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Conjugal

Partnership of
Gains:
Art. 105: In case the
future spouses
agree in the
marriage settlements
that the regime of
conjugal partnership
gains shall govern
their property
relations during
marriage, the
provisions in this
Chapter shall be of
supplementary
application.

The provisions of
this Chapter shall
also apply to
conjugal
partnerships of gains
already established
between spouses
before the effectivity
of this Code, without
prejudice to vested
rights already
acquired in
accordance with the
Civil Code or other
laws, as provided in
Article 256.

Presumption is that
all property acquired
during marriage
even if in the name
Article 106:
- Proceeds, products,
fruits and income from
their separate
properties
- Those acquired by
their efforts or chance
- Income and fruits by
gratuitous title (diff
from ACP)
- Annuity: retirement
on an annuity
(received as a matter
of right)
-Pension: service
previously rendered for
which full and
adequate
compensation was not
received at the time.
Article 117:
1. Acquired by
onerous title using
common funds.
2. Obtained by labor or
industry or work
3. Fruits, natural,
industrial, or civil due
received during
marriage from
common prop
- Net fruits of exclusive
property
BUT personal
damages are not
conjugal.
4. Share in hidden
treasure
5. Fishing and hunting
Article 109:
1. Brought into the
marriage as his or her
own
2. Acquired by
gratuitous title
- By way of succession
- Honorarium (given in
appreciation for
services rendered)
3. Acquired by right of
redemption, barter,
exchange
- Even if money used to
redeem is conjugal
(reimbursement)
4. Bought with exclusive
money of either spouse.
*Onerous donations
*Designated share in
donation
*Gratuity (amount given
by jobs for previous
work)

Art. 110: The spouses
retain the ownership,
possession,
administration and
enjoyment of their
exclusive properties.

Either spouse may,
during the marriage,
transfer the
administration of his or
her exclusive property
to the other by means
of a public instrument,
Art. 107: The rules provided
in Articles 88 and 89 shall
also apply to conjugal
partnership of gains.

Art. 108: The conjugal
partnership shall be
governed by the rules on
the contract of partnership
in all that is not in conflict
with what is expressly
determined in this Chapter
or by the spouses in their
marriage settlements.

Prohibition on waiver.
*Properties brought into the
marriage by the contracting
parties belong to each of
them exclusively.
- Either spouse can transfer
admin of prop to other
spouse thru public
instrument.
Art. 118: Property bought
on installments paid partly
from exclusive funds of
either or both spouses and
partly from conjugal funds
belongs to the buyer or
buyers if full ownership was
vested before the marriage
and to the conjugal
partnership if such
ownership was vested
during the marriage. In
either case, any amount
advanced by the
partnership or by either or
Article 121:
1.support of spouse common
and legitimate children
2.D&O by admin, both or
either spouse with consent of
other.
3.D&O without consent of
other but redounding.
4.expenses for conjugal prop
(taxes, liens)
5.taxes and expenses for
preservation of separate
property (no need for use)
6.expenses for spouse for
profession or self-
improvement.
7.Antenuptial debts
redounding to family.
8.donation of both for children
for profession or self-
improvement.
9.expenses of litigation
between spouses
Not to be paid by cpg:
Article 122:
-Payment of personal debts
contracted by the husband or
wife before or during the
marriage unless they
redounded to the benefit of
the family.
However, fines and
indemnities imposed support
of illegitimate children can be
paid by the assets AFTER the
payment of obligations
provided in Art. 121. But at the
time of liquidation the spouse
who used such funds will be
Termination:
Article 126:
1.Death
2.Legal Separation
3. Annulled or
declared void.
4.Judicial Separation

Article 127 and 128:
-Provisions on
separation in fact and
abandonment has the
same application as in
ACP article 100 and
101.
Procedure:
Article 129:
1.Inventory of separate
and conjugal prop
2.Payment of
advances
3.Reimbursement to
the spouses.
4.D&O paid out by
CPG, insufficiency
solidarily liable.
5.exclusive prop
delivered
6.loss or deterioration
of movables paid from
CPG
7.Net remainder to be
divided (unless MS or
waiver)
8.Delivery of
presumptive legitimes
9.Conjugal dwelling

Article 130: in case of
of one spouse is
conjugal unless
otherwise provided.
6. Excess livestock
(those brought in to
the marriage by one
will reimbursed
7. Acquired by chance
which shall be recorded
in the registry of
property of the place
the property is located.

both spouses shall be
reimbursed by the owner or
owners upon liquidation of
the partnership.

