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George W.

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This article is about the 43rd U! president For his father, the 4"st U! president, see #eorge $ W %ush
For other persons of the same name, see #eorge %ush
George W. Bush
43rd President of the United States
In office
January &', &''" ( January &', &'')
Vice President *ick +heney
Preceded by %ill +linton
Succeeded by %arack ,bama
46th Governor of Teas
In office
January "-, ")). ( *ecember &", &'''
%ob %ullock
/ick 0erry
Preceded by 1nn /ichards
Succeeded by /ick 0erry
Persona" detai"s
#eorge Walker %ush
2")434'-4'35 July 3, ")43 2age 365
7e8 $aven, +onnecticut, U!
Po"itica" #arty /epublican
9aura Welch
2m ")--(present5
%arbara 0ierce %ush
Jenna Welch %ush
#eorge $ W %ush
%arbara %ush
'"(a (ater
:ale University
$arvard %usiness !chool
%usinessman 2oil, baseball5
;piscopal 2before ")--5<"=
United >ethodist 2")--(present5<&= <3=
Website %ush 0residential 9ibrary
%ush 0residential +enter
The White $ouse Archived
*i"itary service
'""egiance United !tates of 1merica
Te?as 1ir 7ational #uard
1labama 1ir 7ational #uard
,ears of
)an- First lieutenant
"4-th /econnaissance Wing
"6-th Fighter Wing
1ir Force 0ilot@s %adge, ,utstanding Unit 18ard, 7ational *efense !ervice >edal, !mall
1rms ;?pert >arksmanship /ibbon<4=
George Wa"-er Bush 2born July 3, ")435 is an 1merican politician and businessman 8ho served as the 43rd
0resident of the United !tates from &''" to &''), and the 43th #overnor of Te?as from ")). to &''' The
eldest son of %arbara and #eorge $ W %ush, he 8as born in 7e8 $aven, +onnecticut 1fter graduating
from :ale University in ")36 and $arvard %usiness !chool in ")-., %ush 8orked in oil businesses $e
married 9aura Welch in ")-- and ran unsuccessfully for the $ouse of /epresentatives shortly thereafter $e
later co4o8ned the Te?as /angers baseball team before defeating 1nn /ichards in the "))4 Te?as
gubernatorial election %ush 8as elected president in &''' after a close and controversial election, becoming
the fourth president to be elected 8hile receiving fe8er popular votes nation8ide than his opponent<.= %ush
is the second president to have been the son of a former president, the first having been John Auincy 1dams
28ith the other familial presidential relations having been the $arrisons grandfather and grandson, as 8ell as
the /oosevelts having been .th cousins5<3= $e is also the brother of Jeb %ush, former #overnor of Florida
;ight months into %ush@s first term as president, the !eptember "", &''" terrorist attacks occurred Bn
response, %ush launched the War on Terror, an international military campaign 8hich included the 8ar in
1fghanistan, launched in &''" and the 8ar in BraC, launched in &''3
Bn addition to national security issues, %ush also promoted policies on the economy, health care, education,
social security reform, and amending the +onstitution to disallo8 same4se? marriage<-= $e signed into la8
broad ta? cuts, the 01T/B,T 1ct, the 7o +hild 9eft %ehind 1ct, the 0artial4%irth 1bortion %an 1ct,
>edicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, and funding for the 1B*! relief program kno8n as 0;0F1/
$is tenure sa8 national debates on immigration, !ocial !ecurity, electronic surveillance, and enhanced
interrogation techniCues
%ush successfully ran for re4election against *emocratic !enator John Derry in &''4, in another relatively
close election 1fter his re4election, %ush received increasingly heated criticism from across the political
spectrum <6= <)= <"'= for his handling of the BraC War, $urricane Datrina,<""= <"&= <"3= and numerous other
challenges This may have been a factor resulting in the *emocratic 0arty 8inning control of +ongress in the
&''3 elections Bn *ecember &''-, the United !tates entered its longest post(World War BB recession, often
referred to as the E#reat /ecessionE, prompting the %ush 1dministration to enact multiple economic
programs intended to preserve the country@s financial system 7ationally, %ush 8as both one of the most
popular and unpopular presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval
ratings in the 8ake of the !eptember "" attacks, as 8ell as one of the lo8est approval ratings during the &''6
financial crisis<"4= Bnternationally, he 8as a highly controversial figure, 8ith public protests even occurring
during visits to close allies, such as the United Dingdom<".=
%ush left office in &''), and 8as succeeded as president by %arack ,bama, 8ho ran on a platform of change
from %ush@s policies !ince leaving office, %ush has returned to Te?as and purchased a home in a suburban
area of *allas $e is currently a public speaker, has 8ritten a memoir titled Decision Points,<"3= and his
presidential library 8as opened in &'"3 $is presidency has been ranked among the 8orst in recent surveys
of presidential scholars,<"-= <"6= although %ush has been vie8ed more favorably by the public since leaving
office<")= <&'= <&"=
" +hildh ood to mid4life
"" ;arly life and education
"& Te?as 1ir 7ational #uard
& >arriage, family, and personal life
3 ;arly career
4 #overnor of Te?as
. 0residential campaigns
." &''' 0residential candidacy
."" 0rimary
."& #eneral election
.& &''4 0residential candidacy
3 0residency
3" *omestic policy
3"" ;conomic policy
3"& ;ducation and health
3"3 !ocial services and !ocial !ecurity
3"4 ;nvironmental policies
3". ;nergy policies
3"3 !tem cell research and first use of veto po8er
3"- #enetic 7on4*iscrimination
3"6 Bmmigration
3") $urricane Datrina
3""' >idterm dismissal of U! attorneys
3& Foreign policy
3&" !eptember "" attacks
3&& War on Terrorism
3&3 1fghanistan invasion
3&4 BraC invasion
3&. !urveillance
3&3 Bnterrogation policies
3&- 7orth Dorea condemnation
3&6 !yria sanctions
3&) 1frica
3&"' 1ssassination attempt
3&"" ,ther issues
33 Judicial appointments
33" !upreme +ourt
33& ,ther courts
34 0ublic image and perception
34" *omestic
34"" Bmage
34"& Job approval
34& Foreign perceptions
343 1ckno8ledgments and dedications
- 0ost4presidency
-" /esidence
-& >essages
-3 +ollaborations
-4 %ush as an artist
6 9egacy
) !ee also
"' /eferences
"" Further reading
"& ;?ternal links
&hi"dhood to (id/"ife
>ain article: ;arly life of #eorge W %ush
0ar"y "ife and education

