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TECHNICAL INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

C Language Aptitude Test Paper


Note : All the programs are tested under Turbo C/C++ compilers.
It is assumed that,
Programs run under DOS environment,
The underling machine is an !"# sstem,
Program is compiled using Turbo C/C++ compiler.
The program output ma depend on the in$ormation based on this assumptions %$or e!ample
si&eo$%int' (( ) ma be assumed'.
Predict the output or error%s' $or the $ollo*ing+
1. void main()
{
int const * p=5;
printf("%d",++(*p));
}
Answer:Compiler error+ Cannot modi$ a constant value.
Explanation+
p is a pointer to a ,constant integer,. -ut *e tried to change the value o$ the ,constant
integer,.
2. main()
{
char s[ ="man";
int i;
for(i=!;s[ i ;i++)
printf(""n%c%c%c%c",s[ i ,*(s+i),*(i+s),i[s);
}
Answer:
mmmm
aaaa
nnnn
Explanation+
s.i/, 0%i+s', 0%s+i', i.s/ are all di$$erent *as o$ e!pressing the same idea. 1enerall arra
name is the base address $or that arra. 2ere s is the base address. i is the inde!
number/displacement $rom the base address. So, indirecting it *ith 0 is same as s.i/. i.s/ ma
be surprising. -ut in the case o$ C it is same as s.i/.
#. main()
{
f$oat m% = 1.1;
do&'$% (o& = 1.1;
if(m%==(o&)
printf(") $ov% *");
%$s%
printf(") hat% *");
}
Answer:
I hate 3
Explanation+
4or $loating point numbers ($loat, double, long double the values cannot be predicted
e!actl. Depending on the number o$ btes, the precession *ith o$ the value represented
varies. 4loat ta5es 6 btes and long double ta5es 78 btes. So $loat stores 8.9 *ith less
precision than long double.
Ru!e "# T$u%&'
:ever compare or at;least be cautious *hen using $loating point numbers *ith relational
operators ((( , <, =, =(, <(,>( .
+. main()
{s
tatic int var = 5;
printf("%d ",var,,);
if(var)
main();
}
Answer:
? 6 @ ) 7
Explanation:
Ahen static storage class is given, it is initiali&ed once. The change in the value o$ a static
variable is retained even bet*een the $unction calls. Bain is also treated li5e an other
ordinar $unction, *hich can be called recursivel.
5. main()
{
int c[ ={2.-,#.+,+,../,5};
int 0,*p=c,*1=c;
for(0=!;025;0++) {
printf(" %d ",*c);
++1; }
for(0=!;025;0++){
printf(" %d ",*p);
++p; }
}
Answer:
) ) ) ) ) ) @ 6 # ?
Explanation:
Initiall pointer c is assigned to both p and (. In the $irst loop, since onl ( is incremented
and not c , the value ) *ill be printed ? times. In second loop p itsel$ is incremented. So the
values ) @ 6 # ? *ill be printed.
.. main()
{
%3t%rn int i;
i=2!;
printf("%d",i);
}
Answer:
4in5%r 6rror + 3nde$ined smbol CDiC
Explanation:
e!tern storage class in the $ollo*ing declaration, e)tern int i* speci$ies to the compiler that
the memor $or i is allocated in some other program and that address *ill be given to the
current program at the time o$ lin5ing. -ut lin5er $inds that no other variable o$ name i is
available in an other program *ith memor space allocated $or it. 2ence a lin5er error has
occurred .
/. main()
{
int i=,1,0=,1,5=!,$=2,m;
m=i++770++775++88$++;
printf("%d %d %d %d %d",i,0,5,$,m);
}
Answer:
8 8 7 @ 7
Explanation :
Eogical operations al*as give a result o$ + "r , . And also the logical A:D %FF' operator
has higher priorit over the logical OG %HH' operator. So the e!pression Ii-- .. /-- .. 0-
- is e!ecuted $irst. The result o$ this e!pression is 8 %;7 FF ;7 FF 8 ( 8'. :o* the
e!pression is 8 HH ) *hich evaluates to 7 %because OG operator al*as gives 7 e!cept $or I8 HH
8J combination; $or *hich it gives 8'. So the value o$ m is 7. The values o$ other variables are
also incremented b 7.
-. main()
{
char *p;
printf("%d %d ",si9%of(*p),si9%of(p));
}
Answer:
7 )
Explanation:
The si&eo$%' operator gives the number o$ btes ta5en b its operand. P is a character pointer,
*hich needs one bte $or storing its value %a character'. 2ence si&eo$%0p' gives a value o$ 7.
Since it needs t*o btes to store the address o$ the character pointer si&eo$%p' gives ).
:. main()
{
int i=#;
s;itch(i)
{
d%fa&$t<printf("9%ro");
cas% 1< printf("on%");
'r%a5;
cas% 2<printf("t;o");
'r%a5;
cas% #< printf("thr%%");
'r%a5;
}
}
Answer :
three
Explanation :
The de$ault case can be placed an*here inside the loop. It is e!ecuted onl *hen all other
cases doesnCt match.
1!. main()
{
printf("%3",,122+);
}
Answer:
$$$8
Explanation :
;7 is internall represented as all 7Cs. Ahen le$t shi$ted $our times the least signi$icant 6 bits
are $illed *ith 8Cs.The K! $ormat speci$ier speci$ies that the integer value be printed as a
he!adecimal value.
11. main()
{
char strin=[=">%$$o ?or$d";
disp$a((strin=);
}
void disp$a((char *strin=)
{
printf("%s",strin=);
}
Answer:@ompi$%r 6rror < Tpe mismatch in redeclaration o$ $unction displa
Explanation :
In third line, *hen the $unction disp!a1 is encountered, the compiler doesnCt 5no* anthing
about the $unction displa. It assumes the arguments and return tpes to be integers, %*hich is
the de$ault tpe'. Ahen it sees the actual $unction disp!a12 the arguments and tpe contradicts
*ith *hat it has assumed reviousl. 2ence a compile time error occurs.
12. main()
{
int c=, ,2;
printf("c=%d",c);
}
Answer:
c()L
Explanation:
2ere unar minus %or negation' operator is used t*ice. Same maths rules applies, ie. Binus 0
minus( plus.
N"te'
2o*ever ou cannot give li5e ;;). -ecause ;; operator can onl be applied to variables as a
de3re%ent operator %eg., i;;'. ) is a constant and not a variable.
1#. Ad%fin% int char
main()
{
int i=.5;
printf("si9%of(i)=%d",si9%of(i));
}
Answer:
si&eo$%i'(7
Explanation:
Since the Mde$ine replaces the string int b the macro 3$ar
1+. main()
{
int i=1!;
i=BiC1+;
Drintf ("i=%d",i);
}
Answer:
i(8
Explanation:
In the e!pression 4i5+6 , :OT %>' operator has more precedence than I <J smbol. 4 is a unar
logical operator. >i %>78' is 8 %not o$ true is $alse'. 8<76 is $alse %&ero'.
15. Ainc$&d%2stdio.hC
main()
{
char s[={EaE,E'E,EcE,E"nE,EcE,E"!E};
char *p,*str,*str1;
p=7s[#;
str=p;
str1=s;
printf("%d",++*p + ++*str1,#2);
}
Answer:
NN
Explanation:
p is pointing to character COnC. str7 is pointing to character CaC ++0p. ,p is pointing to COnC and
that is incremented b one., the ASCII value o$ COnC is 78, *hich is then incremented to 77.
The value o$ ++0p is 77. ++0str7, str7 is pointing to CaC that is incremented b 7 and it
becomes CbC. ASCII value o$ CbC is 9". :o* per$orming %77 + 9" P @)', *e get NN%,B,'L So *e
get the output NN ++ ,B, %Ascii is NN'.
1.. Ainc$&d%2stdio.hC
main()
{
int a[2[2[2 = { {1!,2,#,+}, {5,.,/,-} };
int *p,*1;
p=7a[2[2[2;
*1=***a;
printf("%d,,,,%d",*p,*1);
}
Answer:Some1arbageQalue;;;7
Explanation:
p(Fa.)/.)/.)/ ou declare onl t*o )D arras, but ou are tring to access the third
)D%*hich ou are not declared' it *ill print garbage values. 0R(000a starting address o$ a is
assigned integer pointer. :o* R is pointing to starting address o$ a. I$ ou print 0R, it *ill
print $irst element o$ @D arra.
1/. Ainc$&d%2stdio.hC
main()
{
str&ct 33
{
int 3=#;
char nam%[="h%$$o";
};
str&ct 33 *s;
printf("%d",s,C3);
printf("%s",s,Cnam%); }
Answer:Compiler Srror
Explanation:
Tou should not initiali&e variables in declaration
1-. Ainc$&d%2stdio.hC
main()
{
str&ct 33
{
int 3;
str&ct ((
{
char s;
str&ct 33 *p;
};
str&ct (( *1;
};
}
Answer:Compiler Srror
Explanation:
The structure is nested *ithin structure !!. 2ence, the elements are o$ are to be
accessed through the instance o$ structure !!, *hich needs an instance o$ to be 5no*n. I$
the instance is created a$ter de$ining the structure the compiler *ill not 5no* about the
instance relative to !!. 2ence $or nested structure ou have to declare member.