Property bought before
but title registered after
marriage: still considered
exclusive property even if
spouse is made co-owner in
title (considered a trust)
Separate property plus
conjugal funds to buy a
new property: new
property will be considered
conjugal.
Property bought on
installment partly from
exclusive and partly from
conjugal: when title was
vested will govern, then
reimburse (Art. 119)
Principal payments and
interest paid to a spouse
during marriage: principal
amt is exclusive while
interest is conjugal.
charged.
If charges are paid, and no
property or insufficient,
CPG pays:
-Fines, debts before the
marriage
-Support of illegitimate
*Subject to reimbursement
(ACP no need to pay out all
charges first)

Article 120
1.If improvement made by cp
is more than value of the
property, entire property will
be conjugal reimburse
spouse.
2. If amount is not more than it
will still be separate property
subject to reimbursement to
CPG. (Ownership will vest
upon reimbursement)

Art. 123: Whatever may be
lost during the marriage in any
game of chance or in betting,
sweepstakes, or any other
kind of gambling whether
permitted or prohibited by law,
shall be borne by the loser
and shall not be charged to
the conjugal partnership but
any winnings therefrom shall
form part of the conjugal
partnership property.




death the liquidation
proceeding will be in
the same proceeding
as the settlement of
the estate of the
deceased. (Same
application as in ACP
article 103)

Art. 133: From the
common mass of
property support shall
be given to the
surviving spouse and
to the children during
the liquidation of the
inventoried property
and until what belongs
to them is delivered;
but from this shall be
deducted that amount
received for support
which exceeds the
fruits or rents
pertaining to them.
Conjugal
Partnership of
Gains
Art. 110: The spouses retain the ownership,
possession, administration and enjoyment of their
exclusive properties.


Either spouse may, during the marriage, transfer
the administration of his or her exclusive property
to the other by means of a public instrument,
which shall be recorded in the registry of property
of the place the property is located.
- Each spouse is to retain ownership, administration,
possession and enjoyment of their exclusive
properties.
- Administration includes entering into contracts,
engaging in litigation, and collection of fruits, profits
and income arising from separate property.
- The owner spouse can transfer administration of the
property not only to the other spouse but also to any
third person without the consent of the other spouse.

Conjugal
Partnership of
Gains
Art. 111: A spouse of age may mortgage,
encumber, alienate or otherwise dispose of his or
her exclusive property, without the consent of the
other spouse, and appear alone in court to litigate
with regard to the same.

Art. 112: The alienation of any exclusive property
of a spouse administered by the other
automatically terminates the administration over
such property and the proceeds of the alienation
shall be turned over to the owner-spouse.
- Art. 111 is no longer necessary, as the age of
marriage is also the age of emancipation.
- If the owner-spouse alienates his property the
administration by the other spouse over such
property will cease and the proceeds will go to the
owner.
- The owner-spouse cannot revoke a judicially
approved administration by the other spouse of his
property by alienating it. Thus to alienate the
property he must get the consent of the
administrator-spouse or court approval.

Conjugal
Partnership of
Gains
Art. 113: Property donated or left by will to the
spouses, jointly and with designation of
determinate shares, shall pertain to the donee-
spouses as his or her own exclusive property, and
in the absence of designation, share and share
alike, without prejudice to the right of accretion
when proper.

