9 views

Uploaded by cristian1961

Compute leakage inductance

- Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Brushless Machines
- Winding Capacitance and Leakage Inductance
- Leakage Inductance Calculations in Dierent Geometries of Traction Transformers
- Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine
- 25 Permanent Magnet Motor Design.pdf
- Stirling
- Permanent Magnet Generator
- Calculation and evaluation of the magnetic field air gap in permanent magnet synchronous machine
- Transformers - General Information
- Stirling
- IEC-60364-5-52
- Brushless Permanent Magnet Motor Design
- Transformer
- AC Bridge
- 8. Ijeeer - Simulation Modelling of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine
- Power Transformer
- CP RC User Manual
- 1913 Transformer Practice.pdf
- Substation
- Presentation for Electrical Fundamental 2

You are on page 1of 7

Volume 2012, Article ID 635715, 6 pages

doi:10.1155/2012/635715

Research Article

Improved Expression for Estimation of Leakage Inductance in

E Core Transformer Using Energy Method

Sivananda Reddy Thondapu,

1

Mangesh B. Borage,

2

Yashwant D. Wanmode,

1

and PurushottamShrivastava

1

1

Pulse High Power Microwave Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, India

2

Power Supplies and Industrial Accelerator Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Sivananda Reddy Thondapu, sivananda@rrcat.gov.in

Received 31 December 2011; Revised 13 April 2012; Accepted 29 April 2012

Academic Editor: Pavol Bauer

Copyright 2012 Sivananda Reddy Thondapu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons

Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is

properly cited.

This paper proposes a simpler and more accurate expression for estimation of leakage inductance in E core transformer, which is

the most widely used transformer structure. The derived expression for leakage inductance accounts for the ux extending into

air. The nite element method (FEM) analysis is made on the secondary shorted transformer to observe the H-eld pattern. The

results obtained fromFEManalysis are used for approximating the eld that is extending into air to derive an expression for leakage

inductance. This expression is experimentally validated on prototype transformers of dierent core dimensions.

1. Introduction

Transformer is one of the basic building blocks of many

power converters. The following are some of the cases where

accurate estimation of leakage inductance is required.

(i) Dierent resonant converter topologies, discussed in

[15], use parasitics of transformer as a part of reso-

nant tank network. For designing power converter

with such topologies, one requires accurate estima-

tion of leakage inductance.

(ii) In hard switched converters, in every cycle the energy

stored in the parasitics appears as loss in converter. In

estimation of eciency of such converters, one needs

to estimate leakage inductance before hand.

(iii) For designing snubber circuits to limit device voltage

during turn-o transients [68], one needs to esti-

mate leakage inductance. These turn-o transients

mainly occur due to energy stored in the leakage

inductance of the transformer.

Methods that are usually employed for estimation of

leakage inductance are (i) energy method [813] and (ii)

method of mutual uxes.

In energy method, the energy stored in magnetic eld of

the secondary shorted transformer is calculated and equated

to (1/2)L

leak

I

2

p

where L

leak

is the leakage inductance of the

transformer when referred to primary, and I

p

is current

owing through primary.

The H-prole inside the coil is calculated using Amperes

law. The energy stored in magnetic eld is calculated by

evaluating the volume integral in (1):

E

stored

=

2

H

2

dv =

1

2

L

leak

I

2

p

. (1)

The expression derived for leakage inductance using

energy method is independent of frequency. Hence, it does

not consider any frequency-dependent eects on leakage

inductance. The energy method is used for comparing leak-

age inductance, in dierent winding congurations.

On the other hand, method of mutual uxes uses Max-

wells equations to predict the leakage inductance more

accurately at high frequencies. As this method accounts for

frequency-dependent eects like eddy current losses and

altered ux pattern due to eddy currents, it gives more

accurate results, particularly at high frequencies. In [14], a

frequency-dependent formula is presented to nd leakage

inductance in a toroidal core transformers.

2 Advances in Power Electronics

x

y

z

(a) Perspective

x

y

z

(b) Front view

z

x y xx

(c) Top view

z x

y

(d) Side view

Figure 1: Simulation result of FEM analysis.

In this paper, an expression for leakage inductance is

derived using energy method. Expression derived accounts

for the ux that extends into air in a secondary shorted trans-

former, which is not considered earlier [8, 10, 11]. Therefore,

the estimated leakage inductance using this expression has

better accuracy.

2. Estimation of Leakage Inductance on

E Core Transformer

FEM analysis on secondary shorted transformer is made

using CST Ver 2008.5 (with magneto-static solver). The

simulation result of FEM analysis is shown in Figure 1. The

simulation result is the H-eld pattern of secondary shorted

E core transformer. This gives an idea of prole of H-eld

from the surface of the core to the outer surface of the whole

winding. The prole of H-eld of a E core transformer and

its winding conguration is shown in Figures 2 and 3, respec-

tively.