#eorge W %ush 8ith his parents, %arbara and #eorge $ W %ush, c ")4-
#eorge Walker %ush 8as born in 7e8 $aven, +onnecticut, at #race47e8 $aven $ospital 2no8 :ale ( 7e8
$aven $ospital5, on July 3, ")43,<&&= the first child of #eorge $erbert Walker %ush and %arbara 0ierce $e
8as raised in >idland and $ouston, Te?as, 8ith four siblings, Jeb, 7eil, >arvin and *orothy 1nother
younger sister, /obin, died from leukemia at the age of three in ").3<&3= %ush@s grandfather, 0rescott %ush,
8as a U! !enator from +onnecticut<&4= %ush@s father, #eorge $ W %ush, 8as Fice 0resident from ")6"
to ")6) and 0resident from ")6) to "))3 %ush has ;nglish and some #erman ancestry, along 8ith more
distant *utch, Welsh, Brish, French, and !cottish roots<&.=
%ush attended public schools in >idland, Te?as, until the family moved to $ouston, after he had completed
seventh grade $e then 8ent to The Dinkaid !chool, a prep school in $ouston, for t8o years<&3=
%ush finished high school at 0hillips 1cademy, a boarding school 2then all4male5 in 1ndover, >assachusetts,
8here he played baseball and, during his senior year, 8as the head cheerleader<&-= <&6= %ush attended :ale
University from ")34 to ")36, graduating 8ith an %1 in history<&)= *uring this time, he 8as a cheerleader
and a member of the *elta Dappa ;psilon, serving as the fraternity@s president during his senior year<3'= <3"=
<3&= %ush also became a member of the !kull and %ones society as a senior<33= %ush 8as a rugby union
player and 8as on :ale@s "st GF<34= $e characteriHed himself as an average student<3.= $is average during
his first three years at :ale 8as -- and he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final
%eginning in the fall of ")-3, %ush attended the $arvard %usiness !chool, 8here he earned a >aster of
%usiness 1dministration $e is the only U! 0resident to have earned an >%1<3-=
Teas 'ir 1ationa" Guard
!ee also: #eorge W %ush military service controversy

9t #eorge W %ush 8hile in the Te?as 1ir 7ational #uard
Bn >ay ")36, %ush 8as commissioned into the Te?as 1ir 7ational #uard<36= 1fter t8o years of active4duty
service 8hile training,<3)= he 8as assigned to $ouston, flying +onvair F4"'&s 8ith the "4-th
/econnaissance Wing out of ;llington Field Joint /eserve %ase<36= <4'= +ritics, including former
*emocratic 7ational +ommittee +hairman Terry >c1uliffe, have alleged that %ush 8as favorably treated
due to his father@s political standing as a member of the $ouse of /epresentatives, citing his selection as a
pilot despite his lo8 pilot aptitude test scores and his irregular attendance<4"= Bn June &''., the United
!tates *epartment of *efense released all the records of %ush@s Te?as 1ir 7ational #uard service, 8hich
remain in its official archives<4&=
Bn late ")-& and early ")-3, he drilled 8ith the "6-th Fighter Wing of the 1labama 1ir 7ational #uard,
having moved to >ontgomery, 1labama to 8ork on the unsuccessful U! !enate campaign of /epublican
Winton > %lount<43= <44= Bn ")-&, %ush 8as suspended from flying for failure to take a scheduled physical
e?am<4.= $e 8as honorably discharged from the 1ir Force /eserve on 7ovember &", ")-4<43=
*arriage2 fa(i"y2 and #ersona" "ife
!ee also: %ush family
1t a backyard barbecue in ")--, friends introduced him to 9aura 9ane Welch, a school teacher and librarian
%ush proposed to her after a three4month courtship, and they married on 7ovember . of that year<4-= The
couple settled in >idland, Te?as %ush left his family@s ;piscopal +hurch to Ioin his 8ife@s United >ethodist
+hurch<&= ,n 7ovember &., ")6", 9aura %ush gave birth to fraternal t8in daughters, %arbara 0ierce %ush
and Jenna Welch %ushJ<4-= they graduated from high school in &''' and from :ale University and the
University of Te?as at 1ustin, respectively, in &''4

#eorge and 9aura %ush 8ith their daughters Jenna and %arbara, "))'
0rior to his marriage, %ush had multiple episodes of alcohol abuse<46= Bn one instance, on !eptember 4,
")-3, he 8as arrested near his family@s summer home in Dennebunkport, >aine, for driving under the
influence of alcohol $e pleaded guilty, 8as fined K".' and had his >aine driver@s license briefly suspended
<4)= %ush says his 8ife has had a stabiliHing effect on his life,<4-= and attributes to her influence his ")63
decision to give up alcohol<.'= While #overnor of Te?as, %ush said of his 8ife, EB sa8 an elegant, beautiful
8oman 8ho turned out not only to be elegant and beautiful, but very smart and 8illing to put up 8ith my
rough edges, and B must confess has smoothed them off over timeE<4-=
%ush has been an avid reader throughout his adult life, preferring biographies and histories<."= *uring his
time as president, %ush read "4 9incoln biographies and, during the last three years of his presidency, he
reportedly read "63 books 1 reporter recalls seeing Ebooks by John Fo8les, F !cott FitHgerald, James
Joyce, and #ore Fidal lying about, as 8ell as biographies of Willa +ather and Aueen FictoriaE in his home
8hen %ush 8as a Te?as oilman ,ther hobbies include cigar smoking and golf<.&= !ince leaving the White
$ouse, %ush has also taken up oil painting<.3=
%ush 8elcomed his first granddaughter, >argaret 9aura E>ilaE $ager on 1pril "4, &'"3, 8hen his daughter
Jenna %ush gave birth >argaret is named after her t8o grandmothers<.4=
0ar"y career
>ain article: 0rofessional life of #eorge W %ush

