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Chapter 1 Complex Numbers

1.1 Introduction
To have solutions for all equations ax = b where a, b are integers, a 0, the integers
were extended to the rational numbers. To have a solution for x 2 = 2, we went outside the
rational numbers to the irrational numbers. There is no real number x such that x 2 = 1 since
the square of any nonzero real number must be positive. To have a solution for
x 2 = 1, mathematicians introduced the complex number i with the property i 2 = 1. We also
use 1 to denote i . Thus the equation x 2 + 1 = 0 would have two roots i. Also, the square
root of a negative number, b 2 , is written in the form bi, where b is a real number.

Furthermore, solutions of the equation ( x a ) = b 2 (a, b both real numbers) are given by
x a = bi, that is x = a bi .
2

Complex numbers made their appearance in the mathematical scene in The Great Art, or
in the rules of Algebra (1545) by the Italian mathematician and physician Gerolamo Cardano
(1501 1576). Cardano studied the quadratic problem of dividing 10 into two parts such that
their product is 40 and found the solutions 5 + 15 and 5 15 by standard technique. About
27 years later the engineer Raphael Bombelli (1926 1572) published an algebra text in which
he dealt systematically with complex numbers.
Definition 1.1.1 A complex number z is any expression of the form
z = a + bi

where a and b are real numbers and i = 1. The scalar a is called the real part of z and the
scalar b is called the imaginary part of z .
Notation If z = a + bi, a, b , then we use Re ( z ) to denote the number a and I m( z ) to denote
the number b i.e., Re ( z ) = a and I m( z ) = b .

= {a + bi : a, b

} denotes the set of all complex numbers.

Remark If b = 0, we write a + 0i as a and a + 0i is identified as the real number a .


If a = 0, we write 0 + bi as bi and bi is called a pure imaginary number.

Every complex number is the sum of a real number and a pure imaginary number.
Note. 0 stands for 0 + 0i .
Example 1.1.2 If z = 3 + 4i, then Re ( z ) = 3, I m( z ) = 4 (3 is the real part of z and 4 is the
imaginary part of z ).

1.2 Operations on complex numbers


Definition 1.2.1
Let z1 = a + bi, z 2 = c + di (a, b, c, d

).

(i) Equality : z1 = z 2 a = c and b = d .


(ii) Addition : z1 + z 2 = (a + bi ) + (c + di ) = (a + c ) + (b + d )i .
(iii) Subtraction : z1 z 2 = (a + bi ) (c + di ) = (a c ) + (b d ) i .
(iv) Multiplication: z1 z 2 = (a + bi )(c + di ) = (ac bd ) + (ad + bc )i.
(v) Division : For z 2 0,
z1 a + bi a + bi c di ac + bd bc ad
=
=

=
+
i.
z 2 c + di c + di c di c 2 + d 2 c 2 + d 2
(vi) Conjugation: For z = a + bi , define z = a bi .
z is called the conjugate of z. It is also sometimes denoted by z * .
Note that z z = (a + bi )(a bi ) = a 2 + b 2 .

Theorem 1.2.2
(i) z1 + ( z 2 + z3 ) = (z1 + z 2 ) + z3 z1 , z 2 , z3 .
(ii) z1 + z 2 = z 2 + z1 z1 , z 2 .
(iii) ( z1 z 2 ) z 3 = z1 ( z 2 z 3 ) z1 , z 2 , z 3 .

(Associative law)
(Commutative law)
(Associative law)

(iv) z1 z 2 = z 2 z1 z1 , z 2 .
(v) ( z1 + z 2 ) z 3 = z1 z 3 + z 2 z 3 z1 , z 2 , z 3

(Commutative law)
(Distributive law)

(Distributive law)

(vi) z 3 ( z1 + z 2 ) = z 3 z1 + z 3 z1 z1 , z 2 , z 3

(vii) z = z z is a real number.

Example 1.2.3

(i) Factorize (a) x 2 + 1 (b) ( x + p ) + q 2


2

(ii) Solve the equation x 2 2 x + 8 = 0.


(iii) Let z1 = 2 + 4i, z 2 = 1 + 3i. Compute z1 + z 2 , z1 z 2 , z1 z 2 , z 2 z 2 ,

z1
.
z2

Solution.

(i)(a) x 2 + 1 = x 2 i 2 = ( x + i )( x i )
(b) ( x + p ) + q 2 = (x + p ) i 2 q 2 = ( x + p + qi )( x + p qi )
2

(ii) x =

( 2 )

( 2)2 (4)(8)
2

2 28 2 28i
=
=1 7i.
2
2

(iii) z1 + z 2 = (2 1) + (4 + 3)i = 1 + 7i
z1 z 2 = (2 +1) + (4 3)i = 3 + i
z1 z 2 = (2 + 4i )(1+ 3i ) = 2 + 6i 4i +12i 2 = 2 + 2i 12 = 14 + 2i
z 2 = 1 3i, z 2 z 2 = ( 1) + ( 3) =10
2

z1 z1 z 2 (2 + 4i )( 1 3i ) 2 6i 4i 12i 2 2 10i +12 10 10i


=
=
=1 i
z2 = z z =
10
10
10
10
2 2

Theorem 1.2.4 For any complex numbers z and w ,

(i)

z+w = z+w

(ii)

zw = z w

(iii)

z z
=
w w whenever w 0.

Proof.
Let z = a + bi and w = c + di. Then z = a bi and w = c di.

(i) Now z + w = (a + c) + (b + d )i .
Then z + w = (a + c) (b + d )i = (a bi ) + (c di ) = z + w .
(ii)
Now zw = (ac bd ) + (ad + bc)i .
Then zw = (ac bd ) (ad + bc)i .
Hence z w = (a bi )(c di )i = (ac bd ) + (ad + bc)i = zw .
(iii) Exercise.

Theorem 1.2.5 Let z1 , z 2 , K, z n , n 2 , be complex numbers. Then

(i)

z1 + z 2 + ... + z n = z 1 + z 2 +L + z n .

z1 z 2 z n = z 1 z 2 z n .
(ii)
Proof.
We prove by mathematical induction.
We shall only prove (i).
Case 1: n = 2

(1)
(2)

By Theorem 1.2.4, z1 + z 2 = z 1 + z 2 .
Case 2: n 2 .
Assume that (1) is true for some n = k 2, i.e.
z1 + z 2 + ... + z k = z 1 + z 2 +L + z k

(3)

Then z1 + z 2 + ... + z k + z k +1 = ( z1 + z 2 + ...z k ) + z k +1


= z1 + z 2 + ... + z k + z k +1

(by Theorem 1.2.4)

= z 1 + z 2 + L + z k + z k +1
(by (3))
We have shown that if (1) is true for some n = k then (1) is true for n = k + 1.
It follows by induction that (1) is true for all positive integers n 2 .

Example 1.2.6 Verify Theorem 1.2.4 for z = 2 7i, w = 3 + i .


Solution.

Note that z = 2 + 7i, w = 3 i .


(i) Now z + w = (2 7i ) + (3 + i ) = 5 6i .
Then z + w = 5 + 6i .
(ii)

Hence z + w = (2 + 7i ) + (3 i ) = 5 + 6i = z + w .
Now zw = (2 7i )(3 + i ) = 13 19i .

Then zw = 13 + 19i .
Hence z w = (2 + 7i )(3 i ) = 13 + 19i = zw .
z 2 7i 1
(iii) Now =
= (1 23i ) .
w 3 + i 10
z 1
Then = (1 + 23i ) .
w 10
Hence

z 2 + 7i 1
z
=
= (1 + 23i ) = .
w 3 i 10
w

1.3 The Argand Plane


Definition 1.3.1 (The Argand Plane or Complex Plane)
Let z = x + yi ( x, y ) and P be the point ( x, y ) in the xy plane. Then z can be represented
by

1.The point P, or
2 .The vector OP.
Imaginary axis = y - axis

P ( x, y ) representing z = x + iy

Real axis = x - axis

This xy plane which represents the complex numbers is called the Argand plane or the
Complex plane. As the points ( x, 0 ) correspond to real numbers x + 0i , the x axis is called
the real axis. Similarly, the y -axis is called the imaginary axis because the points (0, y ) on it
have the form 0 + iy for y real.
Example 1.3.2

(i) Represent the following complex numbers in the Argand plane:


z1 = 5 + 2i, z 2 = 3i, z3 = 5 3i, z 4 = 4, z5 = 2 2i .
z
(ii) Let z = 4 + 2i . Represent z , z , 2 z , z and
in the Argand plane.
2
Solution.

(i)

(0, 3) = z 2

(ii)

(5, 2) = z1

(8, 4) = 2 z
(4, 2) = z

( 4, 0) = z 4

(2,1) =

(2, 2) = z5
( 5, 3) = z3

( 4, 2) = z

1
z
2

(4, 2) = z

Representation of Addition and Subtraction in the Argand plane

Let z1 = a + bi, z 2 = c + di (a, b, c, d ) .


Then z1 + z 2 = (a + c ) + (b + d )i and z1 z 2 = (a c ) + (b d )i .
Let z1 be represented by the point P (a, b ).
Let z 2 be represented by the point Q (c, d ).
Draw the parallelograms OPRQ and OPST as follows:
y

Q (c, d )
P (a, b )
x

T ( c, d )

Then R is the point (a + c, b + d ) and hence R represents z1 + z 2 . Note that


OR = OP + PR = OP + OQ.
In the Argand diagram, addition of complex numbers corresponds to addition of vectors.
Then S is the point (a c, b d ) and hence S represents z1 z 2 . Note that
OS = OP + PS = OP + OT = OP OQ.
In the Argand diagram, subtraction of complex numbers corresponds to subtraction of vectors.
Theorem 1.3.3
(i) In the Argand plane, the addition of complex numbers corresponds to the addition of vectors
(ii) In the Argand plane, the subtraction of complex numbers corresponds to the subtraction of
vectors.
Remark
Historically, the geometric representation of complex numbers in the xy plane was due to
Gauss (1777 1855) and two lesser known mathematicians Jean Robert Argand (1786 1822)
and Caspar Wessel (1745 1818).

1.4 Cartesian forms and Polar forms of complex numbers


Definition 1.4.1 (Cartesian form)
The form z = x + yi, x, y , of a complex number z , is called the Cartesian form of z .

P ( x, y )
r

Figure 1.4.1
Figure 1.4.1 is a representation of the complex number z = x + yi in the Argand plane.
Let be the angle from the positive x axis to the vector OP.
Let r be the distance of the point P ( x, y ) from the origin.
Then
y
(i)
r = x 2 + y 2 , tan =
x
(ii)
x = r cos , y = r sin
(iii)
z = r (cos + i sin )
Definition 1.4.2 (Polar form)
The form z = r (cos + i sin ) of the complex number z , is called the polar form of z .
Definition 1.4.3 (Modulus, argument and principal argument)
Let z = x + yi, z 0.

(i) The modulus or absolute value of z , denoted by z , is defined to be the length of vector
OP = r . Therefore z = r = x 2 + y 2 .
(ii) An argument of z , denoted by arg ( z ) , is defined to be any angle where = tan 1

y
, that
x

y
.
x
Note: The value of arg ( z ) is not unique. If is a value of arg ( z ) , then + 2n , n = 0, 1,...,
are also values of arg ( z ) since tan ( + 2n ) = tan for n = 0, 1,K,

is, tan =

(iii) The principal argument of z , denoted by Arg ( z ) , is defined be the unique angle where
is restricted to the value 0 2 .(We use the capital letter A here.)
Note: Arg ( z ) depends on the quadrant where the point ( x, y ) is located.

Remark
Let z = x + yi, z 0.

If ( x, y ) is in the 1st quadrant, then 0 Arg ( z ) .


2
If ( x, y ) is in the 2nd quadrant, then

Arg ( z ) .

If ( x, y ) is in the 3rd quadrant, then Arg ( z )


If ( x, y ) is in the 4th quadrant, then

3
.
2

3
Arg ( z ) 2 .
2

Example 1.4.4 Find the modulus, principal argument and the polar form of z = 1 i.
Solution.

Note that z = 12 + (1) 2 = 2 .

Let = Arg ( z ) be the principal argument of z .


y
Then tan = = 1 .
x
But the point (1, -1) is in the fourth quadrant.
7
.
Hence Arg ( z ) =
4
7
7

Therefore the polar form is z = 2 cos


+ i sin
4
4

(1, 1)

Example 1.4.5 Find the moduli, principal arguments and the polar forms for the following:
(i)
z1 = 3 + i ,

(ii)

z2 = 3 + i ,

(iii)

z3 = 3 i ,

(iv)

z4 = 3 i .

( 3)

Solution. Note that z1 =

+ 12 = 2 = z 2 = z 3 = z 4 .

z 2 3, 1

z1

z 3 3, 1
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

z4

3, 1

3, 1

1
where 0 1 . Therefore Arg ( z1 ) = .
2
6
3

The polar form of z1 = 2 cos + i sin .


6
6

1
1
Let 2 = Arg ( z 2 ). Then tan 2 =
=
where
2 .
2
3
3
5
Therefore Arg (z 2 ) = =
.
6 6
5
5

The polar form of z 2 = 2 cos + i sin .


6
6

1
1
3
=
where 3 .
Let 3 = Arg ( z 3 ). Then tan 3 =
2
3
3
7
Therefore Arg (z 3 ) = + = .
6 6
7
7

The polar form of z 3 = 2 cos


+ i sin
.
6
6

1
3
1
Let 4 = Arg ( z 4 ). Then tan 4 =
=
where
4 2 .
2
3
3
11
Therefore Arg ( z 4 ) = 2 =
.
6 6
11
11

The polar form of z 4 = 2 cos


+ i sin
.
6
6

Let 1 = Arg ( z1 ) . Then tan 1 =

Multiplication and Division in polar forms


Theorem 1.4.6
Let z1 = r1 (cos1 + i sin 1 ), z 2 = r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 ) .
Then z1 z 2 = r1r2 [cos (1 + 2 ) + i sin (1 + 2 )].
Proof.
z1 z 2 = r1r2 (cos1 + i sin 1 )(cos 2 + i sin 2 )
= r1r2 [(cos1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 ) + i (sin 1 cos 2 + sin 2 cos 2 )]
= r1r2 [cos (1 + 2 ) + i sin (1 + 2 )].
Corollary 1.4.7
Let z1 , z 2 be two complex numbers.

Then z1 z 2 = r1r2 = z1 z 2 , Arg ( z1 ) + Arg ( z 2 ) is an argument of z1 z 2 .


From the above identity, we see that when two complex numbers are multiplied, the
moduli are multiplied and the arguments are added. Notice, however, that the principal argument
of a product may not be the sum of the principal arguments of the factors; the sum of the
principal arguments may be 2 and have to be adjusted to lie between 0 and 2 . Similarly the
following theorem can be similarly shown.
Theorem 1.4.8
Let z1 = r1 (cos1 + i sin 1 ), z 2 = r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 ) where z 2 0 .
z
r
Then 1 = 1 [cos (1 2 ) + i sin (1 2 )] .
z 2 r2
Corollary 1.4.9
Let z1 , z 2 be two complex numbers.

Then

z
z
z1
r
= 1 = 1 , Arg ( z1 ) Arg ( z 2 ) is an argument of 1 .
z2
r2 z 2
z2

3
3

Example 1.4.10 Let z = 2 cos + i sin , w = 3 cos + i sin


3
3
4
4

Find (i) zw (ii))

z
.
w

Solution.
3
3
(i) zw = 2 3 cos +
+ i sin +
3 4
3 4
13
13
= 2 3 cos
+ i sin
12
12

2 3
z
3
cos + i sin
=

w
3 3 4
3 4

(ii)

2 5
cos
3 12

5
+ i sin

12

2 5
5
cos 12 i sin 12
3

Geometric interpretation

Let z1 = r1 (cos1 + i sin 1 ) and z = r2 (cos 2 + i sin 2 ) be represented by the vectors OP1 and

OP2 respectively. The diagram below shows that the vector OP representing z1 z 2 is obtained by
rotating the vector OP2 through the angle 1 in the counterclockwise direction and by
multiplying the length r2 of OP2 with the length r1 of OP1 .
y

r1 r2

P2

r2

r1

P1

1
x

Properties of the Modulus


Theorem 1.4.11 (The Triangular Inequality)
For any complex numbers z1 and z 2 , z1 + z 2 z1 + z 2 .
Proof.
y

R
Q

z1 + z 2

z2
z1

From OPR, we have OR OP + PR , that is z1 + z 2 z1 + z 2 .


Question
(i)
Under what conditions do we have z1 + z 2 < z 2 + z 2 ?
(ii)
The proof given is geometric. Can you give an algebraic proof?
Theorem 1.4.12
Let z , z1 , z 2 , K , z n be complex numbers. Then

(i)

z 0 and z = 0 z = 0 .

(ii)

z=z=z .

(iii)

zz = z = (Re( z )) + (Im( z )) .

(iv)

z1 z 2 z n = z1 z 2 z n .

(v)

z1 z1
=
for nonzero z 2 .
z2 z2

(vi)

z1 + z 2 + K + z n z1 + z 2 + K + z n .

(vii)

z1 z 2 z1 z 2 .

(viii)

If z 0 , then z 1 =

Proof. Exercise.

z
z

1.5 De Moivres Theorem


Theorem 1.5.1 (De Moivres Theorem)
For any and integer n,

(cos + i sin )n

= cos n + i sin n .

(1)

Proof.
We prove by mathematical induction.
Case 1: n = 0

LHS= (cos + i sin ) =1 . RHS = cos (0 ) + i sin (0 ) = 1 . Therefore LHS=RHS and (1) is true.
0

Case 2: n 0
When n = 1 ,

LHS= (cos + i sin ) = cos + i sin . RHS = cos (1 ) + i sin (1 ) = cos + i sin . Therefore
1

LHS=RHS.
Assume that (1) is true for some n = k 1, i.e.,

(cos + i sin )k = cos k + i sin k .


(2)
k +1
k
Then (cos + i sin ) = (cos + i sin ) (cos + i sin )
= (cos k + i sin k )(cos + i sin )
(by (2))
= (cos k cos sin k sin ) + i (sin k cos + cos k sin )
= cos(k + ) + i sin(k + )
= cos(k + 1) + i sin( k + 1) .

We have shown that if (1) is true for some n = k then (1) is true for n = k + 1.
It follows by induction that (1) is true for all positive integers n.
Case 3: n < 0. Let n = m. Then m > 0 and

Then (cos + i sin ) = (cos + i sin )


1
=
(cos + i sin ) m
1
=
(cos m + i sin m )
1
cos m i sin
=
(cos m + i sin m ) (cos m i sin m )
m

cos m i sin m
cos 2 m + sin 2 m
= cos m i sin m
= cos( m ) + i sin(m )
= cos n + i sin n .
Therefore (1) is true for all integers n and the theorem is proved.
=

(by (2))

Theorem 1.5.2 Let z = r (cos + i sin ) and n be a positive integer. Then

(i) z n = r n (cos n + i sin n ) .