Energy stored in the magnetic eld in the secondary

shorted transformer is equated to energy stored in leakage

inductor, which is given in (1).

The volume represented with purple color in Figure 4 is

considered for volume integration. This constitutes (i) the

volume occupied by the coils and (ii) the volume formed

by extrusion of the coils along the centre limb of the core,

excluding the volume of the core. The ux extends into

air shown in Figure 5. The volume shown in Figure 4 is

divided into four parts, whose top view is shown in Figure 3.

The prole of H-eld is calculated using Amperes law, the

same prole is observed in FEM analysis. The H-prole is

expressed mathematically in (2):

H(z) =

H

m

z

h

1

0 < z < h

1

,

H

m

h

1

< z < h

1

+ t,

H

m

h

1

+ h

2

+ t z

h

2

h

1

+ t < z < h

1

+ h

2

+ t.

(2)

Using H-prole given in (2) to evaluate volume integral

given in (1), we get expression of the leakage inductance:

L

leak

=

1

3

o

N

2

1

F

2

(h + 2t)[FC + B(E + 2h)],

(3)

where h = h

1

+ h

2

+ t is total thickness of the winding

measured from the surface of the core to the outer surface of

the outer winding, t is total thickness of the insulation used

between the layers. B, C, E, F is are the dimensions of the E

core shown in Figure 6.

Advances in Power Electronics 3

t

h

1 h

2

H(z)

z

H

m

Figure 2: Prole of H(z) from the surface of the core.

Part 3

Part 1 Part 2

E

x

z

C

Part 4

Center limb

of the core

Secondary winding (S)

Primary winding (P)

Interwinding

insulation

Figure 3: Top view of E core transformer with windings.

y

x

z

Figure 4: Volume around the core considered for integration.

(

A

/

m

)

15.4

13.5

11.5

9.61

7.69

5.77

3.84

1.92

0

z

x

y

Figure 5: Scaled side view to show the ux that extends into air.

4 Advances in Power Electronics

Table 1: EE core transformer with interwinding insulation.

Sample no. 1 2

Core type EE42/21/15 EE65/38/13

F 14.45 mm 22.65 mm

C 15.20 mm 13.45 mm

B 21.10 mm 32.59 mm

E 12.05 mm 19.77 mm

h

1

thickness of primary 3.20 mm 3.81 mm

h

2

thickness of secondary 1.90 mm 1.55 mm

t thickness of insulation 1.27 mm 2.00 mm

N

1

34 48

N

2

17 24

Photograph

h

1

h

2

P S

t

1

Winding

conguration

Leakage inductance L

leak,earlier

from (5) 11.91 H 22.52 H

Leakage inductance L

leak

from (3) 15.32 H 28.21 H

Leakage inductance L

exp

at 10 kHz measured 14.13 H 26.76 H

% deviation of L

exp

from calculated L

leak,earlier

15.71% 15.84%

% deviation of L

exp

from calculated L

leak

8.38% 5.12%

E

F

B

D A

C

Figure 6: E core dimensions given in data sheets.

It is seen in [8, 1113], by sandwiching the windings,

leakage inductance reduces by p

2

times, where p is the num-

ber of interfaces between primary and secondary [8]:

L

leak

=

1

3p

2

o

N

2

1

F

2

(h + 2t)[FC + B(E + 2h)]. (4)

3. Experimental Results

Three dierent samples are made to validate the derived

expression. The results are compared with the expressions

available in literature. The expression given in [8, 10, 11] is

replaced with the dimensions of the core (shown in Figure 6)

and the dimensions of windings will give (5):

L

leak,earlier

=

1

3p

2

o

N

2

1

F

2

(h + 2t)F(C + E + 2h). (5)

Sample no. 1 is made with E core (EE42/21/15) wound

with stranded conductor made with three conductors of 24

SWG. With interwinding insulation of thickness 1.27 mm is

used. Standard winding conguration as shown in Table 1 is

used to wind primary and secondary.

Sample no. 2 is made with E core (EE65/38/13) wound

with stranded conductor made with three conductors of 24

SWG. With interwinding insulation of thickness 2.00 mm.

Standard winding conguration as shown in Table 1 is used

to wind primary and secondary.

Sample no. 3 is made with E core (EE42/21/15) wound

with stranded conductor made with two conductors of

24 SWG. With total interwinding insulation of thickness

0.46 mm + 0.26 mm= 0.72 mm is used. Sandwiched winding

Advances in Power Electronics 5

Table 2: EE core transformer with sandwiched winding (P/2, S, P/2).

