2 .

Each eigenvalue of A also satisfies the equation (*) since p( ) = 2 5 + 2 = 0 .

Determination of a0 and a1 :

Case 1: 1 2

Then 1r = a0 + a11 -----------------------------(1)

and r2 = a0 + a12 -----------------------------(2)

We then solve the equations (1) and (2) for a0 and a1 .

Case 2: 1 = 2

Then r = a0 + a1 -----------------------------(3)

and rr 1 = a1 ----------------------------------(4) (This is the derivative equation)

We then solve the equations (3) and (4) for a0 and a1 .

The technique in Case 2 is given by the Theorem 2.12.5.

2.12.5 Theorem

If = 0 are two (or more) repeated roots of the polynomial equation f ( ) = 0, then 0 is also

a root f ( ) = 0 .

Proof

Since = 0 are two repeated roots of f ( ) = 0 then f ( ) = ( 0 ) 2 g ( ) .

Differentiate f with respect to , we have f ( ) = 2( 0 ) g ( ) + ( 0 ) g ( ) .

Now f (0 ) = 0 .

Hence 0 is a root of f (0 )

2.12.6 Example

1

0

Let A =

.

2 3

Determine A5 and A r , r 2.

Hence, evaluate A4 2 A3 + A I 2 .

Answer

The characteristic polynomial of A is

0

1

p( A) = A I 2 =

= 2 + 3 + 2 = ( + 1)( + 2 )

2 3

Now p( A) = 0 = 1, 2.

So the eigenvalues of A are 1 = 1, 2 = 2 .

Let A5 = a 0 I 2 + a1 A .

Then 5 = a0 + a1 for each = 1, 2 .

When = 1, ( 1) = a0 + a1 ( 1) .

5

When = 2, ( 2) = a0 + a1 ( 2) .

Solving (1) and (2), we have a1 = 31 and a 0 = 30 .

5

So A5 = 30 I 2 + 31A .

1

31

1 0

0

30

Therefore A5 = 30

+ 31

=

.

0 1

2 3

62 63

Now r = a0 + a1 for each = 1, 2

When = 1, ( 1) = a0 + a1 ( 1) .

r

When = 2, ( 2) = a0 + a1 ( 2) .

r

r

r

a1 = ( 1) ( 2 ) = (1) r (1 2 r ) .

a0 = ( 1) ( 2) + (1) r = (1) r (2 2 r ) .

r

So A r = ((1) r (2 2 r ) I 2 + ((1) r (1 2 r ) A .

Therefore A = ( 1) 2 2

r

))

))

1

1 0

0

r

r

r

(

)

+

1

1

2

0 1

2 3 = ( 1)

2 2r

1 2r

r +1

.

r +1

2 2 2 1

4

1 2 4 14 15

4 2 2

When r = 4, A 4 = ( 1) 4 + 1

=

.

2 2 4 + 1 1 30 31

2

3

7

1 23 6

3 2 2

3

When r = 3, A = ( 1) 3 + 1

=

.

3+1

2 2 2 1 14 15

Therefore

7 0

1 1 0 27 28

14 15

6

+

A 4 2 A3 + A I 2 =

2

.

=

57

14 15 2 3 0 1 56

30 31

Alternative method

Let A 4 2 A3 + A I 2 = b0 I 2 + b1 A .

Then 4 23 + 1 = b0 + b1 .

3

Solve (5) and (6), we have b0 = 27 and b1 = 28 .

3

1 27 28

0

1 0

Therefore A 4 2 A3 + A I 2 = 27

28

.

=

57

0 1

2 3 56

Example

2.12.7 Example

1

0

Let A =

.

1 2

Determine A5 and A r , r 2.

Hence, evaluate A4 2 A3 + A I 2 .

Answer

The characteristic polynomial of A is

0

1

2

p( A) = A I 2 =

= 2 + 2 + 1 = ( + 1) .

2 3

Now p ( A) = 0 = 1, 1.

So the eigenvalues of A are 1 = 1, 2 = 1 .

Let A5 = a 0 I 2 + a1 A .

Then 5 = a0 + a1 for = 1 .

Also 54 = a1 for = 1 . (This is the derivative equation)

When = 1, ( 1) = a0 + a1 ( 1) .

5

When = 1, 5( 1) = a1 .

Solving (1) and (2), we have a1 = 5 and a0 = 4 .

4

So A5 = 4 I 2 + 5 A

1 4

5

1 0

0

Therefore A5 = 4

+ 5

=

0 1

1 2 5 6

Let A 4 2 A3 + A I 2 = b0 I 2 + b1 A .

Then 4 23 + 1 = b0 + b1 .

Also 43 62 + 1 = b1 . (This is the derivative equation)

3

When = 1, 4(1) 3 6 ( 1) + 1 = b1 .

Solve (3) and (4), we have b0 = 8 and b1 = 9 .

2

1 8 9

1 0

0

Therefore A 4 2 A3 + A I 2 = 8

9

=

.

0 1

1 2 9 10

Finding A1 by using the CayleyHamilton Theorem

2.12.8 Example

1

0

Let A =

. Determine A1 by using the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.

1 2

Answer

The characteristic polynomial of A is p( ) = 2 + 2 + 1 .

Then by the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem p( A) = 0 2 .

p( A) = 0 2 .

A2 + 2 A + I 2 = 02

A1 ( A2 + 2 A + I 2 ) = A1 (0 2 ) .

A + 2 I 2 + A 1 = 0 2 .

A 1 = A 2 I 2 .

1 0 2 1

0 1

Therefore A 1 =

2

.

=

0

1 2

0 1 1

2.12.9 Example

1 1 2

Let A = 1 2 1 . Determine A1 by using the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.

0 1 1

Answer

The characteristic polynomial of A is p( ) = 3 22 + 2 .

Then by the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem p( A) = 0 2

p( A) = 0 3 .

A3 2 A 2 A + 2 I 3 = 0 3

A 1 ( A3 2 A2 A + 2 I 3 ) = A 1 (0 3 ) .

A 2 2 A I 3 + 2 A 1 = 0 3 .

1

A 1 = ( A 2 + 2 A + I 3 ) .

2

2

1 1 2

1 1 2

1 0 0

1

Therefore A 1 = { 1 2 1 + 2 1 2 1 + 0 1 0}

2

0 1 1

0 1 1

0 0 1

0 1 1

1 1 2

1 0 0

1

= { 3 4 2 + 2 1 2 1 + 0 1 0}

2

1 1 2

0 1 1

0 0 1

3 1 5

1

= { 1 1 1}

2

1 1 3

3.1 Basic Concepts

3.1.1 Definition

A vector v is a quantity with magnitude and direction. It can be represented by a directed

~

line segment (an arrow) from a point P to a point Q . The point P is called the initial point

of v and the point Q is called the terminal point of v . We write v = PQ .

