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English01a Midterms

Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 1
Reflective Questions
If youre the Once-Ler and youre being
interviewed by Ted as to what happened with
the trees, will it take you two (2) to three (3)
days just to tell your story to Ted?

Reflective Questions
If youre the Once-Ler and youre being
interviewed by Ted as to what happened with the
trees, will you include the following scenes in your
story:
Fishes singing at Once-Lers arrival at the
Truffula Forest?
Pipsqueak attacking the Once-Ler causing the
marshmallow shower?
Once-Lers brothers throwing Pipsqueak back
and forth?

Warm-Up
Instruction: Read the list of words or
phrases below. Choose two of the
words/phrases as names for your
general categories, then put the rest
of the words and phrases in the
correct category.


read a book
outdoor activities
play cards
swim
ride a bike
build a model
bake cookies
climb a tree
indoor activities
play basketball
Warm-Up
Format:
____________ _____________
(gen. category) (gen. category)
____________ _____________
____________ _____________
____________ _____________
____________ _____________

Warm-Up
Instruction: Read the list of words or
phrases below. Choose two of the
words/phrases as names for your
general categories, then put the rest
of the words and phrases in the
correct category.


read a book
outdoor activities
play cards
swim
ride a bike
build a model
bake cookies
climb a tree
indoor activities
play basketball
Warm-Up
Answers:
Outdoor Activities Indoor Activities
swim read a book
play baseball build a model
ride a bike play cards
climb a tree bake cookies
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 2
Organizing Information
By: Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd-English (2012), JD (units)
Organizing Information
A. Outlining
B. Parallelism
C. Phrases, Clauses and Sentences
Outlining
Whats an outline?
a general plan of the material that is
to be presented in a speech or a paper
presents a picture of the main ideas
and the subsidiary ideas of any subject
shows the order of the various topics,
the relative importance of each, and
the relationship between the various
parts
Outlining
Uses of outline:
required in most professional
reporting
may be used in: a class reading
assignment, an essay, a term paper,
a book review or a speech
also useful in freewriting and
clustering

Outlining
How to make an outline?
Order of topics may be:
General to Specific
Chronological order
Spatial arrangement
Outlining
Rules for Outlining
Subdivide topics by a system of
numbers and letters, followed by a
period.
Each heading and subheading must
have at least two parts.
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 3
Outlining
Rules for Outlining
Headings for parts of the paper of
speech such as, Introduction and
Conclusion, should not be used.
Be consistent. Do not mix up the
two types of outlines. Use either
whole sentences of brief phrases,
but not both.

Outlining
Format:
I. Major Topics main ideas; Roman
numeral + period
A. Subtopics ideas related;
Upper-case letter + period
1. Sub-subtopics more details;
Arabic numeral + period

Outlining
Format:
I. Major Topic
A. Subtopic 1
B. Subtopic 2
1. Sub-subtopic 1
2. Sub-subtopic 2
Outlining
Types:
Topic outline - the headings are
given in single words or brief
phrases
Sentence outline - all the headings
are expressed in complete
sentences
Exercise: Outlining
Instructions: Read the words and
phrases on the pool of words. Choose
two of the words/phrases as names
for your general categories, or main
topics. Next, find the words and
phrases that name the subtopics that
go under each of the main topics.
Finally, decide which words and
phrases could be sub-subtopics of the
subtopics listed.
Exercise: Outlining
foods
birds
robin
meats
hawk
vegetables
pork chops
corn on the cob
hamburger
insects
mosquito
broccoli
beetle
animals

English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 4
Exercise: Outlining - Answers
I. Foods
A. Meats
1. hamburger
2. pork chops
B. Vegetables
1. broccoli
2. corn on the cob
Exercise: Outlining - Answers
I. Animals
A. Birds
1. robin
2. hawk
B. Insects
1. mosquito
2. beetle
Questions
Is there something wrong or awkward
with these phrases/ sentences?
a soldier, sailor, teacher, and a pilot
The college has space for a new
computer lab but not a faculty
lounge.
Ravena's style was remarkable for its
dexterity, grace, and he could play
any position.

