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Limiting Reagent Problems

Steps for solving:


1. Balance the equation
2. Convert reagents and products to moles
3. Determine the limiting reagent
4. Determine the moles of reagent or product from the limiting reagent
5. Convert to grams
1. For the combustion of sucrose:
C
12
H
22
O
11
+ 12O
2
---> 12CO
2
+ 11H
2
O
there are 10.0 g of sucrose and 10.0 g of oxygen reacting. Which is the
limiting reagent?
2. Calculate the number of NaBr formula units formed when 50
NBr
3
molecules and 57 NaOH formula units react?
2NBr
3
+ 3NaOH ---> N
2
+ 3NaBr + 3HOBr
3. Aluminium reacts with chlorine gas to form aluminium chloride via the
following reaction:
2Al + 3Cl
2
---> 2AlCl
3

How many grams of aluminium chloride could be produced from 34.0 g of
aluminium and 39.0 g of chlorine gas?
4. Determine limiting and excess reagent and the amount of unreacted excess
reactant.
a. 3 atoms of carbon combine with 4 molecules of hydrogen to produce
methane (CH
4
)
b. 7 molecules of hydrogen and 2 molecules of nitrogen gases react to
produce ammonia
c. 4 molecules of hydrogen and 5 molecules of chlorine react.

5. Suppose 316.0 g aluminium sulphide reacts with 493.0 g of water. What
mass of the excess reactant remains?
The unbalanced equation is:
Al
2
S
3
+ H
2
O ---> Al(OH)
3
+ H
2
S

6. In this reaction:
CaCO
3
+ 2HCl ---> CaCl
2
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O
6.088 g CaCO
3
reacted with 2.852 g HCl. What mass of CaCO
3
remains
unreacted?
7. How many grams of PF
5
can be formed from 9.46 g of PF
3
and 9.42 g of
XeF
4
in the following reaction?
2PF
3
+ XeF
4
---> 2PF
5
+ Xe

8. How many grams of IF
5
would be produced using 44.01 grams of I
2
O
5
and
101.0 grams of BrF
3
?
6I
2
O
5
+ 20BrF
3
---> 12IF
5
+ 15O
2
+ 10Br
2


9. 950.0 grams of copper(II) sulphate are reacted with 460.0 grams of zinc
metal. (a) What is the theoretical yield of Cu? (b) If 295.8 grams of copper
are actually obtained from this reaction, what is the percent yield?

10. What weight of each substance is present after 0.4500 g of P
4
O
10
and 1.5000
g of PCl
5
are reacted completely?
P
4
O
10
+ 6PCl
5
---> 10POCl
3


Problem #1: For the combustion of sucrose:
C
12
H
22
O
11
+ 12O
2
---> 12CO
2
+ 11H
2
O
there are 10.0 g of sucrose and 10.0 g of oxygen reacting. Which is the limiting
reagent?
Solution path #1:
1) Calculate moles of sucrose:
10.0 g / 342.2948 g/mol = 0.0292146 mol
2) Calculate moles of oxygen required to react with moles of sucrose:
From the coefficients, we see that 12 moles of oxygen are required for every one
mole of sucrose. Therefore:
0.0292146 mol times 12 = 0.3505752 mole of oxygen required
3) Determine limiting reagent:
Oxygen on hand 10.0 g / 31.9988 g/mol = 0.3125 mol
Since the oxygen required is greater than that on hand, it will run out before the
sucrose. Oxygen is the limiting reagent.
Solution path #2:
1) Calculate moles:
sucrose 0.0292146 mol
oxygen 0.3125 mol
2) Divide by coefficients of balanced equation:
sucrose 0.0292146 mol / 1 mol = 0.0292146
oxygen 0.3125 mol / 12 mol = 0.02604
Oxygen is the lower value. It is the limiting reagent.
The second method above will be the preferred method to determine the limiting
reagent in the following problems.