~

~

Q

A scalar is a quantity with magnitude only.

Length, temperature, voltage and mass are examples of scalars.

Notation: Vector: a, b, A, B, PQ.

~ ~

Scalar: a, b, A, B, PQ.

3.1.2 Definition

(i) Equality of vectors

Two vectors are equal if and only if they have the same magnitude and the same direction.

Remarks: A vector is determined by its magnitude and direction. It is not determined by its

position i.e., not determined by its initial point and terminal point.

(ii) Negative of vectors

A vector having direction opposite to the vector PQ but with the same magnitude is called

the negative of PQ and it is denoted by PQ .

RS = PQ

RS PQ

3.1.3 Example

A

3

D

2 B

O C

P

F

3

1 E

3

AB = OP (same magnitude and direction),

CD = OP (same magnitude but opposite direction)

EF OP (same direction but different magnitude).

1

3.1.4 Definition

(i) The Zero Vector 0

~

The zero vector 0 is a vector has magnitude zero and no direction, i.e., 0 = 0 .

~

A unit vector u is a vector of magnitude one unit, i.e., u = 1 .

~

Let a coordinate system be given. Let O be the origin and A be any point. The position

vector of A , denoted OA or a , is the vector with initial point O and terminal point A .

~

For convenience, the points O and A are sometimes labeled 0 and a respectively.

~

Notation: a = OA

~

Two nonzero vectors v1 and v2 are said to be parallel if v1 and v2 (or v1 and v2 ) have

~

~

3.1.5 Example

In this example, a , b , c , K denote the position vectors of A, B, C , K respectively.

~

~

(i) v = v .

~

(ii) v // v .

~

~

~

3.1.7 Theorem

~

v

~

v

~

Let a and b be two vectors. Then the sum of a and b , denoted by a + b , is defined

~

b

~

~

a+b

If a and b are represented by two sides of a parallelogram, then

~

Fig 1

If a and b are represented by two sides of a triangle, then

~

a+ b

~

~

~

Fig 2

to the terminal of b .)

~

3.1.9 Theorem

Let a and b be two vectors and let be a scalar. Then

~

(i) a + b = b + a .

~

(Commutative Law)

(ii) ( a + b ) + c = a + ( b + a ) .

~

(Associative Law)

(iii) a + 0 = a .

~

(iv) ( a ) = ( ) a .

~

(v) ( + ) a = a + a

~

From OAC , OC = OA + AC = a + b .

~

From OBC , OC = OB + BC = b + a .

~

Therefore a + b = b + a .

~

From OAB, OB = OA + AB = a + b .

~

b+ c

From ABE , AE = AB + BE = b + c .

~

~

~

Hence (a + b) + c = a + (b + c).

~

a+ b

~

Fig 3

3

Remark

From Theorem 3.1.9(ii) we may simply write a + b + c (without any parenthesis),

~

~

~

an

~

and similarly for sums of more than three vector v = a1 + a2 + K + an .

~

a3

~

ab

~

a

~

a1

a2

Let a and b be two vectors. Then a b = a + ( b ) .

b

~

O

ab

~

~

3.1.11 Problem

Solve the following from the given diagram

1. Find c + f g + h d .

~

(ii) three different vectors.

Let A and B be two points and C be the midpoint of the line segment AB . Let a , b and c

~

1

denote the position vectors of the points A , B and C respectively. Then c = (a + b) .

~

2 ~ ~

A

Proof

c = OA + AC

1

AB

2

~

1

= a + (b a )

~

2 ~ ~

1

= (a + b).

2 ~ ~

=a+

c

~

1

B

AC : CB = 1 : 1

Let A and B be two points and C is the point of on the line segment AB which divides AB

~

1

(n a + m b) . (When

~

m+n ~

m = n = 1, C is the midpoint of AB . )

Proof Exercise.

3.2.3 Example

Show that the intersection between any two medians of a triangle divides a median into

segments which are in the ratio 2 : 1 .

Solution

Let ABC be a triangle.

Let D and E be the midpoints of BC and CA , respectively.

Then AD and BE are two medians lines of the triangle ABC .

Let X be the intersection of AD and BE . We need to show X divides AD into segments which

are in the ratio 2 : 1 .

Let a , b , c , d and e denote the position vectors of the points A , B , C , D and E respectively.

~

1

1

From the midpoint formula, d = (b + c) and e = (a + c) .

~

~

2 ~ ~

2 ~ ~

Suppose AX = m AD and BX = n BE .

1

1

Then AX = m d a = m (b c) a = 2m a + m b + m c ---(1)

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

2

2

From AXB, AX = AB + BX .

= (b a ) + n(e b)

~

= b a + n ( a + c ) b

~

~

~

~

~

2

1

= (n 2) a + 2(1 n) b + n c ---(2)

~

~

~

2

Comparing coefficients from (1) and (2), we have

(n 2) = 2m

2 2n = m

= n

2

Hence m = = n .

3

2

Therefore AX = AD.

3

Hence, the point X divides AD into segments which are in the ratio 2 : 1 .

m

3.2.4 Example

Show that the medians of a triangle ABC meet in a common point which is the point of

trisection of the medians.

B

Solution

Let ABC be a triangle.

F

Let D, E and F be the midpoints of BC , CA and AB , respectively.

Then AD, BE and CF are the median lines of the triangle ABC .

X

Let X , Y and Z be the intersection of AD and BE, BE and CF , ,

A

CF and AD respectively. We need to show X = Y = Z .

E

~

A , B , C , D , E , F , X , Y and Z respectively.

1

1

1

From the midpoint formula, d = (b + c), e = (a + c) and f = (a + b) .

~

2 ~ ~ ~ 2 ~ ~

2 ~ ~

~

From Example 3.2.3, X is the point at AD that divides AD into segments which are in the

ratio 2 : 1 . Similarly for Y and Z .

Then from the Ratio Formula with m = 2 and n = 1 , we have

1

1

x = (a + 2 d ) = (a + b + c).

~

~

3 ~

3 ~ ~ ~

1

1

y = (b + 2 e) = (b + c + a ),

~

~

3

3 ~ ~ ~

~

1

1

z = (c + 2 f ) = (c + a + b).

~

3 ~

3 ~ ~ ~

~

Therefore x = y = z and hence X , Y and Z are the same point. Thus AD, BE and CF meet

~

3.2.5 Example

Let ABCD be a quadrilateral.

(a) If E and F are the midpoints of AB and CD , respectively, show that

AD + BC = 2 EF .

(b) If X and Y are the midpoints of AC and BD , respectively, show that

AB + AD + CD = 4 XY .

Solution

Let a , b , c , d , e , f , x and y denote the position vectors of the points A , B , C , D , E , F , X

~

and Y respectively.

1

1

(a) From the midpoint formula, e = (a + b) and f = (c + d ) .