1
(ii) z n = n (cos n i sin n ) .
.
r
Proof. By De Moivres Theorem,
n
n
(i) z n = [r (cos + i sin )] = r n (cos + i sin ) = r n (cos n + i sin n ) .
(ii)
1
1
n
n
z n = [r (cos + i sin )] = r n (cos + i sin ) = n (cos ( n ) + i sin ( n )) = n (cos n i sin n )
r
r
Corollary 1.5.3 Let z = cos + i sin and n be a positive integer. Then
1
1
(i) cos n = (z n + z n ), sin n = (z n z n ) .
2
2i
1
1
(ii) cos = z + z 1 , sin = (z z 1 ).
2
2i

10

1+ 3i
.
Example 1.5.4 Compute

1 3i
Solution.

(
(

)(
)(

) (
)

1 + 3i
1+ 3i 1 + 3i
1+ 3i
z=
=
=
.
4
1 3i
1 3i 1 + 3i

(1+ 3i )
=

20

Therefore z

10

410

Let w = 1+ 3i . Then w = 1+ 3 = 2 and tan

Hence w = 2 cos + i sin


3
3

20


2 cos 3 + i sin 3

Therefore z 10 =
10
4

= cos 20 + i sin 20
3
3

2
2

= cos
+ i sin

3
3

1
3
= +
i.
2 2

= 3 .

2
2

Example 1.5.5 Given z = 2 cos


+ i sin
3
3

Solution.

12
, find z .

2
2 12
12
z 12 = 212 cos 12 + i sin 12
(Q cos 8 =1, sin 8 = 0)
= 2 (cos 8 ) = 2 .
3
3

Example 1.5.6
(i) Express cos 4 in terms of powers of cos .
(ii) Express sin 4 in terms of powers of sin and cos .
Solution. Let k = cos and s = sin . Then by De Moivres Theorem,
cos 4 + i sin 4 = (cos + i sin )

= (k + is )

= k 4 + 4k 3 ( si ) + 6k 2 ( si ) 2 + 4k ( si ) 3 + ( si ) 4
= k 4 + 4k 3 si 6k 2 s 2 4ks 3i + s 4
= (k 4 6k 2 s 2 + s 4 ) + (4k 3 s 4ks 3 )i .
Comparing the real and the imaginary parts,
cos 4 = k 4 6k 2 s 2 + s 4
= k 4 6k 2 (1 k 2 ) + (1 k 2 ) 2
= 8k 4 8k 2 + 1
= 8 cos 4 8 cos 2 + 1 .
sin 4 = 4k 3 s 4ks 3
= 4 cos 3 sin 4 cos sin 3 .
Example 1.5.7
Let z = cos + i sin and n be a positive integer.
Express sin 4 in terms of multiples of cos n .
1
Solution. From Corollary 1.5.3, sin = (z z 1 ). Then
2i
4

4
1
sin = z z 1
2i
1 4
=
z 4 z 2 + 6 4 z 2 + z 4
16
1 4
=
z + z 4 4 z 2 + z 2 + 6
16
1
= [2 cos 4 8 cos 2 + 6]
16
1
= [cos 4 4 cos 2 + 3] .
8
4

[(

) (

) ]

(Q s 2 + k 2 = 1 .)

1.6 Exponential form of complex numbers

By assuming that the infinite series expansions


x2 x3
x3 x5
x2 x4
e x =1+ x + + + K , sin x = x +
K , cos x =1 + + K
2! 3!
3! 5!
2! 4!
hold when x = i , , we can arrive at
e i

= 1 + i +

(i )2 + (i )3 + (i )4 + (i )5 +K
2!

4!
5!

3 5 7

= 1 + + K + i + + K
3! 5! 7!
2! 4! 6!

3!

that is, e i = cos + i sin .


Definition 1.6.1 (Eulers Formula)
For , define e i = cos + i sin .
If z = x + yi, x, y
, define e z = e x + iy = e x e iy = e x (cos y + i sin y ) .

In the special case where y = 0, this reduces to e x .


Definition 1.6.2 (Exponential form)
The form z = re i of the complex number z = r (cos + i sin ) , is called the exponential form of
z.
Theorem 1.6.3

For

, cos =

Proof.
By Eulers Formula,
e i = cos + i sin .
e i = cos ( ) + i sin ( ) = cos i sin .
Therefore
e i + e i = 2 cos

e i e i = 2i sin
Remark.

( )

(i) e i = e in , n .
(ii)
e i = cos + i sin = 1.
n

1 i
1 i
e + e i , sin =
e e i . (Cf. Cor. 1.5.3)
2
2i

Example 1.6.4 Express z = 2i in exponential form.


Solution.

Now z = 2i = 2, Arg ( z ) = . Thus z = 2e 2 .


2
i

Example 1.6.5 Express z = 2 + 2 3i in exponential form.


Solution.

( )

Now z = 2 2 + 2 3 = 4 +12 = 4.

Since 2, 2 3 is in the first quadrant, = tan 1


i

2 3

= tan 1 3 = .
2
3

Thus z = 4e 3 .
Definition 1.6.6
Let n be a positive integer. A complex number z is called an n th root of another complex
number w if z n = w.
Theorem 1.6.7
Let w = R(cos + i sin ) and z = r (cos + i sin ) .
Let n be a positive integer. Suppose that z n = w.
+ 2k
+ 2k

Then z = n R cos
+ i sin
, k = 0,1,..., n 1
n
n

Proof.
n
By De Moivres Theorem, z n = r n (cos + i sin ) = r n (cos n + i sin n ) = R(cos + i sin ) .

Hence r n = R , that is, r = n R (the positive n th root of R ).


Note that the moduli of all the n th roots of w are identical and is equal to
Also n = + 2k , k

, that is, =

+ 2k

R.

, k .
n
+ 2k
+ 2k

Therefore z = n R cos
+ i sin
, k .
n
n

Note that k has n distinct values with k = 0, 1,..., n 1 and any other value of k will produce a
value identical to one of these.

+ 2k
+ 2k

Therefore z = n R cos
+ i sin
, k = 0,1,..., n 1 .
n
n

R . Each of the n th roots has


2
a different argument. As k increases, the argument grows by increasing
.
n
The n roots can be represented by points on a circle having radius

z3
z2

2
n

z1
2
n

z0
n

Definition 1.6.8 (Roots of unity)


Let n be a positive integer. A complex number z is called an n th root of unity if z n =1 .
Example 1.6.9 1, 1, i, i are the fourth roots of unity for they are the solutions of the equation
z 4 = 1.

Example 1.6.10 Find the n th roots of unity with (i ) n = 3 (ii ) n = 6 . Display your solutions in the
Argand plane.
Solution.
Note that 1 = cos 0 + i sin 0.
0 + 2k
0 + 2k
(i) The cube roots of unity are given by z k = cos
+ i sin
, k = 0,1, 2 .
3
3
2
2
1
3
4
4
1
3
Hence z 0 = cos 0 + i sin 0 = 1 , z1 = cos
+ i sin
= +
i , z 2 = cos
+ i sin
=
i.
3
3
2 2
3
3
2 2

(ii)

The 6th roots of unity are given

0 + 2k
0 + 2k
+ i sin
, k = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 .
6
6

1
3
2
2
1
3
Hence z 0 = cos 0 + i sin 0 = 1 , z1 = cos + i sin = +
i , z 2 = cos
+ i sin
= +
i.
3
3 2 2
3
3
2 2
3
3
4
4
1
3
5
5 1
3
= 1 , z 5 = cos
+ i sin
=
=
z 3 = cos + i sin
i , z 6 = cos + i sin
i.
3
3
3
3
2 2
3
3 2 2

by z k = cos

w1
z1

w2

2
3

2
3

2
3

zn

w3

w4

z2

w0

Example 1.6.11 Find the two square roots of w = 2 + 2 3i . Give your answer in Cartesian form
and display your solutions in the Argand plane.
Solution.

( )

Now w = 2 2 + 2 3

= 4 + 12 = 4 .

Let = Arg (w) . Now tan =

2 3
= 3.
2

Since 2, 2 3 is in the first quadrant, =

Hence w = 4 cos + i sin .


3
3

+ 2k
+ 2k

, k = 0, 1 ,are the square roots of w.


By Theorem 1.67, z k = 4 cos 3
+ i sin 3
2
2

Therefore the two square roots are

3 1
7
7
3 1

z 0 = 2 cos + i sin = 2
+ i = 3 + i , z1 = 2 cos
+ i sin
i = 3 i
= 2
6
6 2 2
6
6 2 2

z0
7
6

z1

Exercise 1.6.12. Use a different method to find a solution of Example 1.6.11.


Example 1.6.13 Solve the equation z 4 = 8i and display your solutions in the Argand plane.
Solution.
3
3

Now 8i = 8 cos + i sin .


2
2

3
3

+ 2k
+ 2k

, k = 0, 1, 2, 3
By theorem 1.67, z k = 4 8 cos 2
+ i sin 2
4
4

(3 + 4k )
(3 + 4k )

= 4 8 cos
+ i sin
, k = 0, 1, 2, 3 .
8
8

are the fourth roots of 8i .


Therefore the fourth roots of 8i are
3
3
7
7
11
11

z 0 = 4 8 cos
+ i sin
+ i sin
+ i sin
, z1 = 4 8 cos
, z 2 = 4 8 cos
,
8
8
8
8
8
8

15
15

z 3 = 4 8 cos
+ i sin
.
8
8

z1

3
8

z 0
z1
4

z2

8
z 3

1.7 Complex equations and their loci

An equation with complex numbers as variables is called a complex equation. For example, if
z , the following
(i)

z =2 ,

(ii)

Arg ( z ) =

(iii)

z + 2i
=2,
z + 3i

(iv)

z 4i + z + 3 = 2 ,

are complex equations.


Letting z = x + iy, the complex equations can be written in term of x and y. The set of all ( x, y )
satisfying a complex equation forms a curve in the xy plane. This curve is called the locus of
the complex equation.
Example 1.7.1 What is the locus of the equation z = 2 ? .
Solution.

Let z = x + iy . Then z = 2 becomes

x 2 + y 2 = 2 i.e., x 2 + y 2 = 4 .

Therefore the locus of the equation is the circle with centre (0, 0 ) and radius 2 .
Example 1.7.2 What is the locus of the equation Arg ( z ) =

Solution.
Let z = x + iy .

If Arg ( z ) =

, then x 0, y 0 and

3
Therefore y = 3 x, x 0 .

= tan 1 = 3 .
x
3

The locus of the equation is a straight line y = 3 x, x 0 consisting of the points x, 3 x with
x0.
y

Example 1.7.3 Describe the locus represented by

z + 2i
=2
z i
Solution.
2
2
The equation can be written as z + 2i = 2 z i or z + 2i = 4 z i

Let z = x + yi. Then


z + 2i = 4 z i ( x + yi ) + 2i = 4 ( x + yi ) i .
2

x + ( y + 2)i = 4 x + ( y i ) .
2

x 2 + ( y + 2) 2 = 4 ( x 2 + ( y 1) 2 .
x 2 + y 2 + 4 y + 4 = 4( x 2 + y 2 2 y + 1) .
3x 2 + 3 y 2 12 y = 0 .
x2 + y2 4 y = 0 .
x 2 + ( y 2) 2 = 4 .
The locus of the equation is a circle with centre (0, 2) and radius 2.
Example 1.7.4 If z = 3 , what is the locus of the complex number 2 z + 1? .
Solution.

Let z1 = 2 z +1. Then z =

1
(z1 1) .
2

1
(z1 1) = 3 z1 1 = 6 .
2
Let z1 = x + yi . Then

Hence z = 3

( x + yi ) 1 = 6 ( x 1) + yi = 6 .

( x 1) 2 + y 2 = 36 .
The locus of the complex number 2 z + 1 when z = 3 , is the circle with centre (1, 0) and radius 6.

Chapter 2 Matrix Algebra


2.1 Matrices and their Basic Concepts
For this course we will, unless the contrary is explicitly stated, understand that the underline field
F is either the real field R or the complex field C .
2.1.1 Definition
An m n matrix over a field F , or simply an m n matrix, is a rectangular array of
mn objects, denoted by
a11 a12 L a1n

a 21 a 22 L a 2 n
A=
M
M O M

m1 a m 2 L a mn
The size of the matrix A is m n where m is the number of rows, and n is the number of
columns. The objects a11 , a12 , K , amn in the array, which are from a field F , are called entries
or components in A . The element a ij , called the (i, j ) entry (or the (i, j ) component) of A ,

is the entry in the i th row and j th column of A . The notation A = (aij ) that displays a
typical entry is usually used. We will use M m, n to denote the set of all m n matrices over F .
2.1.2 Definition

(1) Equality of matrices: Let A = (aij ) be an m n matrix and B = (bij ) be an p q matrix.


Then A = B m = p, n = q and aij = bij for all 1 i m , 1 j n .
(2) Addition of matrices: Let A = (aij ) and B = (bij ) be m n matrices.
Then A + B = (aij + bij ) for all 1 i m , 1 j n .

(3) Scalar multiplication of a matrix A by a scalar F : Let A = (aij ) be an m n matrix.


Then A = (aij ) for all 1 i m , 1 j n .

(4) Product of matrices: Let A = (aij ) be an m r matrix and B = (bij ) be an r n matrix.


r

Then AB = ai1bi1 + ai 2b2 j + ... + air brj = aik bkj for all 1 i m, 1 j n
k =1

(5) The Zero matrix

0 m n = (aij ) where aij = 0 for all 1 i m , 1 j n . We also write 0 m n = 0 .

2.1.3 Example
1
2
2 1 1 0
1 1 2 1

Let A =
, B = 4 1 6 2 and C = 1
0
3
1
2

12
2 + 1
A+B=
0+4

8
1
. Then
1

1 + 1 1 + 2 0 + 1 1 2 1 1
3 0 3 1
=
, AB=

,
3 + 1 1 + 6 2 + 2 4 4 7 4
4 2 5 0

1 1 2 1
BC =

4 1 6 2

1
2

12

8
1

2
1 15 17
=
, CB =
1
1 28 51

6
12

8
1
1

31 7 46 15

1 1 2 1 6 3 10 4
4 1 6 2 = 5 2 8 3

36 18 60 24

Properties of the addition and multiplication of matrices


2.1.4 Theorem

Let A , B and C be m n matrices. Then


(1)

A + B = B + A.

(Commutative Law)

(2)

(A + B)

(Associative Law)

+ C = A + (B + C ) .

Let A , B and C be n n matrices. Then


(3)

( AB )C = A (B C ) .

(Associative Law)

(4)

( A + B )C =

AB + AC .

(Distributive Law)

(5)

A(B + C ) = AC + AB .

(Distributive Law)

Remark
The multiplication of matrices does not satisfy the commutative law, i.e., in general, AB BA .
2.1.5 Example
1 1
0 1
Let A =
and B =

. Then
2 2
0 1
1 1 0 1 0 0
AB =

=
but BA =
2 2 0 1 0 0

0 1
0 1

2
1 1 2
2 2 = 2 2

In this example we see that there exist matrices A 0 and B 0 such that AB = 0 . Hence it is
not true, in general, that AB = 0 A = 0 or B = 0 and also AB = 0 BA = 0 .

2.1.6 Theorem

Let A and B be m n matrices and , F . Then


(1)

( A + B ) = A + B .

(2)

( + ) A = A + A .

Let A and B be n n matrices and , F . Then


(3)

( AB ) = (A)B = A(B ) .

2.1.7 Definition
The transpose of a matrix A , written as AT , is the matrix obtained by writing the rows of A , in
order, as columns, i.e., if A = (aij ) is an m n matrix then AT = (bij ) is an m n matrix where
bij = a ji for all i = 1, K , n and j = 1, K , m .

2.1.8 Example
3
6
1 0 8
1
2 3
2 1 4

T
If A = 3 2 5 , then A = 0 2 9 ; B = 1 2 and B T =

3 2 5
6 9 7
8 5 7
4 5
Properties of the transpose
2.1.9 Theorem

Let A and B be m n matrices and C be n p matrix. Then


(1)

( A + B )T

(2)

( AC )T

= C T AT .

(3)

(A )

= A.

(4)

(A)T

= AT , where F .

T T

= AT + B T .

Proof of (2)
T
We first note that AC is of size m p , and so, ( AC ) is of size p m , and also C T AT is of
size p m . Let A = (aij ), C = (cij ) , and AC = (d ij ) . Then, by our definition, we see that the

(i, j ) entry of

AC is d ij = a i1c1 j + K + ain c nj for all i = 1, 2, K , m, j = 1, 2, K , p .

On the other hand, the j th row of C T consists of the element from j th column of C , and
the i th column of AT consists of the element from i th row of A . So, the (i, j ) entry of the
matrix C T AT is given by c1 j a i1 + c 2 j a i 2 + K + c nj ain = a i1c1 j + a i 2 c 2 j + K + ain c nj = d ij .
Therefore, ( AC ) = C T AT .
T

2.1.10 Definition

A matrix where the number of rows is the same as the number of columns is called a square
matrix. A square matrix with n rows and n columns is said to be of order n , and is called an
n n (or n -square or square) matrix. We shall write the set of all n n matrices M n instead
of M n ,n . The diagonal of a n n matrix A = (aij ) consists of the elements a11 , a 22 , K, a nn .
Some special types of square matrices

(1)

Diagonal Matrix
A diagonal matrix is a square matrix whose non-diagonal entries are all zero.
That is, a ij = 0 for all i j .

(2)

Identity Matrix I n
The identity matrix of order n (or unit matrix) is a n n matrix with 1' s on the diagonal
and 0s elsewhere, and is denoted by I n .
That is, aii = 1 for all i = 1, 2, K , n, and aij = 0 for all i j .
Remark I n A = A = A I n for any A M n

(3)

Upper triangular matrix


An upper triangular matrix is a square matrix whose entries below the main diagonal are
all zeros.
That is, a ij = 0 for all i > j .

(4)

Lower triangular matrix


A lower triangular matrix is a square matrix whose entries above the main diagonal are
all zeros.
That is, a ij = 0 for all i < j .

(5)

Symmetric matrix
A symmetric matrix is a square matrix whose transpose equals itself, i.e., if A is a
symmetric matrix, then AT = A .
That is, a ji = aij for all i, j .

(6)

Skew-symmetric matrix
A skew-symmetric matrix is a square matrix whose transpose equals the negative of
itself, i.e., if A is skew-symmetric, then AT = A .
That is, a ji = aij for all i , j .
Problem Prove the following:
(1)
A + AT is a symmetric matrix.
(2)
A AT is a skew-symmetric matrix.