Sample no. 3

Core type EE42/21/15

F 14.45 mm

C 15.20 mm

B 21.10 mm

E 12.05 mm

h

1

thickness of primary half 1.41 mm

h

2

thickness of secondary 2.93 mm

h

3

thickness of primary half 1.52 mm

t

1

thickness of insulation 0.46 mm

t

2

thickness of insulation 0.26 mm

N

1

46

N

2

44

Photograph

h

1

h

2 h

3

t

1 t

2

P/2 S P/2

Winding

conguration

Leakage inductance L

leak,earlier

from (5) 4.94 H

Leakage inductance L

leak

from (4) 6.37 H

Leakage inductance L

exp

at 10 kHz measured 5.91 H

% deviation of L

exp

from calculated L

leak,earlier

16.41%

% deviation of L

exp

from calculated L

leak

7.82%

conguration as shown in Table 2 is used to wind primary

and secondary.

All the measurements for leakage inductance are made

by shorting the secondary. The measurements are made with

LCR meter (make: Gw instek Model: LCR-8101) at 10 kHz.

Tables 1 and 2 tabulate experimentally measured values,

estimated values using the expression derived in this paper

and expression derived earlier for leakage inductance and

their corresponding errors when compared with the exper-

imentally measured values.

4. Conclusion

In this paper an improved expression for leakage inductance

has been derived, using energy method. To observe the

H-eld pattern, FEM analysis has been carried out on a

secondary shorted transformer, with primary excited. Exper-

imental results show that the formula derived in this paper

has better accuracy. It is observed that the leakage inductance

estimated using improved expression L

leak

has less deviation

fromL

exp

when compared with leakage inductance estimated

from earlier expression L

leak,earlier

. The accuracy of the

estimated value is improved due to consideration of ux that

is extending into air.

References

[1] S. D. Johnson, A. F. Witulski, and R. W. Erickson, Compar-

ison of resonant topologies in high-voltage dc applications,

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 24,

no. 3, pp. 263274, 1988.

[2] A. K. S. Bhat, A. Biswas, and B. S. R. Iyengar, Analysis and

design of (LC)(LC)-type series-parallel resonant converter,

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 31,

no. 3, pp. 11861193, 1995.

[3] B. Yang, F. C. Lee, A. J. Zhang, and G. Huang, LLC resonant

converter for front end DC/DC conversion, in Proceedings of

the 17th Annual IEEE on Applied Power Electronics Conference

and Exposition Conference (APEC 02), vol. 2, pp. 11081112,

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2002.

[4] J. A. Sabate, V. Vlatkovic, R. B. Ridley, F. C. Lee, and B. H.

Cho, Design considerations for high-voltage high-power full-

bridge zero-voltage-switched pwm converter, in Proceedings

of the 5th Annual Applied Power Electronics Conference and

Exposition (APEC 90), pp. 275284, Institute of Electrical and

Electronics Engineers, 1990.

[5] J. F. Lazar and R. Martinelli, Steady-state analysis of the LLC

series resonant converter, in Proceedings of the 16th Annual

Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC

01), vol. 2, pp. 728735, Institute of Electrical and Electronics

Engineers, 2001.

6 Advances in Power Electronics

[6] P. C. Todd, Snubber circuits: theory, design and application,

in Unitrode-Power Supply Design Seminar, 1993.

[7] William McMurray, Selection of snubbers and clamps to

optimize the design of transistor switching converters, IEEE

Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. IA-16, no. 4, pp.

513523, 1980.

[8] N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, and W. P. Robbins, Power Elec-

tronics: Converters, Applications, and Design, vol. 1, John Wiley

& Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2003.

[9] R. Doebbelin, M. Benecke, and A. Lindemann, Calculation of

leakage inductance of core-type transformers for power elec-

tronic circuits, in Proceedings of the 13th Power Electronics and

Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC 08), pp. 12801286,

September 2008.

[10] A. A. Dauhajre, Modelling and estimation of leakage phenom-

ena in magnetic circuits, Ph.D. thesis, California Institute of

Technology, Pasadena, Calif, USA, 1986.

[11] W. T. McLyman and C. W. T. McLyman, Transformer and

Inductor Design Handbook, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY,

USA, 2004.

[12] Z. Ouyang, O. C. Thomsen, and M. Andersen, The analysis

and comparison of leakage inductance in dierent winding

arrangements for planar transformer, in Proceedings of the

International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Sys-

tems (PEDS 09), pp. 11431148, November 2009.