~

2 ~ ~

2 ~ ~

~

Therefore a + b = 2 e, c + d = 2 f .

~

~

= 2 f 2 e = 2( f e) = 2 EF .

~

1

1

(b) From the midpoint formula, x = (a + c) and y = (b + d ) .

~

2 ~ ~

2 ~ ~

~

Therefore a + c = 2 x, b + d = 2 y .

~

= 2[(b + d ) ( a + c)] = 2[2 y 2 x] = 4( y x) = 4 XY .

~

3.2.6 Exercise

Let ABCD be a quadrilateral. If E , F , G and H are the midpoints of AB, BC , CD and

DA , respectively, show that EFGH is a parallelogram.

Vectors in the plane (or in two dimensional space)

3.3.1 Definition

Let O be the origin and let Ox and Oy be two mutually perpendicular coordinate axes.

Then, the plane containing Ox and Oy is called the xy -plane (or the xy -coordinate

y

system) and Ox is called the x -axis and Oy the y -axis.

The vector i is the vector from the origin O to the point (1, 0) .

~

1

The vector j is the vector from the origin O to the point (0, 1) .

j

~

Note that i and j are unit vectors and also position vectors.

~

i

1

~

Any vector v in xy -plane can be represented by v = a i + b j where a, b are scalars. The

~

scalars a and b are called the components of the vector v with respect to that coordinate

~

system. The vector a i and the vector b j are called the vector components in the direction

~

of i and j , respectively.

~

Notation

(i) The vector v = a i + b j can be denoted by v = ( a, b), v = [a, b] or v = < a, b >

~

(iii) So (a, b) may represent (a) components of a vector or (b) coordinates of a point.

3.3.2 Theorem

Let v1 = a1 i + b1 j and v 2 = a 2 i + b2 j be two vectors. Then

~

(i) v1 = v 2 a1 = a 2 and b1 = b2 .

~

(ii) v1 + v 2 = ( a1 + a 2 ) i + ( b1 + b2 ) j .

~

(iii) v1 v 2 = ( a1 a 2 ) i + ( b1 b2 ) j .

~

~

Proof Exercise.

3.3.3 Theorem

Let P and Q be the points ( a1 , b1 ) and ( a2 , b2 ) respectively. Then, the vector PQ is given by

PQ = OQ OP = (a 2 a1 ) i + (b2 b1 ) j .

~

Proof

Let OP = a1 i + b1 j and OQ = a 2 i + b2 j be two the positional vectors of P and Q .

~

Then OP = OM + MP = a1 i + b1 j

~

P

Q

And OQ = ON + NQ = a 2 i + b2 j

~

Hence PQ = OQ OP

= (a 2 i + b2 j ) (a1 i + b1 j )

~

= (a 2 a1 ) i + (b2 b1 ) j

~

3.3.4 Definition

Let v = a i + b j be a vector.

~

~

(ii) the angle between v and a line parallel to the x -axis is defined as = tan

~

b

.

a

Remark

is positive if it is measured in the direction of anti-clockwise; is negative if it is

measured in the direction of clockwise.

P

v

<0

>0

3.3.5 Exercise

1. Let u , v and w be position vectors of the points U (2, 3), V (1, 5) and

~

(i) z = u 2 v + 3 w

~

~

~

~

3. Find the unit vector from the point P (1, 4) to the point Q(3, 5).

4. Find a vector of magnitude 3 in the direction of v = i + 3 j .

~

3.3.6 Definition

Let O be the origin and let Ox , Oy and Oz be three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes.

Then, the space containing Ox , Oy and Oz is called the xyz -space (or the xyz -coordinate

system) and Ox is called the x -axis, Oy the y -axis and Oz the z -axis.

The vector i is the vector from the origin O to the point (1, 0, 0) ,

z

~

The vector j is the vector from the origin O to the point (0, 1, 0) and

(0, 0,1)

The vector k is the vector from the origin O to the point (0, 0, 1) , and

Note that i , j and k are unit vectors and also position vectors.

~

~ ~

i

~

(1, 0, 0)

x

Any vector in xyz -space can be represented by v = a i + b j + c k

~

j (0, 0,1)

~

where a, b, c are

scalars. The scalars a, b and c called the components of the vector v with respect to that

coordinate system. The vectors a i , b j and c k are called the vector components in the

~

~

Notation

(i) The vector v = a i + b j + c k can be denoted by v = ( a, b, c), v = [a, b, c ] or v = < a, b, c >

~

(iii) So (a, b, c) may represent (a) components of a vector or (b) coordinates of a point.

3.3.7 Theorem

Let v1 = a1 i + b1 j + c1 k and v2 = a 2 i + b2 j + c 2 k be two vectors. Then

~

(i) v1 = v 2 a1 = b1 , a 2 = b2 and a3 = b3 .

~

~

~

~

Proof Exercise.

3.3.8 Theorem

Let P and Q be the points (a1 , b1 , c1 ) and ( a2 , b2 , c 2 ) respectively. Then, the vector PQ is

given by PQ = OQ OP = ( a 2 a1 ) i + (b2 b1 ) j + (c 2 c1 ) k

~

3.3.9 Definition

Let v = a i + b j + c k be a vector.

~

~

3.3.10 Definition

Let v = a i + b j + c k be a nonzero vector. Let , , be the angles between v and the lines

~

(i) , , are called the direction angles v , and

~

~

~

Note: It is standard always to state direction angles (or cosines) in the order , , .

z

3.3.11 Theorem

Let , , be the direction angles of the nonzero vector v = a i + b j + c k . Then

~

(i) cos =

, cos =

and cos =

(iii) the direction angles of v are , , .

~

Remark

(i) If cos 2 + cos 2 + cos 2 1 , then there does not exist a vector with the direction cosines

(cos , cos , cos ).

(ii) Two vectors u and v have the same direction cosines if and only if they have the same

~

direction.

(iii) Two vectors u and v have the same direction ratios if and only if they are parallel (i.e.

~

~

10

~

~

v

~

~

3.3.12 Example

Let A and B be the points (1, 2, 5) and (3, 4, 3) , respectively. Find

(i) the midpoint of AB ;

(ii) the point which divides AB in the ratio 2 : 3 .

Solution

Let a , b denote the position vectors of A, B respectively.

~

1

1

c = (a + b) = [(1 3) i + (2 + 4) j + (5 + 3) k ] = i + 3 j k .

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

2

2

~

~

Therefore the midpoint of AB is the point C (1, 3, 1) .

(ii) If D divides AB in the ratio 2 : 3 , then

1

1

d=

(3 a + 2 b) = [3( i + 2 j 5 k ) + 2(3 i + 4 j + 3 k )]

~

~

~

~

~

~

2+3

5 ~

~

~

1

= [3 i + 14 j 9 k ]

~

5

~

~

Therefore D is the point ( 3 5 , 14 5 , 9 5) .