1:. main()
{
printf(""na'");
printf(""'si");
printf(""rha");
}
Answer:
hai
Explanation:
On ; ne*line
Ob ; bac5space
Or ; line$eed
2!. main()
{
int i=5;
printf("%d%d%d%d%d%d",i++,i,,,++i,,,i,i);
}
Answer:
6??6?
Explanation:
The arguments in a $unction call are pushed into the stac5 $rom le$t to right. The evaluation is
b popping out $rom the stac5. and the evaluation is $rom right to le$t, hence the result.
21. Ad%fin% s1&ar%(3) 3*3
main()
{
int i;
i = .+Fs1&ar%(+);
printf("%d",i);
}
Answer:
#6
Explanation:
the macro call sRuare%6' *ill substituted b 606 so the e!pression becomes i ( #6/606 .
Since / and 0 has eRual priorit the e!pression *ill be evaluated as %#6/6'06 i.e. 7#06 ( #6
22. main()
{
char *p="hai fri%nds",*p1;
p1=p;
;hi$%(*pB=E"!E) ++*p++;
printf("%s %s",p,p1);
}
Answer:
ibU>gsU$oet
Explanation:
++0p++ *ill be parse in the given order
0p that is value at the location currentl pointed b p *ill be ta5en
++0p the retrieved value *ill be incremented
*hen L is encountered the location *ill be incremented that is p++ *ill be e!ecuted 2ence,
in the *hile loop initial value pointed b p is IhJ, *hich is changed to IiJ b e!ecuting ++0p
and pointer moves to point, IaJ *hich is similarl changed to IbJ and so on. Similarl blan5
space is converted to I>J. Thus, *e obtain value in p becomes VibU>gsU$oetW and since p
reaches IO8J and p7 points to p thus p7doesnot print anthing.
2#. Ainc$&d% 2stdio.hC
Ad%fin% a 1!
main()
{
Ad%fin% a 5!
printf("%d",a); }
Answer:
?8
Explanation:
The preprocessor directives can be rede$ined an*here in the program. So the most recentl
assigned value *ill be ta5en.
2+. Ad%fin% c$rscr() 1!!
main()
{
c$rscr();
printf("%d"n",c$rscr());
}
Answer:
788
Explanation:
Preprocessor e!ecutes as a seperate pass be$ore the e!ecution o$ the compiler. So te!tual
replacement o$ clrscr%' to 788 occurs.The input program to compiler loo5s li5e this +
main%'
X
788L
print$%,KdOn,,788'L
Y
N"te'
788L is an e!ecutable statement but *ith no action. So it doesnCt give an problem
25. main()
{
+1printf("%p",main);
}-Answer:
Some address *ill be printed.
Explanation:
4unction names are Uust addresses %Uust li5e arra names are addresses'. main%' is also a
$unction. So the address o$ $unction main *ill be printed. Kp in print$ speci$ies that the
argument is an address. The are printed as he!adecimal numbers.
)N' main%'
X clrscr%'L
Y clrscr%'L
Answer: :o output/error
Explanation:
The $irst clrscr%' occurs inside a $unction. So it becomes a $unction call. In the second
clrscr%'L is a $unction declaration %because it is not inside an $unction'.
)"' enum colors X-EACZ,-E3S,1GSS:Y
main%'
X
print$%,Kd..Kd..Kd,,-EACZ,-E3S,1GSS:'L
return%7'L
Y
Answer:
8..7..)
Explanation:
enum assigns numbers starting $rom 8, i$ not e!plicitl de$ined.
)9' void main%'
X
char $ar 0$arther,0$arthestL
print$%,Kd..Kd,,si&eo$%$arther',si&eo$%$arthest''L
Y
Answer:
6..)
Explanation:
the second pointer is o$ char tpe and not a $ar pointer
@8' main%'
X
int i(688,U(@88L
print$%,Kd..Kd,'L
Y
Answer:
688..@88
Explanation:
print$ ta5es the values o$ the $irst t*o assignments o$ the program. An number o$ print$Cs
ma be given. All o$ them ta5e onl the $irst t*o values. I$ more number o$ assignments
given in the program,then print$ *ill ta5e garbage values.
@7' main%'
X
char 0pL
p(,2ello,L
print$%,KcOn,,0F0p'L
Y
Answer:2
Explanation:
0 is a dere$erence operator F is a re$erence operator. The can be applied an number o$
times provided it is meaning$ul. 2ere p points to the $irst character in the string ,2ello,. 0p
dere$erences it and so its value is 2. Again F re$erences it to an address and 0 dere$erences it
to the value 2.
@)' main%'
X
int i(7L
*hile %i=(?'
X
print$%,Kd,,i'L
i$ %i<)'
goto hereL
i++L
Y
Y
$un%'
X
here+
print$%,PP,'L
Y
Answer:Compiler error+ 3nde$ined label ChereC in $unction main
Explanation:
Eabels have $unctions scope, in other *ords the scope o$ the labels is limited to $unctions.
The label ChereC is available in $unction $un%' 2ence it is not visible in $unction main.
@@' main%'
X
static char names.?/.)8/(X,pascal,,,ada,,,cobol,,,$ortran,,,perl,YL
int iL
char 0tL
t(names.@/L
names.@/(names.6/L
names.6/(tL
$or %i(8Li=(6Li++'
print$%,Ks,,names.i/'L
Y
Answer:Compiler error+ Evalue reRuired in $unction main
Explanation:
Arra names are pointer constants. So it cannot be modi$ied.
@6' void main%'
X
int i(?L
print$%,Kd,,i++ + ++i'L
Y
Answer: Output Cannot be predicted e!actl.
Explanation:
Side e$$ects are involved in the evaluation o$ i
@?' void main%'
X
int i(?L
print$%,Kd,,i+++++i'L
Y
Answer:Compiler Srror
Explanation:
The e!pression i+++++i is parsed as i ++ ++ + i *hich is an illegal combination o$
operators.
@#' Minclude=stdio.h<
main%'
X int i(7,U()L
s*itch%i'
X
case 7+ print$%,1OOD,'L
brea5L
case U+ print$%,-AD,'L
brea5L
Y
Y
Answer:Compiler Srror+ Constant e!pression reRuired in $unction main.
Explanation:
The case statement can have onl constant e!pressions %this implies that *e cannot use
variable names directl so an error'.
N"te'
Snumerated tpes can be used in case statements.
@N' main%'
X int iL
print$%,Kd,,scan$%,Kd,,Fi''L // value 78 is given as input here
Y
Answer:7
Explanation:
Scan$ returns number o$ items success$ull read and not 7/8. 2ere 78 is given as input *hich
should have been scanned success$ull. So number o$ items read is 7.
@"' Mde$ine $%g,g)' gMMg)
main%'
X int var7)(788L
print$%,Kd,,$%var,7)''L
Y
Answer:
788
@9' main%'
X int i(8L
$or%Li++Lprint$%,Kd,,i'' L
print$%,Kd,,i'L
Y
Answer:7
Explanation:
be$ore entering into the $or loop the chec5ing condition is ,evaluated,. 2ere it evaluates to 8
%$alse' and comes out o$ the loop, and i is incremented %note the semicolon a$ter the $or loop'.
68' Minclude=stdio.h<
main%'
X
char s./(XCaC,CbC,CcC,COnC,CcC,CO8CYL
char 0p,0str,0str7L
p(Fs.@/L
str(pL
str7(sL
print$%,Kd,,++0p + ++0str7;@)'L
Y
Answer:B
Explanation:
p is pointing to character COnC.str7 is pointing to character CaC ++0p meAns*er+,p is pointing to
COnC and that is incremented b one., the ASCII value o$ COnC is 78. then it is incremented to 77.
the value o$ ++0p is 77. ++0str7 meAns*er+,str7 is pointing to CaC that is incremented b 7
and it becomes CbC. ASCII value o$ CbC is 9". both 77 and 9" is added and result is subtracted
$rom @). i.e. %77+9"; @)'(NN%,B,'L
67' Minclude=stdio.h<
main%'
X
struct !!
X
int !(@L
char name./(,hello,L
YL
struct !! 0s(malloc%si&eo$%struct !!''L
print$%,Kd,,s;<!'L
print$%,Ks,,s;<name'L
Y
Answer:Compiler Srror
Explanation:
Initiali&ation should not be done $or structure members inside the structure declaration
6)' Minclude=stdio.h<
main%'
Xs
truct !!
X
int !L
struct
X
char sL
struct !! 0pL
YL
struct 0RL
YL
Y
Answer:Compiler Srror
Explanation:
in the end o$ nested structure a member have to be declared.
6@' main%'
X
e!tern int iL
i()8L
print$%,Kd,,si&eo$%i''L
Y
Answer: Ein5er error+ unde$ined smbol CDiC.