2.1.11 Example
Let
1 8
1 3 8
0

A = 3 0 5 and B = 1 0
5 .
8 5 7
8 5 0

Then
0 1 8
1 3 8

T
0 5 = B .
A = 3 0 5 = A and B = 1
8 5
8 5 7
0
T

So A is a symmetric matrix and B is a skew-symmetric matrix.

2.2 Determinants
2.2.1 Definition

Let A = (aij ) be an n n matrix. The determinant of A , denoted by det A or A , is defined as


follows:

a
If A = 11
a21

a12
a
then A = 11
a22
a21

a11

a
If A = 21
M

a
n1

a12
a22
M
an 2

L a1n

L a2 n
then
O M

L ann

either expanding by the


a11 a12 L
a21 a22 L
A =
M
M O
a n1 a n 2 L
=

( 1)

k =1

a12
= a11a22 a12 a21 .
a11

j+k

j th row
a1n

a2n
M

= (1) j +1 a j1 M j1 + (1) j + 2 a j 2 M j 2 + L + ( 1) j + n a jn M jn

a nn

a jk M jk

  

or expanding by the k th column

a12

a21

a22 L a2 n

an1
=

L a1n

a11

= (1)1+ k a1k M 1k + (1) 2+ k a2 k M 2 k + L + ( 1) n+ k ank M nk

an 2 L ann

( 1)

j+k

j =1

a jk M jk

 

where M jk is the (n 1) (n 1) submatrix of A obtained by deleting its j th row and its k th column.
The determinant M jk of M jk , is called the minor of a jk in A .
Remark
We may expand by any row or column to obtain A . The equation (1) gives A by expanding

the j th row, and the equation (2) gives A by expanding the k th column.
2.2.2 Theorem
Let A = (aij ) be an n n matrix. Then the determinant of A is unique.

So

A=

( 1)

j+k

k =1
n

and A = ( 1)
j =1

j+k

a jk M jk
a jk M jk

( j = 1 or 2 or K or n )
(k = 1 or 2 or Kor n )

2.2.3 Example
1 2 4
+ +

Let A = 1 0 3 . Find A . (Note Use the following: + )


3 1 2
+ +
Expanding by the first row, we have
1 2 4
0 3
1 3
1 0
1 0 3 = 1
2
+4
= (0 3) (2 9) + 4 ( 1 0 ) = 7 .
1 2
3 2
3 1
3 1 2

Expanding by the first column, we have


1 2 4
0 3
2 4
2 4
1 0 3 = 1
( 1)
+3
= (0 3) + (2 4) + 3(6 0) = 7 .
1 2
1 2
0 3
3 1 2

Properties of the determinant


2.2.4 Theorem

Let A and B be n n matrices.


(1)

If A has a row (or column) of zeros, then A = 0 .

(2)
(3)

If A has two identical rows (or columns), then A = 0 .


If A is an upper triangular (or lower triangular) matrix,
then A = product of the diagonal elements. In particular, I n = 1 .

(4)

AB = A B .

(5)

AT = A .

(6)

A = n A , where F .

2.3 Adjoint
2.3.1 Definition
Let A = (aij ) be an n n matrix. Then the adjoint of A , denoted by adj A , is defined as

A11
A
adj A = 12
M

A1n

where Aij = (1) i + j M ij and M jk

Aij = ( 1)

i+ j

L An1
L An 2
,
O M

L Ann
is the minor of a jk in A , i.e.,

M ij = ( 1)

i+ j

a11
M
ai 1,1
ai +1,1
M
an1

A21
A22
M
A2 n

L a1, j 1
O
M
L ai 1, j 1
L ai +1, j 1
O
M
L an , j 1

a1, j +1
M
ai 1, j +1
ai +1, j +1
M
an, j +1

L a1n
O
M
L ai 1, n
L ai +1,n
O
M
L ann

Aij is called the cofactor of a ij .

Remark The adjoint of A is the transpose of the matrix of cofactors of a ij .

Properties of the adjoint


2.3.2 Theorem

Let A and B be n n matrices. Then


(1)

A(adj A) = A I n = (adj A) A .

(2)

adj A = A

n 1

if A 0 .

(3)

(adj AB ) = (adj B )(adj A) .

(4)

adj ( AT ) = (adj A) .

(5)

adj (A) = n1 (adj A) .

Note that A I n = 0
0

0
A
0

0
A

2.3.3 Example
3 1 2
Let A = 1 2 1 . Find adj A .
1 1 1
Answer

2 1
1 1
1 2
M 11 =
, M 12 =
, M 13 =

1 1
1 1
1 1
1 2
3 2
3 1
M 21 =
, M 22 =
, M 23 =

1 1
1 1
1 1
1 2
3 2
3 1
M 31 =
, M 32 =
, M 33 =

2 1
1 1
1 2
Hence
M 11 = 1 , M 12 = 0 , M 13 = 1 ,
M 21 = 1 , M 22 = 1 , M 23 = 2 ,
M 31 = 3 , M 32 = 1 , M 33 = 5 .

A11 = (1)1+1 M 11 = 1 , A12 = (1)1+ 2 M 12 = 0 , A13 = (1)1+3 M 13 = 1 ,


A21 = (1) 2+1 M 21 = 1 , A22 = (1) 2+2 M 22 = 1 , A23 = (1) 2+3 M 23 = 2 ,
A31 = (1) 3+1 M 31 = 3 , A32 = (1) 3+ 2 M 32 = 1 , A33 = (1) 3+3 M 33 = 5 .
Therefore
0 1
1 3
1
1

adj A = 1
1 2 = 0
1 1
3 1 5
1 2 5
T

2.4 Inverse
2.4.1 Definition
An n n matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists an n n matrix B such that
AB = I n = BA .
The matrix B is called an inverse of A . We note that if a matrix has an inverse, it is unique. To
see this, suppose B and C are inverses of A . Then
B = BI n = B( AC ) = (BA) C = I n C = C .

Since the inverse of an invertible matrix A is unique, we denote the inverse of A by A 1 . So


AA1 = I n = A1 A
An invertible matrix is also called a nonsingular matrix. We remark that not every matrix is
invertible. If A has no inverse, then A is called a non-invertible or singular matrix.
Properties of the inverse
2.4.2 Theorem
Let A and B be n n matrices. Then

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

( AB )1 = B 1 A 1 .

(A )
(A )

T 1

= ( A 1 )T .

1 1

= A.

(A)1 = 1 A1 , 0 .

2.4.3 Theorem (A criterion for the inverse to exist and a formula to find the inverse)
Let A be an n n matrix.
adj A
Then A is invertible (or A is a nonsingular matrix) if and only if A 0 and A 1 =
.
A
Note A is non-invertible (or A is a singular matrix)if and only if A = 0 , i.e., A 1 does not exist.

2.4.4 Example
3 1 2
Let A = 1 2 1 . Is A invertible? If so, find A 1 .
1 1 1
Answer

Now A = 1 . So A is invertible and A

1 3 1
1 3
1
adj A 1

=
= 0
1 1 = 0
1 1 .
1
A
1 2 5 1 2 5

2.5 Elementary row operations and row reduced echelon matrices


2.5.1 Definition

Let A be an m n matrix and let Ri be the i th row of A, i = 1, 2, K , m .


The following operations on A are called elementary row operations:

[E1] :
[E 2] :
[E 3] :

Interchange the i th row with the j th row : Ri R j .


Multiply a row by a nonzero scalar : Ri Ri , 0 .
Add a multiple of one row to another row: Ri Ri + R j , 0 .

A matrix A is said to be row equivalent to a matrix B if B can be obtained from A by a finite


sequence of elementary row operations.
2.5.2 Example

3 1 3
1 4

R1 R3
[E1] : 2 0 2
2 0
1 4 9
3 1
3 1 3
3

R2 3 R2
[E 2] : 2 0 2 6
1 4 9
1

9
2
3
1

3
0 6
4 9

3 1 3
0 11 24

R1 R1 3 R3
[E3] : 2 0 2 2 0
2
1 4 9
1 4
9

2.5.3 Definition

Let A be an m n matrix and let Ri be the i th row of A, i = 1, 2, K , m .


The row Ri is called a non-zero row of A if Ri has at least one non-zero entry.
The first non-zero entry in Ri is called the distinguished element of Ri .
The matrix A is called a row echelon matrix (or A is in row echelon form) (rem or ref), if
A is a zero matrix or there is a number k , 1 k m such that R1 , R2 , L , Rk are non-

(1)

(2)

zero rows and Rk +1 , Rk + 2 , L, Rm are zero rows (if a zero row or zeros rows exist(s)).
(That is, all non-zero rows are above all zero rows) and
If ci = the number of zeros before the distinguished element in Ri , then
ci < ci + 1 , i = 1, 2, L , k 1.

Furthermore, a row echelon matrix A is called a row reduced echelon matrix (or A is in reduced
row echelon form) (rrem or rref), if the distinguished elements of A
(3)
(4)

are each equal to 1, and


are the only nonzero entries in their respective columns.

2.5.4 Example
0
0
B=
0

0
2 0
1

0
0 0
, E=
0
1 1

0 0
0

2 1 0
A = 0 0 0 ,
0 0 1
1
0
D=
0

3 0
0 1
0 0
0 0

1 2 0 0
0 0 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0

0 2 4 0
,
C=
,
0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0
0 0 2 0 0 0

0 0 0 4 0 6
0 1 0 0
.
, F =
0 1 0 0 1 2
0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1

The matrices A, C and F are not row echelon matrices.


The matrices B and D are row echelon matrices but not row reduced echelon matrices.
The matrix E is a row reduced echelon matrix (and hence E is a row echelon matrix)
2.5.5 Theorem
(1)
Every matrix can be reduced to one or more row echelon matrices by elementary row
operations.
(2)
Every matrix can only be reduced to a unique row reduced echelon matrix by elementary
row operations.
(3)
The zero matrix 0 mn is a row reduced echelon matrix and hence a row echelon matrix.

2.5.6 A procedure which row reduces a matrix to an echelon form

Let A = (aij ) be an m n matrix.


(1)

Suppose the j th column is the first column with a nonzero entry. Suppose a1 j 0 , that
is, the j th entry of the first row is nonzero. (If a1 j = 0 and aij 0 , then interchange the

1 st row and the i th row.)


(2) Use elementary row operations to form a new matrix with aij = 0 for all i = 2, 3, K , m .
(3) Repeat the process with the submatrix formed by excluding the first row.
(4) Continue the process until the matrix is in echelon form.

2.5.7 Example
0 1 0
R1 R2
A = 1 0 2

2 0 1
1 0 2
0 1 0
0 0 1
1
R3 ( ) R3
5

1 0 2
1 0 2
0 1 0
R3 R3 2 R1
0 1 0 (rem)

2 0 1
0 0 5
1 0 0
R1 R1 2 R3
0 1 0 (rrem)
(rem)
0 0 1

Applications of elementary row operations


Finding the determinant by using elementary row operations
2.5.8 Theorem

Let A and B be n n matrices.


(1) If B is obtained from A by interchanging two rows (columns) of A , then B = A .
(2) If B is obtained from A by multiplying a row (column) of A by a scalar , then B = A .
(3) If B is obtained from A by adding a multiple of a row (column) of A to another row
(column) of A , then B = A .
2.5.9 Example
3 1 3
1 4 9

R1 R3
A = 2 0 2
2 0 2 = B . Then B = A .
1 4 9
3 1 3
3 1 3
3 1 3

R2 3 R2
A = 2 0 2 6 0 6 = B . Then B = (3) A .
1 4 9
1 4 9

3 1 3
0 11 24

R1 R1 3 R3
A = 2 0 2 2 0
2 = B . Then B = A .
1 4 9
1 4
9

2.5.10 Example
Use the elementary row operations to find the determinant of the matrix
2 5 9
A = 1 3 3 .
1 1 1
Answer
2
[A ] = 1
1

5
3
1

9
R 3 R1
3

1
1

2
1
R 2 R 2 R1
0
2

1
3 = [B ]. Then B = A
9

1
2
5

1
2 = [C ]. Then C = B
9

1
3

1 1 1

0 2 2 = [D ]. Then D = C
0 3 7
1 1 1
1
R2 R2
1
2
D

0 1 1 = [E ]. Then E =
2
0 3 7
1 1 1
R3 R3 3 R 2
0 1 1 = [F ]. Then F = E
0 0 4
R 3 R 3 2 R1

Now F =11 4 = 4 (since F is an upper triangle matrix).


Hence A = B = C = D = 2 E = 2 F = 8 .

Finding the inverse by using elementary row operations


2.5.11 Definition

Let A be an m n matrix and B be an m p matrix. Then the augmented matrix [A B ] is


defined as the m (n + p ) matrix obtained by putting the matrix B on the right-hand side of the
matrix A .

2.5.12 Theorem

Let A be an invertible n n matrix. Then the inverse of A can be determined by performing

elementary row operations on the augmented matrix [A I n ] to eventually arrive at I n A 1 .

[A I ]
n

   
    

 


[I

A 1

2.5.13 Example
Use elementary row operations to determine the inverse of the matrix
1 1 1
A = 1 2 3 .
1 4 9
Answer

1 1 1 1 0 0 R2 R2 R1 1
R3 R3 R1
[A I 3 ] = 1 2 3 0 1 0
0
1 4 9 0 0 1
0
1
R3 R3 3 R2
0
0

1 1 1 0 0
1 2 1 1 0
3 8 1 0 1
1 1 1
0 0
1 2 1 1 0
0 2 2 3 1

0
1 1 1 1

0 1 2 1 1
0 0 1 1 32
R3

1
2

R3

3
1 1 0 0
2

R1 R1 R3
0 1 0 3 4
0 0 1 1 32
R2 R2 2 R3

1 0 0 3 52

R1 R1 R2

0 1 0 1 4
0 0 1 1 3
2

3 52
A1 = 3 4
1 32

1 .
1
2
1
2

0
0
1
2

12
1
1
2

1 = I 3 A 1
1
2
1
2

2.6 Systems of Linear Equations


2.6.1 Definition

A system of m linear equations in n unknowns x1 , x 2 , K , x n is defined as follows:

a11 x1
a 21 x1
a m1 x1

+
+

a12 x 2
a 22 x 2
M
+ am2 x2

+ K + a1n x n
+ K + a 2n xn

= b1
= b1

+ K + a mn x n

= bn

The above system of linear equations is equivalent to the matrix equation AX = B , i.e.,

a11
a
21
M

a m1

a12
a 22
M
am2

a13 L a1n x1 b1
a 23 L a 2 n x 2 b2
=
,
M
M M M

a m 3 L a mn x n bn

where A = (aij ) is called the coefficient matrix and X = ( xi ) and B = (bi ) are called the
column vectors of the unknowns and of the constants, respectively.

If B = 0 (that is, bi = 0 for all i ), the system is called homogeneous.


If B 0 (that is, there exists a bi 0 ), the system is called non-homogeneous.
A system of linear equations having no solution is called inconsistent, while a system having
one or more solutions is called consistent.
2.6.2 Theorem

(1) A homogeneous system always has one solution, the trivial solution, or infinite number of
solutions. Any solution not the trivial solution, if it exists, is called a nontrivial solution.
(2) A non-homogeneous system has no solution or one solution or infinite number of solutions.
Solving a system of linear equations by elementary row operations
2.6.3 The Gaussian Elimination (A procedure to solve a system of linear equations)

Let A and B be the above matrices. We may write the above system of linear equations in its
augmented matrix form [A B ] . Then the Gauss elimination is a reduction of the augmented

matrix [A B ] by elementary row operations to triangular form, from which we then readily
obtain the values of the unknowns by back substitution.

The Gaussian Elimination

(1)

(2)

(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

a11
a
First form the augmented matrix [A B ] = 21
M

a m1

b1
b2
.
M

bn
Suppose a11 0 , that is, the first entry of the first row is nonzero. (If a11 = 0 and
ai1 0 , then interchange the 1 st row and the i th row.) Call this row the pivot row.
(The pivot row will remain unchanged)
Use elementary row operations to form a new matrix with ai1 = 0 for all i = 2, 3, K , m .
Repeat the process with the submatrix formed by excluding the first row and the first
column.
Continue the process until we form a upper triangular matrix.
Working backward from the last row of this system to obtain the solution.
a12
a 22
M
am2

a13 L a1n
a 23 L a1n
M
M
a m3 L a mn

2.6.4 Example Solve the following system of linear equations

x1

x2

+ 2 x3

= 2

3x1

x2

x3

= 6

x1

+ 3x2

+ 4 x3

= 4

Answer

1 1 2 2 R2 R2 + 3 R1
3 1 1 6
R3 R3 R1

1 3 4 4

x1 + x 2 + 2 x3
2 x 2 + 7 x3
5 x3

=
2
= 12
= 10

2
1 1 2 2
1 1 2
0 2 7 12

R3 R3 R2
0 2 7
12

0 2 2 2
0 0 5 10

x3 = 2, x 2 = 1, x1 = 1.

Therefore the system has a unique solution x1 = 1, x 2 = 1, x3 = 2 .

2.6.5 Example Solve the following system of linear equations

3x1
2 x1
6 x1

+ 2 x2
+ x2
+ 2 x2

+ x3
+ x3
+ 4 x3

= 3
= 0
= 6

Answer

3 2 1 3 R2 R2 23 R1
2 1 1 0
R3 R3 2 R1

6 2 4 6

3x1 + 2 x2 + x3
13 x2 + 13 x3
0 x3

= 3
= 2
= 12

3 2 1
0 1 1
3
3

0 2 2

3
R3 R3 6 R2
2

0

3 2
0 1
3

0 0

1
1
3

3
2
12

0 x3 = 12.

Hence we obtain 0 x3 = 12 . This is a contradiction as 0 12 .


Therefore the system has no solution, i.e., it is inconsistent.
2.6.6 Example Solve the following system of linear equations

3x1
2 x1
6 x1
Answer
3 2 1 3 R2 R2 23 R1
2 1 1 0
R3 R3 2 R1

6 2 4 6

3x1 + 2 x2 + x3
13 x2 + 13 x3
0 x3

= 3
= 2
= 0

+ 2 x2
+ x2
+ 2 x2

3 2 1
0 1 1
3
3

0 2 2

+ x3
+ x3
+ 4 x3

= 3
= 0
= 6

3
R3 R3 6 R2
2

12

x2 = x3 + 6, x1 = x3 9

Let x3 = k be any number. Then x1 = k 9, x2 = k + 6 .


The set of solutions = {x1 = k 9, x2 = k + 6, x3 = k , k R}.
Therefore the system has infinite number of solutions.

