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# Fluids Lecture 10 Notes

1. Substantial Derivative
2. Recast Governing Equations
Substantial Derivative
Sensed rates of change
The rate of change reported by a ow sensor clearly depends on the motion of the sensor.
For example, the pressure reported by a static-pressure sensor mounted on an airplane in
level ight shows zero rate of change. But a ground pressure sensor reports a nonzero rate
as the airplane rapidly ies by a few meters overhead. The gure illustrates the situation.
p (t)
1
p (t)
2
o
t = t
wing location at
p
t
o
t
p (t)
1
p (t)
2
Note that although the two sensors measure the same instantaneous static pressure at the
same point (at time t = t
o
), the measured time rates are dierent.
p
1
(t
o
) = p
2
(t
o
) but
dp
1
dt
(t
o
) =
dp
2
dt
(t
o
)
Drifting sensor
We will now imagine a sensor drifting with a uid element. In eect, the sensor follows the
elements pathline coordinates x
s
(t), y
s
(t), z
s
(t), whose time rates of change are just the
local ow velocity components
dx
s
dt
= u(x
s
, y
s
, z
s
, t) ,
dy
s
dt
= v(x
s
, y
s
, z
s
, t) ,
dz
s
dt
= w(x
s
, y
s
, z
s
, t)
t
V
p (t)
s
s
p
pathline
pressure
field
sensor drifting with local velocity
s
Dp dp
Dt dt
Consider a ow eld quantity to be observed by the drifting sensor, such as the static pressure
p(x, y, z, t). As the sensor moves through this eld, the instantaneous pressure value reported
by the sensor is then simply
p
s
(t) = p (x
s
(t), y
s
(t), z
s
(t), t) (1)
1
This p
s
(t) signal is similar to p
2
(t) in the example above, but not quite the same, since the
p
2
sensor moves in a straight line relative to the wing rather than following a pathline like
the p
s
sensor.
Substantial derivative denition
The time rate of change of p
s
(t) can be computed from (1) using the chain rule.
dp
s
dt
=
p
x
dx
s
dt
+
p
y
dy
s
dt
+
p
z
dz
s
dt
+
p
t
But since dx
s
/dt etc. are simply the local uid velocity components, this rate can be ex-
pressed using the oweld properties alone.
dp
s
dt
=
p
t
+ u
p
x
+ v
p
y
+ w
p
z

Dp
Dt
The middle expression, conveniently denoted as Dp/Dt in shorthand, is called the substantial
derivative of p. Note that in order to compute Dp/Dt, we must know not only the p(x, y, z, t)
eld, but also the velocity component elds u, v, w(x, y, z, t).
Although we used the pressure in this example, the substantial derivative can be computed
for any oweld quantity (density, temperature, even velocity) which is a function of x, y, z, t.
D( )
Dt

( )
t
+ u
( )
x
+ v
( )
y
+ w
( )
z
=
( )
t
+

V ( )
The rightmost compact D/Dt denition contains two terms. The rst /t term is called
the local derivative. The second

V term is called the convective derivative. In steady
ows, /t = 0, and only the convective derivative contributes.
Recast Governing Equations
All the governing equations of uid motion which were derived using control volume concepts
can be recast in terms of the substantial derivative. We will employ the following general
vector identity
(av) = v a + a v
which is valid for any scalar a and any vector v.
Continuity equation
Applying the above vector identity to the divergence form continuity equation gives

t
+

= 0

t
+

V +

V = 0
D
Dt
+

V = 0 (2)
The nal result above is called the convective form of the continuity equation. A physical
interpretation can be made if its written as follows.
2

D
Dt
=

V
fractional density rate = velocity divergence
or . . . fractional volume rate = velocity divergence
For a uid element of given mass, the volume must vary as 1/density, which gives the second
interpretation above. Both interpretations are illustrated in the left gure below, where the
uid element expands when it ows through a oweld region where

V > 0. In low
speed ows and in liquid ows the density is essentially constant, so that D/Dt = 0 and
by implication

V = 0.
Momentum equation
The divergence form of the x-momentum equation is
(u)
t
+

=
p
x
+ g
x
+ (F
x
)
viscous
Applying the vector identity again, and also cancelling some terms by use of the continuity
equation (2), produces the convective form of the momentum equation. The y- and z-
momentum equations are also derived the same way.

Du
Dt
=
p
x
+ g
x
+ (F
x
)
viscous
(3)

Dv
Dt
=
p
y
+ g
y
+ (F
y
)
viscous
(4)

Dw
Dt
=
p
z
+ g
z
+ (F
z
)
viscous
(5)
The Du/Dt etc. substantial derivatives are recognized as the acceleration components expe-
rienced by a uid element. This leads to a simple physical interpretation or these equations
as Newtons law applied to a uid element of unit volume.
mass/volume acceleration = total force/volume
The elements mass/volume is simply the density , and the total force/volume consists of
the buoyancy-like pressure gradient force, the gravity force, and the viscous force.
V

.
p

g + +F

DV
D t
t V =
t
D
D t

=
V
expanding fluid element accelerating fluid element
t
t + t
t
t + t
viscous
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