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COACHING AND MENTORING: A CAREER DEVELOPMENT

"Some people come into our lives and quickly go.


Some stay for a while and leave footprints on our hearts.
And we are never, ever the same."
- Anonymous
Any discipline, to have continued growth, needs support from its leaders and nursing is not an
exception. Today, nursing profession is in need of nurse leaders who are dynamic, professional and capable
of leading their team members. Here arises the role of mentor and importance of mentoring to promote
socialization and career development in nursing. This article will discuss the importance of mentoring.
Mentor is the highest level of personal and professional relationship.
WHAT IS COACHING AND MENTORING?
Coaching and mentoring are two important processes that can be applied in different areas such as academic
institutions, athletic teams, and in worplace settings. !n many companies and organizations, coaching and
mentoring are regarded as highly effective techni"ues in employee development, for both management and
staff level.
The normal process is that the higher management has the tas to conduct coaching and mentoring to the
entry level employees or the staff. The main purpose of coaching and mentoring in the worplace is to
motivate professionals to bring out the best of their capabilities. #sually people thin that those who go
through coaching or mentoring are wea and incompetent, and this is why they need guidance from those
who now better. This is not true as the process focuses more on developing individual potentials and
realizing the person$s capabilities.
The Definition of Coaching and Mentoing
%oth terms &coaching$ and &mentoring$ are used often as synonyms, and they are indeed closely related, but
in a stricter sense, the two terms are not completely the same concepts.
Coaching is a process of enabling individual learning and development, so performance and sills are
enhanced.
Mentoring is a process of improving individual nowledge, wor efficiency, and way of thining. !t is also
about maximizing the individual$s potential, but this can be an off'line procedure, which means that the
mentor may not necessarily be your boss or your supervisor.
When to Cond!ct Coaching and Mentoing
There are many reasons to provide coaching and mentoring to employees. A few reasons are the following(
) *eveloping +ills( The main reason to coach and mentor staff members is to create opportunities for
building new sills and talents
) Continuing ,ro-ects( !f there are current pro-ects in the pipeline, coaching and mentoring are helpful in
eeping trac of the progress and spotting any issues on the pro-ect.
) .nhancing Careers( This is a very common reason for coaching and mentoring. !t prepares the individual
for future career growth and promotion or simply leads the employee to a clear career path.
) +olving ,roblems( /hen employees are mentored in the wae of problems and issues in the worplace,
they get a better understanding of how to identify these problems and find practical ways to solve it.
) %rainstorming( +upervisors or managers may give coaching and mentoring to the members of the staff in
order to facilitate the woring ideas of the team for the benefit of the tass or pro-ects being wored on.
) 0esolving Conflicts( Coaching and mentoring is very helpful in diffusing any disagreements among
employees.
) Motivating Team Members( This seems to be the most practical and common reason for coaching and
mentoring in the worplace. .mployees and team members will regain enthusiasm and motivation to give
their best in their wor.
Vaio!" T#$e" of Coaching and Mentoing
There are different types of coaching and mentoring that may be used or applied depending on the need of
the individuals.
These are(
a. ,erformance Coaching and Mentoring
This is a very common type of coaching and mentoring especially in the worplace setting. !nstead of
rectifying issues of an individual$s performance, the coaching puts more emphasis on enhancing and
identifying the person$s strengths in varied areas in order to create a better performance.
b. +ills Coaching and Mentoring
This ind of coaching and mentoring concentrates on developing the potentials and capabilities of a person,
which can be useful for the role of the individual in the company. The coaches or mentors must be highly
adept in manifesting or demonstrating the sills that they also deliver to the individuals. The normal set'up
for this type of coaching and mentoring is a one'on'one training that addresses the person$s nowledge, core
sills and experience.
c. ,ersonal Coaching and Mentoring
The main ob-ective of personal coaching and mentoring is to create significant changes in a person$s life.
This type is based on a completely different approach from the perspective of the individual.
d. .xecutive Coaching and Mentoring
This is geared towards coaching and mentoring professionals, including the management and employees, in
their goal to enhance professional and personal development.
DI%%ERENCES &ETWEEN COACHING AND MENTORING
%oth coaching and mentoring has the same goals( to enable individuals to maximize their full potentials,
which can be useful in their various roles and functions held in companies and organizations. Although
there are many uses and applications of coaching and mentoring, the steps and procedures conducted by
coaches and mentors are -ust about the same. They act as facilitators in identifying the needs, sills, and
motivations of the individuals that can bring about changes in their personal and professional lives. *uring
the session, they also utilize useful techni"ues of "uestioning. They assist in establishing goals and ways of
monitoring an individual$s progress in line with these goals. They encourage, motivate, and inspire
individuals in developing their competencies.
Amidst all these similarities, there are also distinctions in the concepts of coaching and mentoring. !n this
article, these will be further discussed along with the difference of coaching and mentoring from other types
of services or processes such as counseling and training.
'nde"tanding the Coaching and Mentoing Poce""e"
!n order to get a clear understanding of the processes that tae place during coaching and mentoring, the
following distinct activities are defined by 0obert *ilts(
a. 1uiding( !t is the process of leading an individual or a group from the current state to an ideal or desired
condition.
b. Coaching( Coaching is the process of assisting a person in developing performance.
c. Teaching( Teaching is the process of assisting an individual or a group in the development of cognitive
talents and sills which can be useful in life.
d. Mentoring( !t is the process of changing a person$s values and perceptions into an optimistic approach.
e. Counseling( !t is the process of facilitating an individual to get over personal issues, especially those past
issues that may hinder the person from maing a change to the better.
What i" the Diffeence &et(een Coaching and Mentoing?
As we go through the list of attributes or characteristics common to both coaching and mentoring, we must
note that there are some differences in these attributes. These distinctions will be outlined based on the
following categories(
a. 2ocus( The main focus in coaching is performance development. !n mentoring, the highlight is more on
the individual or the person.
b. 0ole or 2unction( The coach has a specific agenda and a specific function while the mentor can be any
individual who is capable of acting as a facilitator but does not have a particular agenda.
c. 0elationship( Coaching has something to do more with career and -ob aspect. Mentoring is more about
self'reflection.
d. +ource of !nfluence( A coach is usually someone who is in a higher level or ran such as a supervisor or a
manager. !n the worplace, a person is titled a coach because that is the given role. A mentor can be
someone with a perceived value. A mentor is not called as such unless the individual says so or considers
the person as a mentor.
e. ,ersonal 0eturns( Coaching is geared toward developing individual performance, so the focus is on the
person being coached. !n mentoring, aside from the development of the individual, the mentor himself
learns from the feedbac and remars of the mentee.
f. +cope( Coaching is more applicable in an office setting or in a sports team where individuals have tass to
accomplish. Mentoring is usually conducted in schools and organizations, or other areas where a great deal
of personal values and aspects of life have to be changed.
What i" the diffeence of coaching and )entoing fo) aea" "!ch a" taining* co!n"e+ing and
con"!+tanc#?
a. Training and *evelopment( 3ne obvious difference of training from coaching and mentoring is the
complete ac"uisition of a new set of sills and nowledge such as technical, product specific nowledge or
sills needed for a new -ob role.
b. Counseling( Coaching and counseling are similar in many ways. However, with counseling, the main
ob-ective is to guide the individual toward self'managed actions for the attainment of personal goals.
Counselors deal with personal issues at a broader and greater scope.
c. Consultancy( The primary focus of a consultancy is organizational development in terms of structure,
systems or processes, and practices. !t is geared more on a company'wide scope rather than individual
aspect.
COACHING AS A PROCESS
Coaching is best conducted if the coach is fully aware and nowledgeable of the theories and practices
involved in the process. Aside from that, coaching is most effective if the coach can demonstrate a variety of
sills, styles, and techni"ues suitable to the context in which coaching is conducted. The activity is dynamic
and broad. !n the worplace, a coach must now the theoretical concepts and must fully embrace their
functions before progressing to the application.
The Va+!e of Coaching Poce""
,rofessional coaches follow a set of standards in their coaching activities. This includes utilizing a coaching
model, a coaching flow, or simply coaching procedures. 2ollowing a coaching process serves as a guide for
the coach to attain the main goal of coaching in an effective manner. Any incoherence in the coaching
procedures will definitely not mae the coaching a success.
