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Boeing 787
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is a long-range, mi-si!e "ie-#o$, %"in-engine
&e% airliner e'elo(e #$ Boeing )ommer*ial Air(lanes+
I%s 'arian%s sea% ,-. %o //0 (assengers+
The 787 Dreamliner1s is%ing2ishing 3ea%2res in*l2e mos%l$ ele*%ri*al 4igh%
s$s%ems, a 3o2r-(anel "inshiel, noise-re2*ing *he'rons on i%s engine
na*elles, an a smoo%her nose *on%o2r+ I% shares a *ommon %$(e ra%ing "i%h
%he larger Boeing 777, allo"ing 52ali6e (ilo%s %o o(era%e #o%h moels, 2e
%o rela%e esign 3ea%2res+
The 7871s esign 3ea%2res ligh%-"eigh% *ons%r2*%ion+ The air*ra3% is 8.7
*om(osi%e #$ 'ol2me+ Al%ho2gh esign *hanges in*rease %he %i%ani2m share,
Boeing a*%2all$ lis%s i%s ma%erials #$ "eigh% as 0.7 *om(osi%e, ,.7
al2mini2m, -07 %i%ani2m, -.7 s%eel, an 07 o%her+ Al2mini2m is 2se 3or %he
"ing an %ail leaing eges8 %i%ani2m is 2se mainl$ on engines an
3as%eners, "i%h s%eel 2se in 'ario2s areas+
E9%ernal 3ea%2res in*l2e ra:e "ing%i(s an engine na*elles "i%h noise-
re2*ing serra%e eges ;*he'rons<+The longes%-range 787 'arian% *an 4$
8,... %o 8,0.. na2%i*al miles ;-=,8.. %o -0,7.. :m<, eno2gh %o *o'er %he Los
Angeles %o Bang:o: or Ne" Yor: )i%$ %o >ong ?ong ro2%es+ )r2ising airs(ee
is Ma*h .+80

;0@- m(h ;A./ :mBh< a% %$(i*al *r2ise al%i%2es<+
Cligh% s$s%ems
Among 787 4igh% s$s%ems, a :e$ *hange 3rom %rai%ional airliners is %he
ele*%ri*al ar*hi%e*%2re+
The ar*hi%e*%2re is #leeless an re(la*es #lee air an h$ra2li* (o"er
so2r*es "i%h ele*%ri*all$ (o"ere *om(ressors an (2m(s, "hile *om(le%el$
elimina%ing (ne2ma%i*s an h$ra2li*s 3rom some s2#s$s%ems ;e+g+, engine
s%ar%ers or #ra:es<+
Boeing sa$s %his s$s%em e9%ra*%s /07 less (o"er 3rom %he engines, allo"ing
in*rease %hr2s% an im(ro'e 32el e*onom$+ The %o%al a'aila#le on-#oar
ele*%ri*al (o"er is -+=0 mega"a%%s, "hi*h is 6'e %imes %he (o"er a'aila#le on
*on'en%ional (ne2ma%i* airliners8 %he mos% no%a#le ele*%ri*all$ (o"ere
s$s%ems in*l2eD engine s%ar%, (ress2ri!a%ion, hori!on%al s%a#ili!er %rim, an
"heel #ra:es+ Eing i*e (ro%e*%ion is ano%her ne" s$s%em8 i% 2ses ele*%ro-
%hermal hea%er ma%s on %he "ing sla%s ins%ea o3 %rai%ional ho% #lee air+
An a*%i'e g2s% alle'ia%ion s$s%em, similar %o %he s$s%em 2se on %he B-,
#om#er, im(ro'es rie 52ali%$ 2ring %2r#2len*e+
The Boeing 787 has #een in'ol'e in m2l%i(le a'ia%ion in*ien%s an
o(era%ional (ro#lems+ In De*em#er ,.-,, Boeing )EO Fames M*Nerne$
s%a%e %ha% %he (ro#lems "ere no grea%er %han %hose e9(erien*e "i%h %he
in%ro2*%ion o3 o%her moels s2*h as %he Boeing 777+
On Fan2ar$ -@, ,.-/, All Ni((on Air"a$s Cligh% N>-@A,, en ro2%e 3rom
Yamag2*hi G#e Air(or% %o To:$o >anea, ha a #a%%er$ (ro#lem "arning
3ollo"e #$ a #2rning smell "hile *lim#ing 3rom G#e a#o2% /0 na2%i*al miles
"es% o3 Ta:ama%s2, Fa(an+ The air*ra3% i'er%e %o Ta:ama%s2 an "as
e'a*2a%e 'ia %he slies8 %hree (assengers re*ei'e minor in&2ries 2ring %he
