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CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM OF A BOILER

The constituent of a boiler system may be classified as follows:


Major constructional parts
Auxiliary equipment
Mountings
Measuring and control Instruments
Electrical Equipment
Pipingd
Major Constructional parts of boiler:
Boiler shell
Furnace
Burner
Steam drum
Water drum or mud drum
Down comer
Riser
Auxiliary equipment:
Deaerator
Feed water pump
Economizer
Air preheater
Super heater
Desuperheater
IDF (Induced Draft Fan)
FDF (Forced Draft Fan)
Stack or Chimney
Mountings:
Water level indicator
Pressure gauge
Safety valve
Steam supply valve
Blow down valve
Feed check valve
Main steam stop valve
Fusible plug
Water gauge
Low- Water Alarm
Low water fuel cut-out
Inspector's test pressure gauge attachment
Registration plate
Feed water pump

Steam Drum: A steam drum
i
is a pressure chamber of a steam boiler located
at the upper extremity of steam boiler circulatory system. It is a reservoir of
water/steam at the top end of the water tubes. The steam drum stores the steam
generated in the water tubes and acts as a phase-separator for the steam/water
mixture. Steam is separated from the water and then discharged at a position
above the water level maintained there.
The steam drum is the most important part of a boiler. All the steam and water
passes through it. The steam drum is the upper drum of a water tube boiler
where the separation of water and steam occurs. Feed water enters the boiler
steam drum from the economizers or from the feed water heater train if there is
no economizer. The colder feed water helps create the circulation in the boiler.
The
ii
steam is removed from the water sending the steam-free water back to the
boiler system to prevent burnouts. This steam free water allows all liquid levels,
chemical feed, and feed water to be properly controlled. After the steam is
removed from the water the steam is purified to be superheated, if necessary,
and to perform its demanding tasks.

In natural circulation of steam boilers, the steam drum occupies a position of
importance because of:
The layout and erection of the steam boiler revolve around it
It takes the maximum time for manufacturing and needs the costliest
machinery

Figure 1: Steam Drum of Boiler
Moving it demands a high level of logistics
It needs the heaviest crane or lifting tackle during both fabrication and
erection.
Thermodynamically, however, a steam drum is merely a surge tank in the
circulation system to which the following parts are connected:
Economizer outlet and Superheater inlet pipes on one side
downcomers and risers on the other side.
Under steady operating conditions when the flows are balanced, the steam drum
produces a steady water level. Drum water level is one of the most important
parameters, of a steam boiler control system. The other important function of
the steam drum is to house the drum internals, which perform the following
functions:
Saturated water from evaporator circuits, which contain varying amounts
of steam, is separated by the steam separators.
Water-free steam to the Super Heater and steam-free water to the
downcomers are required of steam separators and purifiers.
Chemical dosing to maintain the chemistry of the circulating water.
continuous blowdown of drum water to keep the carryover under
specified limits.
The most important job of the steam is to ensure that the steam exits the drum as
dry as possible and returns the water to the heat source steam free. The reason
for this is that any water or moisture that may pass through a steam drum can
and will carry solids in it, usually in their dissolved states.
The steam drum also secures natural circulation and prevents circulating pump
cavitation. This condition can precipitate downstream on other equipment in the
system and can be expensive by causing a loss of efficiency or other costly
repairs.
Steam Drums may be two types:
i. Horizontal Steam Drum
ii. Vertical Steam Drum
Horizontal Steam Drum: There are two types of horizontal steam drums. One is
the water tube steam drum and the other is a waste heat steam drum. Both types
of steam drums have the primary and critical purpose of the mechanical phase
separation of the water and steam mixture which flows from the Heat Recovery
System Generator (HRSG) evaporator into the drum or fired boiler. The steam
is removed from the water sending the steam free water back to the boiler
system. This steam free water allows all liquid levels, chemical feed, and
feedwater to be properly controlled. After the steam is removed from the water
it is purified and then ready to perform more demanding tasks.
Vertical Steam Drum: Vertical steam drum delivers the highest gas purity
capability of any mechanical separator available, regardless of liquid loading. It
is used where a clean dry steam is necessary for protection of related equipment.
The steam drum should be used in a vertical configuration with a side inlet and
top outlet. The steam mixture enters the tangential inlet creating a centrifugal
action sufficient to allow the steam to be released out of the top through the
torturous path area and going upward passing through the vane chevron
separators where the convolutions perform separation again by impact and eddy
currents removing the remainder of the liquid. It has a relatively low pressure
drop and turndown ratio as low as 0% to 150% of design conditions. Storage
capacity supplied in the lower section of the drum is required.

Water Drum or Mud Drum:


i
http://steamofboiler.blogspot.com/2011/03/steam-drum-of-boiler.html April 26, 2011
ii
http://www.dyna-therm.com/steam_drums.html