An effective implementation of coaching in worplace involves a constant ad-ustment to the ever'evolving
systems and structures in an organization. Hence, coaching processes must be modified regularly to suit the
needs of the individuals. !f a coach is stuc to a single approach in coaching, the outcome may not be
effective. !ndividuals may see it as a routine practice in the office and will not recognize the effect of
coaching on their careers. They will treat it more as a compliance to organizational practices rather than an
opportunity to become better performers.
The coaching process allows a structured approach in its implementation but must not be restricted to one
ind of approach. !n coaching there must be variations in the use of styles and techni"ues.
The Stage" in the Standad Coaching Poce"" Mode+
A standard coaching process matrix has four stages. .ach of these phases will be outlined and explained
below.
+tage 4( Analyze for Awareness( Coaching is the solution when the learner realizes the need to
develop performance or change certain ways in doing things. There has to be a willingness from the
learner$s end to undergo coaching, and the coach plays a vital role in maing the learner realize this
awareness.
Another way of determining the need for coaching is through a recommendation from the supervisor
or team leader on the need to improve member$s performance and enhance certain sills.
+tage 5( ,lan for 0esponsibility( This stage gives the learner a chance to tae on responsibility for
developing performance. Although it is helpful to use learning programs during coaching, this must
not be strictly imposed on the person. 6earners must also be actively participating in elaborating the
learning style, in finding something that is conducive to their level and ability.
+tage 7( !mplement using +tyles, Techni"ue and +ill( After the planning stage in coaching, the next
phase is to identify coaching styles and techni"ues that are deemed appropriate for the situation or
the level of need of the learner. Moreover, this includes a test of the effective coaching sills of the
coach to successfully conduct the coaching session. Coaching drills and activities geared towards
developing the sill and performance of the individual are also used.
+tage 8( .valuate +uccess( The last stage in the coaching process model is monitoring progress of
the learner$s performance after the coaching session. This has the role to chec if the person has
made any significant improvements or positive changes as a result of the coaching.
%o!,Ste$ Coaching Poce""
The four ma-or steps in the process of coaching are(
4. 3bservation( A coach must have sufficient preparation before doing any coaching no matter it is an on'
the'spot coaching or a schedule session. This would entail getting a good understanding of the learner$s
current performance as well as his strengths and weanesses.
5. *iscussion( *uring the more detailed preparation of the coverage for coaching the issues to be addressed
must be discussed by the coach and the learner.
7. Active Coaching( This is where the actual coaching sessions occur. 2eedbac must be given and proper
facilitation must be observed.
8. 2ollow'up( The last step is about eeping trac of the learner$s progress and performance trend. This is a
chance for the coach to recognize any development and identify opportunities for continuing the coaching.
THE PROCESS O% MENTORING
Mentoring is a tool used by various organizations and other entities for the personal development and
empowerment of their employees. Mentoring is a powerful process and an effective approach in helping
individuals in developing their careers. Mentoring is a partnership between the mentor and the mentee who
share similar experiences or who are in the same field of wor. Apart from personal development, it is about
relationship building. This is basically what distinguishes mentoring from coaching.
+uccessful mentoring is based on a step'by'step process which has the role to build the relationship and
conduct the mentoring session effectively. 9ust as coaching follows a structured process, mentoring is also
conducted through a process. 6ac of planning in mentoring obviously does not generate a successful and
productive outcome.
Effecti-e Mentoing Poce""
2or a successful mentoring relationship, a four'step process may be used as guide(
4. %uilding the relationship
The mentor'mentee relationship is the first vital aspect of mentoring that needs to be established. This first
step is not to be rushed, not even sipped. Time and effort must be invested in building a good relationship.
The mentor and mentee must tae their time in getting to now each other and build a foundation of trust.
/ith this, mentoring is an easier activity to do.
5. :egotiating agreements
The next step is to establish a set of agreements to be implemented and followed during the mentoring
relationship. This would include defining the roles, setting schedules for mentoring sessions, identifying
limitations and mentoring style preferences. *oing so paves the way for a smooth and harmonious
mentoring relationship.
7. *eveloping the mentee
This is the longest step of the mentoring process since the focus is now on the functions of mentoring.
*uring this stage, both the mentor and the mentee will define mentoring goals, create a list of mentoring
drills and activities to achieve their goals, and eep a constant communication with each other.
8. .nding the relationship
The mentoring process ends with a celebration of the accomplishments and an evaluation of the outcomes.
The mentoring relationship must end on a highly positive note for a gradual transformation into a casual
partnership rather than closing abruptly. !n certain cases, mentoring relationships develop into something
more solid.
A Wo.ing Mode+ fo Mentoing Poce""
The woring model has been developed over time based on the experiences of several mentors and has been
applied in many mentoring sessions of various organizations. The stages in the woring model represent the
whole mentoring process and are set for a 5'year period. The meetings have to be scheduled depending on
the mentoring goals and the need of the mentee to develop performance. The communication has to be
constant so the mentoring relationship will continue to flourish during the mentoring process.
Stage" in the Mentoing Poce"" Wo.ing Mode+
+tage 4( !ntroduction( As the initial stage, the ob-ective of the introduction is to build a connection
and start the relationship between the mentor and mentee. This is a good time to get to now each
other better before starting the mentoring sessions and to create a comfortable relationship with each
other as the mentoring process progresses.
+tage 5( 2oundation( This stage entails an agreement about the mentor and mentee roles and sets the
expectations for the mentoring process.
+tage 7( 3rientation( The mentee is oriented to the process in order to lessen the tension and increase
motivation.
+tage 8( Collaboration( The mentor wors together with the mentee and is seen as a caring partner.
+tage ;( ,roblem +olving( At this stage, the mentor helps the mentee identify the issues about his
sills and performance.
+tage <( ,ersonal 2ramewor( The mentoring relationship is strengthened and the mentor is regarded
as a trustworthy partner. The mentor maes an effort to help develop the mentee$s confidence and
self'esteem.
+tage =( ,rofessional 2ramewor( At this stage of the mentoring process, the mentee views the
mentor as a role model and now the focus is set on sill improvement and performance progression.
+tage >( Transition( This last stage encourages the interdependence of the mentor and mentee. The
mentee is taught to wor independently, but the guidance of the mentor is still there.
IMPORTANCE O% COACHING AND MENTORING
Coaching and mentoring are increasingly used mainly for professional development, to indicate a positive
change in individuals and to encourage the transfer of nowledge from the coach ? mentor to the individual.
3rganizations and companies find coaching and mentoring highly beneficial for the career growth of their
employees so coaching and mentoring has been applied by many entities in their organizational practices.
At the worplace, coaching and mentoring is used when the management finds that there are woring
individuals who need to enhance their potentials to perform better in their -obs and to be more productive.
There may be sills that need to be strengthened, lapses in woring behavior and issues with performance
output corrected at certain employees. 3nce this is assessed, these employees will be recommended for
coaching. The coaches are usually the supervisors and managers. The company may even have a delegated
coach for that particular department.
&enefit"
The importance of coaching and mentoring extends broadly from the coach ? mentor to the learner and the
organization as a whole.
&enefit" to the Coach o Mento
The coach ? mentor plays a very important role in transferring nowledge to the individual and helps the
person in enhancing his personal and professional growth. The following reasons explain the importance of
coaching and mentoring to the people who are conducting it(
) !ncreased -ob satisfaction
) 2urther enhancement of their own sill level
) Advantage of their own professional development
) .nhanced sill in problem analysis and strategic thining
) *evelops self'esteem
&enefit" to the Leane
/ !ncreases self'confidence and self'esteem
) ,romotes professional career growth
) .nhances sills
) !dentifies wea areas and turns them into potential successes
) *evelops good relationship with the supervisor
) .nhances problem analysis
) 0educes the feeling of low self'worth and frustration
) ,rovides an opportunity to thin about a better wor role and career
) 1ives a focused attention in the aspect of training and development
&enefit" to the Ogani0ation
/ Higher employee retention
) Competitive advantage with more silled and well'performing employees
) !ncreased sill set and nowledge levels of the people
) 1reater chances of attaining goals
) +uccession planning
) 2ull utilization of human resources
) .nhancement of communication within the organization
) +trengthening of company culture and ethics
Effecti-ene"" of Coaching and Mentoing
The impact of coaching and mentoring sessions to the individuals woring in an organization is greater with
these things(
) There is a collaborative atmosphere in the worplace wherein professional learning is productive and
individuals have the willingness and commitment to develop and improve themselves.
) The management acnowledges the needs of the employees for professional learning that must be attained
in order to raise organizational standards.
