Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 53

FZK 101

DERS NOTLARI

VECTORS
Scalars: Quantites which have only magnitude ( mass, length , energy...)
Vectors: Quantites which have both magnitude and direction ( velocity..)
Adding Vectors :
Axiomatic Definition:
Null vector : A + 0 = A 0 = null vector
Inverse Vector : A + B = 0 A = -B B inverses vector of A
Commutative Law : A + B = B + A
Associative Law : ( A+ B ) +C = A + ( B +C )

1) Graphical Method :

B C B A + (-B ) = C
A + B = C A

A C

2) Analytic Method : This method is useful for 3- dimensional vectors. The processs is
called revolving a vector into its components , draw perpendicular lines from A to the
axis , the quantities ax and ay so formed are called the components of the vector A.


ax = | A |. cos o |A| = \ [ a
x
2
+ a
y
2
]
ay = |A| . sin o tan o = ay / ax
ay A

o
ax

Unit Vector: It is a vector of unit length in a given direciton. These unit vectors are
symbolized by i , j and k for x, y and z respectively.
| U
A
| = 1 | U
A
| = A/ | A | A = A
x
. i + A
y
. j +A
z
.k
or ( A = ( A
x
, A
y
)

3-D:

a
x
= A.sin o. cos |
a
z
a
y
= A. sin o .sin |
A a
z
= A . cos o
o a
y

a
x

|



Changing Coordinate Systems:
a) By moving the origin to another location in the xy-plane

y y
a
y

a
y

a
x
x

x
a
x

b) By pivoting the xy axes about the fixed origin which is a rotation of the coordinate
systems.

y

a
x
x
a
y


a
x
3 ) Component Method :
A = ( A
x
, A
y
, A
z
) A + B = C C = ( A
x
+B
x
, A
y
+B
y
, A
z
+B
z
)
B = ( B
x
, B
y
, B
z
)



Multiplication of Vectors :

1) Multiplication of a vector by a scalar :
k .A = B A // B

2) Multiplication of Two Vectors to Yield a Scalar : ( Dot Product )
The scalar product of two vectors a and b written as a . b is defined to be ;
A. B = | A | . | B | .cos o

A ( Bu tr bir arpm bir vektrle zerine den bir
izdmn arpm. )
b. cos o ( Bu tr arpma dot product yada scalar arpm
da denir )
o

a. cos o B

A = ( A
x
, A
y
, A
z
) A. B = A
x
.B
x
+ A
y
.By + Az. Bz
B = ( B
x
, B
y
, B
z
) | A |. | B | .cos o = A
x
.B
x
+A
y
.B
y
+ A
z
.B
z


Properties :
a) A.B = B. A
b) A .( B + C ) = A. B + A .C
c) (a+ b) .A = a.A + b. A
d) d ( A. B ) / dt = (d.A / dt) .B + (d.B / dt) .A
3 ) Multiplication of Two Vectors to Yield Another Vector : ( Cross Product )

The vector product of two vectors a and b is written as a x b and is another vector c ,
where c = a x b. The magnitude of c is defined as ,
| A x B | = | A |. | B| . sin o
( Bu tr arpmlar 3 boyuta evrilmeli. Product olan c vektrnn yn , a ve b vektrlerinin
yzeylerine diktir ve sa el kuralyla bulunur. )

c = a x b b Sa el kural :4 parmak arpmda nce gelen
vektt ynndedir. Avu ii dier
b vektr gsterir.Ba parmak c vektrnn
a ynn gsterir.
o
a c =b x a
|c| = |c|= |a|.|b|.sino
Bu tr arpmlara vector product yada cross product denir.

sayfa iine doru sayfa dna doru



i x i = j x j = k x k = 0
k i x j = k j x i = -k
j x k = i k x j = -i
j k x i = j i x k = -j
i


A = ( A
x
,A
y
,A
z
) A x B = i j k
B = ( B
x
, B
y
, B
z
) A
x
A
y
A
z

B
x
B
y
B
z


i j k
A
x
A
y
A
z
= i.A
y
. B
z
+ A
x
B
y
.k + B
x
.j.A
z
B
x
.A
y
.k iB
y
. A
z
A
x
.j.B
z

B
x
B
y
B
z
i j k
A
x
A
y
A
z




Properties:
a) A xB = -( A x B )
b) A x ( B + C ) = ( A x B ) + ( A x C )
c) d (A x B ) / dt = ( dA / dt x B ) + ( dB / dt x A )





Direction of a Vector :


A
x
= A. cos o
x

A
z
coso
x
= A
x
/ A
o
z
coso
y
= A
y
/ A
o
y
A
y
coso
z
= A
z
/ A
A
x
o
x
coso
x
2
+ coso
y
2
+ coso
z
2
= 1





B
A B = |A|. |B|. cos o
cos o = A. B /|A|. |B|
o = ( A
x
B
x
+ A
y
B + A
z
B
z
) / \ [ A
x
2
+ A
y
2
+ A
z
2
].\ [ B
x
2
+ B
y
2
+ B
z
2
]
A


Exercises
1) Prove that two vectors must have equal magnitudes if their sum is perpendicular to their
difference.
a (x
1
, y
1
) | a | = \ ( x
1
2
+ y
1
2
) \ ( x
1
2
+ y
1
2
) = \ ( x
2
2
+ y
2
2
) olduunu
b ( x
2
, y
2
) | b| = \ ( x
2
2
+ y
2
2
) ispatlamamz gerekli
a + b a b
( x
1
+ x
2
, y
1
+ y
2
) ( x
1
x
2
, y
1
y
2
)
( x
1
+x
2
)(x
1
-x
2
) + (y
1
+y
2
) (y
1
-y
2
) = 0
x
1
2
x
2
2
+ y
1
2
y
2
2
= 0
x
1
2
+ y
1
2
= x
2
2
+ y
2
2
\ ( x
1
2
+ y
1
2
) = \ ( x
2
2
+ y
2
2
)

2) a = + 3j 2k Find a.(b x c) and a x ( b+c)
b = -i 4j +2k
c = 2i + 2j +k

a ) a. ( -8i, 6k , 5j ) = ( 3i + 3j 2k ) . ( -8i + 5j + 6k ) = -24 + 15 12 = -21

b ) ( 3i + 3j 2k ) x ( i- 2j + 3k ) = ( 5i 11j 8k )

3) a = 5i + 4j 6k r = a- b + c
b = -2i +2j +3k a) Calculate angle between r and +z axis .
c = 4i + 3j + 2k b) Find the angle between a and b .

a) z = ( 11i + 5j 7k ) ( 0, 0, 1) . ( 11i + 5j 7k )
-7 = 1. | \ (121 + 25 +49 ) | . coso
cos o = -7 / \185 o = arccos ( -7/\185 )
b) 10 + 8 18 = \45.\17.cos o
-20 / \ 4517 = cos o

4) Show that the magnitude of a vector product gives numarically the area of the
parallelogram formed with the two component vectors. Does this suggest how an element
of area oriented in space could be represented by a vector ?
A D

b | a x b | = |a|. |b| .sin o
A( ABCD ) = 2(ABC)
o = 2 |b|.sino .|a| / 2 = | a x b |
B C
a

5) Show that a( b x c ) is equal in magnitude to the volume of parallelepiped formed on the
three vectors a, b nad c as shown in the figure.

a = ( x
1
,y
1
,z
1
) | a.( b x c) | = |a|.| b x c |
b = ( x
2
, y ,z
2
) = |a|.|b|.|c|.sino
c = ( x
3
, y
3
,z
3
)


ekildeki gibi bir aktarm yaplrsa paralelkenar bir
dikdrtgenler prizmasna dnr.

v = |a|.|b|.|c| 0 |a|.|b|.|c|.sin 90

6 ) |a| = 3
|b| = 4 a) Calculate the x and y components
|c| = 10 c b) c = pa +qb p = ? q = ?
b
a
30
a) a = ( 3,0 )
b = ( 2\3 , 2)
c= ( -5, 5\3 )
b) ( -5, 5\3 ) = ( 3p + 2\3q , 2q )
5\3 = 2q -5. 3p + 2\3. 5\3 / 2 q = 5\3 /2 p = -20 / 3


MOTION
Position Vector ( r ) :


(t) The particle is located by x , y and z
( r ) which are components of the vector r
that gives the position of the particle.
r = xi + yj + zk





Displacement Vector : ( Ar )


A
Ar Ar = Ar
B
- Ar
A

r
A
At Ar, origin and path are independent.
r
B
B This means that what they are is not important.




Trajectory :
trajectory
equation of trajectory y = y(x)



Worldline :

x
B
B
x
A
A equation of worldline x = x(t)



t
A
t
B

Average Velocity :
V
av
= Ar / At = ( r
B
r
A
) / At B
o
A

tan o = V
av
V
av
is the slope of the worldline.

Ex: You drive your car down a straight road for 5,2 km. at 43 km/ h. , at which
point you run out of gas? You walk 1,2 km. farther to the nearest gas station, in 27 min.
What is the average velocity from the time that you started to drive your car to the time that
you arrived at the gas station ?

AV = Ax / At = ( 5,2 + 1,2 ) / ( t
1
+ 27/60 h ) = 6,4/ (0,12 + 0,45) = 6,4 / 0,57 = 11,2 km.

Average Speed: This is a scalar quantity.
V
av
= total distance traveled / time interval

Ex: A runner runs 100 m. in 10 sec. and then walks back 100 m. in 80 sec.. V
av
= ? V
av
= ?
V
av
= 0 / 30 = 0 V
av
= 200 / 30 m/s

V
av
mi V
av
mi olduu ok nemli !




Instantaneous Velocity:


V = lim
At0
Ar / At = lim
At0
[r(t+At)- r(t) ] / At
V = dr / dt
r(t) V
x
= dr/dt V
y
= dy/dt V
z
= dz/dt
r(t+At)


Average Acceleration:
a
av
= AV / At
Instantaneous Acceleration : a = lim
At0
AV / At = dV / dt = d
2
r / dt
2

a
x
= dV
x
/ dt a
y
= dV
y
/ dt a
z
= dV
z
/ dt

Properties:
1) r = V V = a
2) V t
} dV = } a dt V = } a dt + V
0

V
0
t
0

r = r
0
+ } V(t) dt

Ex: r(t) = ( 2t
3
5t ).i +( 6 7t
4
) .j
Calculate r, V and a when t = 2 sec.
r(2) = 6i + ( 6- 7.16 ) .j V = dr/ dt = ( 6t
2
5)i 128t
3
.j
V (2) = 19i + 28.8j
a = dV / dt = 12t.i + 28.3t
2
.j

Ex: r(t) = i+ 4t
2
.j + t.k a) V(t) = ? a(t) = ? b) What is the shape of the trajectory?
a) V(t) = dr/ dt = 8t.j + k a(t) = dV/ dt = 8.j
b) x = 1 y = 4t
2
z = t y = 4z
2
( this is a parabola )

Ex: V
0
= 30.i a = ( 5+ 3t
3
).i + (45 t
2
).j
After 4 sec. what is the particles position and V ? ( x
0
= 0 )
V = } a(t) dt = ( 5t + 3 /4t
4
+ 30.i ) + ( 45t - t
3
/3).j
V(4) = ( 20 + 3.4
3
+ 30 ).i + ( 180 4
3
/3 ).j
x = } V(t) dt = ( 5/ 2.t
2
+ 3/ 20.t
5
+ 30.t ).i + ( 45/ 2.t
2
t
4
/ 12 ).j
x(4) = ( 5/ 2. 16 + 3/ 20.4
5
+ 120 ).i + ( 45/ 2.16 4
4
/12).j

Motion With Constant Acceleration

V(t) = } a.t.dt + V
0

V(t) = a.t + V
0
r(t) = 1/ 2.a.t + V
0
.t + r
0


Ex: t = 0 V
0
= 3.6.i r
0
= 0 a = (-1.2.i , -1.4.j )
t = ? V = ? r = ? when x = x
max

x(t) = 1/ 2.(-1.2).t
2
+ 3.6.t = -0.6.t
2
+ 3.6.t
a) To maximize x(t) we differentiate it.
x(t) = -1.2t + 3.6 = 0 1.2t = 3.6 t = 3
b) V = at + V
0
V = at + V
0
V = ( -3.6i ,-4.2j) + 3.6i = -4.2j

c)r(s) = 1/ 2.(-1.2, -1.4 ).9 + ( 3,6. 3 0,6.9 ; -0,7.9 )
t = ( V V
0
) / a x x
0
= 1/ 2.( V +V
0
).t = 1/ 2.(V+V
0
).( (V-V) / a )
V
2
V
0
2
= 2a.(x x
0
)

Ex: You break your car from a velocity of 35 km/h to 45 km/h over a distance of 105 m.
a) What is the acceleration?
b) What is t ?
c) If you were continuing to break your car with same a, how much longer would it
take for you to stop and how much distance would you cover additional ?

a) 85000/ 3600 = 23.6 m/s 45000/ 3600 = 12.5 m/s
( 23.6)
2
( 12.5)
2
= 2a.105 560 156 = 210.a a ~ 2 m/s

b) 12.5 = 23.6 2t 2t ~ 11 t ~ 5.5 sec.
c) - ( 23.6)
2
= -2.2 x 557/ 4 = x x ~ 140 m 140 105 = 35 m.
2t = 23.6 t = 11.8s 5.5 s = 6.3 sec.