e'a*2a%ion+ Ins(e*%ion re'eale a #a%%er$ 6re+ A similar in*ien% in a (ar:e
Fa(an Airlines 787 a% Bos%on1s Logan In%erna%ional Air(or% "i%hin %he same
"ee: le %he Ceeral A'ia%ion Aminis%ra%ion %o gro2n all Boeing 787s in
ser'i*e a% %he %ime+
In %he Boeing 787 Dreamliner1s 6rs% $ear o3 ser'i*e, a% leas% 3o2r air*ra3%
s2Here 3rom ele*%ri*al s$s%em (ro#lems s%emming 3rom i%s li%hi2m-ion
Al%ho2gh %ee%hing (ro#lems are *ommon "i%hin %he 6rs% $ear o3 a ne" air*ra3%
esign1s li3e, a3%er a n2m#er o3 in*ien%s in*l2ing an ele*%ri*al 6re a#oar an
All Ni((on Air"a$s 787, an a similar 6re 3o2n #$ main%enan*e "or:ers on a
lane Fa(an Airlines 787 a% Bos%on1s Logan In%erna%ional Air(or%, %he Gni%e
S%a%es Ceeral A'ia%ion Aminis%ra%ion ;CAA< orere a re'ie" in%o %he esign
an man23a*%2re o3 %he Boeing 787 Dreamliner, 3ollo"ing 6'e in*ien%s in
6'e a$s in'ol'ing %he air*ra3%, mos%l$ in'ol'e "i%h (ro#lems "i%h %he
#a%%eries an ele*%ri*al s$s%ems+
This "as 3ollo"e "i%h a 32ll gro2ning o3 %he en%ire Boeing 787 4ee%, %he
6rs% s2*h gro2ning sin*e %ha% o3 M*Donnell Do2glas D)--. in -A7A+I% is
re(or%e %ha% %he (lane has ha %"o ma&or #a%%er$ %hermal r2na"a$ e'en%s in
0,,... 4igh% ho2rs, "hi*h "as s2#s%an%iall$ #elo" %he -. million 4igh% ho2rs
(rei*%e #$ Boeing, an ha one so in a angero2s manner+
On Fan2ar$ -=, ,.-=, Fa(an Airlines sai a main%enan*e *re" a% Nari%a Air(or%
is*o'ere smo:e *oming 3rom %he main #a%%er$ o3 one o3 i%s Boeing 787 &e%s,
%"o ho2rs #e3ore %he (lane "as 2e %o 4$ %o Bang:o: 3rom To:$o+
Main%enan*e "or:ers 3o2n smo:e an 2nien%i6e li52i *oming 3rom %he
main #a%%er$, an alarms in %he *o*:(i% ini*a%e 3a2l%s "i%h %he (o"er (a*:
an i%s *harger+ The airline sai no o%her e52i(men% "as aHe*%e #$ %he
in*ien%+ The *a2se "as no% immeia%el$ :no"n, an %he airline is
in'es%iga%ing %he in*ien%+
In Fan2ar$ ,.-=, a #a%%er$ in a Fa(anese Airlines 787 emi%%e smo:e 3rom %he
#a%%er$1s (ro%e*%ion e9ha2s% an (ar%iall$ mel%e "hile %he air*ra3% "as
2nergoing (re-4igh% main%enan*e+ The *a2se o3 %his la%es% in*ien% remains
2ner in'es%iga%ion+ Soon a3%er %his in*ien%, %he G2arian no%e %ha% 1The
agen*$ IGS Ceeral A'ia%ion Aminis%ra%ionJ also la2n*he a re'ie" o3 %he
esign, man23a*%2re an assem#l$ o3 %he 787 in Fan2ar$ las% $ear an sai i%s
re(or% "o2l #e release las% s2mmer, #2% i% has so 3ar no% release %he
re(or% an has no% res(one %o 52es%ions a#o2% "hen i% "ill #e 6nishe+
Nearl$ nine mon%hs a3%er i% re%2rne %o %he s:$ an i%s #a%%er$ s$s%em "as
e*lare sa3e, ne" re(or%s s2r3a*e T2esa$ o3 smo:e a#oar a Boeing 787
Dreamliner a% To:$o1s Nari%a In%erna%ional Air(or%+
The in*ien% Ka((ears %o ha'e in'ol'e %he 'en%ing o3 a single #a%%er$ *ell,K
a#oar a Fa(an Airlines 787, Boeing %ol )NN in a s%a%emen%+ A $ear ago,
o'erhea%e #a%%eries a#oar %"o Dreamliners (rom(%e a'ia%ion oL*ials %o
gro2n all 0. o3 %he (lanes "orl"ie+
The Na%ional Trans(or%a%ion Sa3e%$ Boar sai i% "as a"are o3 T2esa$1s