Answer
YES structurally, they are
not parallel.

Parallelism
What is parallelism?
Similarity of structure in a pair
or series of related words, phrases,
or clauses. Also called parallel
structure.
Failure to express such items in
similar grammatical form is called
faulty parallelism.
Parallelism
Mistaken belief of unskillful
writers - they should constantly
vary the form of their expressions.
NOTE: The likeness of form
enables the reader to recognize
more readily the likeness of
content and function.
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 5
Parallelism
Example:

Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version
Formerly, science
was taught by the
textbook method,
while now the
laboratory method
is employed.
Formerly, science
was taught by the
textbook method;
now it is taught by
the laboratory
method.
Parallelism
Use of articles or preposition:
Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version
The French, the
Italians, Spanish, and
Portuguese
The French, the
Italians, the Spanish,
and the Portuguese
In spring, summer, or
in winter
In spring, summer, or
winter (In spring, in
summer, or in winter)
Parallelism
Use of correlative expressions:
(both, and; not, but; not only, but
also; either, or; first, second, third;
and the like)
Parallelism
Use of correlative expressions:
Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version
It was both a long ceremony and
very tedious.
The ceremony was both long
and tedious.
A time not for words, but action A time not for words, but for
action
Either you must grant his request
or incur his ill will.
You must either grant his request
or incur his ill will.
My objections are, first, the
injustice of the measure; second,
that it is unconstitutional.
My objections are, first, that the
measure is unjust; second, that it
is unconstitutional.
Parallelism
Making comparisons:

Faulty Parallelism Corrected Version
My income is
smaller than my
wife.
My income is
smaller than my
wife's.
Parallelism
Lets try.
a soldier, sailor, teacher, and a pilot
a soldier, a sailor, a teacher, and a
pilot; or
a soldier, sailor, teacher and pilot
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 6
Parallelism
Lets try.
The college has space for a new
computer lab but not a faculty
lounge.
The college has space for a new
computer lab but not for a faculty
lounge.
Parallelism
Lets try.
Ravena's style was remarkable for
its dexterity, grace, and he could
play any position.
Ravena's style was remarkable for
its dexterity, grace, and versatility.
Activity
Answer pages 73-74 of your book.
Perforate the page, attach your
activity sheet and pass it when
asked.
Activity
Directions: Revise the following
sentences with faulty parallelism.

1. The conventional automobile is
powered by gasoline; currently,
engineers are designing a battery-
powered engine that may reduce
pollution.
Activity
2. They will discuss the proposal and
how it may be implemented.
3. Every student should submit papers
analyzing elements of stories, poems
and a play.
4. The president studied the feasibility
study, highlighted the strengths and
weaknesses of the project, and had
prepared the report.
Activity
5. What he did and the reason of the
action made everybody uneasy.
6. The president had only two options:
resignation or to face charges.
7. Elections in the Philippines are
disappointing vote-buying and cheating is
rampant, the electoral process is tedious
and complicated, and the incompetent
corrupt candidates who aspire to
establish their political dynasties.
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 7
Recap
What is parallelism?
Similarity in structure of series of
related words, phrases, clauses or
sentences.
What is faulty parallelism?
Failure to express series of related
words, phrases, clauses or
sentences in a similar grammatical
structure.
Recap
How will you attain parallelism?
First, you have to determine which
are words, phrases, clauses or
sentences in the selection.
Then make sure that words,
phrases, clauses and sentences
related with one another and
written in a series are in the same
grammatical structure.
Phrases, Clauses and Sentences
Subject and Predicate
Phrases
Types of Phrases
Clauses
Types of Clauses
According to Structure
According to Function
Phrases vs. Clauses
Sentences
Kinds of Sentences
According to Structure
According to Function
Subject and Predicate
Subject perfoms the action
Predicate part of the sentence that
tells about the subject