) There are standard processes and sets of procedures for coaching and mentoring programs based on best
practice.
) The wor roles of employees are redefined to incorporate coaching and mentoring sessions.
) The designated coaches and mentors have the appropriate personal and professional attributes and sills
re"uired to conduct effective coaching. These experts are also able to provide continuous training and
development necessary for the progress of employees.
) The employees recognize the need and responsibility to attain professional development.
) There is an evaluation about the impact of coaching and mentoring on the individuals and the organization.
The Ad-antage" of Coaching and Mentoing
!t is already a great advantage to the organization that coaching and mentoring benefits both the
coach?mentor and the individuals. 1ood woring relationships are also developed since the supervisor
usually taes the role of a coach to the staff. At the same time, the employees also see their superiors as their
mentors who are willing to guide and help them develop their full potentials. !t touches both the personal
and professional aspects of the individuals.
/hen the focus is on improving performance, the person will realize that there are personal issues that need
to be addressed. The implementation of coaching and mentoring in the worplace is a great contribution to
the overall development of the individual and organizational level. That is why these programs are
incorporated as a regular practice in the organizational system.
ROLE O% A COACH AND A MENTOR
Coaches and mentors play an essential role in the success of an organization. They are responsible for
implementing the coaching and mentoring processes and procedures set by the organization as part of their
employee development programs. As such, the bul of the responsibility relies on how effective they are, in
performing their coaching and mentoring functions and how they carry out their roles.
Most organizations appoint supervisors and managers to tae on the role of a coach. They are often seen as
the most capable of conducting the coaching sessions because their sills and nowledge levels are apt for
the coaching role. 3ften the employees also treat them as their mentors in developing their careers. The
function of facilitating their members and looing after their welfare performed by supervisors is more lie
a mentoring role.
Aside from being a coach and mentor, these people tae on various roles in implementing the coaching and
mentoring process to the individuals. This article will discuss the different roles of coaches and mentors as
well as the ideal attributes they should possess to effectively assume those roles.
Coaching and Mentoing Ro+e"
a. Advisor( As an advisor, the coach will help develop the professional interests and create career goals for
the individual. The coach must find out how the employee wishes to develop in terms of professional or
career growth.
b. Counselor( As a counselor, the coach must put emphasis on building a relationship based on mutual
respect and trust. @eeping confidentiality helps build trust and respect of the individual.
c. 2riend or +upporter( The coach also must be a friend who is always ready to give a helping hand to the
person and share the problems and successes. The learners need an assurance that there is someone who
believes in their potentials.
d. 2acilitator or 1uide( %eing a guide or a facilitator, the coach helps the person become aware of the
internal issues and happenings within the organization and interpret the Aunwritten rulesB that may be
crucial to the learner.
e. !nstructor or Teacher( As an instructor or teacher, the coach must educate the person with the right sills
and impart the nowledge needed to perform the -ob efficiently. The coach must also be adept in displaying
these sills and nowledge.
f. Motivator( The coach must serve as an inspiration or an encouragement to the learners. 3ne way to show
motivation is by giving positive feedbac to boost the person$s morale.
g. 3rganizer and ,lanner( The coach or mentor is largely responsible for preparing the plans and activities
needed for coaching.
h. 0ole Model( This role is simply about Awaling the tal.B The coach must serve as a good example of the
ethics, values, and professionalism in the company. !n most cases, learners imitate the ways of their coaches
and mentors.
i. Coach( A coach must provide constructive and positive feedbac during coaching sessions. ,ositive
feedbac reinforces the individual and constructive feedbac allows for a change in the person$s behavior.
-. Mentor( %eing a mentor also means being a partner to the individual in the goal of developing oneself.
The 1!a+itie" of a Good Coach and Mento
An effective coach or mentor possesses the following attributes(
) 1ood listener
) .motionally intelligent
) 1ood motivator
) !nspiringly persuasive or influential
) 0ealistic and practical
) 3pen'minded
) Approachable
) ,atient, understanding and considerate
) ,eople'oriented
) +upportive
) An achiever
) 0espected
Se+f,A""e"")ent: The Ta". of a Coach o Mento
Apart from the different roles that a coach or a mentor portrays, one very important tas that must be
conducted is a self'assessment of the role as a coach or mentor. !t is crucial for coaches and mentors to be
aware of how they are performing during their sessions. The self'assessment process can be done by
answering a self'evaluation form. The answers will gauge the effectiveness of the coaching and mentoring
role and will provide the coach an opportunity to improve on the areas that need to be addressed when
conducting coaching. Moreover, gathering feedbac and insights from the learners is also a helpful method
in self'assessment.
THE MOST IMPORTANT COACHING AND MENTORING S2ILLS
%eing a coach or a mentor is not an easy role to perform. These roles are very crucial to an organization and
its people. %ecause of this, when investing in coaching and mentoring programs in the worplace, "uality
must be observed in terms of the processes, standards, and the people assigned to do coaching. The
organization must have high expectations from the designated coaches. These individuals must possess the
necessary personal and professional "ualities of a good and effective coach.
#sually coaches and mentors are part of the management in the organization. %eing such, they ought to
have the right leadership "ualities. 6eaders are e"uipped with sills that mae their coaching sessions
effective and successful. 2urthermore, the staff or the employees loo up to their coaches as role models. An
effective coach or mentor should have various sills and these abilities will be outlined in this article.
Pi)a# Coaching S.i++"
0apport'%uilding
The sill of building rapport is the same as being people'oriented and having good interpersonal
sills. +ince the connection between a coach and a learner must be properly established, rapport'
building is deemed necessary in order to attain a level of understanding between the coach and the
individual. 3ne way to apply good rapport'building is to create a comfortable atmosphere during the
session. This way, learners will not hesitate to cooperate in the drills and activities.
6istening Ability
The ability to be a good and active listener is very essential to coaching. 6istening is not -ust about
understanding the verbal cues but also listening to what is not said. The coach also maes
conversation a two'way street during the session which means that the learner is given the
opportunity to tal and open up more while the coach actively listens. ,art of demonstrating good
listening ability is avoiding interruptions. ,araphrasing can also be used to confirm understanding of
what was being said.
Cuestioning Ability
A coach must be able to apply effective "uestioning techni"ues and must now how to as
intelligent "uestions. The use of open'ended "uestions is effective as this type of "uestioning
encourages the individual to elaborate more. 1ood follow'up "uestions after a learner$s response
also manifest a sincere interest and concern toward the person.
Communication +ill
+ince coaching involves a lot of discussions and open conversations between the coach and the
learner, the coach should now how to effectively get the message across to the individual with ease.
This is especially important during the giving of feedbac to the learner. The coach must be able to
relay feedbac and remars constructively and positively without demeaning the learner$s self'
esteem.
Genea+ Coaching and Mentoing S.i++"
Apart from the primary coaching sills mentioned above, there are other essential sills that the coaching
profession re"uires. The list of sills and attributes below would mae an effective coach and mentor(
) Ability to promote trust and respect
) Ability to facilitate level of understanding
) Ability to create an effective coaching and mentoring process
) Ability to motivate and inspire
) Ability to offer positive and constructive feedbac
) Ability to guide the learner in goal setting and attainment
) Ability to stimulate action
) Ability to inculcate self'awareness and self'nowledge
) Ability to open up new perspectives
) Ability to follow a variety of approaches in coaching styles and techni"ues
) Ability to recognize significant changes in thoughts and behavior
) Ability to assist in identifying the value in a situation
Coaching and Mentoing Co)$etencie"
Many organizations tailor their standards for coaching performance from accredited coaching associations
such as the !nternational Coach 2ederation D!C2E. The association has set the following coaching
competencies(
) Ability to adhere to the ethical rules in the coaching profession
) Ability to create a coaching agreement
) Ability to initiate a trusting relationship with the trainee or the learner
) Ability to be vigilant, mindful and spontaneous
) Ability to provide active listening
) Ability to as effective and powerful "uestions
) Ability to effectively communicate
) Ability to increase the individual$s level of awareness
) Ability to design action plans to address needs and issues
) Ability to establish realistic goals with the individual
) Ability to facilitate the trainee$s progress
THE &EST PRACTICES IN MENTORING
Mentoring has been closely associated with coaching as a highly effective practice in developing individual
potential and performance. A coaching program re"uires a structured and standard implementation of
processes and guidelines, and a mentoring program is not different. Fet, mentoring can be either formal or
informal. !t re"uires a connection between two individuals G a mentor and a protHgH or a mentee. !n many
companies and other public or private sector entities, mentoring has been nown to contribute largely in the
professional development and career of individuals.