Problem #2: Calculate the number of NaBr formula units formed when 50
NBr
3
molecules and 57 NaOH formula units react?
2NBr
3
+ 3NaOH ---> N
2
+ 3NaBr + 3HOBr
Solution:
Comment: we can treat numbers of molecules or formula units in the exact same
manner as we would use moles. Keep in mind that the meaning of one mole is that
6.022 x 10
23
of that entity (be it molecules or formula units) is present.
1) Determine limiting reagent:
NBr
3
50 "moles" / 2 = 25
NaOH 57 "moles" / 3 = 19
NaOH is the lmiting reagent.
Note that there need be no conversion from grams to moles. Discussions of
numbers of molecules uses numbers that are directly proportional to the number of
moles and do not need to be converted.
2) Use NaOH : NaBr molar ratio:
3 is to 3 as 57 is to x
x = 57 "moles"
Correctly phrased, the answer is 57 formula units.
Comment: when I was in the classroom, teaching the technique for determining the
limiting reagent, I would warn against using the results of the division, in this case
the 19 for the NaOH, in the next step of the calculation. The 19 is good only for
determining the limiting reagent. You need to use the 57 in the next step.
Well, what did I do? You know it's coming . . . .
Yep, I used the 19 when I should have used the 57. It stayed that way for several
years, undetected until August 2013, when a student caught it. Thanks, T.

Problem #3: Aluminum reacts with chlorine gas to form aluminum chloride via
the following reaction:
2Al + 3Cl
2
---> 2AlCl
3

How many grams of aluminum chloride could be produced from 34.0 g of
aluminum and 39.0 g of chlorine gas?
Solution:
1) Determine the limiting reagent:
Al 34.0 g / 26.98 g/mol = 1.2602 mol
Cl
2
39.0 g / 70.906 g/mol = 0.5500 mol
Al 1.2602 mol / 2 =
Cl
2
0.5500 mol / 3 =
Seems pretty obvious that chlorine gas is the limiting reagent.
2) Use Cl
2
: AlCl
3
molar ratio:
3 is to 2 as 0.5500 mol is to x
x = 0.3667 mol of AlCl
3
produced
3) Convert to grams:
0.3667 mol times 133.341 g/mol = 48.9 g (to three sig fig)
Why don't you determine the mass of aluminum that remains after the reaction
ceases by using the proper molar ratio?
By the way, you could have done it this way:
48.9 g minus 39.0 g = 9.9 g of Al reacted
34.0 g minus 9.9 g = 24.1 g
It only works this second way if you have mass data on every substance in the
reaction. Look back at the first problem in this file and you'll see you can't do it
using this second way because you don't know anything about the mass of carbon
dioxide produced. In that problem, you have to use the molar ratio way.

Problem #4: Interpret reactions in terms of representative particles, then write
balanced chemical equations and compare with your results. Determine limiting
and excess reagent and the amount of unreacted excess reactant.
a) 3 atoms of carbon combine with 4 molecules of hydrogen to produce methane
(CH
4
)
b) 7 molecules of hydrogen and 2 molecules of nitrogen gases react to produce
ammonia
c) 4 molecules of hydrogen and 5 molecules of chlorine react.
Solution to a:
1) The balanced equation:
C + 2H
2
---> CH
4

2) Write the carbon-hydrogen molar ratio:
1 : 2
Remember that this ratio can also be understood in terms of atoms and molecules.
Thusly:
one atoms of carbon reacts with two molecules of hydrogen
3) Determine limiting reagent:
carbon 3/1 = 3
hydrogen 4/2 = 2
Hydrogen is the limiting reagent.
4) Determine amount of carbon consumed:
1 is to 2 as x is to 4
x = 2
5) Determine remaining amount of carbon, the excess reagent:
3 minus 2 = 1 atom of carbon remaining
Answers to b: N
2
+ 3H
2
---> 2NH
3

The molar ratio of importance is nitrogen to hydrogen. It is 1 : 3.
Nitrogen is the limiting reagent.
One molecule of hydrogen remains.
Answers to c:
H
2
+ Cl
2
---> 2HCl
1 : 1. Chlorine in excess by one molecule.