#a%%er$ in*ien% in Fa(an+
KB$ in%erna%ional %rea%$, a'ia%ion a**ien%s an in*ien%s are in'es%iga%e #$
%he in'es%iga%i'e a2%hori%$ in %he *o2n%r$ in "hi*h %he a**ien% or in*ien%
KI3 %he Fa(an Trans(or% Sa3e%$ Boar o(ens an in'es%iga%ion in%o %he #a%%er$
smo:e e'en%, %he NTSB s%ans rea$ %o assis%,K %he G+S+ agen*$ sai in a
In F2l$ ,.-/, in'es%iga%ors #lame a 6re a#oar an em(%$ E%hio(ian Airlines
787 (ar:e a% Lonon1s >ea%hro" air(or% on a mal32n*%ioning emergen*$
T2esa$1s in*ien% *omes nearl$ %"o mon%hs a3%er Boeing "arne airlines
a#o2% ano%her 787 *on*ernD (ossi#le i*ing (ro#lems in i%s GE engines+
The air*ra3% man23a*%2rer aler%e 787 o(era%ors a3%er ins%an*es o3 Ki*e *r$s%al
i*ing %ha% res2l%e in %em(orar$ iminishe engine (er3orman*e,K Boeing sai
in a s%a%emen%+
Al%ho2gh i% sai onl$ a small n2m#er o3 %he engines ha'e e9(erien*e %he i*e
(ro#lems, Boeing a'ise (ilo%s %o :ee( (lanes a% leas% 0. na2%i*al miles 3rom
s%orms %ha% ma$ *on%ain i*e *r$s%als 2n%il General Ele*%ri* *an ma:e
im(ro'emen%s %o %he KGEn9K engines+
The Boeing 787 is %he 6rs% *ommer*ial air*ra3% %o 2se Li-ion as i%s main
#a%%er$, an %here are ris:s asso*ia%e "i%h %his+ >$#ri 'ehi*les onl$
s"i%*he %o Li-ion aro2n ,.-. "i%h more s%a#le *hemis%ries+ Ehen %he Li-ion
#a%%er$ "as sele*%e in ,..0, %he *hoi*es "ere limi%e an "ha% "e :no"
%oa$, %he (i*:e Li%hi2m )o#al% O9ie ;Li)o),< ma$ no% #e %he #es%
%e*hnolog$ 3or on#oar a'ia%ion+ I% is %he same *hemis%r$ %ha% %riggere a
ma&or re*all o3 *om(2%er an mo#ile (hone #a%%eries in ,..@ "hen one-in-
,..,... *ells *a2se a #rea:o"n+
)T s*ans one on %he 3aile main #a%%er$ o3 %he B-787 re'eal a similar
#rea:o"n %ha% (rom(%e %he ,..@ re*allD a amage ele*%roe in one o3 %he
eigh% Li-ion *ells a((aren%l$ *a2se an ele*%ri*al shor% %ha% %riggere a
%hermal r2na"a$ "i%h 6re+ Li%hi2m )o#al% O9ie ;Li-*o#al%< is :no"n %o #e
less s%a#le %han o%her li%hi2m-#ase s$s%ems+ Cor *ons2mer (ro2*% "an%ing
o(%imal r2n%ime, Li-*o#al% "or:s "ell, #2% large 3orma%s ha'e ai%ional
*hallenges+ Cig2re , ill2s%ra%es %he amage main air*ra3% #a%%er$+
Boeing sele*%e li%hi2m-ion #e*a2se %he #a%%er$ mee%s %he (er3orman*e an
esign o#&e*%i'es o3 %he 787 in (ro'iing ae ele*%ri*al 32n*%ion a% re2*e
"eigh%+ MNo%hing "e learne 2ring %he esign o3 %he 787, or sin*e %hen, has
le 2s %o *hange o2r 32namen%al assessmen% o3 %he %e*hnolog$,N a *om(an$
s(o:esman sai+ B2% "i%h %he 787 gro2ne "orl"ie, Boeing is s%r2ggling
%o 2ners%an "h$ i%s m2l%i(le sa3e%$ s$s%ems 3aile %o s%o( %he amage %o
%he #a%%er$+
Gi'en %ha% %he #a%%er$ ser'es onl$ as s%ar%-an-#a*:2( s$s%em, "hi*h *an #e
negle*%e "hen o%her (o"er so2r*es #e*ome a'aila#le on a r2nning air*ra3%,
an air*ra3% man23a*%2rer ma$ (la*e more im(or%an*e on %he (ro(2lsion
s$s%em %han %he #a%%er$, #2% an 2n*on%rolla#le #a%%er$ 6re is a *on*ern+ >ere,
Li-ion has a isa'an%age o'er %he %rai%ional Ni)+ All #a%%eries are s2#&e*%
%o 3ail2re an %here is also a re(or%e in*ien% "here %he #a%%er$ *ir*2i%