Explanation:
e!tern declaration speci$ies that the variable i is de$ined some*here else. The compiler passes
the e!ternal variable to be resolved b the lin5er. So compiler doesnCt $ind an error. During
lin5ing the lin5er searches $or the de$inition o$ i. Since it is not $ound the lin5er $lags an error.
66' main%'
X
print$%,Kd,, out'L
Y int out(788L
Answer:Compiler error+ unde$ined smbol out in $unction main.
Explanation:
The rule is that a variable is available $or use $rom the point o$ declaration. Sven though a is a
global variable, it is not available $or main. 2ence an error.
6?' main%'
X
e!tern outL
print$%,Kd,, out'L
Y
int out(788L
Answer:
788
Explanation:
This is the correct *a o$ *riting the previous program.
6#' main%'
X
sho*%'L
Y
void sho*%'
X
print$%,ICm the greatest,'L
Y
Answer:Compier error+ Tpe mismatch in redeclaration o$ sho*.
Explanation:
Ahen the compiler sees the $unction sho* it doesnCt 5no* anthing about it. So the de$ault
return tpe %ie, int' is assumed. -ut *hen compiler sees the actual de$inition o$ sho*
mismatch occurs since it is declared as void. 2ence the error.
The solutions are as $ollo*s+
7. declare void sho*%' in main%' .
). de$ine sho*%' be$ore main%'.
@. declare e!tern void sho*%' be$ore the use o$ sho*%'.
6N' main% '
X
int a.)/.@/.)/ ( XXX),6Y,XN,"Y,X@,6YY,XX),)Y,X),@Y,X@,6YYYL
print$%VKu Ku Ku Kd OnW,a,0a,00a,000a'L
print$%VKu Ku Ku Kd OnW,a+7,0a+7,00a+7,000a+7'L
Y
Answer:
788, 788, 788, )
776, 786, 78), @
Explanation:
The given arra is a @;D one. It can also be vie*ed as a 7;D arra. ) 6 N " @ 6 ) ) ) @ @ 6 788
78) 786 78# 78" 778 77) 776 77# 77" 7)8 7)) thus, $or the $irst print$ statement a, 0a, 00a
give address o$ $irst element . since the indirection 000a gives the value. 2ence, the $irst line
o$ the output. $or the second print$ a+7 increases in the third dimension thus points to value at
776, 0a+7 increments in second dimension thus points to 786, 00a +7 increments the $irst
dimension thus points to 78) and 000a+7 $irst gets the value at $irst location and then
increments it b 7. 2ence, the output.
6"' main% '
X
int a. / ( X78,)8,@8,68,?8Y,U,0pL
$or%U(8L U=?L U++'
X
print$%VKdW ,0a'L
a++L
Y
p ( aL
$or%U(8L U=?L U++'
X
print$%VKd W ,0p'L
p++L
Y
Y
Answer:Compiler error+ lvalue reRuired.
Explanation:
Srror is in line *ith statement a++. The operand must be an lvalue and ma be o$ an o$
scalar tpe $or the an operator, arra name onl *hen subscripted is an lvalue. Simpl arra
name is a non;modi$iable lvalue.
0069' main% '
X
static int a. / ( X8,7,),@,6YL
int 0p. / ( Xa,a+7,a+),a+@,a+6YL
int 00ptr ( pL
ptr++L
print$%VOn Kd Kd KdW, ptr;p, 0ptr;a, 00ptr'L
0ptr++L
print$%VOn Kd Kd KdW, ptr;p, 0ptr;a, 00ptr'L
0++ptrL
print$%VOn Kd Kd KdW, ptr;p, 0ptr;a, 00ptr'L
++0ptrL
print$%VOn Kd Kd KdW, ptr;p, 0ptr;a, 00ptr'L
Y
Answer:
111
222
###
#++
?8' main% '
X
char 0RL
int UL
$or %U(8L U=@L U++' scan$%VKsW ,%R+U''L
$or %U(8L U=@L U++' print$%VKcW ,0%R+U''L
$or %U(8L U=@L U++' print$%VKsW ,%R+U''L
Y
?7' main% '
X
void 0vpL
char ch ( IgJ, 0cp ( Vgoo$WL
int U ( )8L
vp ( FchL
print$%VKcW, 0%char 0'vp'L
vp ( FUL
print$%VKdW,0%int 0'vp'L
vp ( cpL
print$%VKsW,%char 0'vp + @'L
Y
Answer:
g)8$
?)' main % '
X
static char 0s. / ( XVblac5W, V*hiteW, Vello*W, VvioletWYL
char 00ptr. / ( Xs+@, s+), s+7, sY, 000pL
p ( ptrL
00++pL
print$%VKsW,0;;0++p + @'L
Y
Answer:
c5
?@' main%'
X
int i, nL
char 0! ( VgirlWL
n ( strlen%!'L
0! ( !.n/L
$or%i(8L i=nL ++i'
X
print$%VKsOnW,!'L
!++L
Y
Y
Answer:
%blan5 space'
irl
rl
l
?6' int i,UL
$or%i(8Li=(78Li++'
X U+(?L
assert%i=?'L
Y
Answer:
Guntime error+ Abnormal program termination.
assert $ailed %i=?', =$ile name<,=line number<
Explanation:
asserts are used during debugging to ma5e sure that certain conditions are satis$ied. I$
assertion $ails, the program *ill terminate reporting the same. A$ter debugging use, Munde$
:DS-31 and this *ill disable all the assertions $rom the source code. Assertion is a good
debugging tool to ma5e use o$.
??' main%'
X int i(;7L
+iL
print$%,i ( Kd, +i ( Kd On,,i,+i'L
Y
Answer:
i ( ;7, +i ( ;7
Explanation:
3nar + is the onl dumm operator in C. Ahere;ever it comes ou can Uust ignore it Uust
because it has no e$$ect in the e!pressions %hence the name dumm operator'. ?#' Ahat are
the $iles *hich are automaticall opened *hen a C $ile is e!ecuted[
Answer:
stdin, stdout, stderr %standard input,standard output,standard error'.
?N' *hat *ill be the position o$ the $ile mar5er[
a+ $see5%ptr,8,SSSZDSST'L
b+ $see5%ptr,8,SSSZDC3G'L
Answer :
a+ The SSSZDSST sets the $ile position mar5er to the starting o$ the $ile.
b+ The SSSZDC3G sets the $ile position mar5er to the current position
o$ the $ile.
?"' main%'
X char name.78/,s.7)/L
scan$%, O,K.\O,/O,,,s'L
Y
2o* scan$ *ill e!ecute[
Answer:4irst it chec5s $or the leading *hite space and discards it.Then it matches *ith a
Ruotation mar5 and then it reads all character upto another Ruotation mar5.
?9' Ahat is the problem *ith the $ollo*ing code segment[
*hile %%$gets%receiving arra,?8,$ileDptr'' >( SO4'
L
Answer & Explanation:
$gets returns a pointer. So the correct end o$ $ile chec5 is chec5ing $or >( :3EE.
#8' main%'
X
main%'L
Y
Answer:
Guntime error + Stac5 over$lo*.
Explanation:
main $unction calls itsel$ again and again. Sach time the $unction is called its return address is
stored in the call stac5. Since there is no condition to terminate the $unction call, the call
stac5 over$lo*s at runtime. So it terminates the program and results in an error.
#7' main%'
X char 0
cptr,cL
void 0vptr,vL
c(78L v(8L
cptr(FcL vptr(FvL
print$%,KcKv,,c,v'L
Y
Answer:Compiler error %at line number 6'+ si&e o$ v is 3n5no*n.
Explanation:
Tou can create a variable o$ tpe void 0 but not o$ tpe void, since void is an empt tpe. In
the second line ou are creating variable vptr o$ tpe void 0 and v o$ tpe void hence an error.
#)' main%'
X char 0
str7(,abcd,L
char str)./(,abcd,L
print$%,Kd Kd Kd,,si&eo$%str7',si&eo$%str)',si&eo$%,abcd,''L
Y
Answer:
) ? ?
Explanation:
In $irst si&eo$, str7 is a character pointer so it gives ou the si&e o$ the pointer variable. In
second si&eo$ the name str) indicates the name o$ the arra *hose si&e is ? %including the CO8C
termination character'. The third si&eo$ is similar to the second one.
#@' main%'
X char notL
not(>)L
print$%,Kd,,not'L
Y
Answer:8
Explanation:
> is a logical operator. In C the value 8 is considered to be the boolean value 4AESS, and an
non;&ero value is considered to be the boolean value TG3S. 2ere ) is a non;&ero value so
TG3S. >TG3S is 4AESS %8' so it prints 8.