Problem #5: Suppose 316.0 g aluminum sulfide reacts with 493.0 g of water.
What mass of the excess reactant remains?
The unbalanced equation is:
Al
2
S
3
+ H
2
O ---> Al(OH)
3
+ H
2
S
Solution:
1) Balance the equation:
Al
2
S
3
+ 6H
2
O ---> 2Al(OH)
3
+ 3H
2
S
2) Determine moles, then limiting reagent:
Al
2
S
3
316.0 g / 150.159 g/mol = 2.104436 mol
H
2
O 493.0 g / 18.015 g/mol = 27.366 mol
Al
2
S
3
2.104436 / 1 = 2.104436
H
2
O 27.366 / 6 = 4.561
Al
2
S
3
is the limiting reagent.
3) Determine grams of water that react:
The molar ratio to use is 1:6
1 is to 6 as 2.104436 mol is to x
x = 12.626616 mol of water used
12.626616 mol times 18.105 g/mol = 227.4685 g
4) Determine excess:
493.0 g minus 227.46848724 = 265.5 g (to 4 sig figs)
Notice how the question only asks about the excess reagent, but you have to go
through the entire set of steps (determine moles, determine limiting reagent, use
molar ratio) to get to the answer. Tricky!

Problem #6: In this reaction:
CaCO
3
+ 2HCl ---> CaCl
2
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O
6.088 g CaCO
3
reacted with 2.852 g HCl. What mass of CaCO
3
remains
unreacted?
Solution:
1) Let's verify that the HCl is limiting:
CaCO
3
6.088 g / 100.086 g/mol = 0.0608277 mol
HCl 2.852 g / 36.461 g/mol = 0.0782206 mol
By inspection, we see that HCl is the limiting reagent. (Mentally divide both values
by their respective coefficient from the equation to see this.)
Wouldn't that have been cute if you just assumed the HCl was limiting and the
question writer made it a bit of a trick question by making the calcium carbonate
limiting?
2) Determine moles, then grams of calcium carbonate used:
1 is to 2 as x is to 0.0782206 mol
x = 0.0391103 mol
0.0391103 mol times 100.086 g/mol = 3.914 g
3) Determine grams of CaCO
3
remaining:
6.088 g minus 3.914 g = 2.174 g

Problem #7: How many grams of PF
5
can be formed from 9.46 g of PF
3
and 9.42
g of XeF
4
in the following reaction?
2PF
3
+ XeF
4
---> 2PF
5
+ Xe
Solution:
1) Limiting reagent:
PF
3
9.46 g / 87.968 g/mol = 0.10754 mol
XeF
4
9.42 g / 207.282 g/mol = 0.045445 mol
PF
3
0.10754 / 2 = 0.05377
XeF
4
0.045445 / 1 = 0.045445
XeF
4
is limiting
2) Use XeF
4
: PF
5
molar ratio:
1 is to 2 as 0.045445 mol is to x
x = 0.090890 mol of PF
5
produced
3) Determine grams of PF
5
:
0.090890 mol times 125.964 g/mol = 11.45 g

Problem #8: How many grams of IF
5
would be produced using 44.01 grams of
I
2
O
5
and 101.0 grams of BrF
3
?
6I
2
O
5
+ 20BrF
3
---> 12IF
5
+ 15O
2
+ 10Br
2

Solution:
1) Determine limiting reagent:
I
2
O
5
44.01 g / 333.795 g/mol = 0.1318474 mol
BrF
3
101.0 g / 136.898 g/mol = 0.7377756 mol
I
2
O
5
0.1318474 / 6 = 0.02197457
BrF
3
0.7377756 / 20 = 0.03688878
I
2
O
5
is limiting.
2) Use I
2
O
5
: IF
5
molar ratio:
The ratio is 6 to 12, so I'll use 1 to 2
1 is to 2 as 0.1318474 mol is to x
x = 0.2636948 mol of IF
5
produced
3) Convert moles to grams:
0.2636948 mol times 221.89 g/mol = 58.51 g (to 4 sig figs)