Ex: An o particle travels along the inside of a straight hollow tube 2 m. long which forms
part of a particle accelerator.
a) What is a if it enters at a speed of 10
4
m/s and leaves at 5.10
6
m/s ?
b) How long is it in the tube ?
a) V
2
V
0
2
= 2ax 25.10
8
= 2a.2 10
8
.( 25.10
4
1) / 4 = a
b) V = at +V
0
5.10
6
= 10
8
.( 25.10
4
1).t / 4 - 10
4

4.10
4
( 500 + 1) / 10
8
.( 25.10
4
1 ) = t


Free Falling Bodies


a = +g
V = V
0
+ g.t
y = 1/ 2.g.t
2
+ V
0
.t + y
0

V
2
V
0
2
= 2.g.( y y
0
)


Ex:

h

12 m.
55km/h


V
k

55000/ 3600 = 275 /18 m/sec
275/ 18.t = 12 t = 0,78 sec.
V
k
= g.t 0 10 .0,78 = 7,8 m/s
( 7.8 )
2
= 2. 10 .h h ~ 3 m.


Ex: A ball is thrown vertically upward from the ground with a speed of 25.2 m/s.
a) How long does it take to reach its highest point ?
b) How long does it rise ?
c) At what time will it be 27 m. above the ground ? ( g = 9,8 m/s
2
)

a) V = g.t + V
0
0 = -9.8 t + 25.2 t = 2.57 sec.
b) 0 ( 25.2)
2
= 2.9,8.h h = 635 / 19.6 = 32.39 m.
10,3 = 9,8t t = 1sec. 2,57 + 1 ~ 3,6 sec.
c) V
2
(25.2)
2
= -2.9,8.27 V = \ [ 635 529] = 10.3 m/s 10,3 = -5,8t + 25.2
t = 14,8 / 9,8 = 1,5 sec.

Projectile Motion


V g
V
0
H
V
y o
V
x
V
x
R(range) V
y
V
0



V
xo
= V
0
.coso V
yo
= V
0
.sino V
x
= V
xo
= V
0
.cos o
V
y
= V
yo
g.t V = V
x
+ V
y


X = X
0
+ V
xo
.t h = y = y
0
+ V
yo
.t + 1/ 2.g.t
2
V
2
V
yo
2
= 2.g.(y y
0
)

R = V
0
2
.sin2o / g H = V
0
2
.sin
2
o / 2g T
uu
= 2V
yo
/ g

Circular Motion

| r
|
r = x.i + y.j
r x = r.cos| y = r.sin|
r and o are unit vectors and r |
tan| = y/ x
r = r / r = ( r.cos|.i + r.sin|.j ) / r r = cos|.i +sin|.j
| = cos(| +t /2).i + sin( | + t/ 2).j o = -sin|.i + cos|.j
Hence r | r.| = 0
Then the position vector r = r
0
. r
The velocity vector V = dr/ dt V = d(r
0
.r )/ dt = r
0
.dr / dt
dr /dt = d| /dt . dr/ d| = |.( cos|.j + sin|.i ) = |.|
V = r
0
. |. | V = r
0
.w.| V = r
0
. w
The acceleration :
a = dV / dt = d( r
0
.w.| ) / dt = r
0
.( dw/dt. | + d|/dt. w )
Let dw/dt = d
2
|/dt
2
= o ( angular acceleration )
d| /dt = d|/dt. d|/d| = |( -cos|.i - sin|.j) = -|.r = -w.r
a = r
0
.o.| r
0
.w
2
.r a = -a
r
.r + a
t
.| a
r
= r
0
.w
2
= V
2
/ r
0
a
t
= r
0
.o = dV/ dt a
r
= radial acceleration a
t
= tangential acceleration
Uniform Circular Motion
Particle moves with a constant speed in a circular path. So both the velocity and
acceleration are constant in magnitude but they change their directions continuously. The
rotation of the earth is an example of uniform circular motion.
r = r
0
.r V = V.| a = -a
r
.r a
r
= V
2
/ r
0
= r
0
.w
2


Frequency is the number of the tours that are traveled in 1 seconds. (f)
w = 2.tf f = V / 2tr
0
w is constant
w = d| /dt }w = } d| /dt wt + o = | o = integral constant
r = r
0
.os( wt + o).i + r
0
.sin( wt + o ).j

Ex: P travels with a constant speed r = 3m. and T = 20 sec when t = 0 particle is on the
3 point 0. With respect to the origin 0 , find
a) R(t) = ? ( position vector )
P b) V(t) = ?
2 c) a(t) = ?
d) AR
1,2
= ? , AR
2,3
= ?

1
0
a) R = r.j +r | = w.t + o
R = r.j + r.cos( wt + o).i + r.sin(wt + o).j
R(t) = r.cos( wt+o ).i + r.(1+ sin(wt+o ) ).j
then o = ? when t = 0 and R = 0 | = ?
R(0) = r.cos o.i + r.( 1+sino).j = 0
cos o = 0 ( 1+sino) = 0 o = 3t /2
cos( wt + 3t/ 2 ) = sinwt sin ( wt+3t /2) = - coswt
R = r.sin(wt) .i + r.( 1-cos(wt) ).j
b) V(t) = R(t) /dt = wr.cos(wt).i + r.w.sin(wt).j
c) a(t) = V(t) /dt = -w
2
r.sin(wt).i + rw
2
.cos(wt).j
d) At the point 1 R
1
= 0
At the point 2 R
2
= r.i + r.j ( | = 90 )
At the point 3 R
3
= 2rj ( | = 180 )
AR
1,2
= R
2
R
1

AR
2,3
= R
3
R
2


Ex: At a certain instant V = 17,4 m/s. And its acceleration is an angle a
of 22 from the direction to the center of the circle.
a) At what rate is the speed of the particle is increasing ?
b) What is the magnitude of the acceleration ?
( r = 3,64 m. )
a) this means what is the a ? ( dV/dt)
a
r
= V
2
/r = a.cos| a
t
= a.sin| = V
2
/r .tan|
a = a
r
/cos| = V
2
/ r.cos| = ( 17,4)
2
/ (3,64. cos22)

d) a = V
2
/ r.cos| = ( 17,4)
2
/ ( 3,64.cos 22 )



Ex: A particle moves in a plane according to
x = R.sin(wt) + wRt y = R.cos(wt) + R ( w and R are constants )
This curve is called a cycloid is the path traced out by a point on the rim of a well which rolls
without slipping along the x-axis.
a) Sketch the path.
b) Calculate the instantaneous velocity and acceleration when the particle is at its max and
min value of y.

a)






tR 3tR
b) V
x
= dx/dt = R.w.cos(wt) +wR V
y
= dy/dt = -R.wsin(wt)
V = ( V
x
, V
y
)
a
x
= dV
x
/dt = Rw
2
.sin(wt) a
y
= dV
y
/dt = -Rw
2
cos(wt) a = ( a
x
, a
y
)

Relative Motion
y
y P S and S are observers and they move
with the speed of V
r
1
r = S ye gre P nin yer vektr.
r r
1
= S ye gre P nin yer vektr
Rss s x R = S nn S ye gre yer vektr

s x
r = R + r
1
V = U + V
1
a = a
1

dr/ dt = dR/ dt + dr
1
/dt

Ex: P
V
C
= 2mi/h V
C
= 2 mi/h V
B
= 4mi/h
4 mi a) Boatun P ye ulamas iin ban
hangi yne evirmesi gerekir?
V
B
b) P ye gelmesi ne kadar srer?

c) 2 mi aa inp yukar gelmesi ne kadar srer ?
d) En ksa srede karya ulamas iin hangi ynde gitmeli? Bu ne kadar srer ?

a) sin o = 2/ 4 o = 30 120 from the axis.
b) | V
B
+ V
C
| = \ [ 16 4 ] = \ 12 = 2\3
x = V.t 4 = 2\3 .t t = 2/ \3 h.
c) V
C
+ V
B
= 6 mi/h 2 = 6.t
1
t
1
= 1/ 3 h.

V
B
V
C
= 2 mi/h 2 = 2.t
2
t
2
= 1 h

d) t = t(o) = L/ V
B
.coso dL/ do = L/ V
B
( -sino/ coso ) = 0 o =0
then t
min
= t(0) = L/ V
B
= h /4 = 1 h.
Exercises
1)
A ball is thrown upwards vertically and
the graph of its place and time is drawn.
height At
u
According to this graph prove that:
H g = 8H / ( At
L
2
- At
U
2
)

At
L
time

V
0
= g.t
L
/ 2 H = -1/ 2.g.( t
L
/2 t
U
/2 )
2
+ V
0
( t
L
/2 t
0
/2 )
H = [-1/2.g (t
L
t
U
)
2
/4 ] + [ 2.g.t
L
/2 . (t
L
t
U
) /2 ]
8H = 2.g.t
L
.( t
L
t
U
) g.( t
L
t
U
)
2

8H = g.( t
L
t
U
) ( 2t
L
t
L
+ t
U
) g = 8L/ ( t
L
- t
U
)
2


2)
a Show that if d > ( V
1
V
2
)
2
/ 2a ,
there will be no collision.
V
1
V
2
Car #1 slows down with the acceleration a.

d
V
1
> V
2
( V
1
V
2
)
2
= 2a.d ( they collide )
So it must be ( V
1
V
2
)
2
< 2a.d
( V
1
V
2
)
2
/ 2a < d

3) V
0
= 3,6i a 0 1,2i 1,4j
a) At what time does the particle reach its max x coordinate ?
b) What is the velocity at that time ?
c) Where is the particle at that time ?

a) V = } ( -1,2i 1,4j ) dt + V
0
x = [ (} ( -1,2t + 3,6 )dt).i , -1,4j ]
V = (-1,2t.i , -1,4t.j) + 3,6.i x = ( -0,6t
2
+ 3,6t).i , -0,7t
2
.j
V = (-1,2t + 3,6).i , -1,4t.j max x -1,2t + 3,6 = 0 t = 3 sec.

b) V = (-1,2t +3,6 ).i , -1,4t.j V(3) = ( 0 , -4,2j )

c) x = ( -0,6t
2
+ 3,6t).i , -0,7t
2
.j x(3) = 5,4.i , -3,6.j

4) a particle A moves along the line y = d( 30 m) with a constant velocity 3 m/s directed
parallel to the positive x-axis. A particle B starts at the origin with 0 speed and constant
acceleration a = 0,40 m/s
2
at the same instant the particle A passes the y-axis. What angle o
between a and the positive y-axis would result in a collision between these two particles ?