#eorge W %ush 8ith his father outside the White $ouse, 1pril &), "))&
Bn ")-6, %ush ran for the $ouse of /epresentatives from Te?as@s ")th congressional district $is opponent,
Dent $ance, portrayed him as out of touch 8ith rural Te?ans %ush lost the election by 3,''' votes 23L5 of
the "'3,''' votes cast<..= $e returned to the oil industry and began a series of small, independent oil
e?ploration companies<.3= $e created 1rbusto ;nergy,<.-= and later changed the name to %ush ;?ploration
Bn ")64, his company merged 8ith the larger !pectrum -, and %ush became chairman<.3= The company 8as
hurt by decreased oil prices, and it folded into $D7, Bnc <.3= <.6= %ush served on the board of directors for
$D7<.3= Auestions of possible insider trading involving $D7 arose, but the !ecurities and ;?change
+ommission@s 2!;+5 investigation concluded that the information %ush had at the time of his stock sale 8as
not sufficient to constitute insider trading<.3= <.)=
%ush moved his family to Washington, *+ in ")66 to 8ork on his father@s campaign for the U!
presidency<3'= <3"= $e served as a campaign adviser and liaison to the mediaJ<.3= he assisted his father by
campaigning across the country<.3= /eturning to Te?as after the successful campaign, he purchased a share
in the Te?as /angers baseball franchise in 1pril ")6), 8here he served as managing general partner for five
years<3&= $e actively led the team@s proIects and regularly attended its games, often choosing to sit in the
open stands 8ith fans<33= %ush@s sale of his shares in the /angers in "))6 brought him over K". million
from his initial K6'',''' investment<34=
Bn *ecember "))", %ush 8as one of seven people named by his father to run his father@s "))& 0residential
re4election campaign as Ecampaign advisorE<3.= The prior month, his father asked him to tell White $ouse
chief of staff John $ !ununu that he should resign<33=
Governor of Teas
>ain article: #overnorship of #eorge W %ush

#overnor %ush 8ith 8ife, 9aura, and father, #eorge $ W %ush
1s %ush@s brother, Jeb, sought the governorship of Florida, %ush declared his candidacy for the "))4 Te?as
gubernatorial election $is campaign focused on four themes: 8elfare reform, tort reform, crime reduction,
and education improvement<.3= %ush@s campaign advisers 8ere Daren $ughes, Joe 1llbaugh, and Darl
1fter easily 8inning the /epublican primary, %ush faced popular *emocratic incumbent #overnor 1nn
/ichards<.3= <36= Bn the course of the campaign, %ush pledged to sign a bill allo8ing Te?ans to obtain
permits to carry concealed 8eapons /ichards had vetoed the bill, but %ush signed it after he became
governor<3)= 1ccording to The Atlantic Monthly, the race Efeatured a rumor that she 8as a lesbian, along
8ith a rare instance of such a tactic@s making it into the public record ( 8hen a regional chairman of the %ush
campaign allo8ed himself, perhaps inadvertently, to be Cuoted criticiHing /ichards for @appointing avo8ed
homose?ual activists@ to state IobsE<-'= The Atlantic, and others, connected the lesbian rumor to Darl /ove,
<-"= but /ove denied being involved<-&= %ush 8on the general election 8ith .3.L against /ichards@
%ush used a budget surplus to push through Te?as@s largest ta?4cut, K& billion<3-= $e e?tended government
funding for organiHations providing education of the dangers of alcohol and drug use and abuse, and helping
to reduce domestic violence<-4= +ritics contended that during his tenure, Te?as ranked near the bottom in
environmental evaluations !upporters pointed to his efforts to raise the salaries of teachers and improve
educational test scores<.3=
Bn "))), %ush signed a state la8 obliging electric retailers to buy a certain amount of energy from rene8able
sources 2/0!5,<-.= <-3= <--= 8hich helped Te?as eventually become the leading producer of 8ind po8ered
electricity in the U!<-6= <-)= <6'=
Bn "))6, %ush 8on re4election 8ith a record<.3= 3)L of the vote<6"= $e became the first governor in Te?as
history to be elected to t8o consecutive four4year terms<.3= For most of Te?as history, governors served
t8o4year termsJ a constitutional amendment e?tended those terms to four years starting in ")-.<6&= Bn his
second term, %ush promoted faith4based organiHations and enIoyed high approval ratings<.3= $e proclaimed
June "', &''' to be Jesus *ay in Te?as, a day on 8hich he Eurge<d= all Te?ans to ans8er the call to serve
those in needE<63=
Throughout %ush@s first term, national attention focused on him as a potential future presidential candidate
Follo8ing his re4election, speculation soared<.3= Within a year, he decided to seek the &''' /epublican
presidential nomination
Presidentia" ca(#aigns
3444 Presidentia" candidacy
>ain article: United !tates presidential election, &'''

#eorge W %ush in +oncord, 7e8 $ampshire signing to be a candidate for president
Bn June "))), 8hile #overnor of Te?as, %ush announced his candidacy for 0resident of the United !tates
With no incumbent running, %ush entered a large field of candidates for the /epublican 0arty presidential
nomination consisting of John >c+ain, 1lan Deyes, !teve Forbes, #ary %auer, ,rrin $atch, ;liHabeth *ole,
*an Auayle, 0at %uchanan, 9amar 1le?ander, John Dasich, and /obert + !mith
%ush portrayed himself as a compassionate conservative, implying he 8as more centrist than other
/epublicans $e campaigned on a platform that included bringing integrity and honor back to the White
$ouse, increasing the siHe of the United !tates 1rmed Forces, cutting ta?es, improving education, and aiding
minorities<.3= %y early &''', the race had centered on %ush and >c+ain<.3=
%ush 8on the Bo8a caucuses, but, although he 8as heavily favored to 8in the 7e8 $ampshire primary, he
trailed >c+ain by ")L and lost that primary *espite this, %ush regained momentum and, according to
political observers, effectively became the front runner after the !outh +arolina primary, 8hich according to
The Boston Globe made history for his campaign@s negativityJ The New York Times described it as a smear
campaign<64= <6.= <63=
Genera" e"ection
,n July &., &''', %ush surprised some observers by asking *ick +heney, a former White $ouse +hief of
!taff, U! /epresentative, and !ecretary of *efense, to be his running mate +heney 8as then serving as
head of %ush@s Fice40residential search committee !oon after, %ush and +heney 8ere officially nominated
by the /epublican 0arty at the &''' /epublican 7ational +onvention
%ush continued to campaign across the country and touted his record as #overnor of Te?as<.3= %ush@s
campaign criticiHed his *emocratic opponent, incumbent Fice 0resident 1l #ore, over gun control and
When the election returns came in on 7ovember -, %ush 8on &) states, including Florida The closeness of
the Florida outcome led to a recount<.3= The initial recount also 8ent to %ush, but the outcome 8as tied up
in courts for a month until reaching the U! !upreme +ourt<66= ,n *ecember ), in the controversial Bush
v. Gore ruling,<6)= the +ourt reversed a Florida !upreme +ourt decision ordering a third count, and stopped
an ordered state8ide hand recount based on the argument that the use of different standards among Florida@s
counties violated the ;Cual 0rotection +lause of the Fourteenth 1mendment<.3= The machine recount
sho8ed that %ush had 8on the Florida vote by a margin of .3- votes out of si? million cast<)'= 1lthough he
received .43,6). fe8er individual votes than #ore nation8ide, %ush 8on the election, receiving &-"
electoral votes to #ore@s &33<)'=
3444 Presidentia" candidacy
>ain article: United !tates presidential election, &''4