3rganizations incorporate formal mentoring sessions because this way productivity from the employee and
organizational point of view can be enhanced. Mentoring is also good for the career development of
individuals. 3rganizations can develop best practices in mentoring which are embedded in the mentoring
programs. The success of the mentoring programs rely on proper planning, implementation and evaluation.
+easoned mentors have taen great lengths to identify, modify, evaluate, and maintain these best practices.
Many successful companies have embraced best practices in mentoring through innovative strategies.
Mentoing Poga)"
%asically, there are two types of mentoring programs G formal and informal. 2ormal mentoring programs
are similar to coaching programs( these are systematic and structured, with clearly established
organizational goals. !nformal mentoring programs have little or no structure and may not even have clear
goals. !nformal mentoring is based on perceived value and is geared toward interpersonal development, yet
it still has an impact on career enhancement. ,erceived value means that the protHgH considers anyone who
serves as a personal inspiration and motivator as a mentor.
De-e+o$ing a %o)a+ Mentoing Poga)
A mentoring program in an organization must be established with a certain set of standards and guidelines
in mind. Mentoring best practices have certain elements that are crucial to the success of the program.
4. Conducting needs assessment( .very organization that sees to incorporate mentoring program must
examine its needs and importance, the expectations of the organization and the components of the program.
The needs'assessment may be conducted by the human resources team, training team, or an assigned
committee.
5. %uilding a mentoring program roadmap( The mentoring program roadmap covers all the necessary tools
and components to initiate the program. This would comprise of the pro-ect and implementations plans, the
results of the needs assessment and the program description.
7. 1etting top management support and commitment( A successful formal mentoring program has the
support and commitment of the management. ,eople in the top management can participate as mentors to
the staff or the low'level employees. Mentoring best practices can also be identified from the experiences
these senior leaders have.
8. Assigning a dedicated mentoring program manager( The program must be facilitated by a dedicated
program manager who is responsible for overseeing the course of the program. The role of the program
manager is crucial to the success and effectiveness of the mentoring program.
;. Create a woring committee or mentoring group( The mentoring program committee is assigned to set
specific goals and ob-ectives of the program. They must commit themselves to developing a learning culture
within the organization. They wor hand in hand with the program manager.
&e"t Pactice" in Mentoing Poga)"
4. .fficient mentoring programs are ade"uately staffed and funded( This pertains to the availability of the
needed resources to get the program rolling such as finances, staff members, and other resources. 3ne
example of best practice would be having enough mentors to address the number of mentees in the
company. Another would be restricting the responsibilities of the committee members to mentoring and its
related scope.
5. Cuality mentoring programs are run by dedicated and committed leaders( A mentoring program is
intended to empower and improve individual potential. +o, the mentors must show an example of being
motivated and encourage staff members to develop themselves.
7. Cuality mentoring programs have a defined set of goals, ob-ectives and a clear mission throughout the life
of the program.
8. .xcellent mentoring programs provide a continuous contact and ade"uate supervision with the mentors.
;. +uccessful mentoring programs have a meaningful impact on the organization.
All employees involved, including the mentors and mentees, must be able to benefit and to use the program
to their personal and professional development.
STAGES O% THE MENTORING RELATIONSHIP
Hurst et al D5II5E cited four phases in mentoring relationships. The first phase, initiation, occurs when the
relationship is established. The second phase, cultivation is characterized by coaching, protection, and
sponsorship as well as counseling, acceptance, leading to a sense of competence. *uring this phase, the
relationship develops to share and evaluate progress. The third phase is separation and the fourth is
redefinition. +eparation and redefinition are often difficult because the mentor and mentee may share
different perceptions about whether it is time to separate and what their new relationship should be. Mentees
should outgrow the need for such intense coaching if the mentor has done a good -ob of cultivation.
The initial phase'orientation phase Dmentor and the mentee meetE
The initial phase begins with the mentee$s Ahelp needB looing for a mentor and the first interaction with the
mentor. This is the meeting of two strangers. /hen two people meet for the first time they observe and
develop mental images and value -udgments about each other.
!t is possible that both the mentor and the mentee have some anxiety which may be communicated to one
and another. .ven though the mentee felt the need, the need may not be identified or understood clearly by
the mentee herself. The mentee may also be anxious of what the mentor may thin of her, what is expected
of her and whether she will be able to wor with the mentor. /ill the mentor listen to herJ /ill she feel
relaxed and at ease with herJ /ill she encourage her to wor with the issues she will bring to the sessionsJ
!f she ass for an advice would the mentor be willing to share her experiences with herJ
The mentor may also be anxious about performing a helping role and worried about re-ection by the mentee.
The mentor can decrease her own anxiety by preparing for her first contact with the mentee.
!n this initial phase, the mentor gives the mentee some information on who she is and what her purpose is
for mentoring her. +he attempts to become oriented to the mentee$s goals, needs and expectations of herself.
!mportantly in this phase, a collaborative wor in analyzing the situation to explore, clarify and define
feelings and needs taes place.
!t is accepted that the mentor and the mentee discuss aspects asK
4. /hat both sides are willing and capable of contributing to the relationship
5. :eeds, expectations and limitations that exist on each side
7. /hat success would a mentor and mentee most importantly want to get from the relationship
8. !mportance of clear and honest feedbac, the overall aim to mae the mentee independent
;. !mplications of each other$s styles Dsuch as. detail vs. big picture, specifics vs. conceptsK
methodological?systematic vs. spontaneous?instinctive, etc.E and how that might affect the relationship
<. The boundaries of the relationship. +uch as how long will the mentorship lastJ /hat other issues
needs to be consideredJ
=. How to wor together. +uch as whether a structured approach would suit better to the relationship.
>. How to deal with conflict if it rises.
9. /hat confidentiality means. !t is not acceptable for he mentor or mentee to tell anyone other than the
line manager that they are woring together
4I. The best means of communication. +uch as the telephone or e'mail
44. /ays of contacting the mentor in between sessions if advice or support is re"uired in a crisis
45. Handling of missed appointments. +uch as how much notice is re"uired
47. Any specific needs of the menteeJ +uch as woring on her confidence and self esteem. /hether the
mentor is able to cover these issues
48. Clearly stated expectations and goals. +uch as mid ob-ectives and final ob-ectives of the mentoring
relationship, where mentee and mentor develop together.
At the end of this stage, both the mentor and mentee build personal relationship with feelings of security,
respect, appreciation and trust for one another. The mentee decides that the mentor is trustworthy, truthful,
reliable, understanding and helpful. The mentor believes in the mentee$s ability and feels that the mentee
needs her and believes that she has something relevant to give the mentee.
!n the first or second meeting mentee and mentor are ased to sign a written or verbal contract. The contract
is send to the coordinator. This agreement should state aspects as(
4. The aims and expectations of the mentee with regard to the mentor as well as the terms of their
relationship
5. The practical details such as fre"uency, place and duration of meetings
7. Confidentiality statement woring in both ways
8. 0eliable and structured mid ob-ectives and final ob-ectives
+ome important hazards of this stage would be the development of a type of social interaction rather than
helping interaction, failing to establish a bond of mutual trust, and a lac of common understanding about
the mentee$s goals. The length of this phase varies according to the situation.
Transition ,hase
Transition phase may not tae place in all mentoring relationships. !f it did, it is characterized by an
ambivalent and testing behavior of the mentee. The mentee may go bac and forth between true
involvement and re-ection with the mentor. This can be difficult phase for the mentor who experiences
frustration at her ability to win the mentee$s trust. As a result the mentee and mentor may move to the
cultivation phase and continue with the process or the relationship may end by mutual agreement, from both
sides.
The cultivation phase Dmentee learn form mentorE
%y signing the mentoring agreement, both mentee and mentor define the ob-ectives of their relationship
within the mentoring program. %y doing so, mentee and mentor together become responsible for the
implementation and conduct of their mentoring relationship. Clearly defined ob-ectives and mutual
expectations and a well defined contract can mae mentoring partnership an easy one till the end.
The cultivation phase is composed of a progress of interrelated thoughts, feelings, and attitudes transmitted
or communicated by both the mentor and mentee. The mentor acting as a mirror also with her
non-udgmental attitude provides an accepting, academic, nurturing, trusting, encouraging, supportive,
respectful, positive atmosphere and an emotional climate.