#rea:er o3 a Boeing 777 ha %o #e (2lle #e*a2se o3 an o'erhea%ing Ni)
#a%%er$+ In %he earl$ -A7.s, %he Na%ional Trans(or%a%ion Sa3e%$ Boar re(or%e
se'eral #a%%er$ in*ien%s (er $ear in'ol'ing %he %hen ne" ni*:el-*ami2m,
#2% none le% %o *as2al%ies+ A reesign e'en%2all$ mae Ni) sa3e an i%
#e*ame a s%anar 3or airliners+
Ehen Thales, %he ma:er o3 %he ele*%ri*al s$s%em, e*ie on Li-*o#al% 3or %he
B-787 #a%%er$ in ,..0, %he$ *hose an a'aila#le s$s%em %ha% oHere high
*a(a*i%$+ Mean"hile more s%a#le *hemis%ries ha'e #een e'elo(e, an i%
"o2l ha'e #een a'isa#le ha Boeing *onsiere one o3 %hese %e*hnologies
#e3ore releasing %he (lane+ Ehile Li-manganese, Li-(hos(ha%e an NM) *an
en2re in%ernal hea% o3 ,..O) ;/A,OC< an higher, Li-*o#al% #e*omes 2ns%a#le
a% -0.O) ;/.,OC<+
Nor i %he ,..@ 6re a% Se*2ra(lane, %he ma:er o3 %he on#oar *hargers 3or
%he B-787, e%er %he 2se o3 %he *hosen #a%%er$ s$s%em+ A Li-ion e9(loe
2ring %es%ing an #2rne %he aminis%ra%i'e #2iling %o %he gro2n+
Se*2ra(lane, a 2ni% o3 Bri%ain1s Meggi%% Pl*+, sai %ha% %he$ "ill M*on%ri#2%e %o
%he in'es%iga%ion (ro*essN #$ %he G+S+ Na%ional Trans(or%a%ion Sa3e%$ Boar
an %he CAA, #2% e%ermine %ha% %he #a%%er$ 6re in'ol'e (ro%o%$(es %ha%
"ere no% ins%alle in Boeing 787 air*ra3%+ Aing %o %his *on*ern, a li%hi2m-ion
#a%%er$ also es%ro$e a )essna )i%a%ion &e% on %he gro2n in ,.--+ )essna is
no" 'er$ *a2%io2s+
There is %he o(%ion %o go #a*: %o Ni), an %he "ie-#o$, long-range Air#2s
/0. in e'elo(men% #$ E2ro(ean air*ra3% man23a*%2rer Air#2s ma$ o %ha%+ I%
"ill re52ire a iHeren% *harging s$s%em an a moi6e BMS+ In ai%ion, %he
lo"er s(e*i6* energ$ o3 Ni) "ill o2#le %he #a%%er$ n2m#ers an "eigh%, #2%
%he Air#2s /0. is sai %o #e less e(enen% on ele*%ri* (o"er %han %he
Li%hi2m-ion #a%%eries ha'e no% $e% ma%2re an i% is a'isa#le %ha% air*ra3%
man23a*%2rers esign (lanes %ha% allo" 2(a%ing %o more a'an*e
%e*hnologies as #e%%er #a%%eries #e*ome a'aila#le+ No" a re%ro-6% on %he
Boeing 787 is sai %o %a:e %"o $ears+ More 4e9i#le esigns "o2l allo"
mo'ing "i%h %he %ime+
Air*ra3% are (ress2ri!e %o an al%i%2e o3 @,... 3ee% ;-8/. me%ers< an %hinner
air ma$ aHe*% Li-ion #a%%eries iHeren%l$ %han a% sea le'els+ In ai%ion, large-
3orma% Li-ion #a%%eries ha'e ae me*hani*al s%rain *om(are %o smaller
(a*:s+ Ba%%er$ iagnos%i*s has no% a'an*e as ra(il$ as o%her %e*hnologies
an hien anomalies *an o3%en go 2ne%e*%e 2n%il a isassem#l$ e'elo(s+
)ae9 Ele*%roni*s has mae *ri%i*al (rogress in %hese areas #2% more
e'elo(men% "ill #e neee+
Ba%%er$ %es%ing is *om(le9 an no single meas2remen% *an *a(%2re all
irreg2lari%ies+ As a o*%or is %raine %o 2se a "ie sele*%ion o3 mei*al
ins%r2men%s %o iagnose an illness, so also oes a #a%%er$ nee iHeren%
%e*hnologies %o e%e*% anomalies %ha% *an e'elo(+ Ehile a 3aing #a%%er$ on
a mo#ile (hone sim(l$ #e*omes a n2isan*e %o %he 2ser, a mal32n*%ioning
a'ia%ion #a%%er$ *an ha'e serio2s *onse52en*es+