3.3.13 Exercise

1. Find the position vectors of P (2, 3, 1), Q(0, 5, 1) and R(3, 0 0) .

2. Which of the following are unit vectors:

(i) u = 2 i 3 j + k

~

1

(ii) v = i 2 j + k

~

~

2 ~

~

(iii) w = (kos ) i (sin ) j .

~

~

~

4. Find the unit vector (if exists) with the direction angles of the following:

(i) ( 4 , 2 3, 3).

(ii) ( 2 , 3, 3).

11

Problems in space (in three dimension space)

1. Find the equation of a line passing through a given point and parallel to a given vector (all

in three dimension space).

2. Determine whether two lines intersect in three dimension space and find the point of

intersection if they intersect.

Let L be a straight line passing through the point A and is parallel to a given vector v .

~

v

P

a

~

Since AP // v , then AP = t v , t R . (As t changes, we have all the point on the line L .)

~

Now OP = OA + AP,

Hence r = a + t v , t R,

~

(1)

The vector v is called a direction vector of the line L .

~

In the case where two point A and B are given the line L , we then take v = AB .

~

r = a + t ( b - a ) , t R,

~

(1a)

~

Now, let r = x i + y j + z k , a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and v = v1 i + v 2 j + v3 k .

~

By comparing the components of i , j and k , we have

~

x = a1 + tv1

y = a2 + tv2

, tR

(2)

z = a3 + tv3

The system of equations (2) is called the parametric equations of the line L .

(The variable t is called the parameter of the system of equations)

12

By eliminating the parameter t in the equation (2), we have

x a1 y a2 z a3

=

=

v1

v2

v3

(3)

(This equation is also called the symmetric form of the line L .)

Note that if v1 = 0 , then from the equation (2), x a1 = 0 . This also apply to v 2 and v3 . Thus

in the equation (3), the numerator corresponding to a zero denominator is considered to be

zero too.

3.4.5 Example

Find the parametric equation for the line L passing through the point P(3, 1, 2) and

Q(2, 7, 4) . Where does the line intersect the xy -plane?

Solution

Note that PQ = (2 3) i + (7 1) j + (4 (2)) k = 5 i + 6 j 2 k is a vector parallel to the

~

line L .

The parametric equations for the line through the point P and parallel to PQ are

x = 3 + 5t

y = 1 6t , t R .

z = 2 + 2t

In the xy -plane, the z -coordinate is 0, that is, 0 = z = 2 + 2t.

Hence t = 1, and so x = 3 + 5(1) = 8 and y = 1 6(1) = 5.

Therefore the line intersects the xy -plane at the point (8, 5, 0) .

3.4.6 Procedure to determine whether two lines intersect in space

Let L1 : ( x, y , z ) = ( a1 , b1 , c1 ) + t (u1 , v1 , w1 ) and L2 : ( x, y , z ) = ( a 2 , b2 , c 2 ) + s (u 2 , v 2 , w2 ) be the

vector equations of two lines. If L1 intersects L2 , then

a1 + tu1 = a 2 + su 2

b1 + tv1 = b2 + sv2 , for some s, t R .

c1 + tw1 = c2 + sw2

Thus we obtain a system of three linear equations in two unknowns s and t . We then solve

for s and t using any two equations

If the solutions for s and t to any two equations must satisfy the third equation in the system

then the two lines intersect.

If the solutions for s and t to any two equations do not satisfy the third equation in the

system then the two lines do not intersect. Hence there is no point of intersection.

13

3.4.7 Example

Do the lines L1 : ( x, y , z ) = (1, 6, 2) + t (1, 2, 1)

and L2 : ( x, y , z ) = (0, 4, 1) + s ( 2, 1, 3) intersect? If so, find the point of intersection.

Solution

If L1 and L2 intersect, then

(1)

1 + t = 0 + 2s

(2)

6 + 2t = 4 + s

(3)

2 + t = 1 3s

Substitute into (1),

13 3t = 8 t = 7.

1 + 7 = 2s s = 4.

2 + t = 9 1 3s = 11

Since the equation (3) is not satisfied, the lines L1 and L2 do not intersect.

Hence, there is no point of intersection.

3.4.8 Example

The line L1 passes through the points (5, 1, 7) and (6, 0, 8) and the line L2 passes through

the points (3, 1, 3) and (1, 3, ) . Find the value of so that the lines L1 and L2 intersect

and then find the point of intersection.

Solution

The equation of L1 is ( x, y , z ) = (5, 1, 7) + t (6 5, 0 1, 8 7) and

the equation of L2 is ( x, y , z ) = (3, 1, 3) + s ( 1 3, 3 1, 3).

If L1 and L2 intersect, then

(1)

5 + t = 3 4s

(2)

1 t = 1 + 2s

7 + t = 3 + ( 3) s

(3)

From (1) + (2),

6 = 4 2 s s = 1.

Substitute into (1), 5 + t = 3 4(1) t = 2.

Substitute into (3), 7 + 2 = 3 ( 3) = 3.

3.4.9 Exercise

1. Let P (1, 3, 4), Q(2, 2, 1) and R (3, 7, 2) be three points. Show that P, Q and R are

collinear (that is P, Q and R lie in a straight line) and hence, find the ratio PQ : QR.

2. The line L1 passing through the points (2, 0, 1) and (1, 2, 3) and the line L2 passing

through the points (0, 0, 1) and (1, 0, 1) . Do the two lines L1 and L2 intersect? If so, find

the point of intersection.

14

We shall introduce the two types of the product of vectors, one gives a scalar as the product

and another one the product is a vector.

3.5.1 Definition (Dot Product or Scalar product or Inner product)

The dot product a . b (read " a" dot "b " ) of two nonzero vectors a and b is defined by

~

, 0

a .b = a b cos

~

~ ~

where is the angle between a and b and is measured when the vectors have their initial

~

point coinciding.

a

~

~

3.5.2 Theorem

Let a and b be two vectors and let be a scalar. Then

~

(i) a . b = b . a

~

(Commutative Law)

(ii) a . (b + c) = a . b + a . c

~

(Distributive Law)

(iii) ( a . b) = (a ) . b = a . ( b)

~

Note The dot product of two vectors does not satisfy the associative law because a . (b . c) is

~

meaningless.

(i) The nonzero vectors a and b are said to be perpendicular (write a b ) when = 90 .

~

~

~ ~

3.5.4 Theorem

Let a and b be two vectors and let be a scalar. Then

~

~

(ii) If a b , then a . b = 0.

~

(Q a b = 90 cos = 0)

~

~

= 1.

(iv) i . i = j . j = k . k = 1

~

~ ~

~ ~

(v) i . j = j . k = k . i = j . i = i . k = k . j = 0 (Q i j , j k , i k )

~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

15

3.5.5 Example

Now a b a . b = 0. (Perpendicular vectors are orthogonal.)

