Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 54

ASON Introduction V100R005

Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission


Page-0
Contents
1 Background of ASON ............................................................................... Page 4
2 System Structure of ASON............................................................. Page 9
3 Networking Characters of ASON.................................................... Page 20
4 Service Characters of ASON..................................................... Page 25
5 ASON Network Functions.................................................................. Page 37
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-1
The ASON solution provided by Huawei involves the following products:
Control plane software: OptiX GCP
Plan and simulate software: OptiX MDS 6600
Network management software: iManager T2000
Equipment on the transport plane: OptiX OSN series transmission equipment
In the backbone layer, Huawei uses the OptiX OSN 9500 to build a mesh network and
incorporates it into existing networks. With the increasingly large network scale and
capacity, however, the access and convergence layer will evolve into ASON. Huawei
provides ASON products for each layer.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-2
In recent years, the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) optical communication system has
been widely applied in telecommunication networks. It covers a variety of network layers,
including the backbone layer, metropolitan layer and access layer. With fast protection and
excellent management performance, it has become the main means of transmission for
telecommunications.
With the development of the telecommunication network and increasing user demands,
however, some problems of the SDH optical transmission system appear increasingly
serious. These problems are as follows: complicated service configuration process, low
bandwidth utilization, and monotonous protection.
The ASON has been developed to solve these problems. This technology involves signaling
switching and a control plane to enhance its network connection management and
recovery capability. It supports end-to-end service configuration and the service level
agreement (SLA).
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-3

ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-4
Service Configuration
Traditional SDH networks are generally chains and rings. The trails and timeslots of their
services are manually configured ring by ring and point by point, which consumes a lot of
time and effort. When the networking involves interconnection between more than one
vendor's equipment, the manual lineup results in even lower efficiencyit may take several
weeks or even several months. As networks become increasingly large and complicated,
this service configuration mode cannot meet the rapidly increasing user demands.
The ASON successfully solves this problem by end-to-end service configuration. To
configure a service, you only need to specify its source node, sink node, bandwidth
requirement and protection type; the network automatically performs the required
operations.
Bandwidth Utilization
Traditional SDH optical transmission networks have a large amount of resources reserved
and lack advanced service protection, and the restore and routing functions. In contrast,
with the routing function the ASON can provide protection by reserving fewer resources,
thus increasing network resource utilization.
Service Protection and Dynamic Service Restoration
Chain and ring are the main topologies used in a traditional SDH network. MSP and SNCP
are the main protection schemes for the services. In ASON, mesh is the main topology.
Besides MSP and SNCP protections, the dynamic restoring function is available to restore
the services dynamically. In addition, when there are multiple failures in a network, the
services can be restored as many as possible.
According to the difference in the service restoration time, multiple service types are
defined in ASON networks to meet different customer requirements.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-5
Broadband data service and leased line service are increasing rapidly and the capacity of
network is getting larger. The traditional SDH is not suitable to carry these services.
The requirement of the bandwidth of data service is dynamic (For example VOD service),
but all of the cross-connection of traditional SDH is static. A new generation of
transmission network should be brought out to carry these data services.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-6
Because of the requirements mentioned above catalyze a new generation optical
transmission network. ASON can effectively reduce the Capex and Opex.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-7
The automatic switch optical network (ASON) is an optical network composed of ASON
network elements (NEs). The ASON performs signaling transmission and switching. The
ASON NEs store the topology and routing information of the whole network and
automatically create and remove services through signaling.
ASON is a new generation optical network that has the following features:
Customers launch a service (multiple SLA) request dynamically.
Routes are selected automatically.
Signaling controls the creation and removal of connections.
Network connections are automatically and dynamically completed.
Switching and transmission are integrated into one system.
OptiX GCP is the name of the ASON software developed by Huawei. OptiX OSN series
products support the ASON software. GCP stands for GMPLS control plane.
The following products support ASON software:
OptiX OSN 9500
OptiX OSN 7500
OptiX OSN 3500
OptiX OSN 2500
OptiX OSN 1500
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-8

ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-9

ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-10
Control Plane
The control plane consists of a group of communication entities. It undertakes
calling control and connection control, including setting up, releasing, monitoring,
and maintaining connections. The control plane automatically restores the failed
connections through signaling exchange.
Transport Plane
The SDH network is on the transport plane. It transmits and multiplexes optical
signals, configures cross-connection and protection switching for optical signals,
and guarantees the reliability of all optical signals.
Management Plane
The management plane is a complement to the control plane. It maintains the
transport plane, the control plane and the whole system. Its functions include
performance management, fault management, configuration management and
security management.
Control plane is the difference between legacy SDH and ASON. ASON is the promotion of
optical transmission network, not evolution. It can obviously increase the efficiency of
optical transmission.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-11
Note:
OptiX ASON V100R005 supports SPC and PC. SC is not supported at present.
Because the signaling protocol between service layer and AOSN is different in the
current network. The UNI (User network interface) should be improved. Of
course in the future SC will be supported with the promotion of ASON technology.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-12
Distributed ASON: The ASON software is located in the each of the NE. Compared with
centralized ASON, the advantages of distributed ASON are:
The risk is not in the centralized point (NMS);
Even some of the ASON nodes fail, the other nodes still work normally.
Centralized ASON: The ASON software in located in NMS. The traditional SDH is easy to
upgrade to ASON. But the performance is worth than distributed ASON. All of the risk is in
NMS.
Huaweis solution of ASON is distributed ASON. The ASON software is in the SCC card of
each NE.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-13
ASON Software
The ASON software and NE software run on the SCC board, whereas the board
software and network management (NM) software run on the boards and NM
computer respectively, to implement corresponding functions. ASON software is
used mainly on the control plane, using Link Management Protocol (LMP), OSPF-TE,
and RSVP-TE.
For traditional SDH there are SCC, Cross-connect and line units in the NE. The SCC unit
manage the whole NE. Cross-connect unit is used to cross-connect the traffic, line unit
transmits the and service channel and management channel (DCC) between two NEs. D1-
D3 are used as the management link for Huawei SDH products by default.
After Enable the ASON function, both of the ASON protocol and tradition OAM
information should be transmitted through DCC. There are two method to establish the
control link, in-band and out-band:
In-band: D4-D12 are used to carry the message of ASON protocol;
Out-band: A special DCN should be built to exchange the protocol message
between ASON nodes.
Thought:
Is it possible to enable the ASON function in the network which has already
configured DCC transparent transmission?

ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-14
GMPLS (Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching) developed from MPLS:
MPLS is mainly used in datacom network. The object of label mapping is data
packet. GMPLS provides generalized label mapping. Besides data packet, GMPLS
also can map TDM timeslot, wavelength etc as labels. Hence GMPLS can be used in
SDH to realize ASON function.
Bidirectional transportation: the uniform signaling is used to manage up_link and
down_link LSP (Label Switching Path) to reduce the service creation time and
signaling overhead.
Enhanced signaling ability: the cross-connection is established by signaling protocol.
(RSVP-TE)
Integrated routing ability to provide topology and resource discovery function.
(OSPF-TE)
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-15
IETF: Brought out GMPLS protocol and finished RSVP-TE, LMP, OSPF-TE.
ITU: Focus on requirements and architecture, draw up ASON/ASTN (Automatic Switched
Transportation Network).
OIF: mainly focus on publishing Implementation Agreements, Inter-operability
demonstration:
UNI-1.0, UNI-2.0 (User Network Interface);
E-NNI, I-NNI (Network-to-Network Interface).
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-16
GMPLS is a protocol group, including routing, signaling and link management protocols.

ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-17
In OptiX ASON V100R005 version, one TE link is in one fiber.
Different timeslots in TE links have different protection attributes. Timeslots having the
same attributes is called segment.
Resource distribution:
Without MSP, there is one segment in one fiber, the attribute is No protection;
After the complete MSP is configured, there are two segments, the attributes are
working (MSP working timeslot) and protection (MSP protection timeslot)
segments.
After the partial MSP is configured, there are three segments in one fiber, the
attributes are working (MSP working timeslot), protection (MSP protection timeslot)
and No protection segments.


ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-18
Control Plane, Transport Plane and Management Plane
LMP, OSPF-TE and RSVP-TE
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-19

ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-20
After an ASON NE creates a control channel between neighboring NEs through LMP, the
TE link verification can be started. Each ASON NE floods its own TE links to the entire
network through OSPF-TE. Each NE then gets the network-wide TE links, that is, the
network-wide resource topology.
ASON software detects change in the resource topology in real time, including the
deletion and addition of links, and the change in the link parameters, and then reports the
change to T2000, which performs a real-time refresh.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-21
The ASON supports both SDH permanent connections and end-to-end ASON services. To
configure an ASON service, you only need to specify its source node, sink node,
bandwidth requirement, and protection level. Service routing and cross-connection at
intermediate nodes are all automatically completed by the network. You can also set
explicit node, excluded node, explicit link, excluded link and SRLG to constrain the service
routing.
Compared with the service configuration of SDH networks, it fully utilizes the routing and
signaling functions of the ASON NEs and thus it is convenient to configure services.
SRLG (Shared Risk Link Group)
Fibers in the same optical cable have the same risks, that is, when the cable is cut,
all fibers are cut. Hence, an ASON service should not be rerouted to another link
that has the same risk.
Set the SRLG attribute correctly for the links of the same risks to make sure the
two LSPs of a diamond service are not in the same cable and to enhance the
possibility of successful rerouting at the first time. You can change the SRLG
attribute.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-22
The ASON software selects the best path route based on the Metric value of these routes.
Also the route restriction can be considered.
Path metric value is related with path distance, hops and bandwidth. Weight can be
configured for these three conditions.
Thought:
If the reliability of some fibers are not very good, how to avoid the ASON software
to select these spans as first priority?

ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-23
In an ASON clock subnet, each ASON NE automatically traces the best clock source. The
clock is then automatically traced and switched, and the clock interlock is avoided.
The clock tracing relation in the ASON clock subnet :
The ASON clock subnet take priority to trace the primary source of the highest
clock quality.
If multiple primary reference clock sources are of the same quality, the ASON clock
subnet traces the primary reference clock source of the highest priority.
If multiple primary reference clock sources are of the same quality and priority, the
ASON clock subnet traces the clock source in the trail with the least hops to
generate multiple clock tracing trees. In this way, too long clock tracing trail is
avoided.
If all the primary reference clock sources are invalid, the ASON clock subnet traces
the internal clock source with the smallest node ID. Thus, clocks in the entire
network are synchronized.
For an ASON domain with many ASON NEs, several ASON clock subnets should be created
if more than 20 ASON NEs are on the clock tracing link in a clock subnet. Each ASON clock
subnet generates its own clock tracing relation to trace the primary source in the local
subnet.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-24

ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-25
Comparison:
Protection: Switching time is short but the bandwidth utilization ratio is low;
Restoration: Switching time is long depends on the topology but the bandwidth
utilization ratio is high.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-26
A diamond service is a service with 1+1 protection from the source node to the sink node.
It is also called a 1+1 service. For a diamond service, there are two different LSPs available
between the source node and the sink node. The two LSPs should be as separate as
possible and should not overlap. One is the working LSP and the other is the protection
LSP. The same service is transmitted to the working LSP and the protection LSP at the
same time. If the working LSP is normal, the sink node receives the service from the
working LSP; otherwise, from the protection LSP.
There are three types of diamond services
Permanent 1+1 diamond service: rerouting is triggered once an LSP fails.
Rerouting 1+1 diamond service: rerouting is triggered only when both LSPs fail.
Non-rerouting diamond service: rerouting is never triggered.
Requirements for creation
Sufficient non-protection resources are available between the source node and the
sink node.
Two routes that do not overlap lie between the source node and the sink node.
Protection and restoration
If the resources are sufficient, two LSPs are always available for a permanent 1+1
diamond service. One is the active LSP and the other is the standby LSP.
If the resources are not sufficient, one LSP can still be reserved for a permanent
1+1 diamond service to ensure the service survivability.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-27
Protection and restoration
When the standby LSP fails, services are not switched. Rerouting is not triggered.
When the active LSP fails, services are switched to the standby LSP for transmission.
Rerouting is not triggered.
When both the active and the standby LSPs fail, rerouting is triggered to create a
new LSP to restore services.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-28
Protection and restoration
When the active LSP fails, services are switched to the standby LSP for transmission.
Rerouting is not triggered.
When the standby LSP fails, services are not switched. Rerouting is not triggered.
When both the active and the standby LSPs fail, rerouting is not triggered.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-29
A gold service needs only one LSP. This LSP must use multiplex section working links.
When a fiber on the path of a gold service is cut, the ASON triggers MSP switching to
protect the service at first. If the multiplex section protection fails, the ASON triggers
rerouting to restore the service.
Requirements for creation
Sufficient working resources or non-protection resources are available between the
source node and the sink node.
Supports using the working resources of a 1:1 linear multiplex section protection chain,
2/4 fiber bidirectional multiplex section protection ring, to create gold services.
Protection and restoration
When a fiber is cut for the first time, MS switching is performed to protect services.
When MS switching fails, rerouting is then triggered to restore services.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-30
Silver services are also called rerouting services. If an LSP fails, periodical rerouting is
performed until the rerouting succeeds. If there are not enough resources, service may be
interrupted.
Requirements for creation
Sufficient non-protection resources are available between the source node and the
sink node.
Service restoration
When the original LSP fails, rerouting is triggered to create a new LSP to restore
services.
Rerouting
Supports rerouting lockout
Supports rerouting priority
Supports three rerouting policies:
Use existing trails whenever possible.
Do not use existing trails whenever possible.
Best route.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-31
Copper services are also called non-protection services. If an LSP fails, services do not
reroute and are interrupted.
Requirements for creation
Sufficient non-protection resources are available between the source node and the
sink node.
Service restoration
Does not support rerouting
Thought:
Whats the difference between copper service and traditional no protection service?
The attribute of copper service is SPC, no protection SDH service is PC;
Copper service provides end to end service configuration but no protection
SDH service can not.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-32
An iron service is also called a preemptable service. Iron services apply non-protection links
or MS protection links to create LSPs. During MS switching, iron services may be
preempted and interrupted. When the MS recovers, iron services are recovered.
Interruption, preemption and recovery of iron services are reported to the T2000.When an
LSP fails, services are interrupted and rerouting is not triggered.
To create iron services, the following resources can be used:
Protection resources of 1:1 linear MSP
Protection resources of two-fiber bidirectional MSP
Protection resources of four-fiber bidirectional MSP
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-33
Service Level
Working Resource
of TE Link
Protection
Resource of TE Link
Non-Protection
Resource of TE Link
Diamond
service
Service creation Not used Not used Used
Service
rerouting
Not used
Used when the
resource is not enough
Used with the priority
Service
optimization
Not used Not used Used
Gold
service
Service creation Used with the priority Not used
Used when the
resource is not enough
Service
rerouting
Used with the priority
Used when the
resource is not enough
Used when the
resource is not enough
Service
optimization
Used with the priority Not used
Used when the
resource is not enough
Silver
service
Service creation Not used Not used Used
Service
rerouting
Not used
Used when the
resource is not enough
Used with the priority
Service
optimization
Not used Not used Used
Copper
service
Service creation Not used Not used Used
Service
optimization
Not used Not used Used
Iron
service
Service creation Not used Used with the priority
Used when the
resource is not enough
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-34
Tunnel services are mainly used to carry VC-12 or VC-3 services. Tunnel services are also
called as ASON server trails.
When lower order services are to be created, first create a VC-4 tunnel service. The
protection level for the tunnel service can be gold, silver or copper. Then, use the
management system to complete the configuration of the lower order service.
The configuration of a tunnel service is different from that of the above-mentioned service
types. Its cross-connection from the tributary board to the line board can only be
configured manually.
After creating tunnel services, you must manually create and delete the lower order cross-
connection from the tributary board to the line board. During rerouting or optimization of
the tunnel services, however, the cross-connections at the source and sink nodes
automatically switch to the new ports.
VC-12
NE1 NE2
VC-12 ASON tunnel service
VC-4
VC-12
Cross-connection
Line unit Tributary unit
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-35
The OptiX ASON supports unidirectional tunnel service.
The cross-connection type in the source and sink nodes are different. In the source
node it is the low order cross-connection but for the sink node it is the high order
cross-connection. This function is used to merge several low order signal to one
high order signal in ASON network.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-36

ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-37
Rerouting trigger condition:
Port level: R_LOS, R_LOF, B2_EXC, B2_SD, MS_AIS, MS_RDI;
Path level: AU_AIS.

ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-38
After the topology changes several times, the ASON may have less satisfactory routes and
thus requires service optimization. Service optimization involves creating a new LSP,
switching the optimized service to the new LSP, and deleting the original LSP to change
and optimize the service without disrupting the service.
LSP optimization has the following features:
Only manual optimization is supported.
The optimization does not change the protection level of the optimized service.
During optimization, rerouting, degrade/upgrade, or deleting operations are not
allowed.
During creation, rerouting, degrading/upgrading, starting or deleting operations,
optimization is not allowed.
The following service types support optimization: diamond, gold, silver, copper and
tunnel services.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-39
Service association involves associating two ASON services that have different routes.
During the rerouting or optimization of either service, the rerouting service avoids the
route of the associated service. The service from the client can be accessed with different
boards or nodes. Even the board or nodes failure the traffic can be protected.
Rerouting
When one service reroutes, it avoids the route of the associated service.
Service type
Supports the association of two silver services.
Supports the association of two copper services.
Supports the association of a silver service and a copper service.
Supports the association of two silver tunnel services.
Supports the association of two copper tunnel services.
Supports the association of a silver tunnel service and a copper tunnel
service.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-40
The OptiX ASON supports three rerouting policies:
Use existing trails whenever possible, to increase the bandwidth utilization.
Do not use existing trails whenever possible, to increase the security of the
network.
Best route, based on the routing protocol.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-41

ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-42
The OptiX ASON supports setting a preset restoring trail for an ASON trail. When the
ASON trail reroutes, the service is restored to the preset restoring trail.
The OptiX ASON supports setting a preset restoring trail for a diamond/silver/gold
ASON trail.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-43
Path pre-calculation function can help us see the service route before service creation or
optimization.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-44
After many changes in an ASON network, service routes may differ from the original
routes. You can revert all service to the original routes.
Non-revertive ASON trail can be revert to its original route manually. Revertive ASON trail
can revert to the original route automatically.
Revertive mode:
Revert manually;
Revert automatically, the default WTR time is 10 min (5-12 min).
Support service:
Supports diamond, gold and silver service;
Supports revertive tunnel service



ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-45
Features:
Only the revertive silver service can be configured with the shared mesh restoration
trail.
A shared mesh restoration trail cannot be set to concatenation services at different
levels.
For a silver service configured with the shared mesh restoration trail, the revertive
attribute cannot be changed.
The resources on a shared mesh restoration trail can only be the unprotected
resources of TE links.
For a silver service configured with the shared mesh restoration trail, do not set the
preset restoration trail.
Differences between Shared Mesh Restoration Trail and Preset Restoration Trail
For a preset restoration trail, only route information of the trail is recorded and no
resources are actually reserved. In this way, the resources for a preset restoration
trail may be used by other services. When the service reroutes, the preset
restoration trail cannot be used.
For a shared mesh restoration trail, resources are actually reserved. The reserved
resources cannot be used by other services. In this way, services can be restored
with the best effort. In addition, to increase the resource utilization, the shared
mesh restoration trails for different services can share some resources.



ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-46
Currently, Huawei's OptiX GCP supports:
Migration between diamond services and permanent SNCP connections.
Migration between gold services and permanent connections.
Migration between silver services and permanent connections.
Migration between copper services and permanent connections.
Migration between iron services and permanent connections.
Migration between tunnel services and server trail.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-47
Currently, Huawei's OptiX GCP supports:
Migration between diamond services and silver services
Migration between diamond services and copper services
Migration between silver services and copper services
Migration between gold services and silver services
Migration between gold services and copper services
Migration between gold tunnels and silver tunnels
Migration between gold tunnels and copper tunnels
Migration between silver tunnels and copper tunnels
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-48
IP/ATM/TDM service plane and ASON transport plan use different GMPLS control plane.
UNI is used to interconnect these two plane. The requirements of the service can be
transmitted through UNI, then the SC service can be configured.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-49
IP/ATM/TDM service plane and ASON transport plane have the same GMPLS control plane.
All of the service requirements can be controlled by the uniform GMPLS control plane. It is
the trend of future transport network.
ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-50

ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-51

ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-52

ASON Introduction V100R005
Confidential Information of Huawei. No Spreading Without Permission
Page-53
Thank you!