30 = 1/ 2.0,4.coso.t
2
3t = 1/ 2.0,4. sino.t
2

3m/s 150 /15 = coso.t
2
/ sino.t 15 = sino.t
30m 10.sino = coso.t 15 = sino.10.sino coso
0,4 m/s
2
3 /2.coso = sino 3/ 2.coso = 1 cos
2
o
x
2
+ 3/ 2.x 1 = 0 ( x- 1/ 2 ) ( x + 2) = 0
coso = 1/ 2 o = 60

5) A ball is dropped from a height of 39 m. The wind is blowing horizontally and imparts a
constant acceleration of 1,2 m/s
2
.
a) Show that the path of the ball is a straight line and find the values of R and o.
b) How long does it take for the ball to reach the ground ?
c) With what speed does the ball hit the ground ?

a) X
y
= 1/ 2.g.t
2
X
x
= 1,2.t
2

X
y
= 4,9 t
2
X
x
= 0,6t
2

X
y
= 8,16.X
x
this shows a straight line

b) 39 = 1 /2.g.t
2
t
2
= 8 t = 2\2 sec.

c) V
2
= 2ax V
2
= 2. 9,8. 39 V
y
= 27,7 m/s
V
x
= 1,2. 2\2 V
x
= 3,34 m/s V = V
x
+ V
y


6) Prove that for a projectile fired from the surface of the level ground at an angle o above
the horizontal.
a) The ratio H/ R = 1/ 4.tano
b) Find the angle of projection of which the max H and R are equal.

a) ( V
0
.sino )
2
= 2gH H = V
0
2
.sin
2
o / 2g
R = V
0
.coso.2t R = V
0
.coso.V
0
.sino.2 / g R = V
0
2
.coso.sino.2 / g
V
0
.sino = g.t 2t = 2.V
0
.sino / g
H / R = V
0
2
.sin
2
o.g / 2.2.g.V
0
2
.coso.sino H / R = sino / 4.coso = 1/ 4.tano
b) V
0
2
.sin
2
o/ 2g = 2V
0
2
.coso.sino / g tano = 4 o = 76

7) A projectile is fired from the surface of level ground at an angle | above the horizontal.
a) Show that the elevation angle o of the highest point as seen from the figure is related
to | by; tano = 1/ 2.tan| .
b)Calculate o for | = 45.

a) tano = H / R/2 = 2H /R
H = V
0
2
.sin
2
| / 2g R = V
0
2
.sin2| / g
2H /R = 1/ 2.tan| tano = 1/ 2.tan|
b) tano = 1/ 2. tan 45 tano = 1/ 2
V o H o = Arctan 1/ 2

|
R


Force and Newtons Law

F
1
F
2
F
net
= F
1
+ F
2
+....+ F
n




Equilibrium: If F
net
= 0 then the situation is called equilibrium.

Contact Force:
F Ff F and F
1
are contact forces.


F
1

Non-contact Forces: Gravitational force , electromagnetic forces etc...
Newtons Law:
1) Consider a body on which no net force acts. If the body is at rest , it will remain at rest. If
the body is moving with constant velocity , it will continue to do so.( the law of inertia ).
And a system whose F
net
= 0 is called inertial systems.
2) F = m.a and a has the same direction with F.
3) When one body exerts a force on a second body , the second body always exerts a force
on the first. Furthermore these forces are always equal in magnitude. To every action
there is an equal and an opposite reaction. If our goal were to study the dynamics of one
body only one force of the action-reaction pair would be considered; the other is felt by a
different body and would be considered only if we were studying the dynamics of that
body.

Ex: a) The ox is pushed from A to B on a
130N frictionless surface. What is its velocity
at B ?
240kg F = m.a 130 = 240.a a = 13/24 kg.m/s
2

A B V
2
= 2ax V
2
= 2.13/24. 2,3 V = 1,6m/s
2,3 m
d) If we want to convert its velocity to the opposite direction when the box is at B and
the time is 4,5 sec., What amount of force we have to apply ?
V = at + V
0
-1,6 = a.4,5 1,6 a = 32 /45 m/s
2

F = 32/ 45. 240 = 170 N

Ex:
m V
0
m = 360 kg, V
0
= 120km/h
The car slows down to 62km/h within 17 sec..
What is the force on m ?

V = V
0
+ a.t (V V
0
)/ 17 = a a = -0,95 m/s
2

F = m.a F = 360.0,95 = -340 N

Frictional Forces
f is a contact force which acts as a resistance to the motion. It always occurs in the
opposite direction of the motion.

V V
F F


f f




Normal Force : The force that is opposite to the surface. It is always perpendicular to the
surface.
N

N mg



mg
Force of Static Friction: The frictional forces acting between surfaces at rest with respect to
each other are called forces of static friction . The max. force of static friction will be the
same as the smallest applied force necessary to start motion.
f
s
s
s
.N ( f
s
)
max
=
s
.N f
s
= static friction

s
= the coefficient of static friction
Force of Kinetic Friction:
Once motion is started ,the frictional forces acting between the surfaces usually decrease so
that a smaller force is necessary to maintain uniform motion .The forces in relative motion
are called the forces of kinetic friction.
f
k
=
k.
N
k
= kinetic friction
In general
s
>
k

f
g



(f
s
)
max

f
s
=
s
.N

F
static region kinetic region

Applications of Newtons Laws

1) Clearly identify the body that will be analyzed. Sometimes there will be two or more such
bodies, each is usually treated independently.
2) Select a suitable ( non-accelerating ) coordinate system.
3) Draw all applied force vectors. ( draw free body diagram)
4) Define a direction for acceleration.

Ex: A sled of mass m = 7,5 kg. is pulled along a frictionless horizontal surface by a cord.
A constant force of P = 21 n is applied to the cord. Analyze the motion if
a) the cord is horizontal
b) the cord makes an angle of o = 15 with the horizontal .

a)
F = m.a 21 = 7,5a a = 2,8m/s
2

21N b)
21 N F = m.a
15 21.cos15 = 7,5.a
75N a = 2,7m/s
2

75N

Ex: A block of mass m = 18 kg. is held in place by a string on a frictionless plane inclined
at an angle of 27
a) Find the tension in the string and the normal force exerted on the block by the plane.
b) Analyze the subsequent motion after the string has cut.


18kg a) N T T = 18.9,8.sin27 = 80N
N = 18.9,8.cos27 = 153N

27 mg.sino mg.coso

b) If the string has cut t = 0 50 block starts to move along the direction of
mg.sino
F = m.a 80 = 18.a a = -4,45m/s
2
( along the x-axis )

Ex: A passenger of mass 72,2 kg. is riding in an elevator while standing on a platform
scale. What does the scale read the elevator cab is ;
a) descending with constant velocity.
b) ascending with acceleration 3,2 m/s
2


a) m.g = 72,2. 9,8 = 708 N
b) f = N m.g = ma N = m.( g +a ) N = 72,2( 9,8 + 3,2) = 939 N

Ex:
m
1
m
2
m
3
a) Find the force exerted on m
3
by m
2
( there is
F an acceleration )
b) Find the force exerted on m
2
by m
1
.

a) N
1
N
2
N
F
1
F F
2
F
1
F
2


m
1
g m
2
g m
3
g

F
2
= m
3
.a
b) F
1
F
2
= m .a or F F
1
= m
1
.a

Ex:
C =0 m
A
= 4,4kg
A m
B
= 206kg

s
= 0,18 N

k
= 0,15 N
=0 a) m
C
= ? to keep the system from sliding.
b) If c is lifted , what is a ?
B

a) For A N For B T N = (m
A
+m
B
)g
T = Ff = m
B
g =
s
N=
s
(m
A
+m
B
)g
F
f
T 2,6g = 0,18(4,4+x).g
( m
A
+m
C
)g m
B
g x = 10kg.
b) for A N N = m
A
g
F
net
= m
B
g -
k.
m
A
.g = ( m
A
+ m
B
).a
f
K
m
B
g g ( 2,6 0,66) = 7a
a = 2,7 m/s
2

m
A
g

Ex: F = 12 N
s
= 0,6
k
= 0,4
What is the force exerted on the block by the wall?
F Ff
F
s
=
s
.N = 0,6.12 = 7,2 N
N 12N F
s
s 7,2 N
( system doesnt move) and F
s
= 5N
5 N Force exerted by the wall 12+5= 13 N
5N
Ex:
s

What is the F
min
? ( Required to hold m against M )
F
s
.N
1
= m.g
m
M
no friction

For M N
2
F / (M +m) = a F
min
/ M+m = N
1
/M
F
min
= ( M+m ).mg /
s
.M
N
1


Mg

Ex:
Find the F
max
that m
1
moves with m
2

m
1

s
N
2

For m
1
N
1
For m
2

F m
2
F
s
F
s
F

no friction m
1
g m
2
g +N
1

F
s
=
s
.m
1
g
F / ( m
1
+ m
2
) = a
F / ( m
1
+ m
2
) = F
s
/m
1

F =
s
.m
1
g( m
1
+ m
2
) / m
1
F = ( m
1
+ m
2
).g.
s


Ex: What is the F
max
so that they move together ?
F m
2

s
N
2
N
1

F
s
F
m
1
F
s

m
2
g
no friction m
1
g + N
2


F / (m
1
+ m
2
) = a
F /( m
1
+ m
2
) = F
s
/ m
1
F =
s
.m
2
.g( m
1
+ m
2
) / m
1


In this type of questions first write F = m.a for the whole system. Then instead of a write
the acceleration of the object moved by f
s
. Write the total force which is counted in the free
body diagram, instead of f
s



Relative Acceleration

A
A is the acceleration of the car
a is the acceleration of m according to the
observer that is outside
a is the acceleration of m according to the
observer that is inside
a = a + A
m

Ex:
6m A = 8m/s
2
How long later the object m
arrives the point A?
A m

k
= 0,5

N Ff = m.a = .mg
a = 0,5.9,8 = 4,9 m/s
2

Ff a = a +A 4,9 = a + 8 a = -3,1 m/s
2

x = 1/ 2.a.t
2
6 = 1/ 2.3,1.t
2
t ~ 2 sec.

mg
The acceleration in the relative acceleration questions is always according to the outside
observer.

Ex: Surfaces are frictionless.
a) What horizontal a must have relative to the
m table to keep m with M ?
b) What horizontal force must be applied to
M achieve this result ?
c) Describe resulting motion if there is no
o o force .

a) N.coso = mg N.sino = m.a
a = N.sino / m = mg.sino / coso.m = tano.g
b) F = ( M+ m) a F = ( M+ m).tano.g
c) N
mg N.coso = m.a
y

N.sino = m.a
x

N.sino = M.A
mg


N
m

N.sino = M.A
A = ( A,0) a = a +A
a ( a
x
, a
y
) tano = a
y
/ | a
x
+A |
a = ( a
x
- A, a
y
)
N
Mg

Dynamics of Circular Motion

o
F
net
= m.a radial component F
r
= -m.a
r

r tangential component F
t
= m.a
t

a r =r.r ( r is constant )
V = V.o
a = -a.r + a
t
.o
F
net
= F
r
.r +F
t
.o

Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion
We have to apply a continuous force to an object to keep it on its orbit. This kind of
forces are called centripetal forces .
1) Horizontal Surfaces :

V V is constant. T = mV
2
/r
Surface is frictionless
F
r
= centripetal force T = F
r

F
t
= tangential force
F
r
= mv
2
/ r is always the combination of the forces
that are in the direction of the center.

2) Conical Pendulum :


o V is constant
L m.V
2
/r = T.sino
T m.V
2
/ L.sino = T.sino
R m.V
2
/ l.sino = mg.sino / coso
o tan o = V
2
/r.g = V
2
/ L.sino.g
a

m.g

3) The Rotar :
N = m.V
2
/r f
s
= N.
s

f
s
m.g/
s
= m.V
2
/ r
R V
2
= r.g /
s

N

mg
4)Curve Problems :

m rotates with the turn table ;
What must
s
be to keep the object away from
escaping ?
= 0
mV
2
/r = f
s
mV
2
/ r = N.
s
mV
2
/r = m.g.
s

s
= V
2
/r.g
V
2
=
s
.r.g



5)Banked Curve :
N N.sino = mV
2
/r
N.coso = m.g
mg.sino / coso = mV
2
/r
= 0 mg tano = V
2
/gr
R
o If =0
s
= V
2
/r.g
s
= tano

Ex:

s
= 0 find ]
max
and ]
min
to net move with
respect to the cone.