Through this climate and the relationship mentee$s growth is being encouraged. The mentee practices
in"uiry and critical thining. %ecome more self aware, begin to see things from a different perspective,
recognize and explore her feelings, thoughts, how she perceives herself and others, how she relates to
others, learn about her own way of doing things or ways in which some of her behavior caused her
problems, how she copes with problems, what she values, what supports are availably to her, how she
handles feelings, issues related to her wor. +he may experience insight into situations that she never
understood or realized before such as uncertainty, feelings of inade"uacy, strengths and weanesses. Mentee
eventually begins to use her actual strengths to minimize her weanesses.
2igure 4. 2actors !nfluencing the %lending of the Mentor'Mentee 0elationship
Mentor uses her sills to perceive how the world loos to the mentee or the mentee$s frame of reference.
Mentor uses her personality, communication and helping sills in full awareness to lead the mentee$s
growth. +he accomplishes these by clarifying, listening, accepting, teaching and interpreting to facilitate her
exploration of mentee by helping mentee to tal. The mentee benefits from verbalization of her feelings
because words can be examined more easily.
At one point of the mentoring relationship, mentee$s confidence in herself may increase. 2rom her new self'
nowledge, mentee may reevaluate her strengths and weanesses and develop a new personal inventory,
where her focus, interests, priorities or life goals may change. !n relation her mentoring goals may also be
changed or the beginning agreement may need to be re'ad-usted. These ad-ustments sometimes may be
difficult to be met. The mentoring agreement could allow a premature termination of the relationship. %ut
such re"uests may be explored to understand the need underneath so that the relationship would continue.
#nfortunately, not every helping interaction will have such positive outcomes as described here. The
cultivating phase can be a difficult phase for both the mentor and mentee.
The mentee may be disappointed initially when she expects too much and learns that the mentor has no
magic solutions for her and that she is expected to find her own answers. +he may also experience, feelings
of uncertainty, anxiety and failure when gaining new insight as she loos at herself. At times she may be so
anxious that she may withdraw for a period of time and avoid woring on her self'discovery.
The mentor may live through different experiences also. The mentor may leave her reflective role and start
giving advice which hinders mentee$s learning opportunities. +he may get carried away into the participant
role and unable to guide the interaction. 3n the other hand she may over use the observer role so that she
does not interact appropriately and warmly. !t is expected of her to remain in the participant'observer role so
that she can guide the interaction in the way where the mentee will benefit the most.
!n addition, as the mentor understands the mentee$s frame of reference, she might begin to see common
aspects between the two. As the mentee discovers herself, it becomes two way learning for both.
Mento
r
Mente
e
Relati
Another important aspect of the cultivating phased is the transfer of the tacit nowledge by the mentor. Tacit
nowledge as an invisible, strategically important, difficult to share, situational and a silent nowledge is a
very valuable product of the individual$s experiences. Tacit nowledge is what would mae an individual an
expert in her area. Mentoring relationship is the best opportunity to share the tacit nowledge by the mentee.
The woring phase is usually the longest phase of the interaction. The length depends on the depth to which
the interaction progresses.
The separation phase? ending the relationship?resolution Dstructural and psychological separationE
Termination may occur suddenly if a mentee moves or leaves. Termination of the contract before the agreed
time is also possible, when either the mentor or mentee wishes to do so.
The ideal termination of the mentoring relationship taes place when the needs or goals have been met or
successful completion of the program accomplished by the efforts of the mentor and the mentee, where this
mentee becomes ready for her next step in her career.
The termination of the helping relationship and dissolving the lins between the mentor and mentee is
usually a mild, temporary, grief'lie reaction with conflicting emotions. The mentee may feel that she is
Anot ready yetB to end the relationship. +he may be anxious to get on with her life yet sad to leave such
significant learning environment.
This stage may be a difficult one for the mentor also. The mentor may be unable to free herself from her
bond in the relationship. A successful ending of this phase lies in recognizing this ambivalence. This
optimal gradual lessening of ties and transfer of interests to other activities is referred to as termination with
resolution.
*uring successful resolution, the mentee drifts away from identifying with the mentor. The mentor is
pleased with the mentee$s progress and excited to see her ready to try the world on his own. The mentee$s
needs are met, where she can move toward new goals. Mentor and mentee becomes independent from each
other. As a result of this process, both of them become stronger maturing individuals.
To plan for a successful resolution, several things may be helpful.
4. %e clear from the beginning about how long the helping relationship will last. !f the mentor$s role with
the mentee has been identified clearly at the beginning, the time for termination will be recognized more
easily
5. 3ccasional references can be made to the eventual termination
7. Mentee is expected to address the AlastB meeting. Deument'netE
8. !t is helpful to plan a specific time to accomplish termination as it approaches. At this time the mentor and
mentee should(
Assess the mentoring. /hat has happened, how were the mutual agreement, the
commitments and goals been met,
.xpress appreciation. 2or what each party has given and received in the relationship
*iscuss what the mentee$s plans are for the future. *iscuss how they both feel about the end
of the interaction
;. Consider any next steps. The mentee may now need a different mentor or may want to become a mentor
herself
<. Celebrate the accomplishment
0e'definition phase? friendship and mutual contact? lasting friendship Drelation is re'defined to a new sort of
relation into friendship and mutual contactE
/hen mentoring is terminated mentor and mentee need to re'define their relationship. The relationship may
continue informally or as friends.
COACHING &EST PRACTICES E3PLAINED
#tilizing a coaching program as a part of organizational practice for employee development re"uires a
systematic and structured approach. Coaching is not -ust something that may or may not be conducted in a
causal methodK coaching is not a temporary activity. 3nce a company decides to embrace a coaching
program as part of the system, it must be structured and must be a regular activity. !t has to be a fixed
implementation to function as a tool for enhancing employee performance and growth.
%eing a crucial program for employee development, the coaching process must be outlined and coaching
best practice should be laid out as well. Coaching best practices usually refer to performance standards that
are expected to be performed by the coach. These are considered the most effective procedures to follow
when coaches conduct sessions in the worplace. This article will elaborate further about the best practices
to be implemented in coaching.
&a"ic 'nde"tanding of Coaching &e"t Pactice
The basic foundation of best practices is the first'hand experiences of professionals and industry experts. !n
the field of coaching, opposed to theoretical practice, the years of experience and ac"uired nowledge, as
well as the sills of the coaching professionals form the coaching best practices of an organization.
Although information based on boos and theories is very useful, first'hand nowledge and experience is
much more effective when applied in context.
Coaching best practice consists of coaching protocols, guidelines, principles, standards, and procedures that
greatly contribute to the success of the coaching program. Apart from incorporating it in the coaching
program, it can also be used in developing a new coaching style or strategy. 0esearch and evaluation shows
that applying best practice in coaching is highly effective.
The C#c+e of Coaching &e"t Pactice
%est practices are not permanent. 3ver time, these are modified and suited to whatever wors best for the
coach and the trainee. The cycle of best practice revolves around the following steps(
4. 0eviewing of the individuals for coaching
5. .ducating the trainee on the coaching best practices
7. *etermining the most relevant and useful best practice
8. !dentifying areas that need to be improved
;. 2inding measures to evaluate performance level
<. %enchmaring lapses in performance
=. Choosing a coaching style, techni"ue and process that will minimize the gaps
>. !mplementing and applying the best approaches
L. .valuating and reviewing the chosen strategy or approach
3ne important aspect that should not be missed out is to test and assess the selected best practice before it is
rolled out during coaching sessions. Conducting the ris assessment will determine if the coaching best
practice will be effective and feasible to the program.
Idea+ Coaching &e"t Pactice
There is no general or universal best practice for all companies and organizations. .very company has its
own set of best practices in their coaching programs. 6isted below are few among best coaching practice(
4. Coaching ,reparation( The coach maes the necessary preparations for the coaching sessions by
identifying the purpose of the coaching in concordance with the needs of the employee.
5. %uild a ,ositive and Trusting Coaching 0elationship( The coach initiates a warm and comfortable
connection with the trainee.
7. +etting of .xpectations( The coach establishes clear coaching goals with the trainee and identifies roles
and responsibilities.
8. Coaching ,lan and ,ractice( The coach coordinates with the supervisor, plan suitable coaching schedules
and discusses tools and resources for coaching.
;. 3bserve ,ractice( The coach maes an initial assessment of the trainee$s performance before the start of
the coaching sessions.