#eorge W %ush speaks at a campaign rally in &''4
Bn &''4, %ush commanded broad support in the /epublican 0arty and did not encounter a primary challenge
$e appointed Den >ehlman as campaign manager, 8ith a political strategy devised by Darl /ove<)"= %ush
and the /epublican platform included a strong commitment to the 8ars in BraC and 1fghanistan,<)&= support
for the U!1 01T/B,T 1ct,<)3= a rene8ed shift in policy for constitutional amendments banning abortion
and same4se? marriage,<)&= <)4= reforming !ocial !ecurity to create private investment accounts,<)&= creation
of an o8nership society,<)&= and opposing mandatory carbon emissions controls<).= %ush also called for the
implementation of a guest 8orker program for immigrants,<)&= 8hich 8as criticiHed by conservatives<)3=
The %ush campaign advertised across the U! against *emocratic candidates, including %ush@s emerging
opponent, >assachusetts !enator John Derry Derry and other *emocrats attacked %ush on the BraC War, and
accused him of failing to stimulate the economy and Iob gro8th The %ush campaign portrayed Derry as a
staunch liberal 8ho 8ould raise ta?es and increase the siHe of government The %ush campaign continuously
criticiHed Derry@s seemingly contradictory statements on the 8ar in BraC,<.3= and argued that Derry lacked the
decisiveness and vision necessary for success in the War on Terror
Bn the election, %ush carried 3" of .' states, receiving a total of &63 electoral votes $e 8on an outright
maIority of the popular vote 2.'-L to his opponent@s 463L5<)-= The previous 0resident to 8in an outright
maIority of the popular vote 8as %ush@s father in the ")66 election 1dditionally, it 8as the first time since
$erbert $oover@s election in ")&6 that a /epublican president 8as elected alongside re4elected /epublican
maIorities in both $ouses of +ongress
>ain articles: 0residency of #eorge W %ush, #eorge W %ush@s first term as 0resident of the United !tates
and #eorge W %ush@s second term as 0resident of the United !tates

0resident %ush addressing the media at the 0entagon, !eptember "-, &''"
Though %ush originally outlined an ambitious domestic agenda, his priorities 8ere significantly altered
follo8ing the !eptember "" terrorist attacks in &''"<)6= Wars 8ere 8aged in 1fghanistan and BraC 8ith
significant domestic debates regarding immigration, healthcare, !ocial !ecurity, economic policy, and
treatment of terrorist detainees ,ver an eight4year period, %ush@s once4high approval ratings<))= steadily
declined, 8hile his disapproval numbers increased significantly<"''= Bn &''-, the United !tates entered the
longest post4World War BB recession<"'"=
5o(estic #o"icy
>ain article: *omestic policy of the #eorge W %ush administration
0cono(ic #o"icy
>ain article: ;conomic policy of the #eorge W %ush administration
%ush took office during a period of economic recession in the 8ake of the bursting of the *ot4com bubble
<"'&= The terrorist attacks also impacted the economy The %ush administration increased federal
government spending from K"-6) trillion to K&)63 trillion 23'L5 8hile revenues increased from K&'&.
trillion to K&.&4 trillion 2from &''' to &''65 Bndividual income ta? revenues increased by "4L, corporate
ta? revenues by .'L, customs and duties by 4'L *iscretionary defense spending 8as increased by "'-L,
discretionary domestic spending by 3&L, >edicare spending by "3"L, social security by ."L, and income
security spending by "3'L +yclically adIusted, revenues rose by 3.L and spending by 3.L<"'3=

0resident %ush signing a K"3. trillion ta? cut into la8, June -, &''"
The increase in spending 8as more than under any predecessor since 9yndon % Johnson<"'4= The number
of economic regulation governmental 8orkers increased by )",")3<"'.=
The surplus in fiscal year &''' 8as K&3- billionMthe third consecutive surplus and the largest surplus ever
<"'3= Bn &''", %ush@s budget estimated that there 8ould be a K.3 trillion surplus over the ne?t ten years
<"'-= Facing congressional opposition, %ush held to8nhall style meetings across the U! in order to increase
public support for his plan for a K"3. trillion ta? cut programMone of the largest ta? cuts in U! history
<.3= %ush argued that unspent government funds should be returned to ta?payers, saying Ethe surplus is not
the governmentNs money The surplus is the peopleNs moneyE<.3= Federal /eserve +hairman 1lan
#reenspan 8arned of a recession and %ush stated that a ta? cut 8ould stimulate the economy and create Iobs
<"'6= Treasury !ecretary 0aul ,@7eill, opposed some of the ta? cuts on the basis that they 8ould contribute
to budget deficits and undermine !ocial !ecurity<"')= ,@7eill disputes the claim, made in %ush@s book
Decision Points, that he never openly disagreed 8ith him on planned ta? cuts<""'= %y &''3, the economy
sho8ed signs of improvement, though Iob gro8th remained stagnant<.3= 1nother ta? cut program 8as
passed that year
*uring the &''" to &''6 years, #*0 gre8 at an average annual rate of &"&.L,<"""= less than for past
business cycles<""&=
%ush entered office 8ith the *o8 Jones Bndustrial 1verage at "',.6-, and the average peaked in ,ctober
&''- at over "4,''' When %ush left office, the average 8as at -,)4), one of the lo8est levels of his