Example:
She is washing her clothes.
Focus on the part in bold face
He is standing near a wall.

near the wall, by itself, does not
contain any subject nor any verb
and does not express any sense.
The boy in the red shirt behaves in
a strange way.

in the red shirt serves as an
adjective, describing The boy
in a strange way serves as an
adverb, describing how The boy
behaves
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 8
Phrases
What are phrases?
a group of words (within a
sentence) that does not contain
both subject and verb, and does
not express a complete idea
May also function as a single part
of speech in a sentence.
Phrases
NOTE:
NO subject and/or verb
NO complete idea
SERVES as a Part of Speech
Phrases
Functions of phrases:
a noun, verb, adverb, adjective or
preposition in a sentence
depends on its construction (words
it contains).
Types of Phrases
Functions of phrases:
noun phrase
verb phrase
adverb phrase
adjective phrase
appositive phrase
infinite phrase
participle phrase
gerund phrase.
Noun Phrase
Try to look into how the phrases in
bold face FUNCTION:

He is wearing a nice red shirt.
She brought a glass full of water.
The boy with brown hair is laughing.
A man on the roof was shouting.
Noun Phrase
consists of a noun and other
related words (usually modifiers
and determiners) which modify
the noun
functions like a noun in a sentence
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 9
Noun Phrase
He is wearing a nice red shirt.

She brought a glass full of water.

The boy with brown hair is laughing.

A man on the roof was shouting.
Prepositional Phrase
Try to look into how the phrases in
bold face START:

A boy on the roof is singing a song.
The man in the room is our teacher.
She is shouting in a loud voice.
He always behaves in a good
manner.
Prepositional Phrase
starts with a preposition and mostly
ends with a noun or pronoun (object
of the preposition)
functions as an adjective or adverb
in a sentence
Prepositional Phrase
A boy on the roof is singing a song.

The man in the room is our teacher.

She is shouting in a loud voice.

He always behaves in a good manner.
Participle/Participial Phrase
Try to look into how the phrases in bold
face START, how they FUNCTION and how
are they SITUATED:

The kids, making a noise, need food.
I received a letter, mentioning about my
exam.
The table, made of steel, is too
expensive.
We saw a car, damaged in an accident.
Participle/Participial Phrase
consists of a present participle (verb
+ ing), a past participle (verb ending
in -ed or other form in case of
irregular verbs) and modifiers or
other associate words
separated by commas
always functions as an adjective in a
sentence
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 10
Participle/Participial Phrase
The kids, making a noise, need food.

I received a letter, mentioning about my
exam.

The table, made of steel, is too
expensive.

We saw a car, damaged in an accident.
Adjective/Adjectival Phrase
Try to look into how the phrases in
bold face FUNCTION:

He is wearing a nice red shirt.
The girl with brown hair is singing a
song.
He gave me a glass full of water.
A boy from America won the race.
Adjective/Adjectival Phrase
a group of words that functions like
an adjective in a sentence
consists of adjectives, modifier and
any word that modifies a noun or
pronoun


Adjective/Adjectival Phrase
He is wearing a nice red shirt.

The girl with brown hair is singing a
song.

He gave me a glass full of water.

A boy from America won the race.
Adverb/Adverbial Phrase
Try to look into how the phrases in
bold face FUNCTION:

He always behaves in a good manner.
They were shouting in a loud voice.
She always drives with care.
He sat in a corner of the room.
He returned in a short while.
Adverb/Adverbial Phrase
a group of words that functions as
an adverb in a sentence
consists of adverbs or other words
(preposition, noun, verb, modifiers)
that make a group with works like
an adverb in a sentence.
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 11
Adverb/Adverbial Phrase
He always behaves in a good manner.

They were shouting in a loud voice.

She always drives with care.

He sat in a corner of the room.