[13] R. Doebbelin, R. Herms, C. Teichert, W. Schaetzing, and A.

Lindemann, Analysis methods and design of transformers

with low leakage inductance for pulsed power applications,

in Proceedings of the European Conference on Power Electronics

and Applications, pp. 17, September 2007.

[14] W. G. Hurley and D. J. Wilcox, Calculation of leakage induc-

tance in transformer windings, IEEE Transactions on Power

Electronics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 121126, 1994.

Submit your manuscripts at

http://www.hindawi.com

VLSI Design

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

International Journal of

Rotating

Machinery

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com

Journal of

Engineering

Volume 2014

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Shock and Vibration

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Mechanical

Engineering

Advances in

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Civil Engineering

Advances in

Acoustics and Vibration

Advances in

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Electrical and Computer

Engineering

Journal of

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Distributed

Sensor Networks

International Journal of

The Scientifc

World Journal

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Sensors

Journal of

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Modelling &

Simulation

in Engineering

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Active and Passive

Electronic Components

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Chemical Engineering

International Journal of

Control Science

and Engineering

Journal of

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Antennas and

Propagation

International Journal of

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

Navigation and

Observation

International Journal of

Advances in

OptoElectronics

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com

Volume 2014

Robotics

Journal of

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

http://www.hindawi.com Volume 2014

- Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Brushless MachinesUploaded byJoe Bingham
- Winding Capacitance and Leakage InductanceUploaded byQM_2010
- Leakage Inductance Calculations in Dierent Geometries of Traction TransformersUploaded bybtd2011
- Permanent Magnet Synchronous MachineUploaded bySantiago David
- 25 Permanent Magnet Motor Design.pdfUploaded bybitconcepts
- StirlingUploaded bykocrucq
- Permanent Magnet GeneratorUploaded byCiutacu Leonard
- Calculation and evaluation of the magnetic field air gap in permanent magnet synchronous machineUploaded bylabridis
- Transformers - General InformationUploaded byGalco Industrial
- StirlingUploaded bydarebusi1
- IEC-60364-5-52Uploaded bymrdl1988
- Brushless Permanent Magnet Motor DesignUploaded byMehmet Kırgözoğlu
- TransformerUploaded byPulkit Sethi
- AC BridgeUploaded byTareq
- 8. Ijeeer - Simulation Modelling of Permanent Magnet Synchronous MachineUploaded byTJPRC Publications
- Power TransformerUploaded bychristian fruto
- CP RC User ManualUploaded byMayanga Wickramasinghe
- 1913 Transformer Practice.pdfUploaded byrom009
- SubstationUploaded byprateek43513
- Presentation for Electrical Fundamental 2Uploaded byhygfg
- Face_recognition_using_matlab.docUploaded bySetiyo Eko
- ECE200_StudyGuideUploaded byƬhôngßáo Messeƞger
- pcim2002transfosUploaded byhajmunnisa
- Ferro ResonanceUploaded byDoydoy Merida
- Section 6 Magnetism Electromagnetism.unlockedUploaded byges
- Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles Application using the Principle of ICPT SystemUploaded byAnonymous lPvvgiQjR
- BEE_FEUploaded byDatarSinghChauhan
- MAN_35707-8.docUploaded byVladimir Q. Méndez
- 5692002Uploaded byOdalis Perez