N m.V
2
/ r = N.sino - f
s
.coso
o o N.coso + f
s
.sino = m.g
N.coso +
s
.N.sino = m.g

m.g
mg.sino / (coso +
s
.sino) mg.
s
.coso /( coso +
s
.sino ) = mV
2
/r
( sino -
s
.coso ) / ( coso +
s
.sino ) = V
2
/g.r
V = 2t.r.] ( sino -
s
.coso ) / ( coso +
s
.sino ) = ( 2t]
min
)
2
.r / g
]
max
;
mV
2
/ r = N.sino + N.
s
.coso
N.coso = N
s
.sino + m.g
o N ( coso -
s
.sino ) = m.g
( 2t.]
max
)
2
.r / g = ( sino +
s
.coso ) / ( coso -
s
.sino )


Time Dependent Forces
If an acceleration or a force equation is given, then we can find the velocity equation
by taking the integral of the acceleration equation.
t
F(t) = m.a(t) V(t) = V
0
+ } a(t).dt
t
0
t
X(t) = X
0
+ } V(t) dt
t
0

Ex: A particle of mass m is subjected to a net force F(t) given by ; F(t) = F
0
( 1- t / T)i
that is F(t) = F
0
at t = 0 and decreases linearly to 0 in time T . The particle passes the origin
with velocity V
0
i. Show that at the instant t = T that F(T) vanishes , the speed and distance
traveled are given by ; V(t) = V
0
+ 1/ 2.a
0
.T
X(t) = V
0
.T + 1/ 3.a
0
.T
2
where a
0
= F
0
/ m

a(t) = F
0
/m . ( 1-t/T ).i V(T) = } [ F
0
/m .( 1- t/T ) ]dt + V
o
V(T) = F
0
.t/m F
0
t
2
/ 2mT + V
0
= F
0
.T /m F
0
.T /2m +V
0

V(T) = 1/ 2.( F
0
T/m ) + V
0
= 1/ 2.a
0
T + V
0

X(T) = } F
0
/m ( t 1/ 2.t
2
/T ) +X
0
= X
0
+ ( F
0
t
2
/2m F
0
t
3
/6mT + V
0
t )
X(t) = 1/ 3. a
0
T
2
+ V
0
T

Drag Forces ( Velocity Dependent Forces )
When an object makes free falling , it is affected by the air friction force. This force is
called drag force .
F= m.a a(V) = F(V) / m a(V) = dV / dt } dt = } dV / a(V)
v t v
} dV/ a(V) = } dt = t t = } dV / a(V)
v
0
0 v
0


EXERCISES:
1)
R If the object is turned with a string on the horizontal
surface and it has a velocity V on A and B , then
m what is the tension on A and B ?

T
A mV
2
/ r = T - mg
A T
A
= mg + mV
2
/ r
mg
B
mg T + m = mV
2
/ r T = mV
2
/r - mg
T

2)
T
1
= ? T
2
= ? ( m
1
= m
2
)
If they are on the same rope, their frequencies
m
2
must be equal.
rr V
1
= 2tr] V
2
= 2tr2r]
2V
1
= V
2

T
2
= m.( 2V)
2
/ 2r T
2
= m.2V
2
/ r
T
1
T
2
= mV
2
/r T
1
= mV
2
/ r +2mV
2
/r
T
1
= 3mV
2
/ r
T
1
T
2







3)
K On the vertical plane, at the point K, the force between
the object and the rail is 2mg. What is the force that is
applied on the object by the rail at L ?
r K
mg 3mg = mV
2
/r
2mg
L
T
L T mg = mV
2
/r
T = mV
2
/r + mg = 3mg + mg = 4mg
mg

WORK AND ENERGY
Work Done by a Constant Force :

m
F W = F.x W is scalar.
x

F
o
W =F.coso.x W = work done by F
x
W = 1 N.m = 1 joule 1 eV = 1,6.10
-19
joule
Work is path dependent.

Ex: m

4,65m m = 11,7 kg. Calculate how much work you would do if
m 2,86m you applied a force parallel to the incline to push the block
up at constant speed.


F F.coso = N.sino N.coso + F.sino = mg
N N = F.coso / sino F.cos
2
o / sino + F.sino = mg
o F( cos
2
o + sin
2
o ) / sino = mg F = mg.sino
W = mg.sino.s = 11,7. 9,8. 2,86. 4,6 / 4,65 = 328 J
mg


Space Dimension Forces
a) One Dimensional Space :
F = m.a F(x) = a(x) dV/ dt = F(x) / m
dV/ dx . dx/ dt = F(x) / m
v. dV/dx = F(x) / m m.dV = F(x) dx
} m.dV = } F(x)dx } F(x) dx = 1/ 2.m.V
2

W = 1 /2.m.V
2
1/ 2.mV
0
2
W = AE
k

b) Two Dimensional Space :

F(x)
Area = } F(x) dx
Area = W = AE
k

A

x
0
x
c)Generalization to Higher Dimensions:

F L
ds = the infinitesimal line element
ds ds( dx, dy , dz )
F = ( F
x
, F
y
, F
z
)
dW = F.d.s
i L x
W = } F(s) ds W = } F(x) dx
i x
0

If F is constant W = F.s W > 0 , F | |s
W < 0 , F |+s W = | F|.|s|.coso

If F is constant W = F.s
F is not constant W = } F(x) dx

Ex: W
F
= ? W
fk
= ? W
mg
= ?
F W
F
= F.coso.x
W
fk
= N.
k
.cos|.x = 0 ( N s)
W
mg
= m.g.s = 0
f
k

= 0
Forces that are perpendicular to the direction of the motion
dont do any work.

Work Done by Gravitation
1)
s = ( 0, h) W
grav
= -mgh
h F
grav
= ( 0,-mg ) W
ext
= +mgh


2)
s = ( 0,-h ) W
grav
= mgh g ||s
W
ext
= -mgh F
ext
|+s
h






3)

x h W
grav
= -m.gh

o

Work Done by a Spring Force


m F = 0 ( relaxed )

x
F
s
< 0 ( streched)


x F
s
> 0 ( compressed )

f
ext
F
s
F
s
= -kx ( Hooks Law )


F is the restoring force and always tends to restore the particle to its position x = 0
x
g
x
f

W
s
= } F
s
(x) dx = } ( -kx) dx = 1/ 2.k.x
i
2
1/ 2.kx
g
2

x
i
x
i

if x
i
= x
0
W
s
= -1/ 2.kx
2

W
Fext
= 1/ 2.kx
2

Ex:
F
s
=-kx F
ext
=kx
W = } F(x) ( if there is a force that is
dependent on x , you have to take its
W
s
=(-) W
ext
=(+) integral )

W
ext
=(+) W
s
=(-)



Ex:
A 263 gr. block is dropped onto a vertical
spring with force constant k = 2,52 N/cm. The block
sticks to the spring and the spring compresses 11,8 cm.
before coming to rest. While the spring is being
compressed, how much work done
a) by the gravity force
b) by the spring
c) What is the speed of the block just before it hits the
spring?
d) if this initial velocity is doubled , what is the max. compression of the spring ?
a) W
grav
= +mgx b) W
s
= -1/ 2.kx
2

c) 1/ 2.mV
2
+ mgh = 1/ 2.kx
2
1/ 2mV
2
= 1/ 2kx
2
-mgh
d) 1/ 2mV
2
+ mgx = 1/ 2.kx
2
4.1/ 2.mV
2
= 1/ 2kx
2
mgx
4(1/ 2.2,52.(11,8)
2
263.9,8.11,8 ) = 1/ 2.2,52.(x)
2
263.9,8.x x = 22,5 cm
POWER
Power: Work done within the unit time.
P
av
= AW / At P
instantaneous
= dW / dt
dim [P] ) [ mL
2
/ T ] unit of P = watt = joule / sec
1 horse power = 746 watt
P = W /t P = F. x/t P = F.V

Ex: m = 2,8 kg. X(t) = 3t 4t
2
+ t
3

a) Find W during first 4 sec.
b) t = 3 sec what is P
ins
?

a) W = AE
k
V = dx/ dt = 3 8t +3t
2

W = 1/ 2.mV
4
2
1/ 2.mV
0
2
W = E
k
(4) E
k
(0)
b) P = W/ t = F.x / t = F.V = ma.V
P = m.dV/ dt. dx/ dt = m.( -8 +6t ) ( 3 8t + 3t
2
)
P(3) = m.10.6 = 60 m.

Ex: If P is constant show that V = ( 3Px /m)
1/3
where x is the distance traveled from rest.
P = W/ t = AE
k
/t P.t = 1/ 2.mV
2

V = \ [2Pt/ m] dx/ dt = \ [2Pt/m ]
} dx = } \ [2Pt/m] dt x = \ [2P/m] . 2/ 3.\ t
3

V
3
= ( \[2P/m] )
3
.\t
3
V = ( 3Px /m )
1/3

Exercises
1) A swimmer moves through the water at a speed of 0,22 m/s. The drag force opposing this
motion is 110 N. How much power is developed by this swimmer ?
W = P.t F.x = P.t
P = F. x/t = 110.V = 110.0,22 = 24,2 watt
2) A ball loses 15 % of its kinetic energy when it bounces back from a concrete wall , with
what speed must you throw it vertically down from a height of 12,4m. to have it bounce
back to that same height ?
mgh + E
k
= mgh + 15/100.( mgh + E
k
)
E
k
= 15/100.mgh + 15/100.E
k

85/100.1/ 2mV
2
= 15/100mgh
V
2
= gh/2,8 = 9,8. 12,4 / 2,8 = 43,4 V ~ 6,5 m/s
3) A running man has half of the energy that a boy of half its mass has. The man speeds up
by 1 m/s and then has the same kinetic energy as the boy . What are the original speeds of the
man and the boy ?
2. 1/ 2.mV
M
2
= 1/ 2.m/2 .V
B
2
4V
M
2
= V
B
2
2.V
M
= V
B

1 /2.m(V
M
+1 )
2
= 1/ 2.m/2.V
B
2
\2.(V
M
+1) = V
B

\2.( V
M
+1) = 2.V
M
V
M
= 1/ ( \2 1) V
B
= 2/ (\2 1)

3) An object of mass m accelerates uniformly from rest to a speed V
f
in time t
f
.
a) Show that the work done on the object as a function of time t.
W = 1/ 2.m .V
f
2
/ t
f
2
.t
2

b) What is the instantaneous power as afunction of time ?

a) W = F.x W = F.1/ 2.a.t
2
W = V
f
. m /t
f
.1/ 2. V
f
/t
f
. t
2
W = 1/ 2.m.V
f
2
/ t
f
2
. t
2
V
f
= V
0
+at
f
a = V
f
/ t
f
F /m = V
f
/t
f
b) P.t = W P = dW /dt = m. V
f
2
/t
f
2
.t
Conservation of Energy
The constant forces that are path independent are called conservative forces.
i.e. spring force , gravity force...

W
1
= W
2
= W
3
W = } F.dr
1
2 3 Non-conservative forces are the forces that changes according to time.


Ex: F( x, y) = ( -k
1
y
i
, -k
2
y
j
)
a) Show that the work done by this force is path independent.
b) k
1
= k
2
is force conservative ?
A
W
1
= } F.ds ds= ( dx,dy )
0 D A
B 4 A(a,b) W
1
= } F.ds + } F.ds F.ds = (-k
1
ydx , -k
2
xdy)
0 D
1 3 W
1
= } -k
2
xdy + } -k
1
adx = -k
1
a.b
C A A
W
2
= } + } = } -k
2
.a.dy = -k
2
.a.b
2 C 0 C C
A
W
3
= } F.dr y = m.x y = b/a.x dy = b/a dx
0
W
3
= k
1
. b/a dx k
2
. b/a. dx = -ab /2.( k
1
+ k
2
)
W
1
= W
2
= W
3
so they are non-conservative.
b) k
1
= k
2
-k
1
.a.b = -k
2
a.b = -ka.b
so F is a conservative force.

Potential Energy
It is shown as U . It is the energy that the object possesses because of its position.
W = -AU F(x) = -dU(x) / dx
W = AK = -AU AK + AU = 0 A( K + U ) = 0
Let total mechanical energy E = K+ U
AE = 0 Energy is conserved.
Ex: F(x) = -3x 5x
2
m = 1,18 kg.
a) U(x) = ? when U(0) = 0
b) V
i
= 4,13m/s at x
i
= 4,31m what can be V
f
at x
g
= 1,77 m
x
f
x
U(x) = -} F(x) dx + U(x
i
) U(x) = -} (-3x-5x
2
)dx
x
i
0
U(x) = 3/2 x
2
+ 5/3 x
3

1/ 2.mV
i
2
+ U
i
= 1/ 2.mV
f
2
+ U
f





1) Gravitational Potential Energy:

f

h AU = mgh

i

2) Mass-Spring Systems Potential Energy :

i f W
s
= 1/ 2.k ( x
i
2
x
f
2
)
F(x) = -kx
AU = 1/ 2.kx
2
U(x) = 1/ 2.kx
2


One Dimensional Conservative Systems
U(x) + 1/ 2.mV
2
= E
V = \ [ 2/m. ( E-U(x) ) ]
E = F.x Slope of the E-x graph gives the force

E
3

E
2

AE
k

E
1
F(x) = - dU(x) / dx
E
0

U(x)


The slope is zero at the points E
0
, E
1
, E
2
and E
3
. So the force changes its direction.