He returned in a short while.
Verb Phrase
Try to look into how the phrases in
bold face FUNCTION:

He is eating an apple.
She has finished her work.
You should study for the exam.
She has been sleeping for two hours.
Verb Phrase
a combination of main verb and its
auxiliaries (helping verbs) in a
sentence
can consist of main verb, its
auxiliaries, its complements and
other modifiers (or the whole
predicate of a sentence)
Verb Phrase
He is eating an apple.

She has finished her work.

You should study for the exam.

She has been sleeping for two hours.
Infinitive Phrase
Try to look into how the phrases in
bold face FUNCTION and how they
START:

He likes to read books.
To earn money is a desire of
everyone.
He shouted to inform people about
fire.
He made a plan to buy a car.
Infinitive Phrase
consist of an infinitive(to + simple
form of verb) and modifiers or
other words associated to the
infinitive
always functions as an adjective,
adverb or noun in a sentence
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 12
Infinitive Phrase
He likes to read books.

To earn money is a desire of
everyone.

He shouted to inform people about
fire.

He made a plan to buy a car.
Gerund Phrase
Try to look into how the phrases in
bold face FUNCTION and how they
START:

I like writing good essays.
She started thinking about the
problem.
Sleeping late in night is not a good
habit.
Weeping of a baby woke him up.
Gerund Phrase
consists of a gerund(verb + ing)
and modifiers or other words
associated with the gerund
acts as a noun in a sentence
Gerund Phrase
I like writing good essays.

She started thinking about the
problem.

Sleeping late in night is not a good
habit.

Weeping of a baby woke him up.
Appositive Phrase
Try to look into how the phrases in bold
face FUNCTION and how they SITUATED:

Her dog, a bull mastiff, looks
ridiculous with a pink bow stuck to her
head.
His favorite hobby, knitting, is rather
unusual for a man.
The Tahitians ambition, to become an
ice skater, is unexpected.
Appositive Phrase
restates a preceding term, or
expands or explains it, in a
parenthetical statement
Variations:
Noun phrase
Gerund phrase
Infinitive phrase
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 13
Appositive Phrase
Her dog, a bull mastiff, looks
ridiculous with a pink bow stuck to her
head.

His favorite hobby, knitting, is rather
unusual for a man.

The Tahitians ambition, to become an
ice skater, is unexpected.
Compare
Jim studied in the Canteen for his
Fundamentals of Accounting exam,
but it was hard to concentrate
because of the noise.
Clauses
contains both a subject and a
predicate
May be:
complete in itself independent
clause, or
with a subject and a verb, but it
will only be part of a sentence -
dependent clause

Types of Clauses
According to Structure:
Independent Clause
Dependent Clause

According to Function:
Adjective/Adjectival Clause
Adverb/Adverbial Clause
Noun Clause
Independent Clause
also called main clause
can stand alone as a complete
sentence expressing a complete
thought, or it can be part of a
longer sentence:

We bought the dog.
We bought the dog in the same
place we bought the cat.

Dependent Clause
also called "subordinate clause
cannot stand alone
does not express a complete thought
and isn't a complete sentence, even
though it may contain a subject and
a verb

We bought the dog in the same place
we bought the cat.
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 14
Adjective/Adjectival Clause
a dependent clause that modifies
a noun or a pronoun
can't stand alone
usually starts with "who," "which"
or "that

She's the one who wanted to buy
the dog.
Adverb/Adverbial Phrase
dependent clause that modifies a
verb, an adjective, or an adverb
can't stand alone as a sentence
usually answers the questions
"where," "when," "how," "why," "to
what extent," or "under what
condition"

We bought the dog after we bought
the cat.

Noun Clause
dependent clause that function as
a noun
used as a subject, a complement,
the object of the preposition or a
predicate noun

That he is a nerd is, by now, an
accepted fact.
Phrases vs. Clauses
He is laughing at a joker.