#6' Mde$ine 4AESS ;7
Mde$ine TG3S 7
Mde$ine :3EE 8
main%' X
i$%:3EE'
puts%,:3EE,'L
else i$%4AESS'
puts%,TG3S,'L
else
puts%,4AESS,'L
Y
Answer: TG3S
Explanation+
The input program to the compiler a$ter processing b the preprocessor is,
main%'X
i$%8'
puts%,:3EE,'L
else i$%;7'
puts%,TG3S,'L
else
puts%,4AESS,'L
Y
Preprocessor doesnCt replace the values given inside the double Ruotes. The chec5 b i$
condition is boolean value $alse so it goes to else. In second i$ ;7 is boolean value true hence
,TG3S, is printed.
#?' main%'
X int 5(7L
print$%,Kd((7 is ,,Ks,,5,5((7[,TG3S,+,4AESS,'L
Y
Answer: 7((7 is TG3S
Explanation:
Ahen t*o strings are placed together %or separated b *hite;space' the are concatenated
%this is called as ,stringi&ation, operation'. So the string is as i$ it is given as ,Kd((7 is Ks,.
The conditional operator% [+ ' evaluates to ,TG3S,.
##' main%'
X int L
scan$%,Kd,,F'L // input given is )888
i$% %K6((8 FF K788 >( 8' HH K788 (( 8 '
print$%,Kd is a leap ear,'L
else
print$%,Kd is not a leap ear,'L
Y
Answer:
)888 is a leap ear
Explanation:
An ordinar program to chec5 i$ leap ear or not.
#N' Mde$ine ma! ?
Mde$ine int arr7.ma!/
main%'
X
tpede$ char arr).ma!/L
arr7 list(X8,7,),@,6YL
arr) name(,name,L
print$%,Kd Ks,,list.8/,name'L
Y
Answer:Compiler error %in the line arr7 list ( X8,7,),@,6Y'
Explanation:
arr) is declared o$ tpe arra o$ si&e ? o$ characters. So it can be used to declare the variable
name o$ the tpe arr). -ut it is not the case o$ arr7. 2ence an error.
Ru!e "# T$u%&'
Mde$ines are used $or te!tual replacement *hereas tpede$s are used $or declaring ne* tpes.
#"' int i(78L
main%'
X
e!tern int iL
X
int i()8L
X
const volatile unsigned i(@8L
print$%,Kd,,i'L
Y
print$%,Kd,,i'L
Y
print$%,Kd,,i'L
Y
Answer:
@8,)8,78
#9' main%'
X
int 0UL
X
int i(78L
U(FiL
Y
print$%,Kd,,0U'L
Y
Answer:
78
N8' main%'
X int i(;7L
;iL
print$%,i ( Kd, ;i ( Kd On,,i,;i'L
Y
Answer:
i ( ;7, ;i ( 7
Explanation:
;i is e!ecuted and this e!ecution doesnCt a$$ect the value o$ i. In print$ $irst ou Uust print the
value o$ i. A$ter that the value o$ the e!pression ;i ( ;%;7' is printed.
N7' Minclude=stdio.h<
main%'
X
const int i(6L
$loat UL
U ( ++iL
print$%,Kd K$,, i,++U'L
Y
Answer+Compiler error
Explanation+
i is a constant. ou cannot change the value o$ constant
N)' Minclude=stdio.h<
main%'
X
int a.)/.)/.)/ ( X X78,),@,6Y, X?,#,N,"Y YL
int 0p,0RL
p(Fa.)/.)/.)/L
0R(000aL
print$%,Kd..Kd,,0p,0R'L
Y
Answer:
garbagevalue..7
N@' Minclude=stdio.h<
main%'
X
register i(?L
char U./( ,hello,L
print$%,Ks Kd,,U,i'L
Y
Answer:
hello ?
Explanation+
i$ ou declare i as register compiler *ill treat it as ordinar integer and it *ill ta5e integer
value. i value ma be stored either in register or in memor.
N6' main%'
X
int i(?,U(#,&L
print$%,Kd,,i+++U'L
Y
Answer:
77
Explanation:
the e!pression i+++U is treated as %i++ + U'
N#' struct aaaX
struct aaa 0prevL
int iL
struct aaa 0ne!tL
YL
main%'
X
struct aaa abc,de$,ghi,U5lL
int !(788L
abc.i(8Labc.prev(FU5lL
abc.ne!t(Fde$L
de$.i(7Lde$.prev(FabcLde$.ne!t(FghiL
ghi.i()Lghi.prev(Fde$L
ghi.ne!t(FU5lL
U5l.i(@LU5l.prev(FghiLU5l.ne!t(FabcL
!(abc.ne!t;<ne!t;<prev;<ne!t;<iL
print$%,Kd,,!'L
Y
Answer:)
Explanation:
above all statements $orm a double circular lin5ed listL abc.ne!t;<ne!t;<prev;<ne!t;<I this
one points to ,ghi, node the value o$ at particular node is ).
NN' struct point
X
int !L
int L
YL
struct point origin,0ppL
main%'
X
pp(ForiginL
print$%,origin is%KdKd'On,,%0pp'.!,%0pp'.'L
print$%,origin is %KdKd'On,,pp;<!,pp;<'L
Y
Answer:
origin is%8,8'
origin is%8,8'
Explanation+
pp is a pointer to structure. *e can access the elements o$ the structure either *ith arro* mar5
or *ith indirection operator.
N"' main%'
X
int i(DlDabc%78'L
print$%,KdOn,,;;i'L
Y int D
lDabc%int i'
X
return%i++'L
Y
Answer:9
Explanation:
return%i++' it *ill $irst return i and then increments. i.e. 78 *ill be returned.
N9' main%'
X
char 0pL
int 0RL
long 0rL
p(R(r(8L
p++L
R++L
r++L
print$%,Kp...Kp...Kp,,p,R,r'L
Y
Answer:
8887...888)...8886
Explanation:
++ operator *hen applied to pointers increments address according to their corresponding
data;tpes.
"8' main%'
X
char c(C C,!,convert%&'L
getc%c'L
i$%%c<(CaC' FF %c=(C&C''
!(convert%c'L
print$%,Kc,,!'L
Y convert%&'
X
return &;@)L
Y
Answer:
Compiler error
Explanation:
declaration o$ convert and $ormat o$ getc%' are *rong.
"7' main%int argc, char 00argv'
X
print$%,enter the character,'L
getchar%'L
sum%argv.7/,argv.)/'L
Y sum%num7,num)'
int num7,num)L
X
return num7+num)L
Y
Answer:Compiler error.
Explanation:
argv.7/ F argv.)/ are strings. The are passed to the $unction sum *ithout converting it to
integer values.
")' M include =stdio.h<
int oneDd./(X7,),@YL
main%'
X
int 0ptrL
ptr(oneDdL
ptr+(@L
print$%,Kd,,0ptr'L
Y
Answer+
garbage value
Explanation:
ptr pointer is pointing to out o$ the arra range o$ oneDd.
"@' M include=stdio.h<
aaa%' X
print$%,hi,'L
Y
bbb%'X
print$%,hello,'L
Y
ccc%'X
print$%,be,'L
Y
main%'
X
int %0ptr.@/'%'L
ptr.8/(aaaL
ptr.7/(bbbL
ptr.)/(cccL
ptr.)/%'L
Y
Answer+
be
Explanation:
ptr is arra o$ pointers to $unctions o$ return tpe int.ptr.8/ is assigned to address o$ the
$unction aaa. Similarl ptr.7/ and ptr.)/ $or bbb and ccc respectivel. ptr.)/%' is in e$$ect o$
*riting ccc%', since ptr.)/ points to ccc.
"?' Minclude=stdio.h<
main%'
X
4IES 0ptrL
char iL
ptr($open%,&&&.c,,,r,'L
*hile%%i($getch%ptr''>(SO4'
print$%,Kc,,i'L
Y
Answer:
contents o$ &&&.c $ollo*ed b an in$inite loop
Explanation:
The condition is chec5ed against SO4, it should be chec5ed against :3EE.
"#' main%'
X
int i (8LU(8L
i$%i FF U++'
print$%,Kd..Kd,,i++,U'L
print$%,Kd..Kd,i,U'L
Y
Answer:
8..8
Explanation:
The value o$ i is 8. Since this in$ormation is enough to determine the truth value o$ the
boolean e!pression. So the statement $ollo*ing the i$ statement is not e!ecuted. The values o$
i and U remain unchanged and get printed.
"N' main%'
X
int iL
i ( abc%'L
print$%,Kd,,i'L
Y abc%'
X
DA] ( 7888L
Y
Answer:
7888
Explanation:
:ormall the return value $rom the $unction is through the in$ormation $rom the
accumulator. 2ere DA2 is the pseudo global variable denoting the accumulator. 2ence, the
value o$ the accumulator is set 7888 so the $unction returns value 7888.
""' int iL
main%'X
int tL
$or % t(6Lscan$%,Kd,,Fi';tLprint$%,KdOn,,i''
print$%,Kd;;,,t;;'L
Y
// I$ the inputs are 8,7,),@ $ind the o/p
Answer:
6;;8
@;;7
);;)
Explanation:
Eet us assume some !( scan$%,Kd,,Fi';t the values during e!ecution
*ill be,
t i !
