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S.Y.B.Tech.

Floating Carriage Micrometer


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EXPERIMENT NO.5
Measurement of Screw Thread using Floating Carriage Micrometer

AIM:To measure the Major, Minor and Effective diameter of external parallel screw threads
using Floating Carriage Micrometer.
APPARATUS:Floating Carriage Micrometer EDMM-100CL, Prism (A to D), Wire (1 to
4mm), Specimen, Master, Hooks etc.
THEORY:In order to ensure the manufacture of screw threads to the specified limits laid
down in the appropriate standard it is essential to provide some means of inspecting the final
product. For measurement of internal threads thread plug gauge is used and to check these
plug gauges Floating Carriage Micrometer is used for measuring Major, Minor and Effective
diameter.
FLOAING CARRIAGE MEASURING MACHINE:

Fig: Floating Carriage Micrometer EDMM-100CL
SPECIFICATIONS:
1. Weight of the machine : Approx. 25kg.
2. L x W x H : Approx. 350mm x 150mmx 140mm
3. List count of micrometer : 0.001 mm
4. Standard micrometer or electronic type. Electronic Micrometer has digital display and Std.
5. Dial type Fiducial Indicator with 0.01mm standard dial.
6. Admit between centre 200 mm
7. Max Diameter capacity 100mm
Measuring machine shown in the figure has Basewith two small and one big
adjustable support knobs provided for leveling the assembled unit. Base hastwo parallel
integral V grooves one short and other long. Long groove is for guide pegs located at the
bottom of Intermediate Piece or Carriage (B) and smaller for a ball. One more V pair is
in the Centre of the base, which is provided for accommodating Centers (E) to hold work
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piece. Carriage has two parallel V grooves, one to accommodate two balls and other to
accommodate one ball. Underneath the floating top (C) there is one V groove on one side
and flat portion on other side. Digital Micrometer is in one bracket (with less width) and dial
type fiducial on the other side lever is provided to tighten it.


Fig: Different views of Floating Carriage Micrometer

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DEFINITIONS RELATED TO PARALLEL SCREW THREADS
Major Diameter: The diameter of an imaginary cylinder (termed the major cylinder) which
just embraces the crests of the external thread or the roots of an internal thread.
Minor Diameter: The diameter of an imaginary cylinder (termed the minorcylinder) which
just embraces the roots of an external thread or the crests of an internal thread.
Simple effective(or Pitch) Diameter: The diameter of an imaginary cylinder(termed the pitch
cylinder ) which intersects the surface of the thread in such manner that the intercept on an
generator of the cylinder between the points where it meets the opposite flanks of the thread
groove is equal to one half the basic of the thread .
The two methods for thread measurement as follows
Two Wire Method:
The effective diameter of a screw thread may be ascertained by placing two wires orrods of
identical diameter between the flanks of the thread, andmeasuring the distance over the
outside of these wires. The effective diameter is thencalculated as
E=T+P
Where T= Dimension under the wires
=M2d
M=dimension over the wires, d= diameter of each wire
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Fig (a) Fig (b)
The wires used are made of hardened steel to sustain the wear and tear in use. Theseare given
a high degree of accuracy and finish by lapping to suit different pitches.Dimension T can also
be determined by placing wires over a standard cylinder of diametergreater than the diameter
under the wires and noting the reading R1 and then taking readingwith over the gauge, say
R2. Then T=S(R1R2).
P=It is a value which depends upon the diameter of wire and pitch of the thread.
If P= pitch of the thread, then
P= 0.9605p1.1657d (for Whitworth thread).
P= 0.866pd (for metric thread).
to give the effective diameter. The expression for the value of P in terms of p (pitch),
d(diameter of wire) and x (thread angle) can be derived as follows:
In Fig. since BC lies on the effective diameter line
BC= pitch= p
OP= (d cosec x/2)2
PA=d (cosecx21) 2
PQ=QC cot x2=p4 cot x2
AQ=PQAP=(p cot x2)4 d (cosec x2 1)2
AQ is half the value of P
.. P value=2AQ =p2 cot x2 d (cosecx21)

Two wire method can be carried out only on the diameter measuring machinedescribed for
measuring the minor diameter, because alignment is not possible by two wires andcan be
provided only by the floating carriage machine. In the case of three wire method, two wire, on
one side help in aligning the micrometer square to the thread while the third placedon the
other side permits taking of readings.


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Three Wire Method:

This method of measuring the effective diameter is an accurate method. In this threewires or
rods of known diameter are used; one on one side and two on the other side [Fig. (a) and (b)].
This method ensures the alignment of micrometer anvil faces parallel tothe thread axis. The
wires may be either held in hand or hung from a stand so as to ensurefreedom to the wires to
adjust themselves under micrometer pressure.
M=distance over wires E=effective diameter
r=radius of the wires d=diameter of wires
h =height of the centre or the wire or rod from the effective
x=angle of thread.