He is laughing is a clause with
subject and predicate, and can stand
alone
at the joker is a phrase no subject
and verb, and cant stand alone
Phrases vs. Clauses
Clause - contains a subject and
predicate (verb)
e.g. he arrived.

Phrase - does not contain a subject
and a verb.
e.g. on the table.

He bought a car.
What are you doing?
She is eating an apple.

Do all the above examples state
complete thoughts?
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 15
Sentences
group of words which expresses a
complete idea or thought


Types of Sentences
According to Structure:
Simple Sentence
Compound Sentence
Complex Sentence
Compound-Complex Sentence
Types of Sentences
According to Function:
Declarative Sentence
Interrogative Sentence
Imperative Sentence
Exclamatory Sentence
According to Structure
He laughed.

He failed two times yet he is not
disappointed.

She is wearing a shirt which looks
nice.

I like Mathematics but my bother
likes Biology because he wants to be
a doctor.
Simple Sentence
consists of only one independent
clause containing a subject and a
verb and it expresses complete
thought

NOTE:
ONLY one independent clause
NO dependent clause
Examples:

She ate an apple.
They are sleeping.
I bought a book.
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 16
Compound Sentence
consists of at least two independent
clauses joined by coordinating
conjunctions or by a semicolon (;)

NOTE:
AT LEAST two independent clauses
With coordinating conjunctions
(FANBOYS: For, And, Nor, But, Or,
Yet, So) or semicolon (;)
NO dependent clause
Examples:

I like an apple but my brother likes a
mango.
I helped him and he became happy.
I asked him a question; he replied
correctly.
Complex Sentence
consists of one independent clause
and at least one dependent clause
joined by subordinating conjunction
(because, although, since, when,
unless etc) or relative pronoun (that,
who, which etc)


Complex Sentence
NOTE:
ONLY one independent clause
ONE OR MORE dependent clauses
With subordinating conjuction or
relative pronoun


Examples:

I met the boy who had helped me.
You cant pass the test unless you
study for it.
Complex Sentence
IF sentence begins with:
independent clause comma not
used
dependent clause comma is used

Examples:
He is playing well although he is ill.
Although he is ill, he is playing well.
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 17
Compound-Complex Sentence
consists of at least two independent
clauses and one or more dependent
clauses
incorporates the rules for compound
sentence (coordinating conjuction)
and complex sentence
(subordinating conjunction or
relative pronoun)
Compound-Complex Sentence
NOTE:
TWO OR MORE independent clauses
ONE OR MORE dependent clauses
With coordinating conjuctions and
subordinating conjunctions or
relative pronouns
Compound-Complex Sentence
Examples:

He went to college and I went to a
market where I bought a book.
I like Mathematics but my bother
likes Biology because he wants to be
a doctor.
According to Function
They are singing a song.

Do you use your laptop?

Please help me.

That is fantastic!
Declarative Sentence
makes a statement or assertion
ends with a period (.)

Example:
He goes to school.
He likes to play chess.
Interrogative Sentence
asks a question
ends with a question mark (?)

Examples:
Where are you going?
What are you writing?
English01a Midterms
Organizing Information
10/8/2013
Prepared by: Mr. Michael Joseph Nogoy,
BSEd (2012), JD (units) 18
Imperative Sentence
expresses a request, command or
advice
ends with a period (.)

Examples:
Open the door. (an order)

Exclamatory Sentence
expresses strong feelings or emotions
such as surprise, joy, sorrow,
appreciation, love excitement,
frustration, anger, and the likes
ends with an exclamation mark (!)

Examples:
What a beautiful flower it is!
How nicely she is singing!
Hurrah! We won the match!
Exercise/Assignment
In a whole sheet of paper, write 16
sentences:
Simple Dec/Int/Imp/Exc
Compound Dec/Int/Imp/Exc
Complex Dec/Int/Imp/Exc
Compound-Complex Dec/Int/Imp/Exc