6 8 ;6
@ 7 ;)
) ) 8
"9' main%'X
int a( 8Lint b ( )8Lchar ! (7Lchar (78L
i$%a,b,!,'
print$%,hello,'L
Y
Answer:
2ello
98' main%'X
unsigned int iL
$or%i(7Li<;)Li;;'
print$%,c aptitude,'L
Y
97' In the $ollo*ing pgm add a stmt in the $unction $un such that the address o$
CaC gets stored in CUC.
main%'X
int 0 UL
void $un%int 00'L
$un%FU'L
Y
void $un%int 005' X
int a (8L
/0 add a stmt here0/
Y
Answer:
05 ( Fa
Explanation:
The argument o$ the $unction is a pointer to a pointer.
9)' Ahat are the $ollo*ing notations o$ de$ining $unctions 5no*n as[
i. int abc%int a,$loat b'
X
/0 some code 0/
Y
ii. int abc%a,b'
int aL $loat bL
X
/0 some code0/
Y
Answer:
i. A:SI C notation
ii. Zernighan F Gitche notation
9@' main%'
X char 0
pL
p(,KdOn,L
p++L
p++L
print$%p;),@88'L
Y
Answer:
@88
Explanation:
The pointer points to K since it is incremented t*ice and again decremented b ), it points to
CKdOnC and @88 is printed.
96' main%'X
char a.788/L
a.8/(CaCLa.7//(CbCLa.)/(CcCLa.6/(CdCL
abc%a'L
Y abc%char a./'X
a++L
print$%,Kc,,0a'L
a++L
print$%,Kc,,0a'L
Y
Explanation:
The base address is modi$ied onl in $unction and as a result a points to CbC then a$ter
incrementing to CcC so bc *ill be printed.
9?' $unc%a,b'
int a,bL
X
return% a( %a((b' 'L
Y
main%'
X int process%',$unc%'L
print$%,The value o$ process is Kd >On ,,process%$unc,@,#''L
Y
process%p$,val7,val)'
int %0p$' %'L
int val7,val)L
X
return%%0p$' %val7,val)''L
Y
Answer: The value i$ process is 8 >
9#' void main%'
X
static int i(?L
i$%;;i'X
main%'L
print$%,Kd ,,i'L
Y
Y
Answer:
8 8 8 8
Explanation:
The variable ,I, is declared as static, hence memor $or I *ill be allocated $or onl once, as it
encounters the statement. The $unction main%' *ill be called ecursivel unless I becomes
eRual to 8, and since main%' is recursivel called, so the value o$ static I ie., 8 *ill be printed
ever time the control is returned.
9N' void main%'
X
int 5(ret%si&eo$%$loat''L
print$%,On here value is Kd,,++5'L
Y int ret%int ret'
X
ret +( ).?L
return%ret'L
Y
Answer:
2ere value is N
Explanation:
The int ret%int ret', ie., the $unction name and the argument name can be the same. 4irstl, the
$unction ret%' is called in *hich the si&eo$%$loat' ie., 6 is passed, a$ter the $irst e!pression the
value in ret *ill be #, as ret is integer hence the value stored in ret *ill have implicit tpe
conversion $rom $loat to int. The ret is returned in main%' it is printed a$ter and preincrement.
9"' void main%'
X
char a./(,7)@6?O8,L
int i(strlen%a'L
print$%,here in @ KdOn,,++i'L
Y
Answer:
here in @ #
99' void main%'
X
unsigned giveit(;7L
int gotitL
print$%,Ku ,,++giveit'L
print$%,Ku On,,gotit(;;giveit'L
Y
Answer:
8 #??@?
Explanation:
788' void main%'
X
int iL
char a./(,O8,L
i$%print$%,KsOn,,a''
print$%,O5 here On,'L
else
print$%,4orget itOn,'L
Y
Answer:
O5 here
Explanation:
Print$ *ill return ho* man characters does it print. 2ence printing a null character returns 7
*hich ma5es the i$ statement true, thus ,O5 here, is printed.
787' void main%'
X
void 0vL
int integer()L
int 0i(FintegerL
v(iL
print$%,Kd,,%int0'0v'L
Y
Answer:
Compiler Srror. Ae cannot appl indirection on tpe void0.
Explanation:
Qoid pointer is a generic pointer tpe. :o pointer arithmetic can be done on it. Qoid pointers
are normall used $or, 7. Passing generic pointers to $unctions and returning such pointers. ).
As a intermediate pointer tpe. @. 3sed *hen the e!act pointer tpe *ill be 5no*n at a later
point o$ time.
78)' void main%'
X
int i(i++,U(U++,5(5++L
print$%VKdKdKdW,i,U,5'L
Y
Answer:
1arbage values.
Explanation:
Gn id%ntifi%r is avai$a'$% to &s% in pro=ram cod% from th% point of its d%c$aration.
So e!pressions such as i ( i++ are valid statements. The i, U and 5 are automatic variables and
so the contain some garbage value. Har'a=% in is =ar'a=% o&t (H)HI).
78@' void main%'
X
static int i(i++, U(U++, 5(5++L
print$%Vi ( Kd U ( Kd 5 ( KdW, i, U, 5'L
Y
Answer:
i ( 7 U ( 7 5 ( 7
Explanation:
Since static variables are initiali&ed to &ero b de$ault.
786' void main%'
X
*hile%7'X
i$%print$%,Kd,,print$%,Kd,'''
brea5L
else
continueL
Y
Y
Answer:
1arbage values
786' main%'
X
unsigned int i(78L
*hile%i;;<(8'
print$%,Ku ,,i'L
Y
Answer:
78 9 " N # ? 6 @ ) 7 8 #??@? #??@6^..
Explanation:
Since i is an unsigned integer it can never become negative. So the e!pression i;; <(8 *ill
al*as be true, leading to an in$inite loop.
78?' Minclude=conio.h<
main%'
X
int !,(),&,aL
i$%!(K)' &()L
a()L
print$%,Kd Kd ,,&,!'L
Y
Answer:
1arbage;value 8
Explanation:
The value o$ K) is 8. This value is assigned to !. The condition reduces to i$ %!' or in other
*ords i$%8' and so & goes uninitiali&ed. Thumb Rule: Chec5 all control paths to *rite bug
$ree code.
78#' main%'
X
int a.78/L
print$%,Kd,,0a+7;0a+@'L
Y
Answer:
6
Explanation:
0a and ;0a cancels out. The result is as simple as 7 + @ ( 6 >
78N' Mde$ine prod%a,b' a0b
main%'
X
int !(@,(6L
print$%,Kd,,prod%!+),;7''L
Y
Answer:
78
Explanation:
The macro e!pands and evaluates to as+
!+)0;7 (< !+%)0';7 (< 78
78"' main%'
X
unsigned int i(#?888L
*hile%i++>(8'L
print$%,Kd,,i'L
Y
Answer:
7
Explanation:
:ote the semicolon a$ter the *hile statement. Ahen the value o$ i becomes 8 it comes out o$
*hile loop. Due to post;increment on i the value o$ i *hile printing is 7.
789' main%'
X
int i(8L
*hile%+%+i;;'>(8'
i;(i++L
print$%,Kd,,i'L
Y
Answer:
;7
Explanation:
*nar( + is th% on$( d&mm( op%rator in @. So it has no e$$ect on the e!pression and no* the
*hile loop is, *hile%i;;>(8' *hich is $alse and so brea5s out o$ *hile loop. The value P7 is
printed due to the post;decrement operator.
77@' main%'
X
$loat $(?,g(78L
enumXi(78,U()8,5(?8YL
print$%,KdOn,,++5'L
print$%,K$On,,$==)'L
print$%,Kl$On,,$Kg'L
print$%,Kl$On,,$mod%$,g''L
Y
Answer: Eine no ?+ Srror+ Evalue reRuired
Eine no #+ Cannot appl le$tshi$t to $loat
Eine no N+ Cannot appl mod to $loat
.
778' main%'
X
int i(78L
void pascal $%int,int,int'L
$%i++,i++,i++'L
print$%, Kd,,i'L
Y
void pascal $%integer +i,integer+U,integer +5'
X
*rite%i,U,5'L
Y
Answer:Compiler error+ un5no*n tpe integer
Compiler error+ undeclared $unction *rite
Explanation:
Pascal 5e*ord doesnJt mean that pascal code can be used. It means that the $unction $ollo*s
Pascal argument passing mechanism in calling the $unctions.
777' void pascal $%int i,int U,int 5'
X
print$%VKd Kd KdW,i, U, 5'L
Y
void cdecl $%int i,int U,int 5'
X
print$%VKd Kd KdW,i, U, 5'L
Y
main%'
X
int i(78L
$%i++,i++,i++'L
print$%, KdOn,,i'L
i(78L
$%i++,i++,i++'L
print$%, Kd,,i'L
Y
Answer:
78 77 7) 7@
7) 77 78 7@
Explanation:
Pascal argument passing mechanism $orces the arguments to be called $rom le$t to right. cdecl
is the normal C argument passing mechanism *here the rguments are passed $rom right to
le$t.