Problem #9: 950.0 grams of copper(II) sulfate are reacted with 460.0 grams of
zinc metal. (a) What is the theoretical yield of Cu? (b) If 295.8 grams of copper are
actually obtained from this reaction, what is the percent yield?
Solution to a:
1) The balanced chemical equation is:
CuSO
4
+ Zn ---> ZnSO
4
+ Cu
2) Determine limiting reagent:
CuSO
4
950.0 g / 159.607 g/mol = 5.95212 mol
Zn 460.0 g / 65.38 g/mol = 7.03579 mol
CuSO
4
is limiting.
3) Determine moles, then grams of Cu:
5.95212 mol of Cu is produced (due to the 1 : 1 molar ratio involved)
5.95212 mol times 63.546 g/mol = 378.2 g
Solution to b:
Percent yield is:
295.8 g / 378.2 g = 78.21 %

Problem #10: What weight of each substance is present after 0.4500 g of
P
4
O
10
and 1.5000 g of PCl
5
are reacted completely?
P
4
O
10
+ 6PCl
5
---> 10POCl
3

Solution:
1) Determine limiting reagent:
P
4
O
10
0.4500 g / 283.886 g/mol = 0.00158514 mol
PCl
5
: 1.5000 / 208.239 g/mol = 0.00720326 mol
P
4
O
10
0.00158514 / 1 = 0.00158514
PCl
5
: 0.00720326 / 6 = 0.00120054
PCl
5
is limiting.
2) Determine mass of P
4
O
10
remaining:
Use 1 : 6 molar ratio.
1 is to 6 as x is to 0.00720326 mol
x = 0.00120054 mol of P
4
O
10
remaining
0.00158514 mol minus 0.00120054 mol = 0.0003846 mol
0.0003846 mol times 283.886 g/mol = 0.1092 g
3) Determine mass of POCl
3
produced:
Use 6 : 10 molar ratio (or, if you prefer, use 3 : 5).
3 is to 5 as 0.00720326 mol is to x
x = 0.01200543 mol of POCl
3
produced
0.01200543 mol times 153.332 g/mol = 1.8408 g
Since PCl
5
is limiting, zero grams of it will remain.

11. The equation for the reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace is given below.
(a) How many kilograms of iron can be produced by the reaction of 7.00 kg
of Fe
2
O
3
and 3.00 kg of CO? (b) How many kilograms of the excess reagent
remains after reaction has ceased?

Fe
2
O
3
+ 3 CO ---> 2 Fe + 3 CO
2

12. The reaction of 4.25 g of Cl
2
with 2.20 g of P
4
produces 4.28 g of PCl
5
.
What is the percent yield?

13. 35.5 g SiO
2
and 66.5 g of HF react to yield 45.8 g H
2
SiF
6
in the following
equation:
SiO
2
(s) + 6 HF(aq) ---> H
2
SiF
6
(aq) + 2 H
2
O(l)
a. How much mass of the excess reactant remains after reaction ceases?
b. What is the theoretical yield of H
2
SiF
6
in grams?
c. What is the percent yield?
14. Gaseous ethane reacts with gaseous dioxygen to produce gaseous carbon
dioxide and gaseous water.
a. Suppose a chemist mixes 13.8 g of ethane and 45.8 g of dioxygen. Calculate
the theoretical yield of water.
b. Suppose the reaction actually produces 14.2 grams of water . Calculate the
percent yield of water.
15. A 0.972-g sample of a CaCl
2
2H
2
O and K
2
C
2
O
4
H
2
O solid salt mixture is
dissolved in 150 mL of deionized water, previously adjusted to a pH that is
basic. The precipitate, after having been filtered and air-dried, has a mass of
0.375 g. The limiting reactant in the salt mixture was later determined to be
CaCl
2
2H
2
O
a. How many grams of the excess reactant, K
2
C
2
O
4
H
2
O, reacted in the
mixture?
b. What is the percent by mass of CaCl
2
2H
2
O?
c. How many grams of the K
2
C
2
O
4
H
2
O in the salt mixture remain
unaffected?
16. The reaction of 15.0 g C
4
H
9
OH, 22.4 g NaBr, and 32.7 g H
2
SO
4
yields 17.1
g C
4
H
9
Br in the reaction below:
C
4
H
9
OH + NaBr + H
2
SO
4
---> C
4
H
9
Br + NaHSO
4
+ H
2
O
Determine:
a. the theoretical yield of C
4
H
9
Br
b. the actual percent yield of C
4
H
9
Br
c. the masses of leftover reactants, if any

17. Ozone (O
3
) reacts with nitric oxide (NO) discharged from jet planes to form
oxygen gas and nitrogen dioxide. 0.740 g of ozone reacts with 0.670 g of
nitric oxide. Determine the identity and quantity of the reactant supplied in
excess.