3 2
0 1
3

0 0

1
1
3

3
2
0

Solving a system of n n linear equations by using the inverse

Let AX = B be a system of n linear equations in n unknowns where A = (aij ) is the coefficient

matrix and X = ( xi ) and B = (bi ) are the column vectors of the unknowns and of the constants,
respectively.
Homogeneous system n n linear equations
2.6.7 Theorem

(1)

If A 0 , then AX = 0 has a unique solution, that is the trivial solution X = 0 .

(2)
If A = 0 , then AX = 0 has infinite number of solutions.
Proof (of (1))
AX = 0
A 1 ( AX ) = A 0 ( A 0 A1 exists)

( A 1 A) X = 0
In X = 0
X =0
The system has only the trivial solution
Non-homogeneous system n n linear equations
2.6.8 Theorem

(1)

If A 0 , then AX = B , B 0 has a unique solution.

(2)
If A = 0 , then AX = B , B 0 has no solution or infinite number of solutions.
Proof (of (1))
AX = B
A 1 ( AX ) = A1 B ( A 0 A1 exists)
( A 1 A) X = A 1 B
I n X = A1 B
X = A 1 B
The system has a unique solution X = A1 B

2.8.9 Example Determine all the values of k , if such values exist, so that
x 5 y + 3z = 0
5 x y kz = 0
x 2 y + kz = 0
has a nontrivial solution.
Answer

1 5 3 x 0
The homogeneous system is equivalent to AX = 0 , that is, 5 1 k y = 0 .
1 2 k z 0
The homogeneous system has nontrivial solution if A = 0 .
1 5

A = 5 1 k = 0
1 2 k

A = 27 27k = 0
Therefore, the system has a nontrivial solution if k = 1 .
If k 1 , then the system has only the trivial solution x = y = z = 0 .
2.8.10 Example Solve the following system of linear equations
x + y + z = 6
x + 2 y + 3z = 14
x + 4 y + 9 z = 36
Answer

1 1 1 x 6
The non-homogeneous system Is equivalent to AX = B , that is , 1 2 3 y = 14 .
1 4 9 z 36
1 1 1
Since A = 1 2 3 = 2 0 , then the system has a unique solution X = A 1 B .
1 4 9
Since A 1

3 52
= 3 4
1 32

3 52
1 X = A 1 B = 3 4
1
1 32
2
1
2

1
1
2
1
2

6 1
14 = 2 .

36 3

Therefore the system has a unique solution x = 1, y = 2, z = 3 .

Solving a system of n n linear equations by using determinants (Cramers Rule)


2.8.11 Theorem Cramers Rule
Let AX = B be a system of n linear equations in n unknowns. If A is a n n nonsingular
matrix, then AX = B has a unique solution given by

xk =

a11

a12

L a1(k 1)

x1

a1(k +1) L a1n

a11

a12

L a1(k 1)

x1

a1(k +1) L a1n

a 21

a 22

L a 2(k 1)

x2

a1(k +1) L a 2 n

a 21

a 22

L a 2(k 1)

x2

a1(k +1) L a 2 n

a n 2 L a n (k 1)

a n1

xn

a1(k +1) L a nn

a n1

a n 2 L a n (k 1)

xn

a1(k +1) L a nn

a11

a12

L a1(k 1)

a1k

a1(k +1) L a1n

a 21

a 22

L a 2(k 1)

a 2k

a1(k +1) L a 2 n

a n1

a n 2 L a n (k 1)

M
x nk

= 6
= 14
x + 4 y + 9 z = 36

Answer

1 1 1 x 6
The non-homogeneous system Is equivalent to AX = B , that is, 1 2 3 y = 14 .
1 4 9 z 36
1 1 1
Since A = 1 2 3 = 2 0 , then the system has a unique solution.
1 4 9
By using Cramers rule, the solution is given by

14
36
x=
1
1

1 1
2
4
1
2

3
1 14
9
1 36
=1 y =
1
1 1
3
1 2

3
9
1
3

1 4 9

1 4 9

1
1
1
= 2 and y =
1
1
1

1
2
4
1
2
4

6
14
36
= 3.
1
3
9

Therefore the system has a unique solution x = 1, y = 2, z = 3 .

a1(k +1) L a nn

2.8.11 Example Solve the system of linear equations


x + y + z
x + 2 y + 3z

2.9 Linearly independent, linear combination of row vectors and rank of a matrix
2.9.1 Definition
A row (column) vector is defined as a 1 n ( n 1 ) matrix.
~
~
~
The zero row (column) vector 0 is defined as 0 = (0, 0,..., 0) ( 0 T = (0, 0,..., 0)T ).

Let V = { v1 , v2 , L, vn } where v1 , v 2 , L, v n are row (column) vectors.


(1)
The vectors v1 , v 2 , L, v n are said to be linearly independent if
~
1v1 + 2 v2 + L + n vn = 0 implies that 1 = 2 = L = n = 0 .
2)
The vectors v1 , v 2 , L, v n are said to be linearly dependent if there exist numbers
~
1 , 2 , L, n not all of them zero, such that 1v1 + 2 v2 + L + n vn = 0 .
2.9.2 Example

(1) Let V = {(1, 0, 0), (1, 2, 0), (1, 0, 1)}.


Suppose 1 (1, 0, 0) + 2 (1, 2, 0 ) + 3 (1, 0, 1) = (0, 0, 0)
Then (1 + 2 + 3 , 22 , 3 ) = (0, 0, 0)

1 + 2 + 3 = 0
22
=0
3 = 0

1 = 2 = 3 = 0

Therefore the system has only the trivial solution, i.e., 1 = 2 = 3 = 0


Therefore, (1, 0, 0 ), (1, 2, 0), (1, 0,1) are linearly independent.
(2) Let V = {(1, 0, 0), (1, 2, 2), (1, 4, 4)}.
Suppose 1 (1, 0, 0) + 2 (1, 2, 2) + 3 (1, 4, 4) = (0, 0, 0)
Then (1 + 2 + 3 , 22 43 , 22 43 ) = (0, 0, 0)

1 + 2 + 3 = 0
22 43 = 0

2 = 23 , x1 = 33

Let 3 = t be any number. Then 2 = 2t , 1 = 3t .


The set of solutions = {1 = 3t , 2 = 2t 3 = t , t R}.
Therefore the system has infinite number of solutions.
Choose t =1 . Then 1 = 3, 2 = 2, 3 = 1 .
Hence 3 (1, 0, 0) + 2 (1, 2, 2) + 1 (1, 4, 4) = (0, 0, 0) .
Then, there exists i not all zero such that 1 (1, 0, 0) + 2 (1, 2, 2) + 3 (1, 4, 4) = (0, 0, 0) .
Therefore, (1, 0, 0), (1, 2, 2), (1, 4, 4 ) are linearly dependent.

2.9.3 Definition
Let A be an m n matrix and let each row of A be considered as a row vector of A . Then, the
maximum number of independent row (column) vectors of A is called the rank of A and is
denoted by ( A) or rank A.
2.9.4 Example
0
1 0

Let A = 1 2
2 where v1 = (1, 0, 0), v 2 = (1, 2, 2) , v3 = (1, 4, 4 ). are the rows of A .
1 4 4
Then v1 , v 2 , v3 are linearly dependent by Example 2.92.
However, v1 , v 2 are linearly independent. (Prove it.)
(Are v 2 , v3 linearly independent?) (Are v1 , v3 linearly independent?)
Therefore the maximum number of linearly independent row vectors = 2.
Hence, the rank of A = ( A) = 2 .
Remark
Let V = { v1 , v2 , L, vn } where v1 , v 2 , L, v n are row vectors. If there exists a zero row vector in
~
V (that is vi = 0 for some i ), then v1 , v 2 , L, v n are linearly dependent.
~
~
If vi = 0 , then i does not to be zero so that 0v1 + 0v2 + L + i vi + 0vi + 1 + L + 0vn = 0 .
2.9.5 Theorem
Let A and B be m n matrices.
(1)
If A is a row echelon matrix, then the rank of A is the number of non-zero rows in A .
(2)
If A is row equivalent to B , then rank of A = rank of B , i.e., ( A) = (B) .
2.9.6 Example
0 1 0
Let A = 1 0 2 and V = { (0, 1, 0), (1, 0, 2), (2, 0, 1)} .
2 0 1
(1) Find the rank of A .
(2) Determine the maximum number of linearly independent row vectors in V .
Answer
0 1 0
1 0 2
1 0 2

R1 R2
R3 R3 2 R1
A = 1 0 2
0 1 0 0 1 0 = B (rem)
2 0 1
2 0 1
0 0 5
Therefore
(1) The rank of A = rank of B = 3. (since B is a row echelon matrix)
(2) The maximum number of linearly independent row vectors in V is also 3.

2.9.7 Theorem
Let A be an n n matrix . Then A is invertible (nonsingular) if and only if the rank of A = n .
i.e., A is invertible A is invertible (nonsingular) if and only if A has n independent row
(column) vectors.
2.9.8 Definition
Let V = { v1 , v2 , L, vn } where v1 , v 2 , L, v n are row (column) vectors. A vector v is a linear
combination of the vectors v1 , v 2 , L, v n if v = 1v1 + 2 v2 + L + n vn where 1 , 2 , L, n are
scalars.
2.9.9 Example
Let v1 = (2, 3, 1), v2 = (3, 4, 1) and v3 = (1, 0, 1) . Then v = (20, 29, 3) is a linear combination
of v1 , v2 , v3 since v = (20, 29, 3) = 3(2, 3, 1) + 5(3, 4, 1) + 1(1, 0, 1) = 3v1 + 5v2 + 1v3 .
2.10 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
2.10.1 Definition
Let A be an n n matrix. A number is called an eigenvalue of A if there exists a nonzero
~
n 1 column vector X 0 such that AX = X . The vector X is called an eigenvector of A
corresponding to (or associated with) the eigenvalue . (Note that the eigenvalue can be the
~
number 0 but the eigenvector X must be a nonzero vector, i.e., X 0 .)
2.10.2 Example
1 2
1
Let A =
, X1 =

4 3
1
1 2 1
Then AX 1 =
=
4 3 1

1
and X 2 = .
2
1
1
1 = 1 1 = X 1 .


~
Therefore 1 = 1 is an eigenvalue of A and X 1 0 is an eigenvector of A corresponding to
the eigenvalue 1 = 1 .
1 2 1 5
1
Then AX 2 =
= = 5 = 5X 2 .

4 3 2 10
2
~
Therefore 2 = 5 is an eigenvalue of A and X 2 0 is an eigenvector of A corresponding to the
eigenvalue 2 = 5 .
Problem
1 0
Let A =
.
0 0

0
1
Determine whether X 1 = , X 2 = are eigenvectors of A .
4
4

2.10.3 Theorem
Let A be n n matrix. A number is an eigenvalue of A if and only if A I n = 0 .

Proof:

is an eigenvalue of A
There exists a nonzero n 1 column vector X such that AX = X

There exists a nonzero n 1 column vector X such that

~
The homogenous system has a nontrivial solution Q X 0
The matrix ( A I n ) is singular (not invertible)

( A I n ) X

~
=0

A I n = 0 .

2.10.4 Definition
Let A be a n n matrix. Then,

p( ) = A I n is called the characteristic polynomial of A and

p( ) = 0 , i.e., A I n = 0 is called the characteristic equation of A .

2.10.5 A procedure to determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix


(1)
For a given A determine the characteristic polynomial p( ) = A I n .

(2)
(3)

Solve the characteristic equation p( ) = 0 and determine all the eigenvalues i .


~
For each i , solve for X i 0 in the equation AX i = i X i , or equivalently, solve
( A i I n )X i = ~0 and find an eigenvector X i ~0 corresponding to i .

2.10.6 Example
1 1 2
Let A = 1 2 1
0 1 1
(1)
Determine the characteristic polynomial of A .
(2)
Find all the eigenvalues of A and for each eigenvalue of A , find an eigenvector of A
corresponding to it.
Answer
The characteristic polynomial of A is p( ) = A I 3 , that is,

p( ) = 1
0

1
2
1

1
= 3 22 + 2 = ( 2) ( 1)( + 1)
1

The characteristic polynomial is p( ) = 3 22 + 2


Now p( ) = 0 = 2, 1, 1
So the eigenvalues of A are 1 = 2, 2 = 1, 3 = 1 .

~
Next, to find eigenvectors X i corresponding to i we solve the system ( A i I 3 )X i = 0 .

1
this is, solve 1
0

1
2
1

2
1
1

x1 0

x 2 = 0 --------(1).
x 0
3

Case 1. 1 = 2
Now solve equation (1) by substituting 1 = 2 in it.
1
2
0
1 2
1 1 2 0
1 2 2

R3 R3 + R2
R2 R2 R1
1
0 0 1 3 0

0
0
1
1 2 0
1 3 0

1 0 1 0
0 1 3 0

0 0 0 0

x1
+ x3 = 0
x 2 + 3 x3 = 0
x1 = x3 , x2 = 3 x3 .
= 0
0
Let x3 = k be any number. Then x2 = 3k , x1 = k
k

The set of eigenvectors corresponding to 1 = 2 is given by 3k , k 0 . (Why is k 0 ?)


k

Case 2. 2 = 1
Now solve equation (1) by substituting 2 = 1 in it.
1
2
0
1 1
1 1 1 0
1 1 1 0
1 2 1

R1 R2
R3 R3 R2
1
0 0 1 2 0 0 1 2 0

0
0 1 2 0
0 0 0 0
1
1 1 0
x1 + x2 + x3 = 0
x 2 2 x3 = 0
x1 = x2 + x3 , x2 = 2 x3 .
0
= 0
Let x3 = k be any number. Then x2 = 2k , x1 = 3k
3k

The set of eigenvectors corresponding to 2 = 1 is given by 2 k , k 0 .


k

Case 3. 3 = 1
Now solve equation (1) by substituting 3 = 1 in it.
1
2
0
1 + 1
1 3 1
1 2 + 1

R1 R2
1
0 2 1 2

0
1
1 + 1 0
0 1 0
1 3 1 0
1 3 1

R2 R3
R3 R3 7 R2
0 1 0 0
0 1 0
0 7 0 0
0 0 0

x1 + 3 x2
x2

0
1 3 1 0

R2 R2 + 2 R1
0
0 7 0 0
0
0 1 0 0
0
0
0

+ x3

= 0
= 0
x1 = x3 , x2 = 0 .
0
= 0
Let x3 = k be any number. Then x1 = k .
k

The set of eigenvectors corresponding to 3 = 1 is given by 0 , k 0 .


k

2.10.7 Example
cos sin
Let A =
.
sin cos
(1)
Determine the characteristic polynomial of A .
(2)
Find all the eigenvalues of A and for each eigenvalue of A , find an eigenvector of A
corresponding to it.

Answer
The characteristic polynomial of A is p( ) = A I 3 , that is,

p ( ) =

cos sin
= (cos ) 2 + sin 2 = 2 2 cos + 1
sin
cos

The characteristic polynomial of A is p( ) = 2 2 cos + 1 .


Now p( ) = 0 =

2 cos 4 cos 2 4
= cos i sin .
2

So the eigenvalues of A are 1 = cos + i sin and 2 = cos i sin .


~
Next, to find eigenvectors X i corresponding to i we solve the system ( A i I 2 ) X i = 0 .
cos sin
that is, solve
cos
sin

x1 0
= ------------(1).
x2 0

Case 1. 1 = cos + i sin


Now solve equation (1) by substituting 1 = cos + i sin in it.
i sin
sin

sin
i sin

0
i sin
R2 R2 i R1

0
0

(i sin ) x1 + ( sin ) x2 = 0
0=0

sin
0

0
0

x2 = i x1

Let x1 = k be any number. Then x2 = ik .


k

, k 0 .
The set of eigenvectors corresponding to 1 = cos + i sin is given by
ik

Case 2. 2 = cos i sin


Now solve equation (1) by substituting 2 = cos i sin in it.
i sin
sin

sin
i sin

0
R2 R2 + i R1

i sin
0

sin
0

0
0

(i sin ) x1 + ( sin ) x2 = 0

x2 = i x1
0=0
Let x1 = k be any number. Then x2 = ik
k

The set of eigenvectors corresponding to 2 = cos i sin is given by , k 0 .


ik

2.11 Diagonlization

Recall that an n n matrix D = (d i , j ) is called a diagonal matrix if d i , j = 0 for all i j , that is,
d11
0
D=
M

0 L 0
d 22 L 0
.
M O M

L 0 d nn

Properties of diagonal matrices


2.11.1 Theorem
d11 0 L 0
w11 0 L 0
0 w
0 d

L 0
L 0
22
22

Let D =
and W =
be two diagonal n n matrices.
M
M
M O M
M O M

L 0 wnn
0
0 L 0 d nn
Then
(1)
DW and WD are also diagonal matrices and

w11d11
0
DW =
M

0
L
0
w22 d 22 L
0
= WD .
M
O
M

L
0 wnn d nn

(2)

The determinant of D = D = d11 d 22 d 33 K d nn .

(3)

If all of the diagonal elements of D are nonzero (that if d ii 0, for all i = 1, 2, K, n ),

(4)

1
0 L 0
d
11

0
L 0
then D is invertible (or nonsingular) and D 1 =
.
d 22
M
M O M

1
L 0
0

d nn

The eigenvalues of D are its diagonal elements, that is d11 , K, d nn .

2.11.2 Definition
Let A be an n n matrix. Then, A is diagonalizable if and only if there exists an n n matrix
P such that P 1 AP is a diagonal matrix. (That is, P 1 AP = D where D is a diagonal matrix)
When such a matrix P exists, we say that P diagonalizes A .
2.11.3 Example
3 2
Let A =
. There exists a matrix P =
3 2
1 3 1 3 2 2 1 1 3
P 1 AP =
=
7 1 2 3 2 1 3 7 1
Therefore, P diagonalizes A .

2 1
1 3 such that

1 8 3 4 0
=
= D , a diagonal matrix.
2 4 9 0 3

2.11.4 Theorem
Let A be an n n matrix. Then A is diagonalizable if and only if A has n linearly
independent eigenvectors.
2.11.5 Theorem
Let A be an n n matrix. If A has n distinct eigenvalues then A has n linearly independent
eigenvectors, i.e., if A has n distinct eigenvalues then A is diagonalizable.
Remark
Note that if A is diagonalizable, it may not necessarily have n distinct eigenvalues.
2.11.6 A procedure to find a matrix P that diagonalizes the matrix A

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Determine the characteristic equation of A , that is p( ) = A I n = 0 .

Solve the characteristic equation p( ) = 0 and determine all the eigenvalues i .