<. *evelop Coaching +trategy and Techni"ue( The coach creates a coaching style and techni"ue based on
the results of the initial assessment.
=. Conduct Coaching +ession( The actual coaching session with the trainee is done. Any coaching drills and
activities will be delivered during the sessions.
>. .valuate ,rogress of ,erformance( The coach conducts a final assessment of the trainee$s performance
after the coaching sessions.
L. *ocumentation ,rocess( The coach documents any changes in the performance trend of the individual
and recognizes any signs of improvement. Also, the coach submits performance feedbac to the trainee$s
immediate supervisor as well as to the trainee.
HOW TO COND'CT E%%ECTIVE COACHING?
3rganizations looing after the needs of their people always find ways and means to address those needs.
Coaching and mentoring programs are established to continue developing people and bring out their best.
Coaching in the worplace is very important and must be perceived positively by the woring individuals.
!n some cases, employees tend to be apprehensive towards coaching sessions because they feel that due to
poor performance at wor, they have not met the expectations of the company. This ind of thining must
be eradicated when it comes to coaching. !nstead, the coaching program must be seen as an opportunity to
grow and improve more on one$s potentials and capabilities.
3ne way to build a successful coaching program is to conduct effective coaching sessions. 2ollowing the
coaching best practices that have been demonstrated by the organization also maes the coaching process
effective.
E+e)ent" of an Effecti-e Coaching Se""ion
The "uality of the coaching session depends heavily on how well the coach is prepared for the session and
how the delivery is made. The following elements constitute a good and effective coaching session(
4. !dentifying the purpose of coaching( Coaches have to mae sure that the trainee understands the reason of
the coaching sessions. Their minds need to be conditioned on the idea that the reason is their personal and
professional development.
5. .stablishing clear ground rules and goals in coaching( %efore starting the coaching sessions, the coach
must discuss the rules as well as the goals to attain by the end of the sessions. These ground rules will create
a smooth and harmonious coaching relationship between the coach and the learner. The goals provide
determination and direction for the coach and the learner to strive to achieve progress after coaching is
finished.
7. @eeping focused( The coach has to guide the individual to a step'by'step process of coaching and must
maintain the focus on the core needs of the person.
8. Avoiding one'way communication( Coaching involves a discussion about different topics and generally a
lot of conversation between the coach and the learner. The coach must see that there is interaction during
coaching. The learner must be given chance to express himself and open up. This way the coach can gather
information needed to target the person$s areas for improvement.
;. Communicating in a clear and simple manner( The coach should communicate with the learner on an
easily understandable level.
<. %eing open to new ideas and possible changes( The trainee must manifest an open mind and embrace new
ideas and approaches especially if the new learning concepts are beneficial for his career growth.
A$$+#ing Coaching &e"t Pactice"
Another way to conduct effective coaching is to implement the best practices in the coaching process. These
best practices are proven to be effective because these were developed and modified based on years of
nowledge and experience of professional coaches. These are carefully chosen and identified strategies,
techni"ues and processes that generate satisfactory results in the coaching sessions. %est practices are first'
hand experiences, which are gathered and formed since the coaching program is established in an
organization. 3ver time, these best practices can be modified and amended according to the needs and the
learning abilities of the individuals.
%acto" of 1!a+it# Coaching
Coaching is best conducted and delivered with the following factors(
) 3ne'on'one( Most of the time, coaching is an activity between only two individuals G the coach and the
trainee. %ut there is also team coaching and peer coaching. Compared to a group coaching, one'on'one
coaching wors because it focuses on the individual alone.
) 1oal'oriented( Clear coaching goals increase the level of motivation for the trainee to develop oneself.
) 6imited in scope and time( Coaching sessions must be scheduled, but should not be conducted to the same
individual repeatedly and must not tae long hours as well. An evaluation of the person$s performance
progress must be done first.
) Conversational( A good coaching session involves a healthy exchange of conversation between the coach
and the trainee.
) !dea'focused( Although coaching is geared towards personal and professional development, the sessions
must highlight more the professional aspect and the wor performance of the person.
DI%%ERENT COACHING AND MENTORING ST4LES
Coaching and mentoring can be conducted creatively using different coaching and mentoring styles. Fet,
this does not mean that the coach or mentor can mess up the processes for both activities. The coaching and
mentoring process remains to be structured and procedural. The styles to be used in these programs depend
on the coach and mentor. The important thing to consider when adapting a certain style is that it should be
suited and easily grasped by the learner.
Coaches and mentors must eep in mind that people have various learning styles. +ome of them are visual
learners and get a good grasp of nowledge and information on the things they see. 3thers are dependent on
what they hear, so they are auditory learners. 1iven this, coaches should design their own coaching styles
and this is also applicable in mentoring.
There are no definite coaching and mentoring styles. This article will present the generally accepted styles
based on theory and application.
I)$act of Coaching and Mentoing St#+e"
A coach and mentor must mae an important choice about what ind of approach to use when conducting
coaching and mentoring sessions. These styles and approaches are necessary in identifying the following(
) How to deliver the teaching of sills and strategies
) How to present the materials, tools and resources, as well as the drills and activities
) How to condition the mindset of the learners
) How to implement the coaching or mentoring process in a smooth manner
) How to effectively conduct coaching and mentoring sessions
Pi)a# Coaching St#+e"
Coaching styles may be varied and uni"ue depending on the selected approach of the coach. These coaching
styles are classified into three basic approaches( directive, cooperative and casual.
Diecti-e Coaching St#+e
!n this ind of coaching approach, the coach is considered the AmasterB of the session. As such, the giving of
instructions, decision'maing, action plans, and many other things are primarily done by the coach. The
learner simply follows what the coach instructs and adheres to the solution provided. .ven the feedbac is
given in a manner of giving instructions, telling the trainee what to do and what not to do. !n this style, the
structure of the coaching process is inflexible. Another term for directive coaching is autocratic style.
Coo$eati-e Coaching St#+e
As the term itself shows, this coaching style involves the participation of the individuals in coaching. The
coach presents the coaching materials and activities amenable to the learner and in-ects a part of the problem
solving. *ecision'maing is shared but under the guidance of the coach. The structure of coaching is
flexible meaning that the strategies and techni"ues will be designed according to the needs and level of
grasp of the trainee. !n this style, the learning process is shared between the coach and the trainee.
Ca"!a+ Coaching St#+e
Casual coaching style is more lie an informal approach of coaching, as there are no goals set and there is
no clear designation of roles and responsibilities. The learner maes the decisions. The communication style
is more of listening. The coaching process lacs a good structureK the coach can go casual when dealing
with the learner.
T(o &a"ic E+e)ent" of a Mentoing St#+e
The approaches that can be used in mentoring may not be as defined as that of coaching because mentoring
is about building a relationship between the mentor and the mentee. #nless the organization decides to
create a formal mentoring program, the mentors may need to lean toward certain mentoring styles.
/hen selecting a specific approach in mentoring, two fundamental elements must be taen into
consideration by the mentors. The mentoring sessions have to strie balance and flexibility. %alance in
mentoring is demonstrated by addressing the personal aspect and professional needs of the mentee.
Moreover, the mentor can also incorporate a Atas'orientedB and a Arelationship'orientedB approach in
mentoring.
2lexibility in mentoring is the ability of the mentor to ad-ust and modify oneself to natural responses
depending on the situation. A mentoring style that can hardly be changed or modified to suit the needs of the
mentee is considered as ArigidB and is not a productive mentoring approach.
THINGS TO 2NOW A&O'T COACHING TIPS AND TECHNI1'ES
The main purpose of investing in a coaching program and holding coaching sessions is to help individuals
empower their careers and increase their level of wor performance. However the success of an
organizational coaching program is dependent on several factors. The effectiveness of the coaching process
is an important factor. !f coaches are not bound by coaching guidelines and a structured process, they may
fail to meet the goals of coaching. The sills and competencies of a coach also influence the success of the
coaching program. !f the program is well'structured with a set of guidelines and clear processes but the
coach seems to lac the ability to implement and utilize these components, the coaching program may turn
out to be ineffective.
This pitfall can be addressed by providing coaching tools and techni"ues to the coaches that they can use to
carry out an effective coaching. %esides the coaching style, strategies in coaching can also prove to be
helpful.