*eficit and debt increases &''"(&'') #ross debt has increased over K.'' billion each year since F:&''3
Unemployment originally rose from 4&L in January &''" to 33L in June &''3, but subseCuently dropped
to 4.L as of July &''-<""4= 1dIusted for inflation, median household income dropped by K","-. bet8een
&''' and &''-,<"".= 8hile 0rofessor Den $oma of #eorgeto8n University has noted that Eafter4ta? median
household income increased by &LE<""3= The poverty rate increased from ""3L in &''' to "&3L in &''3
after peaking at "&-L in &''4<""-= %y ,ctober &''6, due to increases in spending,<""6= the national debt
had risen to K""3 trillion,<"")= an increase of over "''L from &''' 8hen the debt 8as only K.3 trillion
<"&'= <"&"= >ost debt 8as accumulated as a result of 8hat became kno8n as the E%ush ta? cutsE and
increased national security spending<"&&= Bn >arch &''3, then4!enator %arack ,bama said 8hen he voted
against raising the debt ceiling: EThe fact that 8e are here today to debate raising 1mericaNs debt limit is a
sign of leadership failureE<"&3= %y the end of %ush@s presidency, unemployment climbed to -&L<"&4=
Bn *ecember &''-, the United !tates entered the longest post(World War BB recession,<"&.= 8hich included a
housing market correction, a subprime mortgage crisis, soaring oil prices, and a declining dollar value<"&3=
Bn February, 33,''' Iobs 8ere lost, a five4year record<"&-= <"&6= To aid 8ith the situation, %ush signed a
K"-' billion economic stimulus package 8hich 8as intended to improve the economic situation by sending
ta? rebate checks to many 1mericans and providing ta? breaks for struggling businesses The %ush
administration pushed for significantly increased regulation of Fannie >ae and Freddie >ac in &''3,<"&)=
and after t8o years, the regulations passed the $ouse but died in the !enate >any /epublican senators, as
8ell as influential members of the %ush 1dministration, feared that the agency created by these regulations
8ould merely be mimicking the private sectorNs risky practices<"3'= <"3"= <"3&= Bn !eptember &''6, the crisis
became much more serious beginning 8ith the government takeover of Fannie >ae and Freddie >ac
follo8ed by the collapse of 9ehman %rothers and a federal bailout of 1merican Bnternational #roup for
K6. billion<"33=
>any economists and 8orld governments determined that the situation became the 8orst financial crisis
since the #reat *epression<"34= <"3.= 1dditional regulation over the housing market 8ould have been
beneficial, according to former Federal /eserve +hairman 1lan #reenspan<"33= %ush, mean8hile, proposed
a financial rescue plan to buy back a large portion of the U! mortgage market<"3-= Fince /einhardt, a
former Federal /eserve economist no8 at the 1merican ;nterprise Bnstitute, said Eit 8ould have helped for
the %ush administration to empo8er the folks at Treasury and the Federal /eserve and the comptroller of the
currency and the F*B+ to look at these issues more closelyE, and additionally, that it 8ould have helped Efor
+ongress to have held hearingsE<"3"=
Bn 7ovember &''6, over .'',''' Iobs 8ere lost, 8hich marked the largest loss of Iobs in the United !tates in
34 years<"36= The %ureau of 9abor !tatistics reported that in the last four months of &''6, ") million Iobs
8ere lost<"3)= %y the end of &''6, the U! had lost a total of &3 million Iobs<"4'=
0ducation and hea"th
%ush undertook a number of educational priorities, such as increasing the funding for the 7ational !cience
Foundation and 7ational Bnstitutes of $ealth in his first years of office, and creating education programs to
strengthen the grounding in science and mathematics for 1merican high school students Funding for the
7B$ 8as cut in &''3, the first such cut in 33 years, due to rising inflation<"4"=

0resident %ush signing the 7o +hild 9eft %ehind 1ct into la8, January &''&
,ne of the administration@s early maIor initiatives 8as the 7o +hild 9eft %ehind 1ct, 8hich aimed to
measure and close the gap bet8een rich and poor student performance, provide options to parents 8ith
students in lo84performing schools, and target more federal funding to lo84income schools This landmark
education initiative passed 8ith broad bipartisan support, including that of !enator Ted Dennedy of
>assachusetts<"4&= Bt 8as signed into la8 by %ush in early &''&<"43= >any contend that the initiative has
been successful, as cited by the fact that students in the U! have performed significantly better on state
reading and math tests since %ush signed E7o +hild 9eft %ehindE into la8<"44= +ritics argue that it is
underfunded<"4.= and that 7+9%1@s focus on Ehigh stakes testingE and Cuantitative outcomes is
1fter being re4elected, %ush signed into la8 a >edicare drug benefit program that, according to Jan
+ra8ford #reenburg, resulted in Ethe greatest e?pansion in 1merica@s 8elfare state in forty yearsJE the bill@s
costs approached K- trillion<"4-= Bn &''-, %ush opposed and vetoed !tate +hildren@s $ealth Bnsurance
0rogram 2!+$B05 legislation, 8hich 8as added by the *emocrats onto a 8ar funding bill and passed by
+ongress The !+$B0 legislation 8ould have significantly e?panded federally funded health care benefits
and plans to children of some lo84income families from about si? million to ten million children Bt 8as to be
funded by an increase in the cigarette ta?<"46= %ush vie8ed the legislation as a move to8ard socialiHed
health care, and asserted that the program could benefit families making as much as K63,''' per year 8ho
did not need the help<"4)=
Socia" services and Socia" Security
Follo8ing /epublican efforts to pass the >edicare 1ct of &''3, %ush signed the bill, 8hich included maIor
changes to the >edicare program by providing beneficiaries 8ith some assistance in paying for prescription
drugs, 8hile relying on private insurance for the delivery of benefits<".'= The retired persons lobby group
11/0 8orked 8ith the %ush 1dministration on the program and gave their endorsement %ush said the la8,
estimated to cost K4'' billion over the first ten years, 8ould give the elderly Ebetter choices and more control
over their health careE<"."=

0resident %ush discussing !ocial !ecurity reform at the 9ake 7ona :>+1 Family +enter in ,rlando,
Florida, >arch "6, &''.
%ush began his second term by outlining a maIor initiative to reform !ocial !ecurity,<".&= 8hich 8as facing
record deficit proIections beginning in &''. %ush made it the centerpiece of his domestic agenda despite
opposition from some in the U! +ongress<".&= Bn his &''. !tate of the Union 1ddress, %ush discussed the
potential impending bankruptcy of the program and outlined his ne8 program, 8hich included partial
privatiHation of the system, personal !ocial !ecurity accounts, and options to permit 1mericans to divert a
portion of their !ocial !ecurity ta? 2FB+15 into secured investments<".&= *emocrats opposed the proposal
to partially privatiHe the system<".&=
%ush embarked on a 3'4day national tour, campaigning vigorously for his initiative in media events, kno8n
as the E+onversations on !ocial !ecurityE, in an attempt to gain support from the general public<".3=
*espite the energetic campaign, public support for the proposal declined<".4= and the $ouse /epublican
leadership decided not to put !ocial !ecurity reform on the priority list for the remainder of their &''.
legislative agenda<"..= The proposal@s legislative prospects 8ere further diminished by the political fallout
from the $urricane Datrina in the fall of &''.<".3= 1fter the *emocrats gained control of both houses of the
+ongress as a result of the &''3 midterm elections, the prospects of any further congressional action on the
%ush proposal 8ere dead for the remainder of his term in office
0nviron(enta" #o"icies
>ain article: *omestic policy of the #eorge W %ush administration O ;nvironment
Upon taking office in &''", %ush stated his opposition to the Dyoto 0rotocol, an amendment to the U7
+onvention on +limate +hange 8hich seeks to impose mandatory targets for reducing greenhouse gas
emissions, citing that the treaty e?empted 6'L of the 8orld@s population<".-= and 8ould have cost tens of
billions of dollars per year<".6= $e also cited that the !enate had voted ).(' in "))- on a resolution
e?pressing its disapproval of the protocol