77)'. Ahat is the output o$ the program given belo*
main%'
X
signed char i(8L
$or%Li<(8Li++' L
print$%,KdOn,,i'L
Y
Answer
;7)"
Explanation
:otice the semicolon at the end o$ the $or loop. T2e initial value o$ the i is set to 8. The inner
loop e!ecutes to increment the value $rom 8 to 7)N %the positive range o$ char' and then it
rotates to the negative value o$ ;7)". The condition in the $or loop $ails and so comes out o$
the $or loop. It prints the current value o$ i that is ;7)".
77@' main%'
X
unsigned char i(8L
$or%Li<(8Li++' L
print$%,KdOn,,i'L Y
Answer
in$inite loop
Explanation
The di$$erence bet*een the previous Ruestion and this one is that the char is declared to be
unsigned. So the i++ can never ield negative value and i<(8 never becomes $alse so that it
can come out o$ the $or loop.
776' main%'
X
char i(8L
$or%Li<(8Li++' L
print$%,KdOn,,i'L
Y
Answer:-ehavior is implementation dependent.
Explanation:
The detail i$ the char is signed/unsigned b de$ault is implementation dependent. I$ the
implementation treats the char to be signed b de$ault the program *ill print P7)" and
terminate. On the other hand i$ it considers char to be unsigned b de$ault, it goes to in$inite
loop.
Ru!e'
Tou can *rite programs that have implementation dependent behavior. -ut dont
*rite programs that depend on such behavior.
77?' Is the $ollo*ing statement a declaration/de$inition. 4ind *hat does it mean[
int %0!'.78/L
Answer
De$inition.
! is a pointer to arra o$%si&e 78' integers.
Appl cloc5;*ise rule to $ind the meaning o$ this de$inition.
77#'. Ahat is the output $or the program given belo*
tpede$ enum errorTpeX*arning, error, e!ception,YerrorL
main%'
X
error g7L
g7(7L
print$%,Kd,,g7'L
Y
Answer
Compiler error+ Bultiple declaration $or error
77N' tpede$ struct errorXint *arning, error, e!ceptionLYerrorL
main%'
X
error g7L
g7.error (7L
print$%,Kd,,g7.error'L
Y
Answer
7
77"' Mi$de$ something
int some(8L
Mendi$
main%'
X
int thing ( 8L
print$%,Kd KdOn,, some ,thing'L
Y
Answer:Compiler error + unde$ined smbol some
Explanation:
This is a ver simple e!ample $or conditional compilation. The name something is
not alread 5no*n to the compiler ma5ing the declaration int some ( 8L
e$$ectivel removed $rom the source code.
779' Mi$ something (( 8
int some(8L
Mendi$
main%'
X
int thing ( 8L
print$%,Kd KdOn,, some ,thing'L
Y
Answer
8 8
Explanation
This code is to sho* that preprocessor e!pressions are not the same as the ordinar
e!pressions. I$ a name is not 5no*n the preprocessor treats it to be eRual to &ero.
7)8'. Ahat is the output $or the $ollo*ing program
main%'
X
int arr)D.@/.@/L
print$%,KdOn,, %%arr)D((0 arr)D'FF%0 arr)D (( arr)D.8/'' 'L
Y
Answer
7
7)7' void main%'
X
i$%_8 (( %unsigned int';7'
print$%VTou can ans*er this i$ ou 5no* ho* values are represented in memorW'L
Y
Ans*er Tou can ans*er this i$ ou 5no* ho* values are represented in memor
7))' int s*ap%int 0a,int 0b'
X
0a(0a+0bL0b(0a;0bL0a(0a;0bL
Y
main%'
X
int !(78,()8L
s*ap%F!,F'L
print$%,!( Kd ( KdOn,,!,'L
Y
Ans*er
! ( )8 ( 78
S!planation
This is one *a o$ s*apping t*o values. Simple chec5ing *ill help understand this.
7)@' main%'
X char 0
p
(
V
aRmWL
print$%VKcW,++0%p++''L
Y
Ans*er+
-
7)6' main%'
X
int i(?L
print$%,Kd,,++i++'L
Y
Answer:Compiler error+ Evalue reRuired in $unction main
Explanation:
++i ields an rvalue. 4or post$i! ++ to operate an lvalue is reRuired.
7)?' main%'
X
char 0p ( VaRmWL
char cL
c ( ++0p++L
print$%VKcW,c'L
Y
Answer:b
Explanation:
There is no di$$erence bet*een the e!pression ++0%p++' and ++0p++. Parenthesis Uust *or5s
as a visual clue $or the reader to see *hich e!pression is $irst evaluated.
7)#'
int aaa%' Xprint$%V2iW'LY
int bbb%'Xprint$%VhelloW'LY
in ccc%'Xprint$%VbeW'LY
main%'
X int %
0
ptr.@/' %'L
ptr.8/ ( aaaL
ptr.7/ ( bbbL
ptr.)/ (cccL
ptr.)/%'L
Y
Ans*er+
&1e
S!planation+
int %0 ptr.@/'%' sas that ptr is an arra o$ pointers to $unctions that ta5es no arguments and
returns the tpe int. - the assignment ptr.8/ ( aaaL it means that the $irst $unction pointer in
the arra is initiali&ed *ith the address o$ the $unction aaa. Similarl, the other t*o arra
elements also get initiali&ed *ith the ddresses o$ the $unctions bbb and ccc. Since ptr.)/
contains the address o$ the $unction ccc, the call to the $unction ptr.)/%' is same as calling
ccc%'. So it results in printing ,be,.
7)N'
main%'
X int i(?L
print$%VKdW,i(++i ((#'L
Y
Answer:+
7)"' main%'
X
char p. /(,KdOn,L
p.7/ ( CcCL
print$%p,#?'L
Y
Answer:A
Explanation:
Due to the assignment p.7/ ( IcJ the string becomes, VKcOnW. Since this string becomes the
$ormat string $or print$ and ASCII value o$ #? is IAJ, the same gets printed.
7)9' void % 0 abc% int, void % 0de$' %' ' ' %'L
Ans*er++
abc is a ptr to a $unction *hich ta5es ) parameters .%a'. an integer variable.%b'. a ptrto
a $untion *hich returns void. the return tpe o$ the $unction is void.
Explanation:
Appl the cloc5;*ise rule to $ind the result.
7@8' main%'
X
*hile %strcmp%VsomeW,WsomeO8W''
print$%VStrings are not eRualOnW'L
Y
Answer: :o output
Explanation:
Snding the string constant *ith O8 e!plicitl ma5es no di$$erence. So VsomeW and VsomeO8W
are eRuivalent. So, strcmp returns 8 %$alse' hence brea5ing out o$ the *hile loop.
7@7' main%'
X
char str7./ ( XIsJ,JoJ,JmJ,JeJYL
char str)./ ( XIsJ,JoJ,JmJ,JeJ,JO8JYL
*hile %strcmp%str7,str)''
print$%VStrings are not eRualOnW'L
Y
Answer:
VStrings are not eRualW
VStrings are not eRualW
^.
7@)' main%'
X
int i ( @L
$or %Li++(8L' print$%VKdW,i'L
Y
Answer:
Compiler Srror+ Evalue reRuired.
Explanation:
As *e 5no* that increment operators return rvalues and hence it cannot appear on the le$t
hand side o$ an assignment operation.
7@@' void main%'
X
int 0mptr, 0cptrL
mptr ( %int0'malloc%si&eo$%int''L
print$%VKdW,0mptr'L
int 0cptr ( %int0'calloc%si&eo$%int',7'L
print$%VKdW,0cptr'L
Y
Answer:
garbage;value 8
Explanation:
The memor space allocated b malloc is uninitiali&ed, *hereas calloc returns the allocated
memor space initiali&ed to &eros.
7@6' void main%'
X
static int iL
*hile%i=(78'
%i<)'[i+++i;;L
print$%VKdW, i'L
Y
Answer:
@)N#N
Explanation:
Since i is static it is initiali&ed to 8. Inside the *hile loop the conditional operator evaluates to
$alse, e!ecuting i;;. This continues till the integer value rotates to positive value %@)N#N'. The
*hile condition becomes $alse and hence, comes out o$ the *hile loop, printing the I value.
7@?' main%'
X
int i(78,U()8L
U ( i, U[%i,U'[i+U+UL
print$%,Kd Kd,,i,U'L
Y
Answer:
78 78
Explanation:
The Ternar operator % [ + ' is eRuivalent $or i$;then;else statement. So the Ruestion can be
*ritten as+
i$%i,U'
X
i$%i,U'
U ( iL
else
U ( UL
Y
else
U ( UL
7@#' 7. const char 0aL
). char0 const aL
@. char const 0aL
;Di$$erentiate the above declarations.