Coaching Too+" and Techni5!e" Defined
The terms Acoaching toolsB and Acoaching techni"uesB tend to be interchangeably used in context. Fet,
these two terms have separate definitions. Coaching tools refer to the materials and instruments used during
the coaching sessions. .xamples of the common tools used in coaching are needs assessment, evaluation
materials, interview tools, performance feedbac tools, coaching drills and simulations, and other similar
resources necessary for coaching.
3n the other hand, coaching techni"ues pertain to the methods or approaches in applying and using the
coaching tools. !t is the art of implementing or using a tool. !n order to ascertain a productive coaching
outcome, the effectiveness of use of these coaching tools and techni"ues has to be evaluated. Coaches
should be particular and selective in choosing only the best and most reliable coaching tools and techni"ues.
Coaching Too+: The GROW Mode+
A popularly used coaching tool that has been around for years now is the 103/ model introduced by 9ohn
/hitmore. This instrument is widely used and applied by many organizations and companies worldwide.
The acronym 103/ stands for the following(
1 G 1oal( +etting the goals and aims of the trainee
0 G 0eality( Assessing the current ArealityB or the situation of the trainee before choosing a coaching style
and deciding what techni"ues to use
3 G 3ptions( 3utlining the suitable AoptionsB or actions plans based on the needs of the trainee
/ G /ill( The agreed actions and solutions that will be taen by the trainee for the attainment of goals
3ne important tip to consider when using the 103/ model is to match it with the appropriate coaching
techni"ues in order to promote an increased awareness and responsibility of the issues. An effective
"uestioning techni"ue may possibly wor best along with the use of the model.
However, this coaching tool must only be employed when deemed appropriate to the session. Moreover, the
model should not restrict the coaching sessions to arrive at premature conclusions. The coach must see to it
that all possible options are explored and discussed.
6astly, an effective coach must not be limited to the use of this coaching tool in every session. He can use
other tools and techni"ues for that matter. !n order to mae the process even more efficient, the coach must
explore other approaches in coaching..
Coaching Stategie" and Tactic"
!n any type of coaching, the use of strategies and techni"ues maes the coaching sessions easier to conduct.
Here are three fundamental strategies and tactics that coaches can apply(
a. %uild an atmosphere of involvement and ownership
) Mae use of applicable nowledge, necessary tools and resources
) +hare the coaching goals and ob-ectives and mae the trainee understand the current situation
) .stablish clear standards and gauge for progress and coaching results
) 0ecognize progress in performance and positive changes after coaching
b. ,rovide challenging role, tass and responsibilities
) .valuate the sills and abilities of the trainee
) Create tass that commensurate with their abilities
) +et expectations and provide clear directions
) Trust the trainee$s ability to complete the tas
) Acnowledge efforts and results
c. ,rovide ongoing coaching
) Constructive feedbac should be given every time after coaching
) *ocument coaching sessions and performance trends of trainees
) #tilize applicable tools and resources
) *emonstrate effective listening and give of feedbac
METHODS TO COACH INE3PERIENCED LEARNERS
Coaching becomes an essential program in the worplace when there are issues and inconsistencies in the
overall productivity of the company as well as employee relationships. !n common situations, coaching will
be conducted to any of the following(
Coaching inexperienced learners in order to help them develop sills and improve performance.
Coaching experienced learners who lac the motivation and willingness to improve wor
performance.
There are employees who do not have first'hand experience of the tas but have the competence to perform
it. 3thers are tas'experienced but lac the necessary sills to perform the tas. Fet, there are also
employees who are both inexperienced and unsilled. These individuals can be helped with dedicated
coaching. The company should not see them as a liability and a hindrance to company goals.
!n the first place, manpower is not easy to produce, not to mention the time and effort invested by the
recruitment team in searching, hiring, and training their people.
Coaching inexperienced learners and even those who lac the needed sills is not a problem as long as these
individuals have the willingness and commitment to improve their performance and learn new things
applicable to their -ob. However, it is a problem if they are uncooperative and apprehensive about being
coached. +o a coach must mae a point out of conditioning the employees first by setting expectations and
stressing the benefits that they will gain from the coaching sessions.
Po-ide Con"t!cti-e %eed6ac.
1iving feedbac is a very critical aspect of the coaching process. The learners must now the comments and
remars of the coach on their performance during coaching sessions. !nexperienced learners may probably
be eager to now how they are doing while experienced employees may as how else they can improve.
2eedbac provides trainees with opinions and information about how others view their behavior or
performance.
.ffective feedbac is both positive and constructive in manner. !t must not be a myriad of negative
comments and heavy criticisms. /ith a positive and constructive feedbac, learners feel motivated. /hen
their efforts are recognized, they are encouraged to improve even more. 3ne techni"ue to use in giving
feedbac is the Asandwich methodB which starts with providing a compliment or a positive comment,
followed by stressing the areas for improvement, and wrapped up by an encouraging or positive remar.
Coaches have to demonstrate their sills in giving effective feedbac. The following are helpful feedbac'
giving tips(
+how sensitivity to other people$s feelings
,rovide honest feedbac, balancing positive and negative points
Choose the right tone and language to use
%e descriptive instead of being -udgmental
,repare the feedbac session in advance
%e a good role model
6ead the employee to tae responsibility of actions
The '"e of Coaching Too+"
The coaching plan for inexperienced learners must largely involve carefully selected coaching tools and
useful techni"ues and to really focus on feeding them with sufficient nowledge needed for their scope of
wor. These tools would include drills, activities, simulations and testing materials utilized during coaching.
2or example, if the employee lacs now'how about upselling the products, the coach can design drills and
simulations that will teach the individual to do upselling. The time for the coaching sessions must be
maximized using any coaching tool and material that will allow active participation and feed learning to the
employee. The goal is to increase awareness and hone their sills in order to develop their performance at
wor.
&e a Ro+e Mode+
+etting a good example as a coach to the inexperienced learners is a manifestation of good leadership. These
individuals need a role model who will demonstrate how to develop their potentials, widen their nowledge
and understanding about the nature of their wor. :ewly hired employees and fresh starters tae inspiration
from their bosses, their team leaders, and supervisors.
Apart from new hire training, they need a reinforcement of what they learned, the -ob they need to perform,
and the sills they need to demonstrate to carry out their tass. This is where coaching sessions come in the
picture. 3ngoing and regular coaching will eventually mold their potentials as well and will produce an
outstanding wor performance.
WHAT ARE THE CHALLENGES O% TEAM COACHING?
3rganizational teams wor as instruments of success in achieving organizational goals. Teams are created to
produce outstanding results that cannot be achieved by individual effort alone. Fet in teams there are
challenges brought about by various factors. The "uality of team performance can be an issue in reaching
those goals. +o companies have to tae action in building better and more empowered teams.
A team'coaching program is an effective means to optimize productivity and relationship between the
members of a team. Coaching sessions in the organization may be conducted basically in two approaches G
individual and group setting. +ince the article focuses on the corporate setting, team coaching is the most
appropriate term to use. As opposed to group coaching, team coaching involves employees belonging to a
team who are endorsed by the team leader or a team manager for specific purposes of developing the team
members and enhancing performance. The sessions may tae the form of worshops, training, or seminar in
the worplace.
Marious organizational teams can go through coaching and benefit from it. .xamples of these teams are the
following(
.xecutive Teams Dcomposed of senior level officersE
+ales Team
,ro-ect Teams
Training Team
Human 0esource
Team Coaching ,rocess
Conducting coaching sessions to teams re"uires a structured process, -ust the way it is with one'on'one
coaching. The process in -ust about any type of coaching is similar. Here is a simple procedural method of
team coaching(
4. *iscovery ( The discovery process is the initial phase wherein discussions between the coach and the
team leader taes place to mae sure that the coaching outcomes meet the organizational needs. !t involves
setting of clear expectations and identifying whether the team is "ualified for coaching.
5. !nitial Team :eeds Assessment( The needs assessment can be in the form of a diagnostic conducted by
the coach. The results are used to design coaching strategies and techni"ues suitable to the needs of the
team.
7. Team Coaching and Training( After the needs were identified and coaching process has been laid out, the
coach can start conducting the coaching. 2or a productive learning approach, the session may be a training
or worshop.
8. 3ngoing Team Coaching( To ensure consistency in team productivity and a more solid relationship
within a team, team'coaching sessions may be scheduled on a regular basis.
;. ,rogress .valuation( Coaching sessions always end with a monitoring of progress. A final assessment
may be done to gauge improvement in a team.