0resident %ush delivering a statement on energy, urging +ongress to end offshore oil drill ban, June "6, &''6
Bn >ay &''", %ush signed an e?ecutive order to create an inter4agency task force to streamline energy
proIects,<".)= and later signed t8o other e?ecutive orders to tackle environmental issues<"3'=
Bn &''&, %ush announced the +lear !kies 1ct of &''3,<"3"= aimed at amending the +lean 1ir 1ct to reduce
air pollution through the use of emissions trading programs >any e?perts argued that this legislation 8ould
have 8eakened the original legislation by allo8ing higher emission rates of pollutants than 8ere previously
legal<"3&= The initiative 8as introduced to +ongress, but failed to make it out of committee
%ush has said that he believes that global 8arming is real<"33= and has noted that it is a serious problem, but
he asserted there is a Edebate over 8hether it@s man4made or naturally causedE<"34= The %ush
1dministration@s stance on global 8arming remained controversial in the scientific and environmental
communities +ritics have alleged that the administration<"3.= misinformed the public and did not do enough
to reduce carbon emissions and deter global 8arming<"33=
0nergy #o"icies
Bn his &''3 !tate of the Union 1ddress, %ush declared, E1merica is addicted to oilE and announced his
1dvanced ;nergy Bnitiative to increase energy development research<"3-=
That same year, %ush declared the 7orth8estern $a8aiian Bslands a national monument, creating the largest
marine reserve to date The 0apahPnaumokuPkea >arine 7ational >onument comprises 64 million acres
234',''' km
5 and is home to -,''' species of fish, birds, and other marine animals, many of 8hich are
specific to only those islands<"36= The move 8as hailed by conservationists for Eits foresight and leadership
in protecting this incredible areaE<"3)=

0resident %ush signing the Federal Funding 1ccountability and Transparency 1ct, !eptember &3, &''3
Bn his &''- !tate of the Union 1ddress, %ush rene8ed his pledge to 8ork to8ard diminished reliance on
foreign oil by reducing fossil fuel consumption and increasing alternative fuel production<"-'= 1mid high
gasoline prices in &''6, %ush lifted a ban on offshore drilling<"-"= $o8ever, the move 8as largely symbolic
as there is still a federal la8 banning offshore drilling %ush said, EThis means that the only thing standing
bet8een the 1merican people and these vast oil reserves is action from the U! +ongressE<"-"= %ush had
said in June &''6, EBn the long run, the solution is to reduce demand for oil by promoting alternative energy
technologies >y administration has 8orked 8ith +ongress to invest in gas4saving technologies like
advanced batteries and hydrogen fuel cells Bn the short run, the 1merican economy 8ill continue to rely
largely on oil 1nd that means 8e need to increase supply, especially here at home !o my administration has
repeatedly called on +ongress to e?pand domestic oil productionE<"-&=
Bn his &''6 !tate of the Union 1ddress, %ush announced that the U! 8ould commit K& billion over the ne?t
three years to a ne8 international fund to promote clean energy technologies and fight climate change,
saying, E1long 8ith contributions from other countries, this fund 8ill increase and accelerate the deployment
of all forms of cleaner, more efficient technologies in developing nations like Bndia and +hina, and help
leverage substantial private4sector capital by making clean energy proIects more financially attractiveE $e
also announced plans to reaffirm the United !tates@ commitment to 8ork 8ith maIor economies, and, through
the U7, to complete an international agreement that 8ill slo8, stop, and eventually reverse the gro8th of
greenhouse gasesJ he stated, EThis agreement 8ill be effective only if it includes commitments by every
maIor economy and gives none a free rideE<"-3=
Ste( ce"" research and first use of veto
Federal funding for medical research involving the creation or destruction of human embryos through the
*epartment of $ealth and $uman !ervices and the 7ational Bnstitutes of $ealth has been forbidden by la8
since the passage in ")). of the *ickey4Wicker 1mendment by +ongress and the signature of 0resident %ill
+linton<"-4= %ush has said that he supports adult stem cell research and has supported federal legislation
that finances adult stem cell research $o8ever, %ush did not support embryonic stem cell research<"-.= ,n
1ugust ), &''", %ush signed an e?ecutive order lifting the ban on federal funding for the -" e?isting ElinesE
of stem cells,<"-3= but the ability of these e?isting lines to provide an adeCuate medium for testing has been
Cuestioned Testing can only be done on "& of the original lines, and all of the approved lines have been
cultured in contact 8ith mouse cells, 8hich creates safety issues that complicate development and approval
of therapies from these lines<"--= ,n July "), &''3, %ush used his veto po8er for the first time in his
presidency to veto the !tem +ell /esearch ;nhancement 1ct The bill 8ould have repealed the
*ickey4Wicker 1mendment, thereby permitting federal money to be used for research 8here stem cells are
derived from the destruction of an embryo<"-6=
Genetic 1on/5iscri(ination
0resident #eorge W %ush signed into la8 the #enetic Bnformation 7ondiscrimination 1ct 2#B715<"-)=
<"6'= The bill protects 1mericans against discrimination based on their genetic information 8hen it comes to
health insurance and employment The issue had been debated for "3 years before becoming la8 Bt is
designed to protect citiHens 8hile not hindering genetic research