~

~ ~

(ii) a .b = a . c b c ?

~ ~

~ ~

Solution The answer is no to the above two questions but we have the following:

(i) a .b = 0 a = 0 or b = 0 or a b .

~ ~

(ii) a .b = a . c a .b a . c = 0

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

a . (b c) = 0

~

a = 0 or b = c or a (b c) = 0

~

Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k

~

~

Proof

a .b = ( a1 i ) + a2 j + a3 k ) . (b1 i + b2 j + b3 k )

~ ~

= ( a1 b1 ) i . i + ( a1 b2 ) i . j + (a1 b3 ) i . k

~ ~

~ ~

+ ( a 2 b1 ) j . i + ( a 2 b2 ) j . j + (a 2 b3 ) j . k

~ ~

+ ( a3 b1 ) k . i + ( a3 b2 ) k . j + ( a3 b3 ) k . k

~ ~

~ ~

= a1 b1 + a 2 b2 + a3 b3 . (Q i . i = j . j = k . k = 1 and i . j = j . k = k . i = j . i = i . k = k . j = 0.)

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

~

~ ~

Therefore a = ( a . i ) i + ( a . j ) j + ( a . k ) k .

~

~ ~ ~

~ ~

3.5.7 Exercise

Prove Theorem 3.5.6 by using the Cosine Law.

2

2

2

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

3.5.8 Example

Let a = (1, 2, 3) and b = (2, 0, 4).

~

~ ~

Solution

(i) a .b = (1, 2, 3) . ( 2, 0, 4) = 1( 2) + 2(0) + 3( 4) = 14.

~ ~

~

= = cos 1

a .b

~ ~

a b

~

= cos 1

14

1 +2 +3

2

2 +4

2

= cos 1

7

.

10

16

3.6.1 Definition (Projection of vector)

Let a and b be two nonzero vectors and let a be the unit vector in the direction of a .

~

~

and

a

~

~

~ ~

Let the angle between the vectors b and a be .

~

= b a cos

~

= b cos

Q a = 1

a

~

~

~

= the length of the orthogonal projection of b on a straight line parallel to a

~

= ON

Note ON = ( b . a ) a is parallel to a .

~

~

~

3.6.3 Theorem

If a is a given vector, then any vector b can be expressed as the sum of a vector parallel to

~

~

Proof

~

~ ~ ~

~

Then b = OM = ON + NM = b . a a + b b . a a .

~

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

a vector // a a vector a

b.a

b.a a b.a

~

~

~

~

~

Since b . a a =

=

a = ~ ~ a , then

2

~ ~ ~ a a

~

a.a ~

a

~ ~

~

~

b.a

b.a

b = ~ ~ a + b ~ ~ a

~

~

~

a

.

a

a

.

a

1

~ ~

~ ~

424

3 144244

3

// a

~

a

~

17

3.6.4 Example

Let a = 3 i j and b = 2 i + j 3 k

~

~

~

(iii) Express the b as the sum of a vector parallel to a and a vector perpendicular to a .

~

Solution

~

a

~

a

~

= ( 2,1, 3 ) .

( 3,1, 0

32 + (1) 2

2 (3) + 1(1) + 0

10

~

~ ~

5

10

=

.

2

10

b

~

b

~

= ( 3, 1, 0 ) .

( 2,1, 3 )

2 + 1 + ( 3)

2

b.a

5

1

(iii) ~ ~ = 2

= .

2

2

a . a 3 + (1)

~ ~

b.a

b.a

~ ~

So b =

a + b ~ ~

~

~ a.a

a.a ~

~ ~

~ ~

3 ( 2 ) 1(1) + 0

14

14

14

1

1

~

2

2

1 1

3

= i j + i + j 3 k .

~ 2 ~

~

2~ 2

124

243 1442~443

Remark

The concept of projection of a vector is important and it will be used to find the shortest

distance between a point and a line or between a point and a plane which will be discussed

later.

18

Note that a straight line in two dimension space is equivalent to a plane in three dimension

space. A straight line in two dimension space is not equivalent to a straight line in three

dimension space. The following two sets of problems are equivalent: (We use the dot product

to solve them)

Problems in a plane (in two dimension space)

1. Find the equation of a line passing through a given point and perpendicular to a given

vector (all in a plane).

2. Find the distance from a point to a line (all in a plane).

3. Find the distance between two parallel lines (all in a plane).

4. Find the angle between two intersecting lines (all in a plane).

Problems in space (in three dimension space)

1. Find the equation of a plane passing through a given point and normal to a given vector.

2. Find the distance from a point to a plane.

3. Find the distance between two parallel planes.

4. Find the angle between two intersecting planes.

3.7.1. Definition (The equation of line perpendicular to a given vector (all in the plane))

vector n = a i + b j. Let P ( x , y ) be any point on the line L .

~

P0

So n . P0 P = 0

n . OP OP0 = 0

~

n . p p = 0

~ ~

~0

n . p = n . p

~

o

(1)

~ 0

( a, b ) . ( x , y ) = ( a , b ) . ( x 0 , y 0 )

ax + by = ax 0 + by 0

(2)

ax + by = c where c = ax 0 + by 0 is a scalar.

The equation (1) is called the vector equation of the line L and the equation (2) is called the

Cartesian vector equation of the line L .

Note. The components of the vector n are the coefficients of the equation of the line L

~

19

3.7.2 Example

Find the Cartesian equation of the line L in the plane passing through the point A ( 2, 3) and

perpendicular to the vector n = i 3 j.

~

Solution

Let P ( x, y ) be any point on the line L . Then

AP . n = ( x 2, y 3 ) . (1, 3) = 0

~

( x 2) .1 + ( y 3) (3) = 0

x 2 3y + 9 = 0

x 3y + 7 = 0

Hence x 3 y + 7 = 0 is the equation of the line.

Let L be a line with the equation ax + by = c and let P be a point on the line L . From the

Cartesian equation of the line L , the vector n = ai + bj is perpendicular to L .

~

~

= PQ .

n

~

3.7.4. Theorem (Distance between two parallel lines (all in the plane))

The above method is also used to find the distance between two parallel lines L1 and L2

(They have the same perpendicular vector n .) In the case, we choose one point P from the

~

n

n

~

3.7.5 Example

Find the distance from the point Q ( 4, 4 ) to the line L : x + 3 y = 6.

Solution

First we find a point P ( x, y , z ) on the plane L .

By letting x = 0 in x + 3 y = 6 , we obtain y = 2 .

Therefore P ( 0, 2 ) is on the line L .

So PQ = (4 0) i + (4 2) j = 4i + 2 j and n = i + 3 j is normal to L .