Fig (a) Fig (b)
From fig.(b),
AD = AB cosec x2 = r cosec x2
H = DE cot x2 = p2 cot x2
CD = H = p4 cot x2
H = ADCD
r = cosec x2 p4 cot x2
Distance over wires=M = E+2h+2r
= E+2(r cosec x2 p4 cot x2)+2r
= E+2r (l+cosecx2 ) p2 cot x2
or M = E+d (1+cosec x2) p2 cot x2
(since 2r = 0 )

(i) In case of Whitworth thread:
X = 55, depth of thread = 0.64 p, so that
E= D0.64 p and cosec x2 = 2.1657
Cot x2 = 1.921
M = E+d(1l+cosec x2) p2 cot x2
= D0.64p+d(1+2.1657)p2(1.921)
= D+3.1657d1.6005p
M = D+3.1657d1.6p
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Where D=outside dia.

(ii) In case of metric threads:
Depth of thread=0.6495p
So, E = D-0.6495p.
x = 60, cosec x2 = 2;cot x2 = 1.732
M = D0.6495 p+d(l+2)p2 (1.732)
= D+3d (0.6495+0.866)p
= D+3d1.5155p.
PROCEDURE:
1. The diameter of setting master or a cylinder should be nearly same as the diameter of
the thread gauge to reduce error.
2. First meet the anvil of micrometer to dial gauge and rotate micrometer in forward to
rotate needle in dial by 10mm with setting its scale zero at needle positionand make digital
micrometer to zero by pressing button.
3. Put master in between centers and make dial needle to zero by moving micrometer.
Take the reading on micrometer as R
S.
. Similarly replace master with a threaded work piece
again second reading is taken as R
4. Hang the required set of prisms (from Appendix-1 according to pitch of work piece)
on the hooks provided on both sides of standard. Take the reading on micrometer and zero
indicator in such a way that portion of prism touches master and flat portion of prism is on
micrometer & zero indicator.
5. Take reading for master as R
P
and work piece as R
q
on micrometer as needle on dial
indicating zero.
6. Now place two small wires or cylinders in place of prism. The wires should be
choosen so that, when placed between the threads, they should contact about halfway down
theflanks. Suitable sizes of these cylinders for various threads are given atAppendix-1
7. Take the readings for master as R
W
and work piece as R
OW
on micrometer as needle on
dial indicating zero.



OBSERVATION:
D = Diameter of Setting master = ______
Dimension of work piece = 14M*2
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Observation Table:
MAJOR DIAMETER
(M)

R
S
M = D (Difference between R and R
S
)
= R
MINOR DIAMETER
(C)
R
p
C = D (Difference between R
p
and R
q
)
=

R
q

EFFECTIVE
DIAMETER (E)
R
W
T = D (R
W
- R
OW
) =
E = T + P = R
OW


CALCULATIONS:
Major diameter:

R
S
= Micrometer reading over setting master.
R = micrometer reading of threaded work piece.
M = D (Difference between R and R
S
)

(Note: The + or is determined by relative size of the master and the work piece.Use sign
as master is of greater size than work piece and vice-versa for + sign.)
Minor diameter:
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C = core or minor diameter of the work piece.
R
p
= reading over master with prisms.
R
q
= Reading over work piece with prisms.
C = D (Difference between R
p
and R
q
)
Effective diameter:

E = effective or pitch diameter
R
OW
= Reading measured over work piece with wires.
R
W
= Reading measured over setting master with wires.
T = measured dimension under cylinders.
T = D (R
W
- R
OW
)
E = T + P
P = Constant depending on the pitch and angle of the thread and the mean diameter of wires
used.
(Reading P values for different threads are given along wires with wires to be used in
Appendix -1)
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RESULT :
Major Diameter =
Minor Diameter =
Effective Diameter =
CONCLUSION: Using the Floating Carriage Micrometer diameter of imaginary cylinder i.e.
Effective or pitch diameter can be evaluated.











SAMPLE CALCULATIONS
OBSERVATION:
D = Diameter of Setting master = ___16.004mm__
Dimension of work piece = 14M*2
Observation Table:
MAJOR DIAMETER

R
S
16.05 Major Diameter = D (Difference between R and
R
S
) =14.004mm R 14.05
MINOR DIAMETER R
p
26.37 C = D (Difference between R
p
and R
q
)
=11.125mm
R
q
21.491
EFFECTIVE
DIAMETER
R
W
18.699 T = D (R
W
- R
OW
) =12.314mm
E = T + P =12.696mm R
OW
15.009

Major Diameter = D (Difference between R and R
S
) =16.004 (16.05-14.05) =
14.004mm
Minor diameter C = D (Difference between R
p
and R
q
)
= 16.004- (26.37-21.491)
=11.125mm
Effective Diameter
T = D (R
W
- R
OW
) = 16.004-(18.699-15.009)
=12.314mm
E = T + P = 12.314 +0.382 = 12.696mm