ROLE AND S2ILLS O% THE TEAM COACH
The team coach plays a vital role in the effectiveness of team'coaching. This individual is a seasoned
coaching expert usually outsourced by the company to facilitate the session.
The .e# o+e" of the tea) coach ae:
*efining the coaching purpose and priorities
#nderstanding the team culture and environment
*etermining issues to address and barriers to team performance
*esigning the teach coaching plan
.nhancing team confidence and motivation
*eveloping the systems, sills and nowledge to internalize coaching
What ae the nece""a# ".i++" of a tea) coach?
Advanced coaching sills
1ood nowledge on organization team setting
%usiness acumen and management expertise
+trong intuition abilities
2lexible thining
Ability to create team dynamics
Tea) Coaching -e"!" Indi-id!a+ Coaching
.ither of the two coaching approaches can be used by the company to develop its people. However, research
and observations from many companies proved that individual or one'on'one coaching is a more effective
coaching style than team coaching. !t is a challenge for coaching professionals to mae team'coaching
programs more valuable and feasible. The ultimate advantage of one'on'one coaching is the focused
attention on the needs of the individual to address performance gaps and sill deficiencies. 3n the other
hand, team'coaching is more of a shared learning process among team members. !t is possible that not all
members will be able to get a good grasp of the sub-ect matter due to differences in the learning styles of
individuals. A good strategy to overcome this challenge is to enforce every team member$s participation in
all the activities and drills during coaching sessions.
EIGHT MENTORING M4THS &'STED
Thin about a mentoring relationship and you probably imagine the stereotype of an older
mentor advising a younger professional, with -ust the mentee benefiting from the interaction. %ut that$s -ust
not so. As more companies and organizations, offer mentoring programs, misconceptions continue to exist
about the mentoring relationship. Here are eight of them.
M#th 7: Mentoing i" a one,(a# "teet.
%oth people can learn from each other$s strengths and experiences. As a mentor, you can learn something
new, too. Four protHgH$s perspective may mae you thin about things differently. A good mentoring
partnership is always a two'way relationship.
M#th 8: A )entoing e+ation"hi$ can on+# 6e face,to,face9
Many mentees want to meet with their mentors in person. That$s possible if the two wor in the same area,
or when one travels for business and is in a mutually convenient place to meet. %ut face'to'face meetings
may be impossible when, for example, mentoring partners live in different countries. +ome mentees even
prefer a mentor from another country in order to gain new perspectives, nowing the opportunity to meet
face'to'face will be rare. !t$s important for the two parties to establish ground rules for communicating. That
includes discussing whether they will connect via e'mail or phone and, if possible, meet in person. Meeting
times should be confirmed in advance, as well as the topics to be discussed.
M#th :: Mentoing i" a ti)e,con"!)ing $oce""9
.ach mentoring relationship is uni"ue, and so is the time and energy that goes into it. The amount of time
depends on the mentor and protHgH agreeing on the purpose and focus of their relationship.
M#th ;: E<$ectation" ae the "a)e fo e-e#one9
Although many mentoring partners share similar reasons for having such a relationshipNfor personal or
professional growthNtheir individual expectations vary. +ome mentors want to give bac to their profession
by sharing their nowledge and experiences with their partner. 3thers want to learn about industry trends
and cutting'edge applications from their mentee.
M#th =: Mento" )!"t 6e o+de9
Age should not "ualify or dis"ualify someone from being a mentor. Mentors should be chosen for their
understanding, sill, and capacity to share what they now. 3ften, recent graduates are looing for mentors
who are also recent graduates. The ey to finding the best mentors is for mentees to select them based on
their own professional development needs.
M#th >: De-e+o$ing a )entoing e+ation"hi$ i" co)$+icated9
The relationship is only as complicated as one maes it. The /eb'based Mentoring Connection maes it
easier to have meaningful relationships because it uses a step'by'step process to help match mentees with
mentors. The program also provides a variety of resources to guide the mentoring partners. 2or example,
partners can communicate through the program$s discussion board or review mentoring guidelines and
resources at its /eb site.
M#th ?: 4o! need on+# one )ento at a ti)e9
.ach mentor brings uni"ue nowledge to the mentee, so having more than one can offer greater learning
experiences. However, it can be difficult to set expectations for each relationship unless each mentor has
been chosen for a specific area of development. That$s why it$s important for mentees to openly share their
ob-ectives with their mentors.
M#th @: Mentoing e+ation"hi$" ha$$en on thei o(n9
The Mentoring Connection helps mentees select their mentors from a database of professionals, such as
engineering professors, pro-ect managers, and research directors who have volunteered to participate in the
program. !t$s up to the mentees to find someone they will respect and trust to help them reach their
ob-ectives. The members in the program have a wide range of nowledge and technical and professional
expertise. 3nce the partnership is under way and woring, it$s up to the partners to mae the relationship
blossom.
RECOMMENDATIONS
%o dean"Adiecto"Achai$e"on"
1. !nitiate and provide support for mentoring initiatives at your institution
5. .ngage new, mid'career, and seasoned faculty in developing mentoring initiatives at institution.
7. !ncorporate innovative strategies for mentoring new faculty members, such as the use of retired
nurse educators.
4. Malue the mentor role and regard faculty who actively serve in a mentoring role.
;. +upport the development of faculty mentors.
<. +upport research on mentoring in the academic environment.
=. 3ffer worshops and seminars on mentoring.
>. *evelop a Atool'itB on mentoring.
9. Create a supportive environment for socialization and re'socialization.
%o n!"e fac!+t#
1. Mae the teaching done by experienced faculty members more visible to new faculty.
5. %e open and friendly to new faculty and identify opportunities to be a A3ne Minute MentorB through
brief, supportive interactions.
7. %ecome sensitive to existing and potential academic community practices that exclude new faculty
members.
8. +pend time together as a nurse faculty community, taling and listening to one another, including the
new faculty.
5. Attend professional development worshops and seminars on mentoring.
<. Collaborate with the dean?director?chairperson to establish a mentoring programme.
=. !nclude content on mentoring in undergraduate and graduate curricula including how to identify and
select caring colleagues with whom to wor closely, and how to collaborate with colleagues.
CONCL'SION
The art of mentoring needs to be taught to nurses who will cultivate professional relationships with other
that stimulate the desire for clinical excellence. %ecause mentoring is a resonating phenomenon, the mentor
will eventually separate from the mentor and move on to mentor others. Thus, the mentoring process will
continue to flourish and enrich the profession with superior blossoms. Mentoring nurses in search of
professional excellence is necessary for the infusion of new nowledge and sills that serve as the scientific
basis for advanced nursing.
7? Go+den R!+e" , An Effecti-e Mento
A lways aim to be the very best you can be
N ever hit, humiliate, abuse your mentee
E n-oy mentoring with a sense of humour
% lexibility gains respect
% amily values are nurtured
E fficiency and thorough planning
C reative spirits change the world
T eamwor builds positive communities
I nspire your mentee at every opportunity
V isionary mentors educate for the future
E xcellence creates positive achievers
M otivate positively
E ncourage, empathise, affirm and love your mentee
N urture and mould your mentee as a uni"ue being
T ry to be firm, fair and consistent
O ffer constructive criticism always
R ole models live a healthy, balanced lifestyle
M# Mento* M# %iend Ba $oe)C
The Career *evelopment Mentor ,rogram at the #niversity of +outhern California, is a uni"ue mentoring program
pairing undergraduate and graduate students of the +chool of ,olicy, ,lanning, and *evelopment with a woring
professional for a negotiated period of time during the academic year. Mentors and mentees select each other based on
common career and academic interests, as well as other experiences. The following poem appears in the Handboo
for Mentors and Mentees and is used with permission(
Than you for allowing me
the opportunity
to learn from you
when ! was seeing so much nowledge
when ! was asing many "uestions
you patiently listened and answered accordingly
never showing signs of frustration
Than you for taing the time
to show me the necessary sills today
that will lead me with confidence into tomorrow
for believing in me and having enough faith
to share your wor
your dreams
and your vision
Than you for accepting me as ! am
with all my eagerness
and my sheer -oy over the little things...
you never tried to s"uelch that spirit in me
!nstead, you have encouraged that spirit
and for that, ! do than you
! realized the nowledge ! need for wor can be learned anywhere,
taught by most anyone
but the life sills ! needed that go along with it...
well, that would have to be taught by a very uni"ue individual
with a very special gift for giving
a gift of patience and understanding
that someone is you, my Mentor
and now, my friend