Problem #11: The equation for the reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace is given
below. (a) How many kilograms of iron can be produced by the reaction of 7.00 kg
of Fe
2
O
3
and 3.00 kg of CO? (b) How many kilograms of the excess reagent
remains after reaction has ceased?
Fe
2
O
3
+ 3 CO ---> 2 Fe + 3 CO
2

Solution to a:
1) Determine the limiting reagent:
Fe
2
O
3
7000 g / 159.687 g/mol = 43.836 mol
CO 3000 g / 28.01 g/mol = 107.105 mol
Fe
2
O
3
43.836 mol / 1 mol = 43.836
CO 107.105 mol / 3 mo = 35.702
CO is the limiting reagent.
2) Use the CO : Fe molar ratio:
3 is to 2 as 107.105 mol is to x
x = 71.403 mol of Fe produced
3) Convert to kilograms of Fe:
71.403 mol times 55.845 g/mol = 3987.52 g
to three sig figs this is 3.99 kg of iron
Solution to b:
1) Use Fe
2
O
3
: CO molar ratio
1 is to 3 as x is to 107.105 mol
x = 35.702 mol of Fe
2
O
3
consumed
2) Determine mass remaining:
35.703 mol times 159.687 g/mol = 5701 g consumed
7000 g minus 5701 g = 1299 g
to three sig figs, this is 1.3 kg
Problem #12: The reaction of 4.25 g of Cl
2
with 2.20 g of P
4
produces 4.28 g of
PCl
5
. What is the percent yield?
Solution:
1) First, a balanced chemical equation:
P
4
+ 10Cl
2
---> 4PCl
5

2) Get moles, then limiting reagent:
P
4
2.20 g / 123.896 g/mol = 0.0177568 mol
Cl
2
4.25 g / 70.906 g/mol = 0.0599385 mol
P
4
0.0177568 / 1 = 0.0177568
Cl
2
0.0599385 / 10 = 0.00599385
Cl
2
is the limiting reagent.
3) How many grams of PCl
5
are produced?
Use Cl
2
: PCl
5
molar ratio of 10 : 4 (or 5 : 2, if you prefer)
5 is to 2 as 0.0599385 is to x
x = 0.0239754 mol of PCl
5
produced
0.0239754 mol times 208.239 g/mol = 4.99 g ( to three sig figs)
4) Determine percent yield:
(4.25 g / 4.99 g) x 100 = 85.2%
Notice how asking about percent yield (oh, so innocuous!) forces you to go
through an entire limiting reagent calculation first.

Problem #13: 35.5 g SiO
2
and 66.5 g of HF react to yield 45.8 g H
2
SiF
6
in the
folowing equation:
SiO
2
(s) + 6 HF(aq) ---> H
2
SiF
6
(aq) + 2 H
2
O(l)
a. How much mass of the excess reactant remains after reaction ceases?
b. What is the theoretical yield of H
2
SiF
6
in grams?
c. What is the percent yield?
Solution to a:
1) Must determine limiting reagent first (even is it not asked for in the question):
SiO
2
35.5 g / 60.084 g/mol = 0.59084 mol
HF 66.5 g / 20.0059 g/mol = 3.324 mol
SiO
2
0.59084 mol / 1 mol = 0.59
HF 3.324 mol / 6 mol = 0.554
HF is limiting.
2) Determine how much SiO
2
remains:
The SiO
2
: HF molar ratio is 1 : 6
1 is to 6 as x is to 3.324 mol
x = 0.554 mol of SiO
2
used up
0.59084 mol minus 0.554 mol = 0.03684 mol of SiO
2
remains
0.03684 mol times 60.084 g/mol = 2.21 g (to three sig figs)
Solution to b:
There are 0.59084 mol of SiO
2