~
~
For each i , solve ( A i I 2 )X i = 0 to find an eigenvector X i 0 corresponding to i .
Form the matrix P = [ X 1 X 2
X n ].
Determine whether the eigenvectors X 1 , X 2 ,... , X n are linearly independent, i.e.,
determine whether P has rank n . (i.e., whether P is invertible, i.e., whether P 0 )

(6)

If P 0 , then P 1

1
0
AP =
M

L 0
2 L 0
.
M O M

L 0 n
0

2.11.7 Example
1 4
1
Let A =
. Find a matrix P and a diagonal matrix D such that D = P AP .
0
3

Answer
The characteristic polynomial is p( ) = A I 2 , that is,

1
4
= 2 2 3 = ( 3)( + 1) .
0
3
Now p ( ) = ( 3)( + 1) = 0 = 1, 3 .
So the eigenvalues of A are 1 = 1, 2 = 3 .
A I 2 =

~
Next, to find eigenvectors X i corresponding to i we solve the system ( A i I 2 )X i = 0 .
4
1
that is, solve
3
0

x1 0
= --------------(1).
x2 0

Case 1. 1 = 1
Now solve equation (1) by substituting 1 = 1 in it.
0
0

4 x2
Let

4
4
=
x1

0 R2 R2 + R1
0 4 0

0
0 0 0
0 x2 = 0 .
= k be any number.

The set of eigenvectors corresponding to 1 = 1 is given by , k 0 .


0

1
Choose k = 1 . Then X 1 = is a eigenvector corresponding to 1 = 1.
0
Case 2. 2 = 3
Now solve equation (1) by substituting 2 = 3 in it.
4 4 0
0 0 0 .

4 x1 + 4 x2 = 0 x1 = x2 .
Let x2 = k be any nonzero number. Then x1 = k .
k

The set of eigenvectors corresponding to 2 = 3 is given by , k 0 .


k

1
Choose k = 1 . Then X 2 = is a eigenvector corresponding to 2 = 3.
1
1 1
Let P = [ X 1 X 2 ] =
.
0 1
1 1
1 1
Then P =
= 1 0 . Then P 1 exists and P 1 =
.
0 1
0 1
1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 0
Now P 1 AP =

=
= D.
0 1 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 3 0 3
1 1
1 0
Therefore P =
diagonalizes the matrix A and D = P 1 AP =

.
0 1
0 3

2.11.8 Example
1 0 5
Let A = 0 1 0 . Find a matrix P and a diagonal matrix D such that D = P 1 AP .
0 0 2
Answer
The characteristic polynomial of A is p( ) = A I 3 , that is,

p( ) =

0
0

1
0

0
= ( 1 ) (1 ) ( 2 ) .
2

Now p( ) = 0 = 1, 1, 2.
So the eigenvalues of A are 1 = 1, 2 = 1, 3 = 2 .

Next, find eigenvectors X i corresponding to i by solving the system ( A i I 3 ) X i = 0 .


0
1

that is, solve 0


1
0
0

0
2

x1 0

x2 = 0 -------------(1)
x 0
3

Case 1. 1 = 1
Now solve equation (1) by substituting 1 = 1 in it.
0
5
0
1 + 1
0 2 0 0
0 2 0 0
1
R3 R3 + R2
R1 R21
0

1+1
0
0 0 0 5 0 5 0 0 5 0

0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
0
2 + 1 0
2 x2
= 0
x2 = 0, x3 = 0
5 x3 = 0
Let x1 = k be any number.
k

The set of eigenvectors corresponding to 1 = 1 is given by 0 , k 0 .


0

1

Choose k = 1 . Then X 1 = 0 is an eigenvector corresponding to 1 = 1.
0

Case 2. 2 = 1
Now solve equation (1) by substituting 2 = 1 in it.
0
5
0
1 1
2 0 5 0
0

R2 R3
11
0
0 0 0 3 0

0
0 0 0 0
0
2 1 0
2 x1
+ 5 x3 = 0
x1 = 0, x3 = 0
3x3 = 0
Let x 2 = k be any number.
0

The set of eigenvectors corresponding to 2 = 1 is given by k , k 0 .


0

0

Choose k = 1 . Then X 1 = 1 is an eigenvector corresponding to 2 = 1.
0

Case 3. 3 = 2

Now solve equation (1) by substituting 3 = 2 in it.


0
5
0 1 0 5 0
1 + 2
0
1+ 2
0
0 = 0 3 0 0

0
0
2 + 2 0 0 0 0 0
x1
+ 5 x3 = 0
x1 = 5 x3 , x2 = 0
3x2
= 0
Let x3 = k be any number. Then x1 = 5k .
5k

The set of eigenvectors corresponding to 3 = 2 is given by 0 , k 0 .


k

5

Choose k = 1 . Then X 1 = 0 is an eigenvector corresponding to 3 = 2.
1

1 0 5
Let P = 0 1 0 . Since P = 1 0, then P 1 exists.
0 0 1

1 0 0
Therefore P diagonalizes the matrix A and D = P 1 AP = 0 1 0 .
0 0 2

Remark
If a matrix A has n distinct eigenvalues, then A has n linearly independent eigenvectors and
so A is diagonalizable. (see Theorem 2.11.5) However, there exist many matrices which are
diagonalizable even though they have some repeated eigenvalues. In these matrices, all we need
are n linearly independent eigenvectors of the matrix (see Theorem 2.11.4).
2.11.9 Example
5 4 4
Let A = 12 11 12 . Find a matrix P that diagonalizes A and find the diagonal matrix D
4 4 5
such that D = P 1 AP.
Answer
The characteristic polynomial of A is p( ) = A I 3 , that is,

p( ) = 12
4

11 12 = (1 + )(1 )(3 + ) .
4
5

Now p( ) = 0 = 1, 1, 3.
So the eigenvalues of A are 1 = 1, 2 = 3 .

Next, find eigenvectors X i corresponding to i by solving the system ( A i I 3 ) X i = 0 .


5
that is, solve 12
4

4 x1 0

11 12 x2 = 0 -------------(1)
4
5 x3 0

Case 1. 1 = 1
Now solve equation (1) by substituting 1 = 1 in it.

4
4
0
5 1
4 4 4 0
12 11 1 12 0 R
2 R2 3 R1
0 0 0 0 .

4
0 0 0 0
4
5 1 0
Therefore x1 x2 + x3 = 0 x1 = x2 x3 .
Let x 2 = s, x3 = t be any numbers. Then x1 = s t.
s t

The set of eigenvectors corresponding to 1 = 1 is given by s , (s, t ) (0, 0 ) .


t

1

Choose s = 1 and t = 0 . Then X 1 = 1 is an eigenvector corresponding to 1 = 1.
0

1

Choose s = 0 and t = 1 . Then X 2 = 1 is an eigenvector corresponding to 1 = 1.
0

(Note that X 1 and X 2 are linearly independent eigenvectors.)


Case 2. 2 = 3
Now solve equation (1) by substituting 2 = 1 in it.
4
0
4
5 + 1
8 4 4 0
2 1 1 0
12 11 + 1 12 0 R

R
2 R2 3 R1 / 2
3
0 2 6 0
32 0 2 6 0 .

4
0 2 6 0
0 0 0 0
5 + 1 0
4
2 x1 x2 + x3 = 0
x1 = x3 , x2 = 3x3
x 2 + 3 x3 = 0
Let x3 = k be any number. Then x2 = 3k , x1 = k
k

The set of eigenvectors corresponding to 3 = 1 is given by 3k , k 0 .


k

1

Choose k = 1 . Then X 3 = 3 is an eigenvector corresponding to 3 = 3.
1

1 1 1
Let P = [ X 1 X 2 X 3 ] = 1 0 3 . Since P = 1 0, then P 1 exists.
0 1 1

1 0 0
Therefore P diagonalizes the matrix A and D = P 1 AP = 0 1 0
0 0 3

2.12 Matrix Functions


2.12.1 Definition
Let f (t ) = a 0 + a1t + L + a n t n be a polynomial of degree n .
If A is an n n matrix, then

f ( A) =

a A

i=0

= a0 I n + a1 A + a2 A2 + L + an A n is called a matrix function.

2.12.2 Example

1 1
Let f (t ) = 1 t + 3t 2 .Determine f ( A) for A =
.
2 3
1 0
1 1
1 4 3 11
Then f ( A) = I 2 A + 3 A 2 = 1
1
+ 3
=
.

7 22 19
0 1
2 3
8

2.12.3 Theorem CayleyHamilton Theorem


Every matrix is a zero of its characteristic polynomial, that is, if A is an n n matrix

and p( ) = A I n is its characteristic polynomial, then p( A) = 0 n .


2.12.4 Example

3 4
Verify Carley-Hamilton Theorem for A =
.
1 2
Answer
The characteristic polynomial of A is
4 2
3
p( ) = A I n =
= 5 + 2 .
2
1

Substituting A into the characteristic polynomial we obtain


13 20
3 4
1 0
p( A) = A2 5 A + 2 I 2 =
5
+ 2

=
5 8
1 2
0 1
Therefore p( A) = 0 n .

0 0
0 0 .

Applications of the CayleyHamilton Theorem


Finding Ar by using the CayleyHamilton Theorem
A procedure to find Ar for a matrix A
Let A is an 2 2 matrix. Then the characteristic polynomial of A , p( ) = A I n , is a

polynomial of degree 2 , i.e., p( A) =

a A

i=0

= a0 I n + a1 A + a2 A 2 .

3 4
2
For example let A =
. Then p( A) = 5 + 2 . (Example 2.12.4)
1
2

Now
p( A) = 0 2 . (by Cayley-Hamilton Theorem)
A2 5 A + 2I 2 = 02 .
A2 = 5 A 2I 2 .
A3 = A2 ( A) = (5 A 2 I 2 )A = 5 A 2 2 A = 5(5 A 2 I 2 ) 2 A = 23 A 10 I 2 .
A4 = A3 ( A) = (23 A 10 I 2 )A = 23(5 A 2 I 2 ) 10 A = 115 A 56 I 2 .

In general, A r = a0 I n + a1 A, r 2 . ------------------------------------------------- (*)


So to find Ar we need to solve for a0 and a1 .
Note that r = a0 + a1 , r 2 .
Each eigenvalue of A also satisfies the equation (*) since p( ) = 2 5 + 2 = 0 .
Determination of a0 and a1 :
Case 1: 1 2
Then 1r = a0 + a11 -----------------------------(1)
and r2 = a0 + a12 -----------------------------(2)
We then solve the equations (1) and (2) for a0 and a1 .
Case 2: 1 = 2
Then r = a0 + a1 -----------------------------(3)
and rr 1 = a1 ----------------------------------(4) (This is the derivative equation)
We then solve the equations (3) and (4) for a0 and a1 .
The technique in Case 2 is given by the Theorem 2.12.5.

2.12.5 Theorem
If = 0 are two (or more) repeated roots of the polynomial equation f ( ) = 0, then 0 is also
a root f ( ) = 0 .
Proof
Since = 0 are two repeated roots of f ( ) = 0 then f ( ) = ( 0 ) 2 g ( ) .
Differentiate f with respect to , we have f ( ) = 2( 0 ) g ( ) + ( 0 ) g ( ) .
Now f (0 ) = 0 .
Hence 0 is a root of f (0 )
2.12.6 Example
1
0
Let A =
.
2 3

Determine A5 and A r , r 2.
Hence, evaluate A4 2 A3 + A I 2 .
Answer
The characteristic polynomial of A is
0
1
p( A) = A I 2 =
= 2 + 3 + 2 = ( + 1)( + 2 )
2 3
Now p( A) = 0 = 1, 2.
So the eigenvalues of A are 1 = 1, 2 = 2 .

Let A5 = a 0 I 2 + a1 A .
Then 5 = a0 + a1 for each = 1, 2 .

When = 1, ( 1) = a0 + a1 ( 1) .
5



When = 2, ( 2) = a0 + a1 ( 2) .

Solving (1) and (2), we have a1 = 31 and a 0 = 30 .
5

So A5 = 30 I 2 + 31A .
1
31
1 0
0
30
Therefore A5 = 30
+ 31
=

.
0 1
2 3
62 63
Now r = a0 + a1 for each = 1, 2

When = 1, ( 1) = a0 + a1 ( 1) .
r

When = 2, ( 2) = a0 + a1 ( 2) .
r




Solve (3) and (4), we have


r
r
a1 = ( 1) ( 2 ) = (1) r (1 2 r ) .

a0 = ( 1) ( 2) + (1) r = (1) r (2 2 r ) .
r

So A r = ((1) r (2 2 r ) I 2 + ((1) r (1 2 r ) A .

Therefore A = ( 1) 2 2
r

))

))

1
1 0
0
r
r
r
(
)
+

1
1

2
0 1
2 3 = ( 1)

2 2r
1 2r
r +1
.
r +1
2 2 2 1

4
1 2 4 14 15
4 2 2
When r = 4, A 4 = ( 1) 4 + 1
=
.
2 2 4 + 1 1 30 31
2
3
7
1 23 6
3 2 2
3
When r = 3, A = ( 1) 3 + 1
=
.
3+1
2 2 2 1 14 15
Therefore
7 0
1 1 0 27 28
14 15
6
+
A 4 2 A3 + A I 2 =
2
.


=
57
14 15 2 3 0 1 56
30 31

Alternative method
Let A 4 2 A3 + A I 2 = b0 I 2 + b1 A .

Then 4 23 + 1 = b0 + b1 .

When = 1, (1) 4 2 ( 1) + (1) 1 = b0 + b1 ( 1)


3

When = 1, (1) 4 2 ( 1) + (1) 1 = b0 + b1 ( 1) 


Solve (5) and (6), we have b0 = 27 and b1 = 28 .
3

1 27 28
0
1 0
Therefore A 4 2 A3 + A I 2 = 27
28
.

=
57
0 1
2 3 56
Example
2.12.7 Example
1
0
Let A =
.
1 2

Determine A5 and A r , r 2.
Hence, evaluate A4 2 A3 + A I 2 .
Answer
The characteristic polynomial of A is
0
1
2
p( A) = A I 2 =
= 2 + 2 + 1 = ( + 1) .
2 3
Now p ( A) = 0 = 1, 1.
So the eigenvalues of A are 1 = 1, 2 = 1 .

Let A5 = a 0 I 2 + a1 A .
Then 5 = a0 + a1 for = 1 .
Also 54 = a1 for = 1 . (This is the derivative equation)
When = 1, ( 1) = a0 + a1 ( 1) .
5

When = 1, 5( 1) = a1 .
Solving (1) and (2), we have a1 = 5 and a0 = 4 .
4




So A5 = 4 I 2 + 5 A
1 4
5
1 0
0
Therefore A5 = 4
+ 5
=

0 1
1 2 5 6
Let A 4 2 A3 + A I 2 = b0 I 2 + b1 A .
Then 4 23 + 1 = b0 + b1 .
Also 43 62 + 1 = b1 . (This is the derivative equation)

When = 1, (1) 4 2 ( 1) + (1) 1 = b0 + b1 ( 1)


3

When = 1, 4(1) 3 6 ( 1) + 1 = b1 .
Solve (3) and (4), we have b0 = 8 and b1 = 9 .
2



1 8 9
1 0
0
Therefore A 4 2 A3 + A I 2 = 8
9

=
.
0 1
1 2 9 10
Finding A1 by using the CayleyHamilton Theorem
2.12.8 Example
1
0
Let A =
. Determine A1 by using the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.

1 2
Answer
The characteristic polynomial of A is p( ) = 2 + 2 + 1 .
Then by the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem p( A) = 0 2 .
p( A) = 0 2 .

A2 + 2 A + I 2 = 02
A1 ( A2 + 2 A + I 2 ) = A1 (0 2 ) .
A + 2 I 2 + A 1 = 0 2 .
A 1 = A 2 I 2 .
1 0 2 1
0 1
Therefore A 1 =
2
.

=
0
1 2
0 1 1

2.12.9 Example
1 1 2
Let A = 1 2 1 . Determine A1 by using the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem.
0 1 1
Answer
The characteristic polynomial of A is p( ) = 3 22 + 2 .
Then by the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem p( A) = 0 2
p( A) = 0 3 .
A3 2 A 2 A + 2 I 3 = 0 3
A 1 ( A3 2 A2 A + 2 I 3 ) = A 1 (0 3 ) .
A 2 2 A I 3 + 2 A 1 = 0 3 .
1
A 1 = ( A 2 + 2 A + I 3 ) .
2
2
1 1 2
1 1 2
1 0 0
1

Therefore A 1 = { 1 2 1 + 2 1 2 1 + 0 1 0}
2
0 1 1
0 1 1
0 0 1

0 1 1
1 1 2
1 0 0
1

= { 3 4 2 + 2 1 2 1 + 0 1 0}
2
1 1 2
0 1 1
0 0 1
3 1 5
1
= { 1 1 1}
2
1 1 3

Chapter 3 Vector Algebra


3.1 Basic Concepts
3.1.1 Definition
A vector v is a quantity with magnitude and direction. It can be represented by a directed
~

line segment (an arrow) from a point P to a point Q . The point P is called the initial point
of v and the point Q is called the terminal point of v . We write v = PQ .
~

The magnitude of v = PQ is defined to be the length of PQ , that is , v = PQ .


~

Q
A scalar is a quantity with magnitude only.

Velocity, acceleration and force are examples of vectors.


Length, temperature, voltage and mass are examples of scalars.
Notation: Vector: a, b, A, B, PQ.
~ ~

Scalar: a, b, A, B, PQ.
3.1.2 Definition
(i) Equality of vectors
Two vectors are equal if and only if they have the same magnitude and the same direction.
Remarks: A vector is determined by its magnitude and direction. It is not determined by its
position i.e., not determined by its initial point and terminal point.
(ii) Negative of vectors
A vector having direction opposite to the vector PQ but with the same magnitude is called
the negative of PQ and it is denoted by PQ .

RS = PQ
RS PQ

3.1.3 Example

A
3
D

2 B
O C

P
F
3

1 E

From the above diagram,


3
AB = OP (same magnitude and direction),
CD = OP (same magnitude but opposite direction)
EF OP (same direction but different magnitude).
1

3.1.4 Definition
(i) The Zero Vector 0
~

The zero vector 0 is a vector has magnitude zero and no direction, i.e., 0 = 0 .
~

(ii) A Unit Vector u


A unit vector u is a vector of magnitude one unit, i.e., u = 1 .

(iii) A Position Vector a


~

Let a coordinate system be given. Let O be the origin and A be any point. The position
vector of A , denoted OA or a , is the vector with initial point O and terminal point A .
~

For convenience, the points O and A are sometimes labeled 0 and a respectively.
~

Notation: a = OA
~

(iv) Parallel vectors


Two nonzero vectors v1 and v2 are said to be parallel if v1 and v2 (or v1 and v2 ) have
~

the same direction. (Notation: v1 // v2 )


~

3.1.5 Example
In this example, a , b , c , K denote the position vectors of A, B, C , K respectively.
~

3.1.6 Definition (Scalar Multiplication)

If is a scalar and v is a nonzero vector, then a v is a vector where


~

(i) v = v .
~

(ii) v // v .
~

(iii) v is in the direction of v if > 0 ;


~

v is in the opposite direction of v if > 0 .