0resident %ush discussing border security 8ith $omeland !ecurity *irector >ichael +hertoff near ;l 0aso,
7ovember &''.
Bn &''3, %ush urged +ongress to allo8 more than "& million illegal immigrants to 8ork in the United !tates
8ith the creation of a Etemporary guest48orker programE %ush did not support amnesty for illegal
immigrants,<"6"= but argued that the lack of legal status denies the protections of U! la8s to millions of
people 8ho face dangers of poverty and e?ploitation, and penaliHes employers despite a demand for
immigrant labor<"6&= 7early 6 million immigrants came to the United !tates from &''' to &''., more than
in any other five4year period in the nation@s history<"63= 1lmost half entered illegally<"64=
%ush also urged +ongress to provide additional funds for border security and committed to deploying 3,'''
7ational #uard troops to the >e?ico(United !tates border<"6.= Bn >ay(June &''-, %ush strongly supported
the +omprehensive Bmmigration /eform 1ct of &''-, 8hich 8as 8ritten by a bipartisan group of !enators
8ith the active participation of the %ush administration<"63= The bill envisioned a legaliHation program for
illegal immigrants, 8ith an eventual path to citiHenshipJ establishing a guest 8orker programJ a series of
border and 8ork site enforcement measuresJ a reform of the green card application process and the
introduction of a point4based EmeritE system for green cardsJ elimination of Echain migrationE and of the
*iversity Bmmigrant FisaJ and other measures %ush contended that the proposed bill did not amount to
1 heated public debate follo8ed, 8hich resulted in a substantial rift 8ithin the /epublican 0arty, most
conservatives opposed it because of its legaliHation or amnesty provisions<"66= The bill 8as eventually
defeated in the !enate on June &6, &''-, 8hen a cloture motion failed on a 43(.3 vote<"6)= %ush e?pressed
disappointment upon the defeat of one of his signature domestic initiatives<")'= The %ush administration
later proposed a series of immigration enforcement measures that do not reCuire a change in la8<")"=
,n !eptember "), &'"', former Bsraeli 0rime >inister ;hud ,lmert said that %ush offered to accept "'','''
0alestinian refugees as 1merican citiHens if a permanent settlement had been reached bet8een Bsrael and the
0alestinian 1uthority<")&=
6urricane 7atrina
>ain article: 0olitical effects of $urricane Datrina

0resident %ush shaking hands 8ith 7e8 ,rleans >ayor /ay 7agin after vie8ing the devastation of
$urricane Datrina, !eptember &, &''.
$urricane Datrina, one of the most damaging natural disasters in U! history, struck early in %ushNs second
term Datrina formed in late 1ugust during the &''. 1tlantic hurricane season and devastated much of the
north4central #ulf +oast of the United !tates, particularly 7e8 ,rleans<")3=
%ush declared a state of emergency in 9ouisiana on 1ugust &-,<")4= and in >ississippi and 1labama the
follo8ing dayJ<").= he authoriHed the *epartment of $omeland !ecurity 2*$!5 and Federal ;mergency
>anagement 1gency 2F;>15 to manage the disaster, but his announcement failed to spur these agencies to
action<")3= The eye of the hurricane made landfall on 1ugust &), and 7e8 ,rleans began to flood due to
levee breachesJ later that day, %ush declared that a maIor disaster e?isted in 9ouisiana,<")-= officially
authoriHing F;>1 to start using federal funds to assist in the recovery effort

0resident %ush 8ith hurricane victims in %ilo?i, !eptember &, &''.
,n 1ugust 3', *$! !ecretary >ichael +hertoff declared it Ean incident of national significanceE,<")6=
triggering the first use of the ne8ly created 7ational /esponse 0lan Three days later, on !eptember &,
7ational #uard troops first entered the city of 7e8 ,rleans<"))= The same day, %ush toured parts of
9ouisiana, >ississippi, and 1labama and declared that the success of the recovery effort up to that point 8as
Enot enoughE<&''=
1s the disaster in 7e8 ,rleans intensified, critics charged that %ush 8as misrepresenting his administration@s
role in 8hat they sa8 as a fla8ed response 9eaders attacked %ush for having appointed apparently
incompetent leaders to positions of po8er at F;>1, notably >ichael * %ro8nJ<&'"= it 8as also argued that
the federal response 8as limited as a result of the BraC War <&'&= and %ush himself did not act upon 8arnings
of floods<&'3= <&'4= <&'.= %ush responded to mounting criticism by accepting full responsibility for the
federal government@s failures in its handling of the emergency<"))= Bt has been argued that 8ith Datrina,
%ush passed a political tipping point from 8hich he 8ould not recover<&'3=
*idter( dis(issa" of U.S. attorneys
>ain article: *ismissal of U! attorneys controversy

0resident %ush announcing his nomination of 1lberto #onHales as the ne?t U! 1ttorney #eneral,
7ovember "', &''4
*uring %ush@s second term, a controversy arose over the Justice *epartment@s midterm dismissal of seven
United !tates 1ttorneys<&'-= The White $ouse maintained that the U! attorneys 8ere fired for poor
performance<&'6= 1ttorney #eneral 1lberto #onHales later resigned over the issue, along 8ith other senior
members of the Justice *epartment<&')= <&"'= The $ouse Judiciary +ommittee issued subpoenas for
advisers $arriet >iers and Josh %olten to testify regarding this matter, but %ush directed >iers and %olten to
not comply 8ith those subpoenas, invoking his right of e?ecutive privilege %ush maintained that all of his
advisers 8ere protected under a broad e?ecutive privilege protection to receive candid advice The Justice
*epartment determined that the 0resident@s order 8as legal<&""=
1lthough +ongressional investigations focused on 8hether the Justice *epartment and the White $ouse 8ere
using the U! 1ttorney positions for political advantage, no official findings have been released ,n >arch
"', &''6, the +ongress filed a federal la8suit to enforce their issued subpoenas<&"&= ,n July 3", &''6, a
United !tates district court Iudge ruled that %ush@s top advisers 8ere not immune from +ongressional
Bn all, t8elve Justice *epartment officials resigned rather than testify under oath before +ongress They
included 1ttorney #eneral 1lberto #onHales <&"4= and his chief of staff Dyle !ampson,<&".= #onHalesN
liaison to the White $ouse >onica #oodling,<&"3= aide to the president Darl /ove <&"-= and his senior aide
!ara > Taylor<&"6= Bn addition, legal counsel to the president $arriet >iers <&")= and deputy chief of staff
to the president Joshua %olten <&&'= 8ere both found in contempt of +ongress<&"6=
Bn &'"', the Justice *epartment investigator concluded that though political considerations did play a part in
as many as four of the attorney firings,<&&"= the firings 8ere Einappropriately politicalE, but not criminal
1ccording to the prosecutors, there 8as insufficient evidence to pursue prosecution for any criminal offense
8oreign #o"icy
>ain article: Foreign policy of the #eorge W %ush administration