Art. 114: If the donations are onerous, the amount
of the charges shall be borne by the exclusive
property of the donee spouse, whenever they
have been advanced by the conjugal partnership
of gains.
Art. 115: Retirement benefits, pensions, annuities,
gratuities, usufructs and similar benefits shall be
governed by the rules on gratuitous or onerous
acquisitions as may be proper in each case.
- The donor may donate whatever he wishes to
whomever he wants. Thus he may donate a piece of
property to both spouses jointly or may specify how
much of the property should go to the husband and
how much should go to the wife.
ACCRETION: addition of property to another property
General rule: in a joint donation one cannot accept
independently of his co-donee unless it is stipulated or
unless it is between husband and wife.
Ex. D donates land to H and W who are married. D donates
1/3 to W and 2/3 to H. If W does not accept the donation it
will be considered added on to the share of the husband.
However if it is a specific designation such as H will get a
car and W will get a horse, accretion will not apply.
- In the case of wills for accretion to take effect, the nature
of the inheritance must be pro indivisio (not divided, the
terms or in equal shares does not make it divided).

Conjugal
Partnership of
Gains
Art. 124: The administration and enjoyment of the
conjugal partnership shall belong to both spouses
jointly. In case of disagreement, the husband's
decision shall prevail, subject to recourse to the
court by the wife for proper remedy, which must
be availed of within five years from the date of the
contract implementing such decision.
In the event that one spouse is incapacitated or
otherwise unable to participate in the
administration of the conjugal properties, the other
spouse may assume sole powers of
administration. These powers do not include
disposition or encumbrance without authority of
the court or the written consent of the other
spouse. In the absence of such authority or
consent, the disposition or encumbrance shall be
void. However, the transaction shall be construed
as a continuing offer on the part of the consenting
spouse and the third person, and may be
perfected as a binding contract upon the
acceptance by the other spouse or authorization
by the court before the offer is withdrawn by either
or both offerors. (165a)

Art. 125: Neither spouse may donate any
conjugal partnership property without the consent
of the other. However, either spouse may, without
the consent of the other, make moderate
donations from the conjugal partnership property
for charity or on occasions of family rejoicing or
family distress.
- Any alienation made by either spouse without the
consent of the other is invalid.
- In case the husband disposes of property over the
objection of the wife, the wife may file a case to
annul the entire contract or part of it.









Property Regime What included What excluded Notes Charges
Absolute community of
property
Art. 88: The absolute
community of property
between spouses shall
commence at the precise
moment that the
marriage is celebrated.
Any stipulation, express
or implied, for the
commencement of the
community regime at any
other time shall be void

(Default regime if nothing
stipulated exception:
subsequent marriage
after death will
automatically be CSP if
there was no proper
liquidation of the
properties of the previous
marriage)
Art. 90: The provisions
on co-ownership shall
apply to the absolute
community of property
between the spouses in
all matters not provided
for in this Chapter.
All properties owned
before and after.

Art. 91: Unless otherwise
provided in this Chapter
or in the marriage
settlements, the
community property shall
consist of all the property
owned by the spouses at
the time of the
celebration of the
marriage or acquired
thereafter.


Art. 93: Property
acquired during the
marriage is presumed to
belong to the community,
unless it is proved that it
is one of those excluded
therefrom.



Article 92:
1.provided in marriage
settlement
2. Personal and exclusive use of
either spouse (except jewelry)
- However if exclusive property
is used to purchase something
else such property becomes part
of ACP
1.Property acquired by
gratuitous title including the fruits
and income UNLESS the
guarantor expressly said they
will form part of ACP
- Must be a valid donation (cant
be donation made by one
spouse to another)
2.Property acquired by either
spouse who has legitimate
descendants and the fruits of
that property
*Winnings from gambling (losses
borne by looser)

Art. 89: No waiver of rights, shares
and effects of the absolute
community of property during the
marriage can be made except in
case of judicial separation of
property.