- The 5 Element Diagram of Cycles, Organs, & AssociationsUploaded bycristian1961
- Blind Equalization of Nonlinear Communication Channels Using Recurrent Wavelet Neural Networks - Acoustics, Speech, And Signal Processing, 1997. ICASSP-97., 1997 IEEE International Conference OnUploaded bycristian1961
- Battery Life Estimation of Mobile Embedded Systems - Panigrahi Et Al. - Ieee Vlsi DesignUploaded bycristian1961
- Analysis and Synthesis of Feedforward Neural Networks Using Discrete Affine Wavelet Transformations - Neural Networks, IEEE Transactions OnUploaded bycristian1961
- ANSI IEEE Std 260.3-1993 - American National Standard Mathematical Signs and Symbols for Use in Physical Sciences and Technology - 00278297Uploaded bycristian1961
- Dark Room Enlightenment - Mantak ChiaUploaded byVictoria Generao
- A General Matching Theory and Its Application to Tunnel Diode Amplifiers - IEEE Transactions - Draft - 1966 - Pp.16Uploaded bycristian1961
- Spiritual Core of Master Mantak Chia's TeachingUploaded byBigDipperTao
- Mousavinezhad, Abdel-Qader. IEEE - Digital Signal Processing in Theory & PracticeUploaded byAir
- C57.144-2004 Ieee Guide for Metric Conversion of Transformer StandardsUploaded bycristian1961
- Emotiile corspunzatoare organelorUploaded byCristian Liviu
- A Computer Simulation of an Induction HeatingUploaded bydumitrescu viorel
- Image Compression Using Wavelet Transform and Self-Development Neural Network - Systems, Man, And Cybernetics, 1998. 1998 IEEE International Conference OnUploaded bycristian1961
- A Novel Uninterruptible Power Supply System With Active Pfc (Ieee - May 2002)Uploaded bycristian1961
- A. J. Viterbi. a Personal History of the Viterbi Algorithm IEEE Signal Processing Magazine Pp 120-122 142 July 2006. IEEEUploaded byCristian Liviu
- CompAI - Learning Algorithms for a Neural Network With Laterally Inhibited Receptive Fields - 1998 - Neural Networks Proceedings, IEEEUploaded byCristian Liviu
- Yakuwa Et Al. - Novel Time Series Analysis and Prediction of Stock Trading Using Fractal Theory and Time Delayed Neural Network(2003 IEEE)Uploaded bycristian1961
- Robust Control for Nonlinear Motor-mechanism Coupling System Using Wavelet Neural Network - Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part B, IEEE Transactions OnUploaded bycristian1961
- Harmonic and Inter Harmonic Measurement According to Ieee 519 and Iec 61000-4-7Uploaded byjuampic
- IEEE - A Novel Low Power Low Phase-Noise PLL Architecture for Wireless [%1.2]Uploaded bycristian1961
- IEEE Standard Glossary of Modeling and Simulation TerminologyUploaded bycristian1961
- Practical Rf Printed Circuit Board Design - How to Design Rf Circuits (Ref No 2000 027), Iee Train - IeeeUploaded bycristian1961
- IEEE - Concept Design for a Web-based SCADA SystemUploaded bycristian1961
- IEEE Adaptive Filters in MATLAB- From Novice to Expert - 2002Uploaded bycristian1961
- Natural Language Grammatical Inference With Recurrent Neural Networks, Lawrence, IEEE-TKDEUploaded bycristian1961
- IEEE Standard Glossary of Modeling and Simulation TerminologyUploaded bycristian1961
- IEEE Adaptive Filters in MATLAB- From Novice to Expert - 2002Uploaded bycristian1961
- IEEEwaveletUploaded byAlbertasDDD
- 8112218 Wavelet Theory DemystifiedUploaded byfermilevel

- Commissioning PlanUploaded byanjum128
- EC404 Advanced Communication SystemsUploaded byanupvasu
- Fixing a Lens Error on a Digital Camera _Do It Yourself Digital Camera RepairUploaded byYep-Elf Panda
- AVSDiscCreatorHelpUploaded byMutabirwa
- ARINC-653Uploaded bycikibon
- Eng Fp28495 Zeppelin BrochureUploaded byPiese Masini
- PDTrac Brochure V3Uploaded byArini Rizal Unesa
- DT266 Series.docxUploaded byCOSTEL
- Elctrical Protection SystemUploaded byAvnish Bhasin
- 02.Automated Assembly SystemsUploaded byAnuragShrivastav
- datasheet P16F84A.pdfUploaded byRenso Juvenal Mamani
- Panel Builder.pdfUploaded bykais alvi
- Idc FundamentalsofcontrolsystemsUploaded byevemilly
- Sparc T3 Server AdministrationUploaded bymarcos_vr77
- Alpha Examples DIAGRAMSUploaded byRamaswamy Periaswamy
- conceptos basicos cronocoulomUploaded bybettypaz89
- OTDR Testing.pdfUploaded byJomy George
- Sensor Gill 28Uploaded bycrowsex
- IOT Air PollutionUploaded byL Deepanti Punjaban
- aminesUploaded byjjksadfasjdfsaf
- D13 a - Wiring Diagram Link J1939Uploaded byAlberto De Los Rios Galan
- Samsung TV ManualUploaded bychrispittman
- Delve In Diverse Technologies Of Wireless Communication ResearchUploaded byIRJET Journal
- JUNO+NET+CON+SP1+MNUploaded byCarlos Eberhard Diaz Torres
- ELE 211 Fall10 SyllabiUploaded byahmadbashiri5135
- the_pa_bible_addn_06_the_constant_directivity_white_horn_white_paperUploaded byMatheus Albuquerque
- PICDEM_51526aUploaded byDavid Lim
- Periodic Table_assignmentUploaded byfaizan123khan
- Iec60383-1{Ed4.0}En_d.img Insulators 80KNUploaded byAdeel Zafar
- Table of ContentsUploaded byViswanth CH