Ex: U(x) = a/x
12
b/x
6
The potential energy of the attraction between two atoms
a) Find the force between the atoms.
b) Find the equilibrium position between the atoms.
c) Find E
min
to break the molecules apart.

a) F(x) =- dU(x) / dx F(x) = -( -12a/x
13
+ 6b/x
7
) = 12a/x
13
6b/x
7

b) F(x) = 0 dU(x) / dx = 0 -12a /x
13
+ 6b/x
7
= 0
x = ( 2a/b)
1/6

c) W = AU W = - (U
i
U
f
)
W = - ( a/x
0
12
b/x
0
6
( a/x
f
12
b/x
f
6
) ) W = -( ab
2
/4a b
2
/2a )
W = b
2
/4a

Higher Dimensional Conservative
x
f
y
f
z
f

U = U( x, y, z ) AU = -} F
x
dx - } F
y
dy - } F
z
dz
x
0
y
0
z
0

-F
x
= dU /dx -F
y
= dU /dy -F
z
= dU/ dz



Ex: In a certain system of particles confined to x-y plane, the force has the form
F( x,y ) = -kyi kxj. If the particle is initially at the origin and finally at a point
( a,b ) , find if the force is conservative or not. If it is conservative find U(x) .

0 b a
b W
1
= } F
x
dx + } F
y
dy + } -kydx
0 0 0
1 W
1
= -kba
0
2 a a a a b
W
2
= } -kydx + } -kxdy + } -kydx + } -kxdy
0 0 a 0

W
2
= -kab 0
W
1
= W
2
so F(x) is conservative
W = -AU W = -( U
f
U
i
) W = -U
f

U
f
= kab U(x) = kxy

Ex:

o l = 2,13m o = 35 Find the velocity at A.
l cos35 = (2,13 h) / 2,13
1,74 = 2,13 h h ~ 0,4m
mg.0,4 = 1/ 2.mV
2
0,8.9,8 = V
2
V = 2,8m/s
m

A

Ex:
3L/4 F Length of the chain is L , mass is m
What is the work done to pull the L/4 part of the
L/4 chain ?
= 0 W = mgh W = m/4 .g. L/8
W = mgL/ 32


Ex:
P
a) What is F
N
that affects P at A.
B b) What is the height that the box has to be dropped
5r to make F
net
= 0 at B.
r A
a) 5mgr = 1/ 2.m.V
2
+ mgr mV
2
/r = m.8gr / r
V
2
= 8gr
8mg
mg F
net
= \65 mg
b) mg N = mV
2
/ r gr = V
2
kmgr = 2mgr + 1/ 2.mgr
k = 5/2 h = 5/2. r

Work- Energy Theorem
The energy is not lost in the universe. But it is changed into the heat energy with the
non-conservative forces .If we show the non-conservative energies as W
NC

W
NC
= AE the change of the mechanical energy
Internal Energy : The energy that is appeared by the objects that is affecting each other.
W = AK + AU + AE
int


Ex: A baseball is dropped ( m= 0,143 kg. ) from a height of 443m. Max speed of the ball is
42 m/s. Find the change in the internal energy of the ball and the surrounding air during the
fall to the surface of the ground.
W = AU + AE
k
+ AE
int

0 = -mg.443 + 1/ 2.m.42
2
+ AE
int

0 = -621 + 126 +AE
int
AE
int
= 495 J

Ex:
m = 4,5kg. V = 5m/s
1,5m a) What is the energy that is consumed by the friction?
5m b) What is the velocity at the initial point when the
V block slides back from the top?

30 a) AK + AU + AE
int
= Wf

-1 /2.mV
2
+ mgh = W
f
- AE
int
W
f
- AE
int
= 33 56 = -23 J
b) AK + AV + AE
int
= W
f

1/ 2.mV
2
33 = W
f
- AE
int
1/ 2.mV
2
= -23 + 33 1/ 2.mV
2
= 10
V = 2,1 m/s


Exercises
1) m = 2,5 kg h = 5 m k = 2 N/m
Find the max compression. ( g = 10 m/s
2
)
mg (h+x ) = 1/ 2.kx
2
125 + 20x = x
2

x
2
20x = 125 x( x 20 ) = 125
x 0 25m




2) F(x) = G.m
1
.m
2
/ x
2
a) U(x) = ? ( U(x) 0 as x )
b) W = ? to make x
1
to x + d .
a) W = -U(x) F.x = - U(x)
G.m
1
.m
2
/ x
2
. x = -U(x) U(x) = G.m
1
.m
2
/ x
b) W = -AU W = [G.m
1
.m
2
/ x
1
]-[G.m
1
.m
2
/ (x
1
+d)] = G.m
1
.m
2
.d /x
1
(x
1
+d)







3)
P Show that d > 32/5 for P object to complete
the circle with radius r.
d mgL = mg2r + 1/ 2.mV
2

mgL = 2mgr + 1/ 2.mgr L = 5/2r
r L = d+ r L = d + 2/5L d = 3L/ 5




Systems of Particles
Center of Mass:
1) Two Particle Systems:

X
cm
= ( m
1
x
1
+ m
2
x
2
) / ( m
1
+m
2
)
m
1
.d
1
= m
2
.d
2

d
1
d
2

m
1
cm m
2

Motion of CM : V
cm
= dR
cm
/ dt = (m
1
V
1
+ m
2
V
2
) / (m
1
+ m
2
)
If a = 0 a
cm
= dV
cm
/ dt = (m
1
.a
1
+ m
2
.a
2
) / (m
1
+m
2
)
( m
1
+m).a
cm
= m
1
.a
1
+ m
2
.a2
( m
1
+ m
2
)a
m
= F
1
+F
2
F
net
= ( m
1
+ m
2
).a
cm

if F
net
= 0 a = 0 ( so V
cm
is constant )


2) Many Particle Systems :

m
1

R
1
R
cm
= [m
1
R
1
+ m
2
R
2
+ m
3
R
3
+...] / (m
1
+m
2
...)
R
2
m
2
R
cm
= (x,y,z) x
cm
= (m
1
R
1x
+ m
2
R
2x
+...) / ( m
1
+m
2
...)
y
cm
= ( m
1
R
1y
+m
2
R
2y
+...) / ( m
1
+m
2
...)
z
cm
= ( m
1
R
1z
+ m
2
R
2z
+...) / ( m
1
+ m
2
...)


Ex: m
1
= 3kg
m
2
= 4kg R
cm
= ?
m
3
m
3
= 8kg
m
2

x
cm
= ( m
3
+ 2m
2
) /15 = 16/ 15
m
1
y
cm
= ( m
2
+2m
3
) /15 = 20/ 15 = 4/ 3
R
m
= ( 16/15 , 4/3 )

Motion of Vcm : V
cm
= dR/ dt = 1/ ( m
1
+m
2
+...). (m
1
.dr
1
/dt + m
2
.dr
2
/ dt +...)
V
cm
= ( m
1
V
1
+m
2
V
2
+...) /(m
1
+m
2
+...)
a
cm
= ( m
1
a
1
+ m
2
a
2
+...) / (m
1
+ m
2
+...)
( m
1
+ m
2
+...).a
cm
= F
1
+ F
2
+....



Ex:
F
1
m
1
m
1
= 4,1kg m
2
= 8,2kg
F
2
m
3
= 4,1kg F
1
= 6N
F
2
= 12N F
3
= 14 N
m
2
a) R
cm
= ? b) a
cm
= ?


m
3
F
3


a) X
cm
= (-2. 4,1+ 4. 8,2 + 1. 4,1) / 16,4 = 1,75
Y
cm
= ( 4,1. 3 +8,2 .2 4,1.2) / 16,4 = 1,25 Rcm = (1,75, 1,25 )

b) 16,4.a
xcm
= -6 + 6\2 +14 a
xcm
= 1
16,4.a
ycm
= 0+ 6\2 + 0 a
ycm
= 0,5 a
cm
= (1 , 0.5 )

Ex:
What is the a
cm
?
m
1

L-y

=0 m
2

cm y



( m
1
+ m
2
) a
cmx
= m.g a
cmy
( m
1
+m
2
) = m
2
g
a
cmx
= m
2
g /(m
1
+m
2
) a
cmy
= -m
2
g / (m
1
+m
2
)
a
cm
= ( m
2
g/(m
1
+m
2
) , (-m
2
g/(m
1
+m
2
) )

3) Solid Objects :

cm R
cm
= 1/ (m
1
+m
2
....). } r.dm
R
cm
x
cm
= 1/( m
1
+m
2
+..) . }x.dm
dm y
cm
= 1/ (m
1
+m
2
+...). } ydm
R z
cm
= 1/ ( m
1
+m
2
+...). } z.dm

If the object is 1D , dm = .dx = linear mass density
= m /L
If the object is 2D , dm = o .dA o = surface mass density
o = m/ A
If the object is 3D , dm = o .dV o = volume mass density
o = m/V
Ex: du
x
cm
= ?
x L
x
cm
= 1/m .} x.dm dm = .dx dm = m/ L.dx
0
x
cm
= 1/m.} m/ L.x.dx x
cm
= 1/ L.} x.dx x
cm
= x
2
/2L ] x
cm
=L/ 2

Ex:
(x) = ax ( bar isnt uniform)
L dm x
cm
= ? m = ?
x
cm
= 1/m.} x.dm x
cm
= 1/m.} .x.dx
0
x
cm
= 1/ m.} a.x
2
dx x
cm
= ax
3
/3m x
cm
= a.L
3
/3m
L
m = } dm = } dx = } ax.dx = ax
2
/2 m = a.L
2
/2
0
x
cm
= a.L
3
.2 / 3.a.L
2
= 2L/ 3

Ex:
In the figure the part with radius R was separated. Find X
cm
.
2R

x( 4tr
2
- tr ) = R.tr
2

x.3tR
2
= R.tr
2

x = R / 3
R


m
1
x cm c.m.

Ex:

dm
y
o
R x

Find X
cm
?
X
cm
= 0 ( it can be seen )

= M / tr dm / M = do / t y = R.sino
t
Y
cm
= 1/ M. } dm.y = 1/ M } o / t . Rsino
0
Y
cm
= R /t. -coso ] = R /t - ( -R/ t ) = 2R / P X
cm
= ( 0, 2R /t )

P.S : In this kind of questions make x and y dependent to angles and dont forget that
dm / M = do / t . This means that the unit angle is equal to the unit area.








Ex:
A ball is places in a shell which has the
same weight with the ball .Ball starts moving
when dropped freely and stops at the point O.
During this time shell moves towards left.
Find the place displacement.

At first position CM = ( -R/ 2,0 )

O
R 2R
At the second position :
d CM = ( d, -R/2 )





cm ( 0,0 )


There is not any horizontal external force that affects the object. There is only a vertical force.
Because of this the horizontal CM of the object must not change.
So -R /2 = d d = R /2

Ex: L
If cannon throws all of the balls to the opposite
wall , then what is the place displacement of the car ?
What is the velocity of the car after the cannon was shot?









x
2
cm x
1
x
1
x
1
cm x
2

CM moved 2x
1
. If M
balls
>>> M
car

x
1
= L/ 2 2x
1
0 L
b) V
cm
= 0 ( F
net
= 0 )








Ex: d
M
dog
, d , L and M
boat
is given. Find x = ?

L x
2
x
1

x = d L + 2x
1

x M
d
. x
2
= M
b
.x
1
cm
x
1
+ x
2
= L/ 2
( L/2 x
1
).M
d
= M
b
.x
1
x
2
x
1
x
2

L.M
d
/ 2 x
1
.M
d
= M
b
.x
1

x
1
= L.M
d
/ 2(M
b
+ M
d
)
x = d L + 2x
1
x = d L + L.M
d
/ ( M
d
+ M
b
)
P.S : In this kind of questions , the center of mass of the boat and the dog together, does not
change.