~

= PQ .

n

~

n

~

(4, 2) . (1, 3)

1 +3

2

4 (1) + 2 (3)

10

10 unit .

20

3.7.6 Theorem (The angle between two intersecting lines (all in the plane))

Let L1 and L2 be two lines with the perpendicular vectors n1 and n 2 , respectively. If L1 and

~

L2 intersect, then the angle between L1 and L2 = the angle between n1 and n 2

~

3.7.7 Definition

Let S be a plane and n is a vector perpendicular to S . Then n is called a vector normal to

~

~

3.7.8 Definition (The equation of a plane perpendicular to a vector (in three dimension

space))

Let S be a plane passing through to the point P0 ( x0 , y 0 , z 0 ) and normal to the vector

n = a i + b j + c k . Let P ( x, y, z ) be any point in the plane S .

~

~

So n . P0 P = 0

P0

n . OP OP0 = 0

~

n . p p0 = 0

~ ~

~

n . p = n . p0

~

---------------(1)

( a, b, c ) . ( x, y, z ) = (a, b, c) . ( x0 , y 0 , z 0 )

ax + by + cz = ax 0 + by 0 + cz 0

ax + by + cz = d where d = ax 0 + by 0 + cz 0 is a scalar

---------------(2)

The equation (1) is called the vector equation of the plane S and the equation (2) is called

the Cartesian vector equation of the plane S .

Note The components of the vector n are the coefficients of the equation of the plane S .

~

3.7.9 Example

Find the Cartesian equation of the plane S passing through the point A (1,1, 1) and normal

to the vector n = 2 i + 2 j 5 k .

~

Solution

Let P ( x, y , z ) be any point on the plane S . Then

AP . n = ( x 1, y 1, z + 1) . (2, 2,5) = 0

~

( x 1) ( 2) + ( y 1) (2) + ( z + 1)(5) = 0

2 x + 2 + 2 y 2 5 z 5 = 0

2 x + 2 y 5 z 5 = 0

Hence x 3 y + 7 = 0 is the equation of the plane.

21

3.7.10 Theorem (Distance from a point to a plane (in three dimension space))

Let S be a plane with the equation ax + by + cz = d and let P be a point on the plane S .

From the Cartesian equation of the plane S , the vector n = ai + bj + ck is normal to S .

Then, the distance from the point Q to the plane S

~

= PQ .

n

~

3.7.11 Theorem (Distance between two parallel planes (in three dimension space))

The above method is also used to find the distance between two parallel planes S 1 and S 2

(They have the same normal vector n .) In the case, we choose one point P from the plane

~

n

~

n

~

3.7.12 Example

Find the distance from the point Q (2, 3, 4) to the plane S : x + 2 y + 2 z = 13 .

Solution:

First we find a point P ( x, y , z ) on the plane S .

By letting x = 0 in x + 2 y + 2 z = 13 , we obtain x = 13 .

Therefore P ( 13, 0, 0) is on the plane S .

So PQ = ( 2 13 ) i + (3 0) j + (4 0) k = 11 i 3 j + 4 k

~

and n = i + 2 j + 2 k is normal to S .

~

= PQ .

n

~

n

~

(11, 3, 4) . (1, 2, 2)

1 +2 +2

2

= 3 unit .

3

22

3.7.13 Theorem (The angle between two intersecting planes (in three dimension space)

Let S 1 and S 2 be two planes and n1 and n 2 be vectors normal to S 1 and S 2 respectively.

~

the angle between S 1 and S 2

= the angle between n1 and n 2

~

n1

~

n2

S2

S1

3.7.14 Example

Find the angle between the planes 3x 6 y 2 z = 15 and 2 x + y 2 z = 5.

Solution:

The vector n1 = (3, 6, 2) is normal to the plane 3x 6 y 2 z = 15

~

~

Note that the angle between S 1 and S 2 = the angle between n1 and n 2

~

~

~

Now n1 . n2 = n1 n2 cos

~

cos =

n1 . n2

~

n1 n2

~

= cos

4

7 (3)

(4 / 21) 79 o .

3.7.15 Exercise

1. Find the Cartesian equation of the line in the xy plane passing through the point A and

perpendicular to the vector n .

~

(i) P (2,1) ; n = i + 2 j .

~

(ii) P (1, 3) ; n = 2 i 3 j .

~

(i) Q (2, 8) ; L : x + 3 y = 6.

(ii) Q (1, 3) ; L : Y = 2 x.

(iii) Q (2,1) ; L : x + y = 1.

3. Find the distance between the planes 3x + y 6 z + 8 = 0 and 6 x + 2 y 12 z + 15 = 0 .

23

a x b // n

~

b

~

a

~

The cross product a x b ( read a cross b ) of two nonzero vectors a and b is defined by

~

a x b = a b sin n ,

~

where

(i) the angle between a and b and is measured when the vectors have their initial points

~

coinciding and

(ii) n is a unit vector indicating the direction of a x b and it is perpendicular to both vectors

~

a and b .

~

~

Remark

(i) a x b is a vector.

~

(ii) a x b a and a x b b

~

~

(iv) a x b = a b sin .

~

If a and b are represented by two sides of a parallelogram,

~

b

~

b sin

a

~

3.8.2 Theorem

Let a and b be two vectors and let be a scalar. Then

~

(i) a x b = b x a

~

(Anti-commutative Law)

~

(iii) ( a x b ) = ( a ) x b = a x (a b)

~

24

Remark

(i) The cross product of vectors does not satisfy the commutative law:

a xbbxa

~

(ii) The cross product of vectors does not satisfy the associative law:

(a x b) x c a x (b x c )

~

~

(

)

a x b = 0 . (Q a // b = 0 or sin = 0 )

3.8.3 Theorem

(i) If a = b , then a x b = 0 . Q a = b = 0 sin = 0

~

(ii) If a // b , then

~

(iii) i x i = j x j = k x k = 0

~

(iv) i x j = k = j x i ,

~

j xk =i = k x j,

~

k xi = j =i xk.

~

3.8.4 Example

Now a // b a x b = 0 . (The cross product of parallel vectors is equal to the zero vector)

~

Does a x b = 0 . a // b ? (If the cross product of two vectors is equal to the zero vector,

~

Solution The answer is no to the above question but we have the following:

a x b = 0 a = 0 or b = 0 or a // b .

~

Let a = a1 i + a 2 j + a 3 k and b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k .

~

Then a x b = a1

~

~

b1

a2

b2

a3

b3

Proof

a x b = (a1 i + a 2 j + a 3 k ) x (b1 i + b2 j + b3 k )

~

= ( a1 b1 ) i x i + (a1 b2 ) i x j + (a1 b3 ) i x k

~

+ (a 2 b1 ) j x i + (a 2 b2 ) i x j + (a 2 b3 ) j x k

~

+ ( a 3 b1 ) k x i + ( a 3 b2 ) k x j + ( a 3 b3 ) k x k

~

~

a

= 2

b2

a3

a

i 1

b3 ~ b1

a3

a

j+ 1

b3 ~ b1

i

~

a2

k = a1

b2 ~

b1

a2

b2

a3

b3

25

3.8.6. Example

Let P (1, 1, 0), Q (2,1, 1) and R (1,1, 2) be three points.