SiO
2
: H
2
SiF
6
molar ratio is 1 : 1
therefore, 0.59084 mol of H
2
SiF
6
produced
0.59084 mol times 144.0898 g/mol = 85.1 g (to three sig figs)
Solution to c:
(45.8 g / 85.1 g) times 100 = 53.8%

Problem #14: Gaseous ethane reacts with gaseous dioxygen to produce gaseous
carbon dioxide and gaseous water.
a) Suppose a chemist mixes 13.8 g of ethane and 45.8 g of dioxygen. Calculate the
theoretical yield of water.
b) Suppose the reaction actually produces 14.2 grams of water . Calculate the
percent yield of water.
Solution to a:
1) Write the balanced equation:
2C
2
H
6
+ 7O
2
---> 4CO
2
+ 6H
2
O
2) Determine limiting reagent:
C
2
H
6
13.8 g / 30.0694 g/mol = 0.45894 mol
O
2
45.8 g / 31.9988 g/mol = 1.4313 mol
C
2
H
6
0.45894 / 2 = 0.22947
O
2
1.4313 / 5 = 0.28626
Ethane is limiting.
3) Determine theoretical yield of water:
The ethane : water molar ratio is 2 : 6 (or 1 : 3, if you prefer)
1 is to 3 as 1.4313 mol is to x
x = 4.2939 mol of water
4) Convert moles of water to grams:
4.2939 mol times 18.015 g/mol = 77.4 g (to three sig figs)
Solution to b:
14.2 g / 77.4 g = 18.3%

Problem #15: A 0.972-g sample of a CaCl
2
2H
2
O and K
2
C
2
O
4
H
2
O solid salt
mixture is dissolved in 150 mL of deionized water, previously adjusted to a pH that
is basic. The precipitate, after having been filtered and air-dried, has a mass of
0.375 g. The limiting reactant in the salt mixture was later determined to be CaCl
2

2H
2
O
a. How many grams of the excess reactant, K
2
C
2
O
4
H
2
O, reacted in the mixture?
b. What is the percent by mass of CaCl
2
2H
2
O?
c. How many grams of the K
2
C
2
O
4
H
2
O in the salt mixture remain unaffected?
Solution to a:
1) Write the balanced chemical reaction:
CaCl
2
+ K
2
C
2
O
4
---> CaC
2
O
4
+ 2KCl
2) Determine moles of calcium oxalate that precipitated:
0.375 g / 128.096 g/mol = 0.0029275 mol
3) Determine moles, then grams of potassium oxalate:
The K
2
C
2
O
4
: CaC
2
O
4
mole ratio is 1:1
0.0029275 mol of potassium oxalate monohydrate reacted
0.0029275 mol times 184.229 g/mol = 0.53933 g
To three sig figs, 0.539 g
Solution to b:
1) Determine moles, then grams of calcium chloride that reacted:
The CaCl
2
: CaC
2
O
4
mole ratio is 1:1
0.0029275 mol of calcium chloride dihydrate reacted
0.0029275 mol times 147.0136 g/mol = 0.43038 g
To three sig figs, 0.430 g
2) Determine mass percent of calcium chloride:
0.430 g / 0.972 g = 44.24%
Solution to c:
1) Determine total mass that reacted:
0.430 g + 0.539 g = 0.969 g
2) Determine mass of excess reactant that remains:
0.972 g minus 0.969 g = 0.003 g