Linear Momentum
Momentum ; D = m.V
F
ext
= dP / dt ( if m is constant ) F
ext
= m. V/dt F
ext
= m.a
( if m isnt constant ) F
ext
= dP / dt
P of systems of particles ; If there is more than one particle total P is ;
P = m
1
V + m
2
V
2
+ ....
P = M
total
.V
cm

Conservation of Linear Momentum:
If F
net
= 0 Momentum is conserved. This means that
dP / dt = 0 and P
i
= P
f


Ex: m
V V
E
( wrt earth )

V
(wrt cannon )
Mass of the cannon is M = 1300 kg. Mass of the ball m = 72 kg.
V = 55 m/s Find V and V
E

P
i
= 0 P
f
= m.V
E
+MV m.V
E
= MV
| V| = | V | + | V
E
|
V
E
/ V = 1300 / 72 = 18 V
E
= 18 V
55 = V + 18 V 19 V = 55
V
E
= 52 m/s V = 2,9 m/s

Ex: What fraction of the total Ek of the system will
V
1
V
2
each block have at any later time ?
P
i
= P
f
0 = m
1
V
1
mV
2

fraction i = K
1
/ (K
2
+K
1
)
m
1
m
2
= m
1
V
1
2
/ [m
1
V
1
2
+m
1
V
1
(m
1
V
1
/m
2
) ]
= 1 / ( 1+ m
1
/ m
2
)
= 0 fraction i = m
2
/(m
1
+m
2
)
( Blocks are pulled and then left free fraction f = m
1
/ (m
1
+ m
2
)
towards each other )


Ex:
M V M = 4,88 kg
V = 31,4 m/s
Find the change of the linear momentum.
42 42

AP = P
f
P
i
= ( P
fx
P
ix
) + ( P
fy
P
iy
)
= ( MVcos42 - MVcos42 ) + ( MVsin42 + MVsin42 )
AP = ( 0,2>~sin42 ) AP = ( 0,205 )

Ex:
m V = wrt train
V What is the change in V
0
just before the man
M V jumps from the car with V ?

( m + M ).V
0
= ( m+ M ). V
f
mV
m.V = ( V
f
V
o
) ( m+ M )
V
f
V
0
= m.V / ( m+M )

Collisions
Impulsive Force : Forces that act for a short time compared with the time of observation
of the system are called impulsive forces.

Impulse and Momentum :

F P
f
t
f

f(t) F = dP / dt } dP = } F dt
P
i
t
i

P
f
P
i
= F.t
f
F.t
i

AP = F.At



t
i
At t
f

If F is a variable , like in the graph , we use the average force ( F )
AP = F.At Area under f(t) in the graph gives Ap.

Conversation of P During Collision

F
12
= - F
21
t
f

AP
1
= } F
21
dt AP
2
= } F
12
.dt
F
21
F
12
t
i

1 2 AP
1
= -AP
2
AP = AP
1
+ AP
2
= 0
If F
ext
= 0 then AP = 0





Ex:
m h
1
= 2m h
2
= 1,5m m = 1 kg
time to hit the ground = 10
-2
sec.
a) What is the impulse on ball ?
h
1
h
2
b) What is the momentum of ball after collision ?
c) What is the average impulse force ?

a) I = F .At = AP AP = P
f
P
i
mg.h
1
= 1/ 2.mV
2

P
i
= m. \ 2gh
2
P
f
= m.\ 2gh
1

AP = m.( \2gh
2
+ \2gh
1
)
b) P
f
= m.\ 2gh
2

c) AP = F.At F.10
-2
= 11,6 F = 1160

Collisions in One Dimension

1) Elastic Collision : The objects are separated from each other completely and no energy
appears. For this reason energy is conserved , too ; besides momentum.
m
1
m
2

V
1
V
2


1/ 2.m
1
V
1
2
+ 1/ 2.m
2
V
2
2
= 1 /2.m
1
V
1f
2
+ 1 /2.m
2
V
2f
2

m
1
V
1
+ m
2
V
2
= m
1
V
1f
+ m
2
V
2f

V
1f
0 ( m
1
m
2
) / ( m
1
+ m ). V
1
+ 2.m
2
/ ( m
1
+ m
2
) V
2



If m
1
= m
2
V
1f
= V
2
,V
2f
= V
1

If m
1
>>m
2
V
1f
= V
1
, V
2f
= 2.V
1
V
2

If m
1
<<m
2
, V
2
= 0 V
1
= V
1f
, V
2f
= 0

2)Inelastic Collisions : The objects are deformed . Because of this reason energy appears..
Momentum is conserved. But energy is not conserved.

3)Completely Inelastic Collision : The objects stick each other . During sticking energy
appears. So energy is not conserved.
m
1
m
2
V
1
V
2
m
1
V
1
+ m
2
V
2
= (m
1
+ m
2
).V
f


V
f
= ( m
1
V
1
+ m
2
V
2
) / ( m
1
+ m
2
)

Collisions in Two Dimensions
Ex: V
m Collision is completely inelastic.
o
1
V/2 Find o
1
+ o
2
= ?
o
2
2m
mVcoso
1
+ mVcoso
2
= 2m.V/2
m V coso
1
+ coso
2
= 1
mVsino
1
= mVsino
2
sino
1
= sino
2
o
1
= o
2

2cos [( o
1
+o
2
) /2].cos[(o
1
-o
2
) /2] = 1 (o
1
+o
2
) /2 = 60 o
1
+o
2
= 120

Ex:
V m
2
m
1
What is the movement of m
1

m
2
m
1
V = ? and the angle of its movement ?
V = 0 V/2


m
2
V = m
1
V
f
.coso m
2
.V/2 = m
1
V
f
.sino
coso = m
2
V / mV
f
sino = m
2
V / 2m
1
V
f

tano = 1 /2 o = 22.5
V
1

Ex: V
0
V = 0 m o
1
m o
2

m m
V
2


It is an elastic collision. Then o
1
+ o
2
= ?
mV
0
= mV
1
coso
1
+ mV
2
coso
2

mV
1
sino
1
= mVsino
2
V
0
2
= V
1
2
+ V
2
2

V
0
2
= V
1
2
cos
2
o
1
+ V
2
2
.cos
2
o
2

V
0
2
= V
1
2
+ V
2
2
+ 2V
1
V
2
( coso
1
.coso
2
- sino
1
.sino
2
)
o
1
+ o
2
= t /2

Ex:
m
1
V
1
m
2
V
2



m
1
= 1,88kg V
1
= 10,3m/s m
2
= 4,92kg V
2
= 3,27m/s k = 11,2N/cm

Find the max compression . ( Hint : At max compression blocks move as one complete object)
( complete inelastic )
m
1
V
1
+ m
2
V
2
= (m
1
+ m
2
) .V
f

V
f
= 5,2m/s
1/ 2.m
1
V
1
2
+ 1/ 2.m
2
V
2
2
= 1/ 2.( m
1
+ m
2
)V
f
2
+ 1 /2.kx
2

253 0 184 + kx
2
kx
2
= 68
11,2 / 10
-2
. x
2
= 69 x
2
= 0,69 /11,2 x 0 0,25 cm

Ex:
Find h
max
.

m V = 0
V
0
V
2
h
max



m.V
0
= (m+M ).V
2
V
2
= m.V
0
/ (m+M)
1/ 2.(m+M) V
2
2
= ( m+M).gh
max
V
2
2
= 2gh
max

( m.V
0
/(m+M) )
2
. 1/2g =h
max




Ex:
m V
0
V
1
V
0
V
3


m
3m
spring is relaxed Find x
max
.
4mV
0
= 2mV
1
+ 3mV
0
mV
0
= 2mV
1
V
1
= V
0
/2
2mV
1
+ 3mV
0
= 5mV
3
V
3
= 4V
0
/5
1 /2.2m. (V
0
/ 2)
2
+ 1 /2.3m.V
0
2
= 1/ 2.5m.(4V
0
/5)
2
+ 1/ 2kx
2

7mV
0
2
/2 = 16mV
0
2
/5 + kx
2

3mV
0
2
/ 10.k = x
2
x = V
0
. \ 3m /10k


Rotational Kinematics
Rotational Motion :
Pure Rotation : If all the points over the objects follows a circular path and if the rotation
occurs on an axis that passes through the center of these points , then this movement is a pure
rotation.
z




y

P
x
Rotational Variables
y
s = length of the arc s = r.| (|=radian)
V ds / dt = r.d| / dt
r V = r.W ( W = rad/s , o = rad/s
2
)
| s
z x
angular displacement A| = |
2
- |
1

average angular velocity W = d|/ dt
average angular acceleration o = d / dt = d
2
| / dt
2


Rotation with Constant o
If o is constant
W = ot + W
0
W = (W
0
+ W) / 2
| = 1/ 2.ot
2
+ W
0
.t + |
0
W
2
= 2o| + W
0
2








Ex: o = 3,2rad/s
2
. At t 0 0 reference line AB is
horizontal. a) Find the angular displacement of the
line AB
b) Find angular speed of the grindstone after 2,7 sec.

B a) | = 1/ 2.ot
2
+ W
0
t + |
0
= 11,7 rad
b) W = ot = 3,2. 2,7 = 8,6 rad/s
A

In that example W
0
= 8,6 rad/s. Stone stops at 192 sec because of the friction on the wheel.
a) What is o ?
b) What is the total angle turned through during the slowing down ?

a) W = ot +W
0
0 = 192o + 8,6 o = - 0,045rad/s
2

b) W
2
W
0
2
= -2o.| 74 = 2. 0,045.| | = 822 rad = 131 revolution

Rotation with Constant o :
o = 0 | = W.t + |
0
W = 2t/ T
From the rotational quantities | is scalar W and o are vectoral quantities.

Ex:
W
2
= 43 rad/s describe the rotation of the
W
1
= 84 rad/s disk as seen by an observer in the room.
W
1
+ W
2
= 94,4
tan| = 43 /84 | = 27
Disk makes pure rotation with 94,4 rad/s
W
2


Relationship Between Angular and Linear Quantities
Linear quantities are similar to the radial components of the angular quantities.
V = W.r dV / dt = dW /dt .r
a
r
= r.W
2
= V
2
/ r a
t
= r.o = dV /dt
a = a
r
+ a
t


Ex: An object rotating about the z-axis slowing down at 2,66 rad/s
2
. Consider a particle
located at r = 1,83j + 1,26k ( in meters ) . When W = 14,3 k ( rad/s) find
a) V = ?
b) Its acceleration
c) the radius of the path

a) V = W.r V = (0,14.3 ) x ( 1.83 , 1.26 ) = -( 14,3) ( 1,83) i
b) a
r
= W x V = ( -14,3)
2
. ( 1,83).( k x i )= -( 14,3)
2

a
t
= o x R = -( 2,66k ) x ( 1,83j + 1,26k ) = ( 2,66) (1,83)i
c) r = 1,83


Vectoral Relationship : V = W x r a
r
= W x V
a
t
= o x r a = a
r
+ a
t

Exercises
1) A flywheel engine is rotating 25,2 rad/s. When the engine is turned off , the flywheel
decelerates at a constant rate and comes to rest after 19,7 sec.
a) o = ? ( in rad/s
2
)
b) the angle = ? ( in rad )
c) the number of the revolutions ?

a) W = o.t 25,5 = o.19,7 o = 1,28 rad/s
2

b) | = -1 /2.ot
2
+ Wt | = 248 rad
c) 2t rad 1 rev 248 /2t = 39,47 rev


2) A flywheel completes 42,3 rev as it slows from an angular speed of 1,44rad/s to a
complete stop.
a) If o is uniform , find time for slowing
b) o = ?
c) How much time is required for it to complete the first one half of the 42,3 revolutions ?

a) 42,3 rev = 42,3. 2t rad = 266 rad
W = ot 266 = -1/ 2.ot
2
+ 1,44t
266 = -1/ 2.1,44 + 1,44t = 0,72t t = 369 sec.
b) 1,44 = o.369 o = 0,0038 rad/s
2

c) V
s
2
+ ( 1,44)
2
= -2. 0,0035. 133 V
s
2
= 1,0362 V
s
= 1,02rad/s
V
s
= -o.t + V 1,02 = - 0,0035t + 1,44
0,0035t = 0,42 t = 108 sec.

3) What is the time when
wheel A reaches o = 1,6 rad/s
2
and
wheel B reaches V = 100rev/min ?

100.2t/ 60 = 10,5rad/s
r
1
= 0,1m r
2
= 0,35m
# rev . r = # rev.r
W
1
. r
1
= W
2
. r W.0,1 = 10,5. 0,25 W = 26 rad/s
W = o.t 26 = 1,6.t t = 16,25 sec.