Find (i)

a vector normal the plane containing P, Q and R

(ii) the area of the triangle P Q R .

Solution

(i) The vector PQ = (1, 2, 1) and the vector PR = (2, 2, 2) are in the plane.

i

j k

~

~

2 2 2

(ii) The area of the P Q R =

= 12 PQ x PR =

1

2

1

2

6 2 + 6 2 = 3 2 unit 2 .

We have use the dot product to find the distance from point to a line in the plane. Now, we

shall use the cross product to find the distance from a point to a line in a space.

Problems in space (in three dimension space)

2. Find the distance between two parallel lines in three dimension space.

3. Find the distance between two skew lines in three dimension space.

4. Find the equation of a line form by two intersecting planes in three dimension space.

3.9.1 Theorem (Distance from a point to a line (in three dimension space))

Let L be a line in a space passing through the point P with the vector equation

r = p + t v , t R.

~

~

= PQ x

PQ sin

v

~

3.9.2 Theorem (Distance between two parallel lines (in three dimension space)

)

The above method is also used to find the distance between two parallel line L1 and L2 in

space (They have the same direction vector v ). In this case, we choose one point P from L1

~

26

3.9.3 Example

Find the distance from the point Q (1, 1, 5) to the line L with the parametric equations

x = 1 + t , y = 3 t , z = 2t .

Solution

From the parametric equations of line, P ( 1, 3, 0 ) is a point on L and v = (1, 1, 2 ) is a

vector // L .

Now PQ = (1 1) i + (1 3 ) j + ( 5 0 ) k = 2 j + 5 k ,

~

Also v =

12 + ( 1) 2 + 22 =

6 .

i

j k

~

~

~

1

1

Hence PQ x ~ =

0 2 5 =

(i + 5 j + 2k )

~

v

~

6

6 ~

~

1 1 2

v

= PQ x

v

~

v

~

1 +5 +2

2

30

= 5 unit .

6

3.9.4 Theorem (Distance between two skew lines (in three dimension space))

Let L1 and L2 be two skew lines in a space with the vector equations

L1 : a + t u and L2 : b + s v , s , t R , respectively.

~

Let P and Q be the points on L1 and L2 , respectively , such that the length of PQ is the

shortest distance between the two lines.

P

S1

L1

n

~

S2

L2

B

N

~

~

27

Let S 1 and S 2 be the planes that containing L1 and L2 , respectively, such that PQ is normal

to both planes. Then, S 1 and S 2 are parallel planes. Hence the distance between P and

Q = the distance between the two parallel planes S 1 and S 2 .

Therefore the shortest distance between L1 and L2

= AB .

n

~

n

~

~

3.9.5 Example

Find the shortest distance between the two lines

(1)

L1 : r = ( 0, 9, 2 ) + t ( 3, 1,1 ), t R ,

(2)

L2 : r = ( 6,5, 10) + s ( 3, 2, 4), s R.

Solution

From (1), A (0, 9, 2) is a point on L1 and u = (3, 1,1) is a vector // L1 .

From (2), B (6, 5, 10) is a point on L2 and v = (1, 1, 2) is a vector // L2 .

Hence AB = ( 6, 14, 8) .

Let n be a vector perpendicular to both L1 and L2

~

Then

i

n= u xv= 3

~

k

~

1 1 = (6, 15, 3) .

3 2 4

n

~

n

~

( 6, 14, 8) . ( 6, 15, 3)

( 6) + ( 15) + 3

2

270

270

30 unit .

28

3.9.6 Theorem (Equation of a line formed by two intersecting planes (in three dimension

space))

Let S 1 and S 2 be two planes with normal vectors n1 and n 2 respectively. If S 1 and S 2

~

both n1 and n 2 .

S1

~

Therefore, L // ( n1 x n 2 ) .

~

S2

~

3.9.7 Example

Find the parametric equations of the intersecting line L of the planes

S1 : 3x 6 y 2 z =15 and

(1)

S 2 : 2 x + y 2 z = 5.

(2)

Solution

From (1), n1 = (3, 6, 2) is a vector normal to the plane S 1 .

~

~~

j

~

k

~

~

~

2 1 2

Next we find a point P ( x, y , z ) on the line L .

By letting x = 0 in (1) and (2), we obtain the following:

6 y 2 z = 15 and

(3)

y 2 z = 5.

(4)

Solving (3) and (4), we have y = 2 and z = 3 / 2 .

Therefore P(0, 2, 3 / 2) is a point on L .

Hence the parametric equations of L is x = 14t , y = 2 + 2t , z = 3 / 2 + 15t.

3.9.8 Exercise

1. Find the vector equation and parametric equation of the line in a space

(i) passing through the points P (1, 2, 1) and Q (1, 0, 1) .

(ii) passing through the point P (3, 2, 1) and parallel to the line

x = 1 + 2 t, y = 2 t, z = 3 t .

(iii) passing through the point P (2, 3, 0) and perpendicular to the vectors

u = i + 2 j + 3 k and v = 3 i + 4 j + 5 k .

~

2. Find the distance from the point Q (2, 1, 3) to the line L : x = 2 + 2 t , y = 1 + 2 t , z = 3 .

29

A product of three vectors is called a triple product.

Let a, b and c be three vectors. There are three types of triple product:

~

(i) a (b . c) or ( a . b ) c .

~

~

~

~

In general, a (b . c) (a . b) c .

~

~ ~

3.10.2 Exercise

Verify that a (b . c) ( a . b) c for a = i + 2 j + 3 k , b = 2 j + k and c = 2 i + j + 4 k .

~

~

The triple scalar product a . (b x c) is a scalar. It is also known as the box product.

Notation a , b , c = a . (b x c)

~

b xc

~

a . (b x c)

~

= a

~

b xc

~

c

~

cos

~

b

~

Remark

~

~

By using this interpretation, we may know that whether three vectors a , b and c are

coplanar.

3.10.4 Theorem

Three vectors a , b and c are coplanar a . (b x c) = 0 .

~

In particular, if any two of the vectors a , b and c are the same, then the triple scalar product

is zero. For instance, a . ( a x b) = 0 and b . ( a x b) = 0 .