~

3.1.7 Theorem

Let v 0 . Then u is a unit vector in the direction of v if and only if u =


~

v
~

v
~

3.1.8 Definition (Vector Addition)


Let a and b be two vectors. Then the sum of a and b , denoted by a + b , is defined
~

according to the following two laws:


b
~

a + b is the vector given by the diagonal of the parallelogram.


~

a+b

(i) Parallelogram Law


If a and b are represented by two sides of a parallelogram, then

Note that AC = OB = b , then a + b = OA + AC = OC .


~

Fig 1

(ii) Triangle Law


If a and b are represented by two sides of a triangle, then
~

a+ b

a + b is the vector given by the third sided of the triangle.


~

(Place the initial point of b at the terminal point of a ,


~

then a + b is the vector drawn from the initial point of a


~

Fig 2

to the terminal of b .)
~

Basic properties of Vector Addition and Scalar Multiplication


3.1.9 Theorem
Let a and b be two vectors and let be a scalar. Then
~

(i) a + b = b + a .
~

(Commutative Law)

(ii) ( a + b ) + c = a + ( b + a ) .
~

(Associative Law)

(iii) a + 0 = a .
~

(iv) ( a ) = ( ) a .
~

(v) ( + ) a = a + a
~

Proof of (i) (See Fig 1 above )


From OAC , OC = OA + AC = a + b .
~

From OBC , OC = OB + BC = b + a .
~

Therefore a + b = b + a .
~

Proof of (ii) (See Fig 3)


From OAB, OB = OA + AB = a + b .
~

b+ c

From ABE , AE = AB + BE = b + c .
~

Therefore from OAE , OE = OA + AE = a + (b + c)


~

and from OBE , OE = OB + BE = ( a + b) + c .


~

Hence (a + b) + c = a + (b + c).
~

a+ b
~

Fig 3
3

Remark
From Theorem 3.1.9(ii) we may simply write a + b + c (without any parenthesis),
~
~
~
an
~
and similarly for sums of more than three vector v = a1 + a2 + K + an .
~

a3

The n vectors a1 , a2 , K , an together with vector v form a closed polygon.


~

ab
~

a
~

a1

a2

3.1.10 Definition (Vector Subtraction)


Let a and b be two vectors. Then a b = a + ( b ) .
b
~

O
ab
~
~
3.1.11 Problem
Solve the following from the given diagram
1. Find c + f g + h d .
~

2. Express the vector e as the sum of

(i) two different vectors.


(ii) three different vectors.

3.2 Applications in Geometry

3.2.1 Theorem (Midpoint formula)


Let A and B be two points and C be the midpoint of the line segment AB . Let a , b and c
~

1
denote the position vectors of the points A , B and C respectively. Then c = (a + b) .
~
2 ~ ~
A
Proof
c = OA + AC

1
AB
2
~
1
= a + (b a )
~
2 ~ ~
1
= (a + b).
2 ~ ~
=a+

c
~

1
B

AC : CB = 1 : 1

3.2.2 Theorem (Ratio Formula)


Let A and B be two points and C is the point of on the line segment AB which divides AB

into two segments which are in the ratio m : n . Then c =


~

1
(n a + m b) . (When
~
m+n ~

m = n = 1, C is the midpoint of AB . )
Proof Exercise.

3.2.3 Example
Show that the intersection between any two medians of a triangle divides a median into
segments which are in the ratio 2 : 1 .
Solution
Let ABC be a triangle.
Let D and E be the midpoints of BC and CA , respectively.
Then AD and BE are two medians lines of the triangle ABC .
Let X be the intersection of AD and BE . We need to show X divides AD into segments which
are in the ratio 2 : 1 .
Let a , b , c , d and e denote the position vectors of the points A , B , C , D and E respectively.
~

1
1
From the midpoint formula, d = (b + c) and e = (a + c) .
~
~
2 ~ ~
2 ~ ~
Suppose AX = m AD and BX = n BE .
1
1
Then AX = m d a = m (b c) a = 2m a + m b + m c ---(1)
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
2
2

From AXB, AX = AB + BX .
= (b a ) + n(e b)
~

= b a + n ( a + c ) b
~
~
~
~
~
2

1
= (n 2) a + 2(1 n) b + n c ---(2)
~
~
~
2
Comparing coefficients from (1) and (2), we have
(n 2) = 2m

2 2n = m
= n
2
Hence m = = n .
3
2
Therefore AX = AD.
3
Hence, the point X divides AD into segments which are in the ratio 2 : 1 .
m

3.2.4 Example
Show that the medians of a triangle ABC meet in a common point which is the point of
trisection of the medians.
B
Solution
Let ABC be a triangle.
F
Let D, E and F be the midpoints of BC , CA and AB , respectively.
Then AD, BE and CF are the median lines of the triangle ABC .
X
Let X , Y and Z be the intersection of AD and BE, BE and CF , ,
A
CF and AD respectively. We need to show X = Y = Z .
E

Let a , b , c , d , e , f , x , y and z denote the position vectors of the points


~

A , B , C , D , E , F , X , Y and Z respectively.

1
1
1
From the midpoint formula, d = (b + c), e = (a + c) and f = (a + b) .
~
2 ~ ~ ~ 2 ~ ~
2 ~ ~
~
From Example 3.2.3, X is the point at AD that divides AD into segments which are in the
ratio 2 : 1 . Similarly for Y and Z .
Then from the Ratio Formula with m = 2 and n = 1 , we have
1
1
x = (a + 2 d ) = (a + b + c).
~
~
3 ~
3 ~ ~ ~
1
1
y = (b + 2 e) = (b + c + a ),
~
~
3
3 ~ ~ ~
~
1
1
z = (c + 2 f ) = (c + a + b).
~
3 ~
3 ~ ~ ~
~
Therefore x = y = z and hence X , Y and Z are the same point. Thus AD, BE and CF meet
~

each others at the same point X = Y = Z .


3.2.5 Example
Let ABCD be a quadrilateral.
(a) If E and F are the midpoints of AB and CD , respectively, show that
AD + BC = 2 EF .
(b) If X and Y are the midpoints of AC and BD , respectively, show that
AB + AD + CD = 4 XY .
Solution
Let a , b , c , d , e , f , x and y denote the position vectors of the points A , B , C , D , E , F , X
~

and Y respectively.
1
1
(a) From the midpoint formula, e = (a + b) and f = (c + d ) .
~
2 ~ ~
2 ~ ~
~
Therefore a + b = 2 e, c + d = 2 f .
~

Hence AD + BC = ( d~ a~ ) + (c~ b~ ) = (c~ + d~ ) ( a + b~ )


~

= 2 f 2 e = 2( f e) = 2 EF .
~

1
1
(b) From the midpoint formula, x = (a + c) and y = (b + d ) .
~
2 ~ ~
2 ~ ~
~
Therefore a + c = 2 x, b + d = 2 y .
~

Hence Ab + AD + CB + CD = (b~ a~ ) + ( d~ a~ ) + (b~ + c~ ) + (d~ c~ )


= 2[(b + d ) ( a + c)] = 2[2 y 2 x] = 4( y x) = 4 XY .
~

3.2.6 Exercise
Let ABCD be a quadrilateral. If E , F , G and H are the midpoints of AB, BC , CD and
DA , respectively, show that EFGH is a parallelogram.

3.3 Cartesian coordinates of a vector


Vectors in the plane (or in two dimensional space)
3.3.1 Definition
Let O be the origin and let Ox and Oy be two mutually perpendicular coordinate axes.
Then, the plane containing Ox and Oy is called the xy -plane (or the xy -coordinate
y
system) and Ox is called the x -axis and Oy the y -axis.
The vector i is the vector from the origin O to the point (1, 0) .
~
1
The vector j is the vector from the origin O to the point (0, 1) .
j
~

Note that i and j are unit vectors and also position vectors.
~

i
1
~
Any vector v in xy -plane can be represented by v = a i + b j where a, b are scalars. The
~

scalars a and b are called the components of the vector v with respect to that coordinate
~

system. The vector a i and the vector b j are called the vector components in the direction
~

of i and j , respectively.
~

Notation
(i) The vector v = a i + b j can be denoted by v = ( a, b), v = [a, b] or v = < a, b >
~

(ii) The point P at (a, b) can be denoted by (a, b) , P ( a, b) or P = (a, b) .


(iii) So (a, b) may represent (a) components of a vector or (b) coordinates of a point.
3.3.2 Theorem
Let v1 = a1 i + b1 j and v 2 = a 2 i + b2 j be two vectors. Then
~

(i) v1 = v 2 a1 = a 2 and b1 = b2 .
~

(ii) v1 + v 2 = ( a1 + a 2 ) i + ( b1 + b2 ) j .
~

(iii) v1 v 2 = ( a1 a 2 ) i + ( b1 b2 ) j .
~

(iv) If is a scalar, then v1 = (a1 ) i + (b1 ) j .


~

Proof Exercise.

3.3.3 Theorem
Let P and Q be the points ( a1 , b1 ) and ( a2 , b2 ) respectively. Then, the vector PQ is given by

PQ = OQ OP = (a 2 a1 ) i + (b2 b1 ) j .
~

Proof
Let OP = a1 i + b1 j and OQ = a 2 i + b2 j be two the positional vectors of P and Q .
~

Then OP = OM + MP = a1 i + b1 j
~

P
Q

And OQ = ON + NQ = a 2 i + b2 j
~

Hence PQ = OQ OP

= (a 2 i + b2 j ) (a1 i + b1 j )
~

= (a 2 a1 ) i + (b2 b1 ) j
~

3.3.4 Definition
Let v = a i + b j be a vector.
~

(i) The magnitude of v is defined as v = a 2 + b 2 and


~

(ii) the angle between v and a line parallel to the x -axis is defined as = tan
~

b
.
a

Remark
is positive if it is measured in the direction of anti-clockwise; is negative if it is
measured in the direction of clockwise.

P
v

<0

>0

3.3.5 Exercise
1. Let u , v and w be position vectors of the points U (2, 3), V (1, 5) and
~

W (3, 4), respectively. Find


(i) z = u 2 v + 3 w
~

(ii) the magnitude of z


~

(iii)the angle between z and Ox .


~

2. Determine the unit vector in the direction of u = 2 i 3 j .


~

3. Find the unit vector from the point P (1, 4) to the point Q(3, 5).
4. Find a vector of magnitude 3 in the direction of v = i + 3 j .
~

Vectors in space (or in three dimensional space)


3.3.6 Definition
Let O be the origin and let Ox , Oy and Oz be three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes.
Then, the space containing Ox , Oy and Oz is called the xyz -space (or the xyz -coordinate
system) and Ox is called the x -axis, Oy the y -axis and Oz the z -axis.
The vector i is the vector from the origin O to the point (1, 0, 0) ,
z
~

The vector j is the vector from the origin O to the point (0, 1, 0) and

(0, 0,1)

The vector k is the vector from the origin O to the point (0, 0, 1) , and

Note that i , j and k are unit vectors and also position vectors.
~

~ ~

i
~
(1, 0, 0)

x
Any vector in xyz -space can be represented by v = a i + b j + c k
~

j (0, 0,1)
~

where a, b, c are

scalars. The scalars a, b and c called the components of the vector v with respect to that
coordinate system. The vectors a i , b j and c k are called the vector components in the
~

direction of i , j and k respectively.


~

Notation
(i) The vector v = a i + b j + c k can be denoted by v = ( a, b, c), v = [a, b, c ] or v = < a, b, c >
~

(ii) The point P at (a, b, c) can be denoted by (a, b, c) , P (a, b, c) or P = (a, b, c) .


(iii) So (a, b, c) may represent (a) components of a vector or (b) coordinates of a point.

3.3.7 Theorem
Let v1 = a1 i + b1 j + c1 k and v2 = a 2 i + b2 j + c 2 k be two vectors. Then
~

(i) v1 = v 2 a1 = b1 , a 2 = b2 and a3 = b3 .
~

(ii) v1 + v 2 = ( a1 + a 2 ) i + (b1 + b2 ) j + (c1 + c 2 ) k .


~

(iii) v1 v 2 = (a1 a 2 ) i + (b1 b2 ) j + (c1 c 2 ) k .


~

(iv) If is a scalar, then v1 = (a1 ) i + (b1 ) j + (c1 ) k .


~

Proof Exercise.

3.3.8 Theorem
Let P and Q be the points (a1 , b1 , c1 ) and ( a2 , b2 , c 2 ) respectively. Then, the vector PQ is

given by PQ = OQ OP = ( a 2 a1 ) i + (b2 b1 ) j + (c 2 c1 ) k
~

3.3.9 Definition
Let v = a i + b j + c k be a vector.
~

The magnitude of v is defined as v = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 .


~

3.3.10 Definition
Let v = a i + b j + c k be a nonzero vector. Let , , be the angles between v and the lines
~

parallel to Ox, Oy and Oz , respectively. Then


(i) , , are called the direction angles v , and
~

(ii) cos , cos , cos are called the direction cosines of v .


~

(iii) The ratios a: b: c is called the direction ratio of v .


~

Note: It is standard always to state direction angles (or cosines) in the order , , .
z

3.3.11 Theorem
Let , , be the direction angles of the nonzero vector v = a i + b j + c k . Then
~

(i) cos =

, cos =

and cos =

(ii) cos 2 + cos 2 + cos 2 = 1 .


(iii) the direction angles of v are , , .
~

Remark
(i) If cos 2 + cos 2 + cos 2 1 , then there does not exist a vector with the direction cosines
(cos , cos , cos ).
(ii) Two vectors u and v have the same direction cosines if and only if they have the same
~

direction.
(iii) Two vectors u and v have the same direction ratios if and only if they are parallel (i.e.
~

u and v are in the same direction or in opposite directions).


~

10

(iv) Any vector v = a i + b j + c k can be written as v = v (cos i + cos j + cos k ).


~

(v) The unit vector u in the direction v is given by u =


~

v
~

= cos i + cos j + cos k .


~

3.3.12 Example
Let A and B be the points (1, 2, 5) and (3, 4, 3) , respectively. Find
(i) the midpoint of AB ;
(ii) the point which divides AB in the ratio 2 : 3 .
Solution
Let a , b denote the position vectors of A, B respectively.
~

(i) If C is the midpoint of AB, then


1
1
c = (a + b) = [(1 3) i + (2 + 4) j + (5 + 3) k ] = i + 3 j k .
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
2
2
~
~
Therefore the midpoint of AB is the point C (1, 3, 1) .
(ii) If D divides AB in the ratio 2 : 3 , then
1
1
d=
(3 a + 2 b) = [3( i + 2 j 5 k ) + 2(3 i + 4 j + 3 k )]
~
~
~
~
~
~
2+3
5 ~
~
~
1
= [3 i + 14 j 9 k ]
~
5
~
~
Therefore D is the point ( 3 5 , 14 5 , 9 5) .
3.3.13 Exercise
1. Find the position vectors of P (2, 3, 1), Q(0, 5, 1) and R(3, 0 0) .
2. Which of the following are unit vectors:
(i) u = 2 i 3 j + k
~

1
(ii) v = i 2 j + k
~
~
2 ~
~
(iii) w = (kos ) i (sin ) j .
~

3. Let u = ( 2, 7, 5), v = (3, 5, 2) and w = (0,1, 2) .


~

(i) Find the unit vector p in the direction p = 2 u + 3 v w .


~

(ii) Find the direction cosines and the direction ratios.


4. Find the unit vector (if exists) with the direction angles of the following:
(i) ( 4 , 2 3, 3).
(ii) ( 2 , 3, 3).

11

3.4 Applications in geometry: Equations of lines in three dimensional space


Problems in space (in three dimension space)
1. Find the equation of a line passing through a given point and parallel to a given vector (all
in three dimension space).
2. Determine whether two lines intersect in three dimension space and find the point of
intersection if they intersect.

3.4.1 Definition (Vector equation of a line in three dimension space)


Let L be a straight line passing through the point A and is parallel to a given vector v .
~

Suppose that P is any point on L .


v

P
a

Let OA = a and OP = r be the position vectors of A and P respectively.


~

Since AP // v , then AP = t v , t R . (As t changes, we have all the point on the line L .)
~

Now OP = OA + AP,
Hence r = a + t v , t R,
~

(1)

This Is called the vector equation of the line L .


The vector v is called a direction vector of the line L .
~

In the case where two point A and B are given the line L , we then take v = AB .
~

Then the equation (1) becomes


r = a + t ( b - a ) , t R,
~

(1a)

where OB = b is the position vector B .


~

3.4.2 Definition (Parametric equation of a line in three dimension space)


Now, let r = x i + y j + z k , a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and v = v1 i + v 2 j + v3 k .
~

Then the equation (1) becomes ( x, y, z ) = ( a1 , a2 , a3 ) + t (v1 , v2 , v3 ).


By comparing the components of i , j and k , we have
~

x = a1 + tv1
y = a2 + tv2

, tR

(2)

z = a3 + tv3
The system of equations (2) is called the parametric equations of the line L .
(The variable t is called the parameter of the system of equations)
12

3.4.3 Definition (Cartesian equation of a line in three dimension space)


By eliminating the parameter t in the equation (2), we have

x a1 y a2 z a3
=
=
v1
v2
v3

(3)

The equation (3) is called the Cartesian equation of the line L .


(This equation is also called the symmetric form of the line L .)
Note that if v1 = 0 , then from the equation (2), x a1 = 0 . This also apply to v 2 and v3 . Thus
in the equation (3), the numerator corresponding to a zero denominator is considered to be
zero too.

3.4.5 Example
Find the parametric equation for the line L passing through the point P(3, 1, 2) and
Q(2, 7, 4) . Where does the line intersect the xy -plane?
Solution
Note that PQ = (2 3) i + (7 1) j + (4 (2)) k = 5 i + 6 j 2 k is a vector parallel to the
~

line L .
The parametric equations for the line through the point P and parallel to PQ are
x = 3 + 5t
y = 1 6t , t R .

z = 2 + 2t
In the xy -plane, the z -coordinate is 0, that is, 0 = z = 2 + 2t.
Hence t = 1, and so x = 3 + 5(1) = 8 and y = 1 6(1) = 5.
Therefore the line intersects the xy -plane at the point (8, 5, 0) .
3.4.6 Procedure to determine whether two lines intersect in space
Let L1 : ( x, y , z ) = ( a1 , b1 , c1 ) + t (u1 , v1 , w1 ) and L2 : ( x, y , z ) = ( a 2 , b2 , c 2 ) + s (u 2 , v 2 , w2 ) be the
vector equations of two lines. If L1 intersects L2 , then
a1 + tu1 = a 2 + su 2
b1 + tv1 = b2 + sv2 , for some s, t R .
c1 + tw1 = c2 + sw2

Thus we obtain a system of three linear equations in two unknowns s and t . We then solve
for s and t using any two equations
If the solutions for s and t to any two equations must satisfy the third equation in the system
then the two lines intersect.
If the solutions for s and t to any two equations do not satisfy the third equation in the
system then the two lines do not intersect. Hence there is no point of intersection.

