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4.3.4. Power Transformer


Power Transformer is the most importance device in the power system, used to
transfer the power from high voltage level to lower voltage level and vice versa. The model
makes special consideration for auto-transformers. In this section, two-winding transformer
(3-phase) and three-winding transformer (3-phase) have been taken to descript the EMT
Simulation modelling in PowerFactory v15.1 for this report.
4.3.4.1. Two-winding Transformer (3-phase)
The two-winding transformer model is a very detailed model for various kinds of
three-phase, two-winding transformers in power systems. This section describes the general
model and is valid for all PowerFactory calculation functions. Particularly, saturation or
capacitive effects, which are only relevant for some calculation functions such as high
frequency EMT-applications, Harmonics Simulation and so on.

For simulating nonlinear, electromagnetic transient such as transformer inrush
currents or ferroresonance, core saturation needs to be included into the transformer model.
Furthermore, depending on the frequencies involved in the transient simulation, the
transformer model has to account for the stray capacitances between windings and winding to
ground.
The non-linear magnetizing reactance X
m
represents the saturation characteristic of
the transformer and it is defined in the transformer type (TypTr2n/EMT simulation page).
The model supports the following options:
- Linear: no saturation considered
- Two slopes: the saturation curve is approximated by a two linear slopes
Figure 4.22 General diagram model of the 2-winding transformer
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- Polynomial: the saturation curve is approximated by a polynomial of user-defined
order. The polynomial fits asymptotically into the piecewise linear definition.



-
, M sat
i Magnetizing Current pu
-
M
Magnetizing Flux pu
-
M
L Linear Reactance pu
-
0
This parameter is automatically calculated to
that the polynomial characteristic fits the
saturated reactance in full saturation and
transits steadily in to the piece-wise linear
characteristic at the knee point. Pu
- ksat Saturation exponent, i.e. polynomial degree pu

Figure 4.23 Two slope and polynomial saturation curves
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Parameter Description Unit
Knee Flux
Knee-point of asymptotic piece-wise linear characteristic.
Typical value around 1.1 to 1.2 times the rated flux.
p.u.
Linear (unsaturated)
Reactance
Magnetizing reactance for unsaturated conditions L
unsa
.
In p.u. values, the linear reactance is equal to the
reciprocal of the magnetizing current (reactance part of
the exciting current)
p.u.
Saturated Reactance Magnetizing reactance for saturated condition L
sat
. p.u.
Saturation Exponent
Exponent of polynomial representation (k
sat
). Typical
values are 9, 13, and 15. The higher the exponent the
sharper, the saturation curves.
-
- Current/Flux values: The user can also define the saturation curve in terms of
measured current-flux values and select between a piecewise linear or spline interpolation.
The base quantities of the p.u. values in the current-flux table are also referred to the peak
values of the corresponding nominal variables:

3
[ ]
[ ] 2 10
3 [ ]
base
base
base
S MVA
I A
U kV
=



3
[ ]/ 3
[ ] 2 10
2 [ ]
base
base
base
U kV
V s
f kHz
=
The zero sequence magnetizing reactance strongly depends on the construction
characteristic of the transformer core (three-legged, five-legged, shell-type, etc.) and its
vector group. Figure below shows the equivalent circuit for the zero sequence.


Table 4.2 Basic data of the two-slope and polynomial saturation characteristics
Figure 4.24 Equivalent circuit for the zero sequence
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Transformer with delta-connected windings
If the transformer has delta-connected windings, then any zero sequence excitation
approximates a zero-sequence short-circuit, as the delta-connected winding short-circuits the
zero sequence current. In that case there is no need to represent zero sequence saturation.
Transformer without delta-connected windings
If the transformer type does not have delta-connected windings, then the zero-
sequence excitation current results generally higher than the positive-sequence excitation
current and strongly depends on the core type.
To account for the higher zero-sequence linear exciting current when no delta-
connected winding is available, PowerFactory allows for the definition of linear (unsaturated)
zero-sequence magnetizing impedance. This zero-sequence magnetizing impedance and its
R/X ratio is defined in the load flow page (TypTr2nLoad flow); the parameters are made
available depending on the vector group (i.e. hidden in case of delta-connected winding).
To account for the core type dependency of the zero-sequence saturation
characteristic, the transformer model supports the following two options in the EMT-
simulation page:
3 Limbs core: use this option for three-legged core designs. In this core type, the
fluxes are roughly equal in the three legs and must therefore return outside the core through
the air-gap and the tank. Because of the fact that the air-gap and the tanks are no-magnetic,
the zero-sequence magnetizing current is nearly linear and therefore the model uses the linear
zero-sequence magnetizing impedance defined in the load flow page. In other words, it does
not consider zero-sequence saturation effects.
5 Limbs core: use this option for five-legged and shell-type cores. As the zero-
sequence fluxes return inside the core, the model uses the saturation characteristic (of the
positive sequence) in the zero-sequence magnetizing reactance as well.
4.3.4.2. Three-winding Transformer (3-phase)
In PowerFactory each winding of a transformer can have taps, however only one of
the tap changers can be controlled in the load-flow calculation. The adjustment of the taps
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can be set in the load-flow of the transformer type or can be enabled for automatic control
before run load-flow solution.
For a three-winding transformer, the third winding is referred to the minimum rated
power of the other two windings. For example, for a 60/60/10 MVA, 132/22/11 kV
transformer, a value of 10% is specified both for the HV-MV and LV-HV positive-sequence
short-circuit voltages. The impedance value (referred to HV-side) of the impedance between;
- the HV and MV terminals is;

( )
2
132
0.1 29.04
60
kV
primary
MVA
=
- the HV and LV terminals is

( )
2
132
0.1 174.24
10
kV
primary
MVA
=



Figure 4.25 PF Positive-sequence model of the 3-winding transformer, taps modelled
Figure 4.26 PF Positive-sequence model of the 3-winding transformer, taps modelled
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The model diagrams Figure 4.10 and Figure 4.11 and input parameters in Positive,
Negative and Zero sequence models will be list in table below:

Parameter Unit Description
U
r,T,HV
U
r,T,HV
U
r,T,HV
kV Rated Voltage on HV/MV/LV side
S
r,T,HV
S
r,T,HV
S
r,T,HV

MVA Rated Power for the windings on HV/MV/LV side
u
sc,HV-MV
u
sc,MV-LV
u
sc,LV-HV
% Relative short-circuit voltage of paths HV-MV, MV-LV, LV-HV
P
Cu,HV-MV
P
Cu,MV-LV
P
Cu,LV-HV

kW Copper losses of path HV-MV, MV-LV, LV-HV
u
r.sc,HV-MV
u
r,sc,MV-LV
u
r,sc,LV-HV
%
Relative short-circuit voltage, resistive part of paths HV-MV, MV-
LV, LV-HV
X/R
HV-MV
X/R
MV-LV
X/R
LV-HV


Relative short-circuit voltage ratio, X/R ratio of path HV-MV, MV-
LV, LV-HV
i0 % No-Load current, related to rate current at HV side
P
Fe
kW No-Load losses
It is possible to use manufacturers or any other available measurement data for load-
flow calculation.

Table 4.3 Positive and Negative sequence in put parameter
Figure 4.27 Measurement data input page for three-winding transformer