~

30

If a = a1 i + a 2 j + a 3 k , b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k and c = c1 i + c 2 j + c 3 k are three

~

vectors, then

a1

a . (b x c) = b1

a2

b2

a3

b3

c1

c2

c3

Proof

Now

i

k

~

b x c = b1

~

~

c1

b3 = ( b2 c3 b3 c2 ) i (b1 c3 b3 c1 ) j + (b1c2 b2 c1 ) k

~

~

~

c3

b2

c2

Hence,

a . (b x c) = (b x c) . a = (b2 c 3 b3 c 2 ) a1 (b1 c 3 b3 c1 ) a 2 + (b1 c 2 b2 c1 ) a 3

~

(1)

(2)

Note that the right-hand side of the equation (2) can be obtained from (1) by replacing the

i , j and k by a1 , a 2 and a 3 , respectively. Therefore

~

a1

a . (b x c) = b1

a2

b2

a3

b3

c1

c2

c3

a . (b x c) = b . (c x a ) = c . ( a x b)

~

Proof

We can obtain this by using Theorem 3.10.4 and some properties of determinant.

a1

a . (b x c) = b1

a2

b2

a3

a1

b3 = c1

a2

c2

a3

c 3 (Exchange row 2 with row 3)

c1

c2

c3

b1

b2

b3

b1

= c1

a1

b2

b3 b1

c 3 = c1

a 3 a1

c2

a2

b2

b3

c2

c 3 = b . (c x a )

a2

a3

3.10.7 Exercise

Show that b . (c x a ) = c . ( a x b)

~

31

a . (b x c) = (a x b) . c

~

Proof

From Theorem 3.10.6 and Theorem 3.5.2, we have

a . (b x c) = c . ( a x b ) = ( a x b) . c .

~

3.10.9 Example

Find the volume of the parallelepiped having a = i + 2 j k , b = 2 i + 3 k and c = 7 j 4 k as

~

its sides.

Solution

1

1

3 = 23 = 23 unit 3 .

~

~

~

0 7 4

3.10.10 Example

Show that the points P (0, 0, 3) , Q (2, 1, 2) , R (3, 2, 1) and S (1, 3, 2) are coplanar.

Solution

Since PQ = 2 i j k , PR = 3 i + 2 j 2 k and PS = i + 3 j k .

~

2 1 1

Then PQ . ( PQ x PS ) = 3

1

2 = 0.

If this area A is projected to a plane S with unit normal vector n ,

Then the area of the orthogonal projection of the area A onto the plane S

= n . ( u x v )

Proof

v

A

Q

S

R

P1

u1

v1

Let u = PQ and v = PR .

R1

32

Let P , Q and R be the orthogonal projection of the points P , Q and R onto the

Let A = the area of the orthogonal projection of the area A onto the plane S .

Hence, u x v = ( u + s n ) x (v + t n )

= (u + v ) + (u x t n ) + ( s n x v ) + ( s n x t n )

= ( u x v ) + ( u x t n ) + ( s n x v ) (since ( s n x t n) = 0).

But n . ( u x v ) = n . ( u x v ) + n . (u x t n ) + n . ( s n x v )

= n . ( u x v ) ( since n . ( u x t n ) = 0 , n . ( s n x v ) = 0)

So, n . ( u x v ) = n . ( u x v

= the area A .

3.10.12 Example

Let P ( 0, 0, 3) , Q (2, 1, 2), R(3, 2,1 ) and S (1, 3, 2) be vertices of a parallelogram. Find the

area of the orthogonal projection of the area of the parallelogram onto the plane xy plane.

Solution

~

~

1 3 1

~

~

~

~

Therefore a x ( b x c ) ( b x c).

~

33

3.10.12 Theorem

Let a, b and c be three vectors. Then

~

(i) a x ( b x c ) = ( a . c ) b ( a . b ) c

~

(ii) ( a x b ) x c = ( a . c ) b ( b . c ) a .

~

Proof

Let a = a1 i + a 2 j + a 3 k , b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k and c = c1 i + c 2 j + c 3 k . Then

~

k

~

b x c = b1

~

~

c1

~

~

~

c3

b2

c2

~

i

Therefore a x (b x c) =

~

a1

b2 c3 b3c2

a2

b3c1 b1c3

a3

b1c2 b2 c1

= i (a 2 b1 c 2 a 2 b2 c1 a 3 b3 c1 + a 3 b1c 3 )

~

j ( a1 b1 c 2 a1b2 c1 a 3 b2 c 3 + a 3 b3 c 2 )

~

+ k (a1b3 c1 a1b1 c 3 a 2 b2 c 3 + a 2 b3 c 2 )

~

= i (a 2 b1 c 2 a 2 b2 c1 a 3 b3 c1 + a 3 b1c 3 )

~

+ j (a1b2 c1 + a 3 b2 c 3 a1b1c 2 + a 3 b3 c 2 )

~

+ k (a1b3 c1 a1b1 c 3 a 2 b2 c 3 + a 2 b3 c 2 )

~

= i [ b1 (a 2 c 2 + a 3 c 3 ) c1 (a 2 b2 + a 3 c 3 )]

~

+ j [ b2 ( a1 c1 + a 3 c 3 ) c 2 ( a1 b1 + a 3 c 3 )]

~

+ k [ b3 (a1 c1 + a 2 c 2 ) c 3 (a1b1 + a 2 c 2 )]

~

= i [ b1 (a 2 c 2 + a 3 c 3 ) + a1b1 c1 a1b1c1 c1 (a 2 b2 + a 3 c 3 )]

~

+ j [ b2 (a1 c1 + a 3 c 3 ) + a 2 b2 c 2 a 2 b2 c 2 c 2 (a1b1 + a 3 c 3 )]

~

+ k [ b3 (a1 c1 + a 2 c 2 ) + a 3 b3 c 3 a 3 b3 c 3 c3 (a1b1 + a 2 c 2 )]

~

= i [ b1 (a1c1 + a 2 c 2 + a 3 c3 ) c1 (a1b1 + a 2 b2 + a 3 c 3 )]

~

+ j [ b 2 ( a1 c1 + a 2 c 2 + a 3 c 3 ) c 2 ( a1 b1 + a 2 c 2 + a 3 c 3 )]

~

+ k b3 (a1 c1 + a 2 c 2 + a 3 c 3 ) c 3 (a1b1 + a 2 c 2 + a 3 b3 )

~

34

= i [b1 (a . c) c1 (a.b)]

~

+ j [ b2 ( a . c ) c 2 ( a . b) ]

~

+ k [ b3 ( a . c ) c 3 ( a . b ) ]

~

= (a . c) ( b1 i + b2 j + b3 k ) (a . b) ( c1 i + c 2 j + c 3 k )

~

= ( a .c ) b ( a .b ) c .

~ ~

Therefore a x (b x c) = ( a . c ) b ( a . b ) c .

~

Now ( a x b ) x c = c x (a x b) = (c . b ) a ( c . a ) b .

~

Therefore ( a x b ) x c = ( a . c ) b ( b . c ) a .

~

35

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