13

3.4.7 Example
Do the lines L1 : ( x, y , z ) = (1, 6, 2) + t (1, 2, 1)
and L2 : ( x, y , z ) = (0, 4, 1) + s ( 2, 1, 3) intersect? If so, find the point of intersection.
Solution
If L1 and L2 intersect, then
(1)
1 + t = 0 + 2s
(2)
6 + 2t = 4 + s
(3)
2 + t = 1 3s

From (1) 2(2),


Substitute into (1),

13 3t = 8 t = 7.
1 + 7 = 2s s = 4.

Substitute s = 4, t = 7 into (3) we obtain


2 + t = 9 1 3s = 11
Since the equation (3) is not satisfied, the lines L1 and L2 do not intersect.
Hence, there is no point of intersection.
3.4.8 Example
The line L1 passes through the points (5, 1, 7) and (6, 0, 8) and the line L2 passes through
the points (3, 1, 3) and (1, 3, ) . Find the value of so that the lines L1 and L2 intersect
and then find the point of intersection.
Solution
The equation of L1 is ( x, y , z ) = (5, 1, 7) + t (6 5, 0 1, 8 7) and
the equation of L2 is ( x, y , z ) = (3, 1, 3) + s ( 1 3, 3 1, 3).
If L1 and L2 intersect, then
(1)
5 + t = 3 4s
(2)
1 t = 1 + 2s
7 + t = 3 + ( 3) s
(3)
From (1) + (2),
6 = 4 2 s s = 1.
Substitute into (1), 5 + t = 3 4(1) t = 2.
Substitute into (3), 7 + 2 = 3 ( 3) = 3.

The point of intersection is (5 + t , 1 t , 7 + t ) = (7, 1, 9) .


3.4.9 Exercise
1. Let P (1, 3, 4), Q(2, 2, 1) and R (3, 7, 2) be three points. Show that P, Q and R are
collinear (that is P, Q and R lie in a straight line) and hence, find the ratio PQ : QR.

2. The line L1 passing through the points (2, 0, 1) and (1, 2, 3) and the line L2 passing
through the points (0, 0, 1) and (1, 0, 1) . Do the two lines L1 and L2 intersect? If so, find
the point of intersection.

14

3.5 Product (Multiplication) of Two Vectors

We shall introduce the two types of the product of vectors, one gives a scalar as the product
and another one the product is a vector.
3.5.1 Definition (Dot Product or Scalar product or Inner product)
The dot product a . b (read " a" dot "b " ) of two nonzero vectors a and b is defined by
~

, 0

a .b = a b cos
~

~ ~

where is the angle between a and b and is measured when the vectors have their initial
~

point coinciding.

a
~

If a or b is a zero vector, then dot product of a and b is defined by a . b = 0.


~

Some Properties of the dot product of vectors


3.5.2 Theorem
Let a and b be two vectors and let be a scalar. Then
~

(i) a . b = b . a
~

(Commutative Law)

(ii) a . (b + c) = a . b + a . c
~

(Distributive Law)

(iii) ( a . b) = (a ) . b = a . ( b)
~

Note The dot product of two vectors does not satisfy the associative law because a . (b . c) is
~

meaningless.

3.5.3 Definition (Perpendicular and orthogonal vectors)


(i) The nonzero vectors a and b are said to be perpendicular (write a b ) when = 90 .
~

(ii) The nonzero vectors a and b are said to be orthogonal if a .b = 0


~

~ ~

3.5.4 Theorem
Let a and b be two vectors and let be a scalar. Then
~

(i) If a = b then a . a = a . (Q a = b = 0 cos = 1)


~

(ii) If a b , then a . b = 0.
~

(Q a b = 90 cos = 0)
~

(iii) If a is a unit vector, then a . a = a


~

= 1.

(iv) i . i = j . j = k . k = 1
~

~ ~

~ ~

(v) i . j = j . k = k . i = j . i = i . k = k . j = 0 (Q i j , j k , i k )
~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

15

3.5.5 Example
Now a b a . b = 0. (Perpendicular vectors are orthogonal.)
~

Does (i) a .b = 0 a b ? (Are orthogonal vectors perpendicular?)


~ ~

(ii) a .b = a . c b c ?
~ ~

~ ~

Solution The answer is no to the above two questions but we have the following:
(i) a .b = 0 a = 0 or b = 0 or a b .
~ ~

(ii) a .b = a . c a .b a . c = 0
~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

a . (b c) = 0
~

a = 0 or b = c or a (b c) = 0
~

3.5.6 Theorem (Dot product in coordinates)


Let a = a1 i + a2 j + a3 k and b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k
~

Then a . b = a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3 .


~

Proof
a .b = ( a1 i ) + a2 j + a3 k ) . (b1 i + b2 j + b3 k )
~ ~

= ( a1 b1 ) i . i + ( a1 b2 ) i . j + (a1 b3 ) i . k
~ ~

~ ~

+ ( a 2 b1 ) j . i + ( a 2 b2 ) j . j + (a 2 b3 ) j . k
~ ~

+ ( a3 b1 ) k . i + ( a3 b2 ) k . j + ( a3 b3 ) k . k
~ ~

~ ~

= a1 b1 + a 2 b2 + a3 b3 . (Q i . i = j . j = k . k = 1 and i . j = j . k = k . i = j . i = i . k = k . j = 0.)
~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

~ ~

Remark In particular, a . i = a1 , a . j = a 2 and a . k = a3 .


~

~ ~

Therefore a = ( a . i ) i + ( a . j ) j + ( a . k ) k .
~

~ ~ ~

~ ~

3.5.7 Exercise
Prove Theorem 3.5.6 by using the Cosine Law.
2
2
2

c = a + b 2 a b cos where is the angle between a and b, and c = b a


~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~

3.5.8 Example
Let a = (1, 2, 3) and b = (2, 0, 4).
~

Find (i) a .b (ii) the angle between a and b .


~ ~

Solution
(i) a .b = (1, 2, 3) . ( 2, 0, 4) = 1( 2) + 2(0) + 3( 4) = 14.
~ ~

(ii) The angle between a and b


~

= = cos 1

a .b
~ ~

a b
~

= cos 1

14
1 +2 +3
2

2 +4
2

= cos 1

7
.
10

16

3.6 Projection of vector


3.6.1 Definition (Projection of vector)
Let a and b be two nonzero vectors and let a be the unit vector in the direction of a .
~

Then the projection of b onto a is defined as b . a = b .


~

and

a
~

the component of b in the direction of a is defined as ( b . a ) a .


~

~ ~

3.6.2 Theorem (Geometric Interpretation)


Let the angle between the vectors b and a be .
~

Then, the projection of b onto a

= b a cos
~

= b cos
Q a = 1
a
~
~

~
= the length of the orthogonal projection of b on a straight line parallel to a
~

= ON

Note ON = ( b . a ) a is parallel to a .
~

The projection of b onto a takes the positive sign if ON is in the direction of a .,


~

and it takes the negative sign if ON is in the opposite direction of a .


~

3.6.3 Theorem
If a is a given vector, then any vector b can be expressed as the sum of a vector parallel to
~

a and a vector perpendicular to a , i.e., b = b1 + b2 where b1 // a and b1 a .


~

Proof

From the diagram, NM = OM ON = b b . a a which is perpendicular to a


~
~ ~ ~
~
Then b = OM = ON + NM = b . a a + b b . a a .
~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
a vector // a a vector a

b.a
b.a a b.a

~
~
~
~
~

Since b . a a =
=
a = ~ ~ a , then
2

~ ~ ~ a a
~
a.a ~
a

~ ~
~
~

b.a
b.a

b = ~ ~ a + b ~ ~ a

~
~
~
a
.
a
a
.
a

1
~ ~

~ ~

424
3 144244
3
// a
~

a
~

17

3.6.4 Example
Let a = 3 i j and b = 2 i + j 3 k
~

(i) Find the protection of b onto a .


~

(ii) Find the protection of a onto b .


~

(iii) Express the b as the sum of a vector parallel to a and a vector perpendicular to a .
~

Solution

(i) The projection of b onto a = b . a = b .


~

a
~

a
~

= ( 2,1, 3 ) .

( 3,1, 0
32 + (1) 2

2 (3) + 1(1) + 0
10

(ii) The projection of a onto b = a . b = a .


~

~ ~

5
10
=
.
2
10

b
~

b
~

= ( 3, 1, 0 ) .

( 2,1, 3 )
2 + 1 + ( 3)
2

b.a
5
1

(iii) ~ ~ = 2
= .
2
2
a . a 3 + (1)
~ ~
b.a
b.a
~ ~

So b =
a + b ~ ~

~
~ a.a
a.a ~
~ ~
~ ~

3 ( 2 ) 1(1) + 0
14

14
14

1
1

a = (3, 1, 0) + (2,1, 3) (3, 1, 0)

~
2
2

1 1
3
= i j + i + j 3 k .
~ 2 ~
~
2~ 2
124
243 1442~443

Remark
The concept of projection of a vector is important and it will be used to find the shortest
distance between a point and a line or between a point and a plane which will be discussed
later.

18

3.7 Applications in geometry: Straight lines and planes

Note that a straight line in two dimension space is equivalent to a plane in three dimension
space. A straight line in two dimension space is not equivalent to a straight line in three
dimension space. The following two sets of problems are equivalent: (We use the dot product
to solve them)
Problems in a plane (in two dimension space)

1. Find the equation of a line passing through a given point and perpendicular to a given
vector (all in a plane).
2. Find the distance from a point to a line (all in a plane).
3. Find the distance between two parallel lines (all in a plane).
4. Find the angle between two intersecting lines (all in a plane).
Problems in space (in three dimension space)

1. Find the equation of a plane passing through a given point and normal to a given vector.
2. Find the distance from a point to a plane.
3. Find the distance between two parallel planes.
4. Find the angle between two intersecting planes.
3.7.1. Definition (The equation of line perpendicular to a given vector (all in the plane))

Let L be a line passing through to the point P0 ( x0 , y 0 ) and perpendicular to the


vector n = a i + b j. Let P ( x , y ) be any point on the line L .
~

Then the vector P0 P is along the line L and hence P0 P n .

P0

So n . P0 P = 0

n . OP OP0 = 0
~

n . p p = 0
~ ~
~0
n . p = n . p
~

o
(1)

~ 0

( a, b ) . ( x , y ) = ( a , b ) . ( x 0 , y 0 )
ax + by = ax 0 + by 0
(2)
ax + by = c where c = ax 0 + by 0 is a scalar.
The equation (1) is called the vector equation of the line L and the equation (2) is called the
Cartesian vector equation of the line L .

Note. The components of the vector n are the coefficients of the equation of the line L
~

19

3.7.2 Example
Find the Cartesian equation of the line L in the plane passing through the point A ( 2, 3) and
perpendicular to the vector n = i 3 j.
~

Solution
Let P ( x, y ) be any point on the line L . Then

AP . n = ( x 2, y 3 ) . (1, 3) = 0
~

( x 2) .1 + ( y 3) (3) = 0
x 2 3y + 9 = 0
x 3y + 7 = 0
Hence x 3 y + 7 = 0 is the equation of the line.

3.7.3. Theorem (Distance from a point to a line (all in the plane))

Let L be a line with the equation ax + by = c and let P be a point on the line L . From the
Cartesian equation of the line L , the vector n = ai + bj is perpendicular to L .
~

Then, the distance from the point Q to the line L

= the projection of the vector PQ onto the vector n


~

= PQ .

n
~

3.7.4. Theorem (Distance between two parallel lines (all in the plane))

The above method is also used to find the distance between two parallel lines L1 and L2
(They have the same perpendicular vector n .) In the case, we choose one point P from the
~

line L1 and choose another point Q from the line L2 .


n

Then, the distance between parallel lines = PQ .

n
~

3.7.5 Example
Find the distance from the point Q ( 4, 4 ) to the line L : x + 3 y = 6.
Solution
First we find a point P ( x, y , z ) on the plane L .
By letting x = 0 in x + 3 y = 6 , we obtain y = 2 .
Therefore P ( 0, 2 ) is on the line L .

So PQ = (4 0) i + (4 2) j = 4i + 2 j and n = i + 3 j is normal to L .
~

Hence the distance from the point Q to the line L .

= PQ .

n
~

n
~

(4, 2) . (1, 3)
1 +3
2

4 (1) + 2 (3)
10

10 unit .

20

3.7.6 Theorem (The angle between two intersecting lines (all in the plane))

Let L1 and L2 be two lines with the perpendicular vectors n1 and n 2 , respectively. If L1 and
~

L2 intersect, then the angle between L1 and L2 = the angle between n1 and n 2
~

3.7.7 Definition
Let S be a plane and n is a vector perpendicular to S . Then n is called a vector normal to
~

the plane S or the plane S is normal to the vector n


~

3.7.8 Definition (The equation of a plane perpendicular to a vector (in three dimension
space))
Let S be a plane passing through to the point P0 ( x0 , y 0 , z 0 ) and normal to the vector
n = a i + b j + c k . Let P ( x, y, z ) be any point in the plane S .
~

Then the vector P0 P is in the plane S and hence P0 P n .


~

So n . P0 P = 0

P0

n . OP OP0 = 0
~

n . p p0 = 0
~ ~
~
n . p = n . p0
~

---------------(1)

( a, b, c ) . ( x, y, z ) = (a, b, c) . ( x0 , y 0 , z 0 )
ax + by + cz = ax 0 + by 0 + cz 0
ax + by + cz = d where d = ax 0 + by 0 + cz 0 is a scalar

---------------(2)

The equation (1) is called the vector equation of the plane S and the equation (2) is called
the Cartesian vector equation of the plane S .
Note The components of the vector n are the coefficients of the equation of the plane S .
~

3.7.9 Example
Find the Cartesian equation of the plane S passing through the point A (1,1, 1) and normal
to the vector n = 2 i + 2 j 5 k .
~

Solution
Let P ( x, y , z ) be any point on the plane S . Then

AP . n = ( x 1, y 1, z + 1) . (2, 2,5) = 0
~

( x 1) ( 2) + ( y 1) (2) + ( z + 1)(5) = 0
2 x + 2 + 2 y 2 5 z 5 = 0
2 x + 2 y 5 z 5 = 0
Hence x 3 y + 7 = 0 is the equation of the plane.
21

3.7.10 Theorem (Distance from a point to a plane (in three dimension space))
Let S be a plane with the equation ax + by + cz = d and let P be a point on the plane S .
From the Cartesian equation of the plane S , the vector n = ai + bj + ck is normal to S .
Then, the distance from the point Q to the plane S

the projection of the vector PQ onto the vector n


~

= PQ .

n
~

3.7.11 Theorem (Distance between two parallel planes (in three dimension space))
The above method is also used to find the distance between two parallel planes S 1 and S 2
(They have the same normal vector n .) In the case, we choose one point P from the plane
~

S 1 and choose another point Q from the plane S 2 .

Then, the distance between parallel planes = PQ .

n
~

n
~

3.7.12 Example
Find the distance from the point Q (2, 3, 4) to the plane S : x + 2 y + 2 z = 13 .
Solution:
First we find a point P ( x, y , z ) on the plane S .
By letting x = 0 in x + 2 y + 2 z = 13 , we obtain x = 13 .
Therefore P ( 13, 0, 0) is on the plane S .

So PQ = ( 2 13 ) i + (3 0) j + (4 0) k = 11 i 3 j + 4 k
~

and n = i + 2 j + 2 k is normal to S .
~

Therefore the distance from the point Q to the plane S .

= PQ .

n
~

n
~

(11, 3, 4) . (1, 2, 2)
1 +2 +2
2

11 (1) + 3 (2) + 4 (2)


= 3 unit .
3

22

3.7.13 Theorem (The angle between two intersecting planes (in three dimension space)
Let S 1 and S 2 be two planes and n1 and n 2 be vectors normal to S 1 and S 2 respectively.
~

If S 1 and S 2 intersect, then


the angle between S 1 and S 2
= the angle between n1 and n 2
~

n1
~

n2

S2

S1

3.7.14 Example
Find the angle between the planes 3x 6 y 2 z = 15 and 2 x + y 2 z = 5.
Solution:
The vector n1 = (3, 6, 2) is normal to the plane 3x 6 y 2 z = 15
~

and the vector n 2 = ( 2,1, 2) is normal to the plane 2 x + y 2 z = 5.


~

Let be the angle between the planes S 1 and S 2


Note that the angle between S 1 and S 2 = the angle between n1 and n 2
~

Now n1 = 3 2 + (6) 2 + (2) 2 = 7 , n2 = 2 2 + (1) 2 + (2) 2 = 3 ,


~

Also n1 . n 2 = 3 (2) + (6) (1) + (2) (2) = 4.


~

Now n1 . n2 = n1 n2 cos
~

cos =

n1 . n2
~

n1 n2
~

= cos

4
7 (3)

(4 / 21) 79 o .

3.7.15 Exercise
1. Find the Cartesian equation of the line in the xy plane passing through the point A and
perpendicular to the vector n .
~

(i) P (2,1) ; n = i + 2 j .
~

(ii) P (1, 3) ; n = 2 i 3 j .
~

2. Find the distance from the point Q to the line L .


(i) Q (2, 8) ; L : x + 3 y = 6.
(ii) Q (1, 3) ; L : Y = 2 x.
(iii) Q (2,1) ; L : x + y = 1.
3. Find the distance between the planes 3x + y 6 z + 8 = 0 and 6 x + 2 y 12 z + 15 = 0 .

23

3.8.1 Definition (Cross Product or Vector product)


a x b // n
~

b
~

a
~
The cross product a x b ( read a cross b ) of two nonzero vectors a and b is defined by
~

a x b = a b sin n ,
~

where
(i) the angle between a and b and is measured when the vectors have their initial points
~

coinciding and
(ii) n is a unit vector indicating the direction of a x b and it is perpendicular to both vectors
~

a and b .
~

(iii) If a or b is a zero vector, then cross product of a and b is defined by a x b = 0 .


~

Remark
(i) a x b is a vector.
~

(ii) a x b a and a x b b
~

(iii) a , b , a x b from a right-handed triple of system.


~

(iv) a x b = a b sin .
~

3.8.1 Theorem (Geometric Interpretation)


If a and b are represented by two sides of a parallelogram,

then the area of the parallelogram = a x b = a b sin .