Answer:
7. CconstC applies to char 0 rather than CaC % pointer to a constant char '
0a(C4C + illegal
a(,2i, + legal
). CconstC applies to CaC rather than to the value o$ a %constant pointer to char '
0a(C4C + legal
a(,2i, + illegal
@. Same as 7.
7@N' main%'
X
int i(?,U(78L
i(iF(UFF78L
print$%,Kd Kd,,i,U'L
Y
Answer:
7 78
Explanation:
The e!pression can be *ritten as i(%iF(%UFF78''L The inner e!pression %UFF78' evaluates to
7 because U((78. i is ?. i ( ?F7 is 7. 2ence the result.
7@"' main%'
X
int i(6,U(NL
U ( U HH i++ FF print$%,TO3 CA:,'L
print$%,Kd Kd,, i, U'L
Y
Answer:
6 7
7@9' main%'
X
register int a()L
print$%,Address o$ a ( Kd,,Fa'L
print$%,Qalue o$ a ( Kd,,a'L
Y
Answer:Compier Srror+ CFC on register variable
Rule to Remember:
& (address of ) operator cannot be applied on register variables
768' main%'
X
$loat i(7.?L
s*itch%i'
X
case 7+ print$%,7,'L
case )+ print$%,),'L
de$ault + print$%,8,'L
Y
Y
Answer:Compiler Srror+ s*itch e!pression not integral
Explanation:
J;itch stat%m%nts can '% app$i%d on$( to int%=ra$ t(p%s.
767' main%'
X
e!tern iL
print$%,KdOn,,i'L
X
int i()8L
print$%,KdOn,,i'L
Y
Y
Answer: Ein5er Srror + 3nresolved e!ternal smbol i
Explanation:
The identi$ier i is available in the inner bloc5 and so using e!tern has no use in resolving it.
76)' main%'
X
int a(),0$7,0$)L
$7($)(FaL
0$)+(0$)+(a+().?L
print$%,OnKd Kd Kd,,a,0$7,0$)'L
Y
Answer:
7# 7# 7#
Explanation:

$7 and $) both re$er to the same memor location a. So changes through $7 and $) ultimatel
a$$ects onl the value o$ a.
76@' main%'
X
char 0p(,1OOD,L
char a. /(,1OOD,L
print$%,On si&eo$%p' ( Kd, si&eo$%0p' ( Kd, strlen%p' ( Kd,, si&eo$%p', si&eo$%0p', strlen%p''L
print$%,On si&eo$%a' ( Kd, strlen%a' ( Kd,, si&eo$%a', strlen%a''L
Y
Answer:
si&eo$%p' ( ), si&eo$%0p' ( 7, strlen%p' ( 6
si&eo$%a' ( ?, strlen%a' ( 6
Explanation:
si&eo$%p' (< si&eo$%char0' (< )
si&eo$%0p' (< si&eo$%char' (< 7
Similarl, si&eo$%a' (< si&e o$ the character arra (< ?
?h%n si9%of op%rator is app$i%d to an arra( it r%t&rns th% si9%of th% arra( and it is not the
same as the si&eo$ the pointer variable. 2ere the si&eo$%a' *here a is the character arra and
the si&e o$ the arra is ? because the space necessar $or the terminating :3EE character
should also be ta5en into account.
766' Mde$ine DIB% arra, tpe' si&eo$%arra'/si&eo$%tpe'
main%'
X
int arr.78/L
print$%VThe dimension o$ the arra is KdW, DIB%arr, int''L
Y
Answer:
78
Explanation:
The si&e o$ integer arra o$ 78 elements is 78 0 si&eo$%int'. The macro e!pands to
si&eo$%arr'/si&eo$%int' (< 78 0 si&eo$%int' / si&eo$%int' (< 78.
76?' int DIB%int arra./'
X
return si&eo$%arra'/si&eo$%int 'L
Y
main%'
X
int arr.78/L
print$%VThe dimension o$ the arra is KdW, DIB%arr''L
Y
Answer:
7
Explanation:
Grra(s cannot '% pass%d to f&nctions as ar=&m%nts and on$( th% point%rs can '% pass%d. So
the argument is eRuivalent to int 0 arra %this is one o$ the ver $e* places *here ./ and 0
usage are eRuivalent'. The return statement becomes, si&eo$%int 0'/ si&eo$%int' that happens
to be eRual in this case.

76#' main%'
X
static int a.@/.@/(X7,),@,6,?,#,N,",9YL
int i,UL
static 0p./(Xa,a+7,a+)YL
$or%i(8Li=@Li++'
X
$or%U(8LU=@LU++'
print$%,KdOtKdOtKdOtKdOn,,0%0%p+i'+U',
0%0%U+p'+i',0%0%i+p'+U',0%0%p+U'+i''L
Y
Y
Answer:
7 7 7 7
) 6 ) 6
@ N @ N
6 ) 6 )
? ? ? ?
# " # "
N @ N @
" # " #
9 9 9 9
Explanation:
0%0%p+i'+U' is eRuivalent to p.i/.U/.
76N' main%'
X
void s*ap%'L
int !(78,("L
s*ap%F!,F'L
print$%,!(Kd (Kd,,!,'L
Y
void s*ap%int 0a, int 0b'
X
0a \( 0b, 0b \( 0a, 0a \( 0bL
Y
Answer: !(78 ("
76"' main%'
X
int i ( )?NL
int 0iPtr ( FiL
print$%,Kd Kd,, 0%%char0'iPtr', 0%%char0'iPtr+7' 'L
Y
Answer:
7 7
Explanation:
The integer value )?N is stored in the memor as, 88888887 88888887, so the individual
btes are ta5en b casting it to char 0 and get printed.
769' main%'
X
int i ( )?"L
int 0iPtr ( FiL
print$%,Kd Kd,, 0%%char0'iPtr', 0%%char0'iPtr+7' 'L
Y
Answer:
) 7
Explanation:
The integer value )?N can be represented in binar as, 88888887 88888887. Gemember that
the I:TSE machines are Ismall;endianJ machines. Jma$$,%ndian m%ans that th% $o;%r ord%r
'(t%s ar% stor%d in th% hi=h%r m%mor( addr%ss%s and th% hi=h%r ord%r '(t%s ar% stor%d in
$o;%r addr%ss%s. The integer value )?" is stored in memor as+ 88888887 88888878.
7?8' main%'
X
int i(@88L
char 0ptr ( FiL
0++ptr()L
print$%,Kd,,i'L
Y
Answer:
??#
Explanation:
The integer value @88 in binar notation is+ 88888887 88787788. It is stored in memor
%small;endian' as+ 88787788 88888887. Gesult o$ the e!pression 0++ptr ( ) ma5es the
memor representation as+ 88787788 88888878. So the integer corresponding to it is
88888878 88787788 (< ??#.
7?7' Minclude =stdio.h<
main%'
X
char 0 str ( ,hello,L
char 0 ptr ( strL
char least ( 7)NL
*hile %0ptr++'
least ( %0ptr=least ' [0ptr +leastL
print$%,Kd,,least'L
Y
Answer:8
Explanation:
A$ter IptrJ reaches the end o$ the string the value pointed b IstrJ is IO8J. So the value o$ IstrJ
is less than that o$ IleastJ. So the value o$ IleastJ $inall is 8.
7?)' Declare an arra o$ : pointers to $unctions returning pointers to $unctions returning
pointers to
characters[
Answer:
%char0%0'% '' %0ptr.:/'% 'L
7?@' main%'
X
struct student
X
char name.@8/L
struct date dobL
YstudL
struct date
X
int da,month,earL
YL
scan$%,KsKdKdKd,, stud.rollno, Fstudent.dob.da, Fstudent.dob.month,
Fstudent.dob.ear'L
Y
Answer:Compiler Srror+ 3nde$ined structure date
Explanation:
Inside the struct de$inition o$ IstudentJ the member o$ tpe struct date is given. The compiler
doesnJt have the de$inition o$ date structure %$or*ard re$erence is not allo*ed in C in this
case' so it issues an error.
7?6' main%'
X
struct dateL
struct student
X
char name.@8/L
struct date dobL
YstudL
struct date
X
int da,month,earL
YL
scan$%,KsKdKdKd,, stud.rollno, Fstudent.dob.da, Fstudent.dob.month,
Fstudent.dob.ear'L
Y
Answer:Compiler Srror+ 3nde$ined structure date
Explanation:

Onl declaration o$ struct date is available inside the structure de$inition o$ IstudentJ but to
have a variable o$ tpe struct date the de$inition o$ the structure is reRuired.
7??' There *ere 78 records stored in Vsome$ile.datW but the $ollo*ing program printed 77
names. Ahat
*ent *rong[
void main%'
X
struct student
X char name.@8/, rollno.#/L
YstudL
4IES 0$p ( $open%Vsome$ile.datW,WrW'L
*hile%>$eo$%$p''
X
$read%Fstud, si&eo$%stud', 7 , $p'L
puts%stud.name'L
Y
Y
Explanation:
$read reads 78 records and prints the names success$ull. It *ill return SO4 onl
*hen $read tries to read another record and $ails reading SO4 %and returning SO4'. So it
prints the last record again. A$ter this onl the condition $eo$%$p' becomes $alse, hence comes
out o$ the *hile loop.