4)
a) a
r
= ?
b) a
t
= ?
c) If a makes an angle of 57 with a
t
, what is the total
r angle that the object traveled ?
a) a
r
0 V
2
/ r = W
2
.r = o
2
.t
2
.r
b) a
t
= o.r
c) | = 1/ 2.ot
2
a.cos57 = or a.sin57 = o
2
t
2
r
| = 1 /2.1,54 ot
2
= 1,54
| = 0,77rad



Rotational Dynamics
Kinetic Energy of Rotation
Rotational Inertia ( I ) : ( Moment of inertia ) : The sum of the products of the mass of each
particle by the square of perpendicular distance from the axis of the body with respect to the
axis of the rotation.
I = m
1
r
1
2
+ m
2
r
2
2
+ ... + m
n
r
n
2

K = 1/ 2.mV
2
( V = W.r )
K = 1/ 2m.W
2
r
2
K = 1/ 2.I W
2
( W in radian )
CALCULATING I
a) The System of Particles :

I = E m
i
r
i
2
= m
1
r
1
2
+ ....+ m
n
r
n
2


Ex: m
1
= 2,3kg
m
2
= 3,2 kg m
2

m
3
= 1,5kg
3

m
1

4 m
3


a)Find I perpendicular to xy plane and passing through each of the three particles.
b) Find I that is perpendicular to xy plane and passing through the center of mass.

a) I
1
= 2,3.0 +3,2. 3
2
+ 1,5. 4
2
= 52,8 kgm
2

I
2
= 2,3. 3
2
+ 3,2. 0 + 1,5. 5
2
0 58,2 kgm
2

I
3
= 2,3. 4
2
+ 3,2 .5
2
+ 1,5. 0 = 116,8 kgm
2


b) X
cm
= ( 2,3.0 + 3,2.0 + 1,5.4 ) / 7 = 0,86m
Y
cm
= 2,3. 0+ 3,2.3 /7 = 1,37 m
r
1
2
= 2,62
r
2
2
= 3,4
r
3
2
= 11,74 I
cm
= 2,3. 2,62 + 3,2. 3,4 + 1,5. 11,74 = 34,5 kgm
2


It is easy to rotate around the axis whose I is smaller. It is the easiest one to rotate around the
axis of I
cm


Parallel Axis Theorem : If I is the inertia of any axis that is perpendicular to the I
cm
.
I = I
cm
+ M.h
2
M = total mass
h = distance between the two axes.
Proof : y
I = E m
i
r
i
2
= m
i
( x
i
2
+ y
i
2
)
y
i
P y
i
I = Em
i
[ ( x
i
+x
cm
)
2
+ ( y
i
+y
cm
)
2
]
I = E m
i
( x
i

2
+ y
i

2
) +2x
cm
E m
i
x
i

y
cm
x
i
cm x +2y
cm
Em
i
y
i
+ (x
cm
2
+ y
cm
2
)Em
i

I = I
cm
+ Mh
2

x
i
x
cm




Ex: a) Find I
b) Show that I is minimum when x = x
cm

x
m
1
m
2


L
a) I = m
1
x
2
+ m
2
(L- x)
2

b) dI / dx = 0 2m
1
x 2m
2
L 2m
2
x = 0
x( m
1
+m
2
) = m
2
L

b) Solid Objects : We can divide the object into small parts.


I = ( 0,1 m ) ( 0,45L )
2
+ (0,1 m ) ( 0,35L )
2
+ .....
When the number of the parts approaches to infinity,
I = lim
mi0
E r
i
2
.m
i

I = } r
2
dm
dm = dx dm = o do dm = o dV

Ex:
L/2 L/2 I = ? L/2
I = } x
2
dm = } x
2
. dx = } x
2
m/L dx
uniform solid bar -L/2
I = m/L. x
3
/3 ] = mL
2
/24 + mL
2
/24 = mL
2
/12

Ex:
I = ?
x I = }x
2
m/L dx = x
3
m /3L ] = 1/ 3.mL
2


L
uniform bar

Ex: o
dm I = ?
I = } R
2
dm dm = m /2t d|
2t
| I = } R
2
m/ 2t d| = R
2
.m.| / 2t ]
0 I = mR
2


Ex: Compute the I of the disk
I = } r
2
dm R dm = m / tR
2
= 2trdr
I = } r
2
m /A dA
h 0
I = } 2tr
2
m / tR
2
.r dr = 2m/ R
2
. r
4
/ 4 = 1/ 2mR
2


R dr
uniform disk


Ex:
r I = }1/2 .dmr
2
r = R
2
z
2

I = 1 /2 } ( R
2
z
2
) .m / (4/3tr
3
) dV
z dm = m / (4/3tr
3
) .dV dV = tr
2
dz
R R
I = 3/8 } ( R
2
z
2
).m /tR
3
. t(R
2
z
2
)dz
-R
solid sphere I = 2/5.mR
2



Ex:
I = } 1/ 2.dm.R
2
dm = m/ tR
2
L.dV
R I = } 1 /2.R
2
.m/ tR
2
L. tR
2
dz dV = 1/ 2.mR
2

I = 1/ 2.mR
2
/L. L I = 1/ 2.mR
2

d
L






Ex: P
R I
cm
= 1/ 2.mR
2
I
p
= ?
I
p
= I
m
+ mR
2

I
p
= 1/ 2mR
2
+ mR
2
= 3 /2mR
2





Torque Acting on a Particle
Torque is defined as ;
t = r x F ( vectoral product )
t = r.F.sino ( Unit of t = N.m = joule )

Ex:
a) t = ? (wrt origin )
(4,6) F(3,2) b) O = ? if t wrt origin O is -t
0
/2
O
r a) t = r x F
t = (4,6) x ( 3,2) = - 10k


b) t
0
= ( r y
j
)x F t
0
= r x F = -y
j
x F
-3 /2. t
0
= -y
j
x F 15k = y.(3k ) y = 5




Ex: O
m = 0,17 kg L = 1,25 m t = ? ( wrt O )
o o = 10
L
t = L.mg.sino = 0,36 Nm
m ( through the inside of the screen )

mg

Rotational Equation of Motion
1) Single Particle Case :
F.( -F
r
,F
t
)
F
t
F = m.a F
r
= m.a
r

F
t
= m.a
t

a.( -a
r
, a
t
)
If F
t
= 0 this is uniform rotational motion
F
r
If F
t
= 0 rotational motion
t = r x F = r x ( F
r
.r + F
t
.o )
t = r. F
t
k | t | = |r|. |F
t
|
t = r.m.a
t
= r
2
.m.o
t = I.o

2) Solid Object :
dF = dm.a
dt = r x dm.a
} dt = } r.d.F
t
k
F
t
t = o. I



Work Energy Theorem in Rotation

W dW = F.ds = F.ds.cos (t/ 2- | )
F } dW = } F.r.do. sino
o o
f

W = } t .do W = AE
k

o
i
P = dW / do P = t.W

Ex: V
0
=0
Find a) W = ? b) o = ? c) a
cm
= ?
L d) F
p
= ? e) W( |) and o( |) = ?

a) E
i
= E
f
mg L/2 = 1/ 3.mL
2
W
2

W = \ 3g/L
P
b) t = -mg.L/2 -mg.L/2 = I
p
o -mg.L/2 = 1/ 3.mL
2
o
o = -3g /2L = o
c) a
cm
a
x
= V
2
/r = W
2
.r
2
/r = W
2
. L/2 = 3g /L. L/2 = 3g /2
a
y
= r.o = L/2. o = -L /2. 3g/2L = -3/4g +
a
cm
( 3g /2 , -3/4g )
d) F = m.a F
n
= m.a
x
F
n
= 3/2.mg
F
r
= mg = m.a
y
F
r
= 1/ 4.mg
F = ( -3/2.mg , .mg )

Ex:
R m
1
= 512gr m
2
= 463gr R = 4,9cm
m
2
takes 76,5 cm within 5,11 sec. What is the I of the pulley?

m
1
T
1
m
1
g = -m
1
a T
2
m
2
g = m
2
a
( T
1
- T
2
) R = t = I.o a = R.o
0,765 = 1/ 2.a.(5,11)
2
a = 0,06 m/s
2

m
2
0,06 = 0,049.o o =1,2 T
1
= 5N T
2
= 4,6N
0,4. 0,049 = I. 1,2 I = -(m
1
+ m
2
)R
2
+ (m
1
m
2
)R
2
.g /9

Second Way : E
i
= E
f

m
1
g.y
1i
+ m
2
g.y
2i
= 1/ 2(m
1
+ m
2
) V
2
+ 1 /2.IW
2
+ m
1
g.y
2f
+ m
2
g.y
2f

V
2
= 2aL ( m
1
m
2
).gL = 1 /2.( m
1
+ m
2
+I/ R
2
). 2aL
( I can be found from this equation )

Ex:
M = 2,5kg R = 20cm m = 1,2 kg
M Find a, T , o
a) mg = T = ma mg T = m.2T / M
T( 1+ 2m / M ) = mg T = 6N
T.R = t = I.o T.R = 1 /2.M.R
2
o
a+ m T = 1/ 2.MRo a = Ro T = 1/ 2.M.a

b) mg 6 = m.a a = 4,8
c) o.R = a o = 4,8 / 0,2 = 24 rad/s
2


Combined Rotational and Translational Motion
Rolling Motion :
K = 1/ 2.MV
cm
2
+ 1 /2.I
cm
W
2

Ex:
M = 0,023kg R = 2,6cm R
0
= 0,3cm L = 0,84 cm
What is W needed for the yo-yo to climb up the string ?
1 /2.IW
0
2
= mgL + 1 /2.IW
2
+ 1/ 2.mV
2

1 /2.IW
0
2
= mgL W
0
= 221 rad/ s.








Rolling Without Slipping :
If V
p
= 0 then it is rolling without slipping. There is
2V friction
s
between the ground and the object. But we
cant say anything about
k
, because V
p
= 0. Friction
V force does no work. Energy is conserved.


V
p
= 0
s

There are two solution ways for rolling without slipping:

1)
2V
cm
V
cm
= R.W I
p
= I
cm
+ M.d
2

V
cm
K = 1 /2.I
p
.W
2

K = 1 /2.I
cm
W
2
+ 1 /2.m.V
cm
2






P
2) V
cm
R
w
V
cm
+R
w


V
cm
V
cm


V
cm
R
w


V
p
=V
cm
-R
w


V
p
= 0 V
cm
= R.W
K = 1/ 2. m.V
cm
2
+ 1/ 2.I
cm
W
2

K = 1 /2.I
p
.W
2
= 1 /2.I
cm
W
2
+ 1/ 2.m.V
cm
2


Ex: solid
cylinder Find the speed of its center of mass at
the bottom.
mgh = 1 /2.mV
cm
2
+ 1/ 2.I
cm
W
2

h mgh = 1 /2.m.V
cm
2
+ 1/ 2. 1/ 2.mR
2
.V
cm
2
/ R
2

gh = 3 /4.V
cm
2
V
cm
= \ 4gh / 3
W
o
Second Method : mg.sino - f
s
= m.a
cm
N mg.coso = 0
f
s
.R = I
cm
o I
cm
= 1/ 2.m.R
2
a
cm
= R.o
f
s
.R = 1/ 2.mR
2
.a
cm
/ R
f
s
= m.a
cm
/ 2 mg.sino - ma
cm
/2 = m.a
cm
g.sino = 3 /2.a
cm
a
cm
= 2.gsino /3
V
2
= 2a.L V
2
= 2.2g.sino /3. h/sino
V = \ 4gh /3


Ex: (i) Find a) T in rope b) a
cm
c) V
cm


h a) ( mg T ) = a
cm
.m
(f) a
cm
= R.o I
cm
.o =t.R
m 1 /2.m.R
2
. a
cm
/R = t.R ( T forms t )
1 /2.m.a
cm
= T m.a
cm
= 2T
mg T = 2T T = mg /3
b) mg. mg/ 3 = m.a
cm
2g /3 = a
cm

c) mgh = 1/ 2.mV
cm
2
+ 1/ 2. 1/ 2mR
2
.V
2
/R
2

mgh = 3 /4.m.V
cm
2
V
cm
= \ 4gh /3

Ex:
L It is released from the horizontal. What is W
L when it becomes vertical ?
L 3mgL = mgL /2 + mgh + 1/ 2.I
p
W
2

3mgL = 1 /2.4/ 3.mL
2
W
2

W = 3/2. \ g / L

Rolling Motion in Accelerated Systems
Ex:
O A f
s
= ? a = ? a = ? o = ?

rolls without a = a + A a = -ro +A
O slipping A = a + ro
N f
s
.R = Io f
s
= m.a
cm

o a A = Ro + a
cm

mg wrt O mA f
s
= m.a


Ex:
I =0
Find acceleration of masses.
T m
1
g T = m
1
a T.R = I.o
T m
2
g T = m
2
a
cm
a = R.o - a
cm

m
2
a = R.o - a
cm


a m
1


Ex: If it rolls without slipping find a
cm
, f
s


F F f
s
= m.a
cm
I.o = f
s
.R + F.r
a
cm
= o.R
R a
cm
= ( f
s
R + F
r
) / I.R = 2F.(r +R ) / 3M.R
f
s
= F( R 2r ) / 3R
=0



Ex: I=0
m
1
Find a
cm
, a , o , t ,f
s

m
2
g T = m
2
a
cylinder rolls T ( T f
s
).R = I.o
without slipping a = o.R + a
cm

m
2
( T- f
s
) = m
1
.a
cm
a
cm
= o.R

a
a
cm
= 4m
2
g / ( 3m
1
+ 8m
2
) a = 8.m
2
g / (3m
1
+ 8m
2
) T =3m
1
m
2
g / (3m
1
+8m
2
)
f
s
= m
1
m
2
g / (3m
1
+ 8m
2
)
In this kind of questions remember that the acceleration of the part that touches the ground
must be 0.