~

b
~

b sin

a
~

Some Properties of the cross product of vectors


3.8.2 Theorem
Let a and b be two vectors and let be a scalar. Then
~

(i) a x b = b x a
~

(Anti-commutative Law)

(ii) a x (b + c) = (a x b) + (a x c) (Distributive Law)


~

(iii) ( a x b ) = ( a ) x b = a x (a b)
~

24

Remark
(i) The cross product of vectors does not satisfy the commutative law:
a xbbxa
~

(ii) The cross product of vectors does not satisfy the associative law:
(a x b) x c a x (b x c )
~

(iii) a x b is a vector normal to the plane containing the vectors a and b .


~

(
)
a x b = 0 . (Q a // b = 0 or sin = 0 )

3.8.3 Theorem
(i) If a = b , then a x b = 0 . Q a = b = 0 sin = 0
~

(ii) If a // b , then
~

(iii) i x i = j x j = k x k = 0
~

(iv) i x j = k = j x i ,
~

j xk =i = k x j,
~

k xi = j =i xk.
~

3.8.4 Example
Now a // b a x b = 0 . (The cross product of parallel vectors is equal to the zero vector)
~

Does a x b = 0 . a // b ? (If the cross product of two vectors is equal to the zero vector,
~

are they parallel?)


Solution The answer is no to the above question but we have the following:
a x b = 0 a = 0 or b = 0 or a // b .
~

3.8.5 Theorem (Cross product in coordinates)


Let a = a1 i + a 2 j + a 3 k and b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k .
~

Then a x b = a1
~
~
b1

a2
b2

a3
b3

Proof
a x b = (a1 i + a 2 j + a 3 k ) x (b1 i + b2 j + b3 k )
~

= ( a1 b1 ) i x i + (a1 b2 ) i x j + (a1 b3 ) i x k
~

+ (a 2 b1 ) j x i + (a 2 b2 ) i x j + (a 2 b3 ) j x k
~

+ ( a 3 b1 ) k x i + ( a 3 b2 ) k x j + ( a 3 b3 ) k x k
~

= (a 2 b3 a 3b2 ) i (a1b3 a 3b1 ) j + (a1b2 a 2 b1 ) k .


~

a
= 2
b2

a3
a
i 1
b3 ~ b1

a3
a
j+ 1
b3 ~ b1

i
~
a2
k = a1
b2 ~
b1

a2
b2

a3
b3

25

3.8.6. Example
Let P (1, 1, 0), Q (2,1, 1) and R (1,1, 2) be three points.
Find (i)
a vector normal the plane containing P, Q and R
(ii) the area of the triangle P Q R .
Solution

(i) The vector PQ = (1, 2, 1) and the vector PR = (2, 2, 2) are in the plane.
i
j k

Therefore a vector normal to the plane = PQ x PR = 1 2 1 = 6 i + 6 k .


~
~
2 2 2
(ii) The area of the P Q R =

= 12 PQ x PR =

1
2

1
2

(the area of the parallelogram form by PQ and PR )

6 2 + 6 2 = 3 2 unit 2 .

3.9 Applications in geometry


We have use the dot product to find the distance from point to a line in the plane. Now, we
shall use the cross product to find the distance from a point to a line in a space.
Problems in space (in three dimension space)

1. Find the distance from a point to a line in three dimension space.


2. Find the distance between two parallel lines in three dimension space.
3. Find the distance between two skew lines in three dimension space.
4. Find the equation of a line form by two intersecting planes in three dimension space.
3.9.1 Theorem (Distance from a point to a line (in three dimension space))
Let L be a line in a space passing through the point P with the vector equation
r = p + t v , t R.
~

Then, the distance from the point Q to the line L .

= PQ sin where = angle between PQ and v


~

= PQ x

PQ sin

v
~

3.9.2 Theorem (Distance between two parallel lines (in three dimension space)
)
The above method is also used to find the distance between two parallel line L1 and L2 in
space (They have the same direction vector v ). In this case, we choose one point P from L1
~

and another point Q from L2 .

26

3.9.3 Example
Find the distance from the point Q (1, 1, 5) to the line L with the parametric equations
x = 1 + t , y = 3 t , z = 2t .
Solution
From the parametric equations of line, P ( 1, 3, 0 ) is a point on L and v = (1, 1, 2 ) is a
vector // L .

Now PQ = (1 1) i + (1 3 ) j + ( 5 0 ) k = 2 j + 5 k ,
~

Also v =

12 + ( 1) 2 + 22 =

6 .

i
j k
~
~
~
1
1
Hence PQ x ~ =
0 2 5 =
(i + 5 j + 2k )
~
v
~
6
6 ~
~
1 1 2
v

Therefore the distance from the point Q to the line L

= PQ x

v
~

v
~

1 +5 +2
2

30
= 5 unit .
6

3.9.4 Theorem (Distance between two skew lines (in three dimension space))
Let L1 and L2 be two skew lines in a space with the vector equations
L1 : a + t u and L2 : b + s v , s , t R , respectively.
~

Let P and Q be the points on L1 and L2 , respectively , such that the length of PQ is the
shortest distance between the two lines.
P

S1
L1

n
~

S2
L2

B
N

From the vector equations, we know that u // L1 and v // L2 . Then, n = u x v is normal to


~

both L1 and L 2 . Hence, PQ // n = u x v .


~

27

Let S 1 and S 2 be the planes that containing L1 and L2 , respectively, such that PQ is normal
to both planes. Then, S 1 and S 2 are parallel planes. Hence the distance between P and
Q = the distance between the two parallel planes S 1 and S 2 .
Therefore the shortest distance between L1 and L2

= AB .

n
~

where A and B are the points on L1 and L 2 , respectively, and

n
~

n = u x v is a vector normal to L1 and L2 .


~

3.9.5 Example
Find the shortest distance between the two lines
(1)
L1 : r = ( 0, 9, 2 ) + t ( 3, 1,1 ), t R ,
(2)
L2 : r = ( 6,5, 10) + s ( 3, 2, 4), s R.
Solution
From (1), A (0, 9, 2) is a point on L1 and u = (3, 1,1) is a vector // L1 .
From (2), B (6, 5, 10) is a point on L2 and v = (1, 1, 2) is a vector // L2 .

Hence AB = ( 6, 14, 8) .
Let n be a vector perpendicular to both L1 and L2
~

Then
i

n= u xv= 3
~

k
~

1 1 = (6, 15, 3) .
3 2 4

Therefore the shortest distance between L1 and L 2 = AB .

n
~

n
~

( 6, 14, 8) . ( 6, 15, 3)
( 6) + ( 15) + 3
2

270
270

30 unit .

28

3.9.6 Theorem (Equation of a line formed by two intersecting planes (in three dimension
space))
Let S 1 and S 2 be two planes with normal vectors n1 and n 2 respectively. If S 1 and S 2
~

intersect, then the intersection is a line L . Since L is in both S 1 and S 2 , L is normal to


both n1 and n 2 .
S1
~

Therefore, L // ( n1 x n 2 ) .
~

Let P be a point on L (i.e. P is in both S 1 and S 2 ).

S2

Then the vector equation of L is given by r = OP + t (n1 x n 2 ), t R.


~

3.9.7 Example
Find the parametric equations of the intersecting line L of the planes
S1 : 3x 6 y 2 z =15 and
(1)
S 2 : 2 x + y 2 z = 5.
(2)
Solution
From (1), n1 = (3, 6, 2) is a vector normal to the plane S 1 .
~

From (2), n 2 = ( 2, 1, 2) is a vector normal to the plane S 2 .


~~

j
~

k
~

Therefore a vector parallel to the line L is n1 x n2 = 3 6 2 = (14, 2, 15).


~
~
2 1 2
Next we find a point P ( x, y , z ) on the line L .
By letting x = 0 in (1) and (2), we obtain the following:
6 y 2 z = 15 and
(3)
y 2 z = 5.
(4)
Solving (3) and (4), we have y = 2 and z = 3 / 2 .
Therefore P(0, 2, 3 / 2) is a point on L .
Hence the parametric equations of L is x = 14t , y = 2 + 2t , z = 3 / 2 + 15t.
3.9.8 Exercise
1. Find the vector equation and parametric equation of the line in a space
(i) passing through the points P (1, 2, 1) and Q (1, 0, 1) .
(ii) passing through the point P (3, 2, 1) and parallel to the line
x = 1 + 2 t, y = 2 t, z = 3 t .
(iii) passing through the point P (2, 3, 0) and perpendicular to the vectors
u = i + 2 j + 3 k and v = 3 i + 4 j + 5 k .
~

(iv) which is the intersection of the planes x + 2 y + 3 z = 3 and 3 x + 4 y + 5 z = 5 .


2. Find the distance from the point Q (2, 1, 3) to the line L : x = 2 + 2 t , y = 1 + 2 t , z = 3 .

29

3.10.1 Definition (Triple Product)


A product of three vectors is called a triple product.
Let a, b and c be three vectors. There are three types of triple product:
~

(i) a (b . c) or ( a . b ) c .
~

(ii) Triple Scalar Product a . (b x c) .


~

(iii) Triple Vector Product a x (b x c) .


~

(i) The triple product a (b . c) or (a . b) c


~

The product of these three vectors is a vector.


In general, a (b . c) (a . b) c .
~

~ ~

3.10.2 Exercise
Verify that a (b . c) ( a . b) c for a = i + 2 j + 3 k , b = 2 j + k and c = 2 i + j + 4 k .
~

(ii) Triple Scalar Product a . (b x c)


~

The triple scalar product a . (b x c) is a scalar. It is also known as the box product.

Notation a , b , c = a . (b x c)
~

Some Properties of the triple scalar product of vectors


b xc
~

3.10.3 Theorem (Geometrical interpretation)

a . (b x c)
~

= a
~

b xc
~

c
~

cos

= the volume of a parallelepiped having a , b an c as sides.


~

b
~

Remark

(i) b x c = the area of a base of the parallelepiped and


~

(ii) a cos = the height of the parallelepiped.


~

By using this interpretation, we may know that whether three vectors a , b and c are
coplanar.
3.10.4 Theorem
Three vectors a , b and c are coplanar a . (b x c) = 0 .
~

In particular, if any two of the vectors a , b and c are the same, then the triple scalar product
is zero. For instance, a . ( a x b) = 0 and b . ( a x b) = 0 .
~

30

3.10.5 Theorem (Determinant form)


If a = a1 i + a 2 j + a 3 k , b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k and c = c1 i + c 2 j + c 3 k are three
~

vectors, then

a1
a . (b x c) = b1

a2
b2

a3
b3

c1

c2

c3

Proof

Now
i

k
~

b x c = b1
~
~
c1

b3 = ( b2 c3 b3 c2 ) i (b1 c3 b3 c1 ) j + (b1c2 b2 c1 ) k
~
~
~
c3

b2
c2

Hence,
a . (b x c) = (b x c) . a = (b2 c 3 b3 c 2 ) a1 (b1 c 3 b3 c1 ) a 2 + (b1 c 2 b2 c1 ) a 3
~

(1)

(2)

Note that the right-hand side of the equation (2) can be obtained from (1) by replacing the
i , j and k by a1 , a 2 and a 3 , respectively. Therefore
~

a1
a . (b x c) = b1

a2
b2

a3
b3

c1

c2

c3

3.10.6 Theorem (Cyclic property)


a . (b x c) = b . (c x a ) = c . ( a x b)
~

Proof
We can obtain this by using Theorem 3.10.4 and some properties of determinant.
a1
a . (b x c) = b1

a2
b2

a3
a1
b3 = c1

a2
c2

a3
c 3 (Exchange row 2 with row 3)

c1

c2

c3

b1

b2

b3

b1

= c1
a1

b2

b3 b1

c 3 = c1
a 3 a1

c2
a2

b2

b3

c2

c 3 = b . (c x a )

a2

a3

3.10.7 Exercise
Show that b . (c x a ) = c . ( a x b)
~

31

3.10.8 Theorem (Exchanging . And x )


a . (b x c) = (a x b) . c
~

Proof
From Theorem 3.10.6 and Theorem 3.5.2, we have
a . (b x c) = c . ( a x b ) = ( a x b) . c .
~

3.10.9 Example
Find the volume of the parallelepiped having a = i + 2 j k , b = 2 i + 3 k and c = 7 j 4 k as
~

its sides.
Solution
1

1
3 = 23 = 23 unit 3 .

The volume of the parallelepiped = a . (b x c ) = 2 0


~
~
~
0 7 4
3.10.10 Example
Show that the points P (0, 0, 3) , Q (2, 1, 2) , R (3, 2, 1) and S (1, 3, 2) are coplanar.
Solution

Since PQ = 2 i j k , PR = 3 i + 2 j 2 k and PS = i + 3 j k .
~

2 1 1

Then PQ . ( PQ x PS ) = 3
1

2 = 0.

So PQ , PQ and PS are coplanar. Hence, P , Q , R and S are coplanar.

3.10.11 Theorem (Orthogonal Projection of an area to a plane)

Let A = u x v be the area of a parallelogram having u and v as sides.


If this area A is projected to a plane S with unit normal vector n ,
Then the area of the orthogonal projection of the area A onto the plane S

= n . ( u x v )

Proof

v
A

Q
S

R
P1

u1

v1

Let u = PQ and v = PR .

R1
32

Let P , Q and R be the orthogonal projection of the points P , Q and R onto the

plane S and let u = P Q and v = P R .


Let A = the area of the orthogonal projection of the area A onto the plane S .

From the diagram, u = PP + u + QQ = u + PP Q Q .

Since PP // n and Q Q // n , then ( PP Q Q ) // n .

So, ( PP Q Q ) = s n for some scalar s .

Thus, u = u + s n . Similar v = v + t n for some scalar t .

Hence, u x v = ( u + s n ) x (v + t n )

= (u + v ) + (u x t n ) + ( s n x v ) + ( s n x t n )

= ( u x v ) + ( u x t n ) + ( s n x v ) (since ( s n x t n) = 0).

But n . ( u x v ) = n . ( u x v ) + n . (u x t n ) + n . ( s n x v )

= n . ( u x v ) ( since n . ( u x t n ) = 0 , n . ( s n x v ) = 0)

So, n . ( u x v ) = n . ( u x v

= the volume of the parallelepiped determined by n , u and v

= the area of the parallelogram determined by u and v (Q n = 1 )


= the area A .

3.10.12 Example
Let P ( 0, 0, 3) , Q (2, 1, 2), R(3, 2,1 ) and S (1, 3, 2) be vertices of a parallelogram. Find the
area of the orthogonal projection of the area of the parallelogram onto the plane xy plane.
Solution

Since PQ = 2 i j k and PS = i + 3 j k , and k = the unit normal vector to the plane.


~

Then, the area of the orthogonal projection = k . ( PQ x PS ) = 2 1 1 = 7 unit 2 .


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1 3 1

(iii) Triple Vector Product a x (b x c)


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The triple vector product a x ( b x c ) is a vector.


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In a general a x (b x c ) ( a x b ) x c . (The associative law fails)


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Note b x c S where S is the plane containing the vectors b and c .


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Therefore a x ( b x c ) ( b x c).
~

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3.10.12 Theorem
Let a, b and c be three vectors. Then
~

(i) a x ( b x c ) = ( a . c ) b ( a . b ) c
~

(ii) ( a x b ) x c = ( a . c ) b ( b . c ) a .
~

Proof
Let a = a1 i + a 2 j + a 3 k , b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k and c = c1 i + c 2 j + c 3 k . Then
~

k
~

b x c = b1
~
~
c1

b3 = (b2 c 3 b3 c 2 ) i (b1 c 3 b3 c1 ) j + (b1c 2 b2 c1 ) k


~
~
~
c3

b2
c2

= (b2 c 3 b3 c 2 ) i + (b3 c1 b1 c 3 ) j + (b1 c 2 b2 c1 ) k


~

i
Therefore a x (b x c) =
~

a1
b2 c3 b3c2

a2
b3c1 b1c3

a3
b1c2 b2 c1

= i (a 2 b1 c 2 a 2 b2 c1 a 3 b3 c1 + a 3 b1c 3 )
~

j ( a1 b1 c 2 a1b2 c1 a 3 b2 c 3 + a 3 b3 c 2 )
~

+ k (a1b3 c1 a1b1 c 3 a 2 b2 c 3 + a 2 b3 c 2 )
~

= i (a 2 b1 c 2 a 2 b2 c1 a 3 b3 c1 + a 3 b1c 3 )
~

+ j (a1b2 c1 + a 3 b2 c 3 a1b1c 2 + a 3 b3 c 2 )
~

+ k (a1b3 c1 a1b1 c 3 a 2 b2 c 3 + a 2 b3 c 2 )
~

= i [ b1 (a 2 c 2 + a 3 c 3 ) c1 (a 2 b2 + a 3 c 3 )]
~

+ j [ b2 ( a1 c1 + a 3 c 3 ) c 2 ( a1 b1 + a 3 c 3 )]
~

+ k [ b3 (a1 c1 + a 2 c 2 ) c 3 (a1b1 + a 2 c 2 )]
~

= i [ b1 (a 2 c 2 + a 3 c 3 ) + a1b1 c1 a1b1c1 c1 (a 2 b2 + a 3 c 3 )]
~

+ j [ b2 (a1 c1 + a 3 c 3 ) + a 2 b2 c 2 a 2 b2 c 2 c 2 (a1b1 + a 3 c 3 )]
~

+ k [ b3 (a1 c1 + a 2 c 2 ) + a 3 b3 c 3 a 3 b3 c 3 c3 (a1b1 + a 2 c 2 )]
~

= i [ b1 (a1c1 + a 2 c 2 + a 3 c3 ) c1 (a1b1 + a 2 b2 + a 3 c 3 )]
~

+ j [ b 2 ( a1 c1 + a 2 c 2 + a 3 c 3 ) c 2 ( a1 b1 + a 2 c 2 + a 3 c 3 )]
~

+ k b3 (a1 c1 + a 2 c 2 + a 3 c 3 ) c 3 (a1b1 + a 2 c 2 + a 3 b3 )
~

34

= i [b1 (a . c) c1 (a.b)]
~

+ j [ b2 ( a . c ) c 2 ( a . b) ]
~

+ k [ b3 ( a . c ) c 3 ( a . b ) ]
~

= (a . c) ( b1 i + b2 j + b3 k ) (a . b) ( c1 i + c 2 j + c 3 k )
~

= ( a .c ) b ( a .b ) c .
~ ~

Therefore a x (b x c) = ( a . c ) b ( a . b ) c .
~

Now from (i), we can obtain the formula for ( a x b ) x c

Now ( a x b ) x c = c x (a x b) = (c . b ) a ( c . a ) b .
~

Therefore ( a x b ) x c = ( a . c ) b ( b . c ) a .
~

35