Problem #16: The reaction of 15.0 g C
4
H
9
OH, 22.4 g NaBr, and 32.7 g
H
2
SO
4
yields 17.1 g C
4
H
9
Br in the reaction below:
C
4
H
9
OH + NaBr + H
2
SO
4
---> C
4
H
9
Br + NaHSO
4
+ H
2
O
Determine:
(a) the theoretical yield of C
4
H
9
Br
(b) the actual percent yield of C
4
H
9
Br
c) the masses of leftover reactants, if any
Solution to a:
1) Determine the limiting reagent bewteen the first two reagents (the third reagent
will be dealt with in step 2):
C
4
H
9
OH 15.0 g / 74.122 g/mol = 0.202369 mol
NaBr 22.4 g / 102.894 g/mol = 0.217700 mol
C
4
H
9
OH 0.202369 /1 =
NaBr 0.217700 / 1 =
Between these two reactants, C
4
H
9
OH is limiting.
2) Compare C
4
H
9
OH to H
2
SO
4
to determine which is limiting:
C
4
H
9
OH 0.202369 mol
H
2
SO
4
32.7 g / 98.0768 g/mol = 0.333412 mol
C
4
H
9
OH 0.202369 /1 =
H
2
SO
4
0.333412 / 1 =
Between these two reactants, C
4
H
9
OH is limiting.
Overall, the above process shows that the limiting reagent for the entire reaction is
C
4
H
9
OH.
3) Determine theoretical yield of C
4
H
9
Br:
There is a 1:1 molar ratio between C
4
H
9
OH and C
4
H
9
Br.
This means 0.202369 mol of C
4
H
9
Br is produced.
0.202369 mol times 137.019 g/mol = 27.7 g (to three sig figs)
Solution to b:
17.1 g / 27.7 g = 61.7%
Solution to c:
1) Due to the 1:1 molar ratio:
0.202369 mol of NaBr is used up.
2) Therefore:
0.217700 minus 0.202369 = 0.015331 mol of NaBr remains.
The solution for sulfuric acid follows the same path as for NaBr. Conversion to
grams is left to the reader.

Problem #17: Ozone (O
3
) reacts with nitric oxide (NO) dishcarged from jet planes
to form oxygen gas and nitrogen dioxide. 0.740 g of ozone reacts with 0.670 g of
nitric oxide. Determine the identity and quantity of the reactant supplied in excess.
Solution:
1) Wrte the balanced chemical equation:
NO + O
3
---> NO
2
+ O
2

2) Calculate moles:
NO 0.670 g / 30.006 g/mol = 0.0223289 mol
O
3
0.740 g / 47.997 g/mol = 0.0154176 mol
3) Determine limitng reagent:
NO and O
3
are in a 1:1 molar ratio. O
3
is limiting, making NO the compound in
excess
4) Determine quantity of excess reagent:
Based on the 1:1 ratio, we know 0.0154176 mol of NO is used up
Therefore:
0.0223289 mol minus 0.0154176 mol = 0.0069113 mol of NO remaining
Quantity means grams:
0.0069113 mol times 30.006 g/mol = 0.207 g (to three significant figures)

Problem #11: The equation for the reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace is given
below. (a) How many kilograms of iron can be produced by the reaction of 7.00 kg
of Fe
2
O
3
and 3.00 kg of CO? (b) How many kilograms of the excess reagent
remains after reaction has ceased?
Fe
2
O
3
+ 3 CO ---> 2 Fe + 3 CO
2

Solution to a:
1) Determine the limiting reagent:
Fe
2
O
3
7000 g / 159.687 g/mol = 43.836 mol
CO 3000 g / 28.01 g/mol = 107.105 mol
Fe
2
O
3
43.836 mol / 1 mol = 43.836
CO 107.105 mol / 3 mo = 35.702
CO is the limiting reagent.
2) Use the CO : Fe molar ratio:
3 is to 2 as 107.105 mol is to x
x = 71.403 mol of Fe produced
3) Convert to kilograms of Fe:
71.403 mol times 55.845 g/mol = 3987.52 g
to three sig figs this is 3.99 kg of iron
Solution to b:
1) Use Fe
2
O
3
: CO molar ratio
1 is to 3 as x is to 107.105 mol
x = 35.702 mol of Fe
2
O
3
consumed
2) Determine mass remaining:
35.703 mol times 159.687 g/mol = 5701 g consumed
7000 g minus 5701 g = 1299 g
to three sig figs, this is 1.3 kg