When the waiver takes place upon
a judicial separation of property, or
after the marriage has been
dissolved or annulled, the same
shall appear in a public instrument
and shall be recorded as provided
in Article 77. The creditors of the
spouse who made such waiver
may petition the court to rescind
the waiver to the extent of the
amount sufficient to cover the
amount of their credits.
* No waiver of rights, interests,
shares, and effects without judicial
separation or dissolution or
annulment of marriage shall
appear in a public instrument
(creditors may rescind waiver up to
extent of the debt)

Art. 96: The administration and
enjoyment of the community
property shall belong to both
spouses jointly. In case of
disagreement, the husband's
decision shall prevail, subject to
recourse to the court by the wife for
proper remedy, which must be
availed of within five years from the
date of the contract implementing
such decision.
Article 94:
1. Support (spouses, common &
legitimate children)
- Even beyond age of majority
2. Debts & obligations made by
both, administrator, or with
consent of other spouse (even if
did not redound)
3. D & O without consent but
redounded.
4. Expenses for community
property (taxes, liens, charges)
5. Taxes & expenses for
preservation during marriage of
separate property used by family
6. Expenses for self-improvement
or profession.
7. Antenuptial debts redounding
to family
8. Donation made by both
spouses for children to pursue
vocation or self-improvement
9. For illegitimate children, fines
for crimes/quasi delict in case of
insufficiency. (Advances)
10. Expenses for litigation
* Solidary liability does not include
ante-nuptial debts not redounding,
support of illegitimate, liabilities
thru crime/delict.

Art. 95: Whatever may be lost
during the marriage in any game
of chance, betting, sweepstakes,
or any other kind of gambling,
whether permitted or prohibited by
law, shall be borne by the loser
and shall not be charged to the
In the event that one spouse is
incapacitated or otherwise unable
to participate in the administration
of the common properties, the
other spouse may assume sole
powers of administration. These
powers do not include disposition
or encumbrance without authority
of the court or the written consent
of the other spouse. In the absence
of such authority or consent, the
disposition or encumbrance shall
be void. However, the transaction
shall be construed as a continuing
offer on the part of the consenting
spouse and the third person, and
may be perfected as a binding
contract upon the acceptance by
the other spouse or authorization
by the court before the offer is
withdrawn by either or both
offerors.
* Spouses administer and enjoy
property jointly. Husband decision
prevails subject to recourse of wife
within 5 years from date of contract
implementing decision. BUT if wife
ratifies contract express or implied
cant annul anymore.
- If disposition is made without
knowledge or consent of other
person no prescription.







community but any winnings
therefrom shall form part of the
community property.


Absolute community of
property

SEPARATION IN FACT:
Art. 100: The separation in fact between husband and wife
shall not affect the regime of absolute community except
that:

1.The spouse who leaves the conjugal home or refuses to
live therein, without just cause, shall not have the right to be
supported;
2.When the consent of one spouse to any transaction of the
other is required by law, judicial authorization shall be
obtained in a summary proceeding;
3. In the absence of sufficient community property, the
separate property of both spouses shall be solidarily liable
for the support of the family. The spouse present shall, upon
proper petition in a summary proceeding, be given judicial
authority to administer or encumber any specific separate
property of the other spouse and use the fruits or proceeds
thereof to satisfy the latter's share.
- Abandonment is different from separation in fact. Abandonment has to
do with total abdication of all marital and parental authority.
- If the spouse left with a valid cause he or she can still be supported
from the ACP.
- The ACP can still be liable for obligations incurred by the separating
spouse that may redound to the benefit of the family.
- Even the guilty spouse can compel the sale of property, which will
redound to the benefit of the family.
- Only the present spouse is given standing by the law to file a petition
to encumber or administer the property of the other spouse.
Absolute community of
property

Art. 101: If a spouse without just cause abandons the other
or fails to comply with his or her obligations to the family, the
aggrieved spouse may petition the court for receivership, for
judicial separation of property or for authority to be the sole
administrator of the absolute community, subject to such
precautionary conditions as the court may impose.

The obligations to the family mentioned in the preceding
paragraph refer to marital, parental or property relations.

A spouse is deemed to have abandoned the other when he
or she has left the conjugal dwelling without intention of
returning. The spouse who has left the conjugal dwelling for
a period of three months or has failed within the same
period to give any information as to his or her whereabouts
shall be prima facie presumed to have no intention of
returning to the conjugal dwelling.
ABANDONMENT: Implies a departure by one spouse with the avowed
intent never to return, followed by prolonged absence without just
cause.
- Should not only be physical but also financial and moral desertion.