Angular Momentum

Angular momentum is represented with L.
l with respect to the origin
I L = r x P
L = r x mV = r x m( W x r )
dL/ dt = d( r x P )/dt = dr /dt x P + r x dP/ dt
r dL /dt = V x P + r x f
P dL/ dt = t dL/ dt = I.o
o

Net torque acting on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its angular momentum.
If there are ore than one particle
L = L
1
+ L
2
+.....+L
n
t = t
1
+ t
2
+...+t
n

Ex:


3 Find L and t at 1,3,4

2 L
1
= r x P = 0

t
1
= r x F = 0
V
0
H L
3
= r
3
x mV
1 4 L
3
= ( R/2 ,H) x m.(Vcoso , 0)

R/2 R/2 L
3
= -m(H V
0
coso ) k
L
4
= ( R,0 ) x m(V.coso, -Vsino) t
3
= ( R/2,H ) x ( 0, -mg) = -mgR/2 k

L
4
= -m.RV
0
sino k

t
4
= ( R,0) x ( 0,-mg) = -Rmg k
Angular Momentum and Angular Velocity
In generally W is not parallel to L. But in some cases it may be. For this reason :
L = r x (mV) L r , L V

L
//
// W L

W

L = L
//
+ L








P
2
W L
P
1
L = m( r x V ) = mrV k
W = Wk L // W
V = r.W
r F L = mR
2
W k
L
z
= I.W
dL
z
/dt = d( IW )/ dt t
z
= I.o

This equations are seen in the systems that shows symmetry with the axis of rotation.
( L // W ) ( cylinder , sphere , disk , hoop....) L
z
= I.W

Rotational Equation of Motion


L
A
= r x P + L
cm
L
A
: wrt A
t
A
= r x F
net
+ t
cm
L
A
= I
cm
.W
V
cm
t
cm
= I
cm
.o

R

A

Angular Momentum Conservation
If t
ext
= dL / dt = 0 Angular momentum is conserved
L
i
= L
f
I
i
.W
i
= I.W
f

A
Ex: o
If the cylinder rolls without slipping ,
o = ? a
cm
= ? L
A
= ?
V
cm



a) L
p
= R x m.V
cm
+ L
cm
L
p
= -mrV
m
- I
m
W
dL
p
/ dt = -mra
m
- I
cm
o t
p
= R x F
net
+ t
cm

t
p
= R.f
s
mg.sinoR = R.f
s
t
p
= -mgsino.R

b) a
cm
= R.o -mgR.sino = -( m.ra
m
+ 1/ 2.m.r
2
a
cm
/ 2)
a
cm
= 2/3.g.sino

c) L
A
= m( R x V
cm
) + L
cm
L
A
= -mrV
cm
- I
m
W
t
A
= R x F
net
+ t
cm
t
cm
= -r.fs

R x F
net
= R x ( f
s
+N + mg ) = r.f
s
+ R
//
N R
//
.mg.coso - mg.sino
N = mg.coso
R x F
net
= r.F
s
- mg.sino
T
A
= r.f
s
- mgr.sino - r.f
s
dL
A
/ dt = -( mra
cm
+ I
cm
o )




Ex: m
1
If the upper disk falls over the lower disk, what is W
f
?
F
ext
= 0 t = 0 L
i
= L
f

I
1
.W
0
= ( I
1
+ I
2
) W
f

1 /2.m
1
R
2
. W
0
= 1 /2.(m
1
+ m
2
) R
2
.W
f

m
2
W
0
W
f
= m
1
W
0
/ (m
1
+ m
2
)




Ex:
W What is W
train
if the wheel has M and R.
Train starts moving and reaches the velocity V.
F
ext
= 0 L
i
= L
f

W.I = m.R ( V R.W )
m (train) 0 = L
wheel
+ L
train

W.M.R
2
+ mR
2
= m.RV mVR = IW
W = mV /( m+M )R
W = mRV / t = mV /MR V = V + V
train
V = V - RW

Rolling with Slipping Motion

Ex: W
0
W

(disk) V
i
=0 V
cm




k


a) Find W when rolling without slipping starts.
b) Find AE
k
c) Show that t = R.W
0
/ 3
k
.g
d) Show that Ax = R
2
W
0
2
/ 18
k
.g A| = ?
( In this kind of questions a
cm
= Ro V
cm
= RW X = R| equations arent used )

a) First Method :
t
A
= 0 L
A1
= L
A2

W
0
W
f
-I
cm
W
0
= mR x V
m
+ L
m

-I
cm
.W
0
= -( mRV
cm
+ I
cm
W
f
)
R
1
R
2
V
cm
1 /2.mR
2
W
0
= mR
2
W
f
+ 1/ 2.mR
2
W
f

W
f
= W
0
/3
A

Second Method : f
k
= m.a
cm
t = I.o t = R.f
k

R.ma
cm
= Io R.m.a
cm
= 1/ 2.mR
2
o
o = 2a
cm
/ R
V
f
= a
cm
.t W
f
= W
0
- ot V
f
= W
f
.R
V
f
/ a
cm
= ( W
0
W
f
).R W
f
= W
0
/ 3



b) 1 /2.mV
cm
2
+ 1/ 2.IWg
2
1/ 2. 1/ 2.mR
2
W
f
2
1/ 2. 1/ 2.mR
2
W
0
2
= AE
k

3 /4.m.W
0
2
.r
2
/ 9 1/ 4.mR
2
W
0
2
= AE
k

-2mW
0
2
R
2
/ 12 = -mW
0
2
.R
2
/ 6

c) W
f
.R = V
f
W
f
.R = a
m
.t W
f
.R = f
s
.t / m
W
f
.R =
k
.mg.t / m t = W
0
R / 3
k
.g

d) W
f
2
W
0
2
= -2oB |W
0
2
/ g = 2.(W
f
W
0
) | /t
4.W
0
2
/ 9 = -2W
0
.3.
k
.g.| / 3.W
0
R
| = 2 RW
0
2
/ 9.
k
.g

Ex: W
i
=0 How far does it move before rolling without
slipping ?
V
0



m
k

First Method : f
k
.R = I
cm
.o f
k
= m.a
cm
f
k
0
k
.mg

k
.mg = m.a
cm
m.
k
gR = 2/5.mR
2
o o = 5
k
.g / 2R
W
f
= o.t t = Wf / o = Vf /2o
V
f
= V
0
2/5Ro.V
f
/ Ro V
f
= 5/7.V
0

V
f
2
V
0
2
= 2a
cm
.X 25V
0
2
/49 V
0
2
= -2
k
g.X
24.V
0
2
/ 49 = 2
k
g.X X = 12.V
0
2
/ 49
k
g

Second Method: L
1
= L
2
m.V
0
.R = m.V
1
R + I
cm
.W
f

m.V
0
.R = m.V
f
R + 2/5.m.R
2
.V
f
/ R
V
0
= 7/5.V
f


Ex: The insect flies for sometime with the velocity
V. After it stops,
a) W = ? b) AE
k
= ?
a) L
i
= L
f

I
cm
.W
0
m.VR = I
f
.W
f

insect I
cm
.W
0
mVR = ( I
cm
+mR
2
)W
f

W ( I
f
= I
table
+ I
insect
)
( while the insect is moving L = mVR
otherwise L = IW ( I = mR
2
) )
W
f
= ( I.W
0
mVR ) / ( I+ mR
2
)
b) 1 /2.mV
2
+ 1/ 2IW
0
2
= 1 /2.IW
f
2


Angular Impulse
Angular Impulse = J
J = AI = } t.dt
If t is constant J = AL = t.t





Ex: According to the picture decide the motion of the object.
L/3 The given acceleration causes a circular motion and also
the object gains a horizontal velocity.
F.At AP = F.t ( m.V
cm
0) = F.t
V
cm
= F.t /m
AL = J
m I
cm
.W = F.At ( L/2 L/3 )
W = F.At.L / 6.I
cm
W = F.At.L
2
/ 6.(1/12mR
2
)
W = 2.V
cm
.m.L / mR
2
V
cm
= W.L/ 2

Ex: m V
1
V
2

Find V
2
in terms of V
1
, m , I , R
R J = AL
AL = R.} f
k
dt = L
2
L
1

R.} f
k
dt = IW
initially AP = -} f
k
.dt = P
2
P
1
= m.( V
2
V
1
9
at rest m( V
2
V
1
) = I.V
2
/ R
2

J = IW /R = I.V
2
/R
2

V
2
= m.V
1
/ ( m+ J/R
2
)

Ex: m collides elastically
L What is m, so it remains at rest after collision
in terms of M, L , d.
d
m V
0
E
k
, P , L are conserved.
M
m.V
0
= M.V
cm
L
1
= L
2

m.V
0
.d = IW
K
i
= K
f

1/ 2.mV
0
2
= 1 /2.M.V
cm
2
+ 1/ 2.IW
2

1 /2.mV
0
2
= M:V
cm
2
+ IW
2

m.V
0
2
= m.V
0
2
/M + I.m.V
0
2
d
2
/ I
2

V
0
2
= m.V
0
2
/M + m.V
0
2
d
2
/ (1/12.ML
2
)
m = M:L
2
/ ( L
2
+ 12d
2
)

Ex: W
0
m W
f
= ? after completely
1 inelastic collisions.
V
i

2 L
i
= L
f

m m L
f
= I
p
.W
f

3


m
I
cm
.W
0
m.V
i
= ( I
cm
+ md
2
)W
f
( path 1 )
I
cm
.W
0
= ( I
cm
+ md
2
) W
f
( path 2 )
I
cm
.W
0
+ m.V
i
d = ( I
cm
+ md
2
)W
f
( path 3 )
I
cm
= 2.( 1/12.2.m(2d)
2
) = 4/3.m.d
2



Ex: W
1
W
2

Show that h = 4R /5
F } Fdt = P
2
- P
h V
0
9/7V
0
} Fdt = m.V
0

h.} Fdt = I.W
1

h.mV
0
= IW
1

W
2
= 9V
0
/ 7R
L
1
= L
2

mRV
0
+ I
cm
W
1
= m.R.V
0
.9/7 + I
m
.W
2

mRV
0
+ 2/5. mR
2
W
1
= 9/7 mRV
0
+ 2/5. m.R
2
. 9V
0
/ 7R
2/5.mR
2
W
1
= 2/7.mR.V
0
+ 18/35.mRV
0

2mR
2
W
1
= 28mRV
0
/7 W
1
= 2V
0
/ R
h.mV
0
= 2/5.mR
2
. 2V
0
/ R h = 4R/ 5
Ex:

m a) Find L before collision.
V
0
W b) Find L after collision.
L ,M c) W = ?
d) AK = ?


at rest
a) L = mVR L = m.V
0
.L/2

b) L
1
= L
2
L
2
= m.V
0
L/2

c) m.V
0
L/2 = ( 1/12M.L
2
+ m.L
2
/4) . W
m.V
0
L/2 = ( ( M+3m) L
2
/ 12 ).W
W = 6mV
0
/ ( M+3m )

d) 1/ 2.I
p
W
2
1/ 2.mV
0
2

1/ 2. mV
0
L/2. 6mV
0
/(M+3m).L 1/ 2.mV
0
2

= 3/2. ( m
2
V
0
mV
0
2
) / ( M+3m )