7?#' Is there an di$$erence bet*een the t*o declarations,
7. int $oo%int 0arr./' and
). int $oo%int 0arr.)/'
Answer: :o
Explanation:
4unctions can onl pass pointers and not arras. The numbers that are allo*ed inside the ./ is
Uust $or more readabilit. So there is no di$$erence bet*een the t*o declarations.
7?N' Ahat is the subtle error in the $ollo*ing code segment[
void $un%int n, int arr./'
X
int 0p(8L
int i(8L
*hile%i++=n'
p ( Farr.i/L
0p ( 8L
Y
Answer & Explanation:
I$ the bod o$ the loop never e!ecutes p is assigned no address. So p remains :3EE *here 0p
(8 ma result in problem %ma rise to runtime error V:3EE pointer assignmentW and
terminate the program'.
7?"' Ahat is *rong *ith the $ollo*ing code[
int 0$oo%'
X
int 0s ( malloc%si&eo$%int'788'L

assert%s >( :3EE'L
return sL
Y
Answer & Explanation:
assert macro should be used $or debugging and $inding out bugs. The chec5 s >( :3EE is $or
error/e!ception handling and $or that assert shouldnJt be used. A plain i$ and the
corresponding remed statement has to be given.
7?9' Ahat is the hidden bug *ith the $ollo*ing statement[
assert%val++ >( 8'L
Answer & Explanation:
Assert macro is used $or debugging and removed in release version. In assert, the e!pression
involves side;e$$ects. So the behavior o$ the code becomes di$$erent in case o$ debug version
and the release version thus leading to a subtle bug.
Rule to Remember:
KonLt &s% %3pr%ssions that hav% sid%,%ff%cts in ass%rt stat%m%nts.
7#8' void main%'
X int 0
i
(
8!688L // i
points to the address 688
0i ( 8L // set the value o$ memor location pointed b iL
Y
Answer: 3nde$ined behavior
Explanation:
The second statement results in unde$ined behavior because it points to some location *hose
value ma not be available $or modi$ication. Mhis t(p% of point%r in ;hich th% nonavai$a'i$it(
of th% imp$%m%ntation of th% r%f%r%nc%d $ocation is 5no;n as Eincomp$%t% t(p%E.
7#7' Mde$ine assert%cond' i$%>%cond'' O
%$print$%stderr, ,assertion $ailed+ Ks, $ile Ks, line Kd On,,Mcond,O
DD4IESDD,DDEI:SDD', abort%''
void main%'
X int i
(
78L
i$%i((8'
assert%i = 788'L
else
print$%,This statement becomes else $or i$ in assert macro,'L
Y
Ans*er+
:o output
Explanation:
The else part in *hich the print$ is there becomes the else $or i$ in the assert macro. 2ence
nothing is printed. The solution is to use conditional operator instead o$ i$ statement, Mde$ine
assert%cond' %%cond'[%8'+ %$print$ %stderr, ,assertion $ailed+ O Ks, $ile Ks, line Kd On,,Mcond,
DD4IESDD,DDEI:SDD', abort%'''
:ote+

2o*ever this problem o$ Vmatching *ith nearest elseW cannot be solved b the usual method
o$ placing the i$ statement inside a bloc5 li5e this,
Mde$ine assert%cond' X O
i$%>%cond'' O %$print$%stderr, ,assertion $ailed+ Ks, $ile Ks, line Kd On,,Mcond,O
DD4IESDD,DDEI:SDD', abort%'' O
Y
7#)' Is the $ollo*ing code legal[
struct a
X
int !L
struct a bL
Y
Ans7er'
:o
Explanation:
Is it not legal $or a structure to contain a member that is o$ the same
tpe as in this case. -ecause this *ill cause the structure declaration to be recursive *ithout
end.
7#@' Is the $ollo*ing code legal[
struct a
X
int !L
struct a 0bL
Y
Answer:Tes.
Explanation:
0b is a pointer to tpe struct a and so is legal. The compiler 5no*s, the si&e o$ the pointer to a
structure even be$ore the si&e o$ the structure is determined%as ou 5no* the pointer to an
tpe is o$ same si&e'. This tpe o$ structures is 5no*n as Isel$;re$erencingJ structure.
7#6' Is the $ollo*ing code legal[
tpede$ struct a
X
int !L
aTpe 0bL
YaTpe
Answer: :o
Explanation:
The tpename aTpe is not 5no*n at the point o$ declaring the structure %$or*ard re$erences
are not made $or tpede$s'.
7#?' Is the $ollo*ing code legal[
tpede$ struct a aTpeL
struct a
X
int !L

aTpe 0bL
YL
Answer:Tes
Explanation:
The tpename aTpe is 5no*n at the point o$ declaring the structure, because it is alread
tpede$ined.
7##' Is the $ollo*ing code legal[
void main%'
X
tpede$ struct a aTpeL
aTpe someQariableL
struct a
X
int !L
aTpe 0bL
YL
Y
Answer: :o
Explanation:
Ahen the declaration,
tpede$ struct a aTpeL
is encountered bod o$ struct a is not 5no*n. This is 5no*n as Iincomplete tpesJ.
7#N' void main%'
X
print$%Vsi&eo$ %void 0' ( Kd OnV, si&eo$% void 0''L
print$%Vsi&eo$ %int 0' ( Kd OnW, si&eo$%int 0''L
print$%Vsi&eo$ %double 0' ( Kd OnW, si&eo$%double 0''L
print$%Vsi&eo$%struct un5no*n 0' ( Kd OnW, si&eo$%struct un5no*n 0''L
Y
Answer :
si&eo$ %void 0' ( )
si&eo$ %int 0' ( )
si&eo$ %double 0' ( )
si&eo$%struct un5no*n 0' ( )
Explanation:
The pointer to an tpe is o$ same si&e.
7#"' char inputString.788/ ( X8YL
To get string input $rom the 5eboard *hich one o$ the $ollo*ing is better[
7' gets%inputString'
)' $gets%inputString, si&eo$%inputString', $p'
Answer & Explanation:
The second one is better because gets%inputString' doesnCt 5no* the si&e o$ the string passed
and so, i$ a ver big input %here, more than 788 chars' the charactes *ill be *ritten past the
input string. Ahen $gets is used *ith stdin per$orms the same operation as gets but is sa$e.
7#9' Ahich version do ou pre$er o$ the $ollo*ing t*o,
7' print$%VKsW,str'L // or the more curt one

)' print$%str'L
Answer & Explanation:
Pre$er the $irst one. I$ the str contains an $ormat characters li5e Kd then it *ill result in a
subtle bug.
7N8' void main%'
X
int i(78, U()L
int 0ip( Fi, 0Up ( FUL
int 5 ( 0ip/0UpL
print$%VKdW,5'L
Y
Answer:
Compiler Srror+ V3ne!pected end o$ $ile in comment started in line ?W.
Explanation:
The programmer intended to divide t*o integers, but b the Vma!imum munchW
rule, the compiler treats the operator seRuence / and 0 as /0 *hich happens to be the starting
o$ comment. To $orce *hat is intended b the programmer, int 5 ( 0ip/ 0UpL // give space
e!plicit separating / and 0 //or int 5 ( 0ip/%0Up'L // put braces to $orce the intention *ill solve
the problem.
7N7' void main%'
X char chL
$or%ch(8Lch=(7)NLch++'
print$%VKc Kd OnV, ch, ch'L
Y
Answer:
Implementaion dependent
Explanation:
The char tpe ma be signed or unsigned b de$ault. I$ it is signed then ch++ is e!ecuted a$ter
ch reaches 7)N and rotates bac5 to ;7)". Thus ch is al*as smaller than 7)N.
7N)' Is this code legal[
int 0ptrL
ptr ( %int 0' 8!688L
Answer:
Tes
Explanation:
The pointer ptr *ill point at the integer in the memor location 8!688.
7N@' main%'
X
char a.6/(,2SEEO,L
print$%,Ks,,a'L
Y
Answer:
Compiler error+ Too man initiali&ers

Explanation:
The arra a is o$ si&e 6 but the string constant reRuires # btes to get stored.
7N6' main%'
X
char a.6/(,2SEE,L
print$%,Ks,,a'L
Y
Answer:
2SEEK`>_`>`[[[`__>
7N?' main%'
X
int a(78,0UL
void 05L
U(5(FaL
U++L
5++L
print$%,On Ku Ku ,,U,5'L
Y
Answer:
Compiler error+ Cannot increment a void pointer
7N#' char 0some4un7%'
X char temp. /
(
V
string,L
return tempL
Y char 0
some4un)%'
X char temp. /
(
XIsJ, I
tJ,JrJ,JiJ,JnJ,JgJYL
return tempL
Y int main%'
X
puts%some4un7%''L
puts%some4un)%''L
Y
Ans*er+
1arbage values.