0resident %ush 8ith Btalian 0rime >inister !ilvio %erlusconi in &''.
Bn July &''", %ush visited 0ope John 0aul BB at +astel #andolfo<&&3=
*uring his 0residential campaign, %ush@s foreign policy platform included support for stronger economic and
political relationship 8ith 9atin 1merica, especially >e?ico, and a reduction of involvement in
Enation4buildingE and other small4scale military engagements The administration pursued a national missile
defense<&&4= %ush 8as an advocate of +hina@s entry into the World Trade ,rganiHation<&&.=
Bn his &''& !tate of the Union 1ddress, %ush referred to an a?is of evil including BraC, Bran and 7orth Dorea
<&&3= 1fter the !eptember "" attacks on 7e8 :ork, %ush launched the War on Terror, in 8hich the United
!tates military and a small international coalition invaded 1fghanistan, the location of ,sama %in 9aden,
8ho planned the 7e8 :ork attacks Bn &''3, %ush then launched the invasion of BraC, searching for Weapons
of >ass *estruction, 8hich he described as being part of the War on Terrorism<&&-= Those invasions led to
the toppling of the Taliban regime in 1fghanistan and the removal of !addam $ussein from po8er in BraC

Foreign >inister of Bndia 0ranab >ukherIee 8ith 0resident %ush, >arch &''6
%ush began his second term 8ith an emphasis on improving strained relations 8ith ;uropean nations $e
appointed long4time adviser Daren $ughes to oversee a global public relations campaign %ush lauded the
pro4democracy struggles in #eorgia and Ukraine
Bn >arch &''3, a visit to Bndia led to rene8ed ties bet8een the t8o countries, reversing decades of U!
policy<&&6= The visit focused particularly on areas of nuclear energy and counter4terrorism cooperation,
discussions that 8ould lead eventually to the U!4Bndia +ivil 7uclear 1greement<&&)=
This is in stark contrast to the stance taken by his predecessor, +linton, 8hose approach and response to Bndia
after the "))6 nuclear tests 8as that of sanctions and hectoring The relationship bet8een Bndia and the
United !tates 8as one that dramatically improved during %ush@s tenure<&3'=

+ountries visited by 0resident #eorge W %ush during his terms in office
>id8ay through %ush@s second term, it 8as Cuestioned 8hether %ush 8as retreating from his freedom and
democracy agenda, highlighted in policy changes to8ard some oil4rich former !oviet republics in central
Bn an address before both $ouses of +ongress on !eptember &', &''", %ush thanked the nations of the 8orld
for their support follo8ing the !eptember "" attacks $e specifically thanked UD 0rime >inister Tony
%lair for traveling to Washington to sho8 Eunity of purpose 8ith 1mericaE, and said E1merica has no truer
friend than #reat %ritainE<&3&=
Se#te(ber 99 attac-s
>ain article: !eptember "" attacks

0resident %ush, standing 8ith firefighter %ob %eck8ith, addressing rescue 8orkers at #round Qero in 7e8
:ork, !eptember "4, &''"
The !eptember "" terrorist attacks 8ere a maIor turning point in %ush@s presidency That evening, he
addressed the nation from the ,val ,ffice, promising a strong response to the attacks $e also emphasiHed
the need for the nation to come together and comfort the families of the victims ,n !eptember "4, he visited
#round Qero, meeting 8ith >ayor /udy #iuliani, firefighters, police officers, and volunteers %ush
addressed the gathering via a megaphone 8hile standing on a heap of rubble, to much applause: EB can hear
you The rest of the 8orld hears you 1nd the people 8ho knocked these buildings do8n 8ill hear all of us
0resident %ush *eclares @Freedom at War 8ith Fear@, !eptember &',
Problems playin this !ile" #ee media help.
Bn a !eptember &' speech, %ush condemned ,sama bin 9aden and his organiHation 1l4Aaeda, and issued an
ultimatum to the Taliban regime in 1fghanistan, 8here bin 9aden 8as operating, to Ehand over the terrorists,
or share in their fateE<&34=
War on Terroris(
>ain article: War on Terror

0resident %ush presenting former UD 0rime >inister Tony %lair 8ith the 0residential >edal of Freedom,
January "3, &'')
1fter !eptember "", %ush announced a global War on Terror The 1fghan Taliban regime 8as not
forthcoming 8ith ,sama bin 9aden, so %ush ordered the invasion of 1fghanistan to overthro8 the Taliban
regime<&3.= Bn his January &), &''& !tate of the Union 1ddress, he asserted that an Ea?is of evilE consisting
of 7orth Dorea, Bran, and BraC 8as Earming to threaten the peace of the 8orldE and Epose<d= a grave and
gro8ing dangerE<&33= The %ush 1dministration asserted both a right and the intention to 8age preemptive
8ar, or preventive 8ar<&3-= This became the basis for the %ush *octrine 8hich 8eakened the
unprecedented levels of international and domestic support for the United !tates 8hich had follo8ed the
!eptember "" attacks<&36=
*issent and criticism of %ush@s leadership in the War on Terror increased as the 8ar in BraC continued<&3)=
<&4'= <&4"= Bn &''3, a 7ational Bntelligence ;stimate concluded that the BraC War had become the Ecause
cRlSbre for IihadistsE<&4&= <&43=
'fghanistan invasion
>ain article: War in 1fghanistan 2&''"(present5

0resident %ush and 0resident $amid DarHai of 1fghanistan appearing at a Ioint ne8s conference in Dabul,
>arch ", &''3
,n ,ctober -, &''", U! and %ritish forces initiated bombing campaigns that led to the arrival of 7orthern
1lliance troops in Dabul on 7ovember "3 The main goals of the 8ar 8ere to defeat the Taliban, drive
al4Aaeda out of 1fghanistan, and capture key al4Aaeda leaders Bn *ecember &''", the 0entagon reported
that the Taliban had been defeated,<&44= but cautioned that the 8ar 8ould go on to continue 8eakening
Taliban and al4Aaeda leaders<&44= 9ater that month the U7 had installed the 1fghan Transitional
1dministration chaired by $amid DarHai<&4.= <&43= Bn &''&, based on U7B+;F figures, 7icholas Dristof
reported that Eour invasion of 1fghanistan may end up saving one million lives over the ne?t decadeE as the
result of improved healthcare and greater access to humanitarian aid<&4-=
;fforts to kill or capture al4Aaeda leader ,sama bin 9aden failed as he escaped a battle in *ecember &''" in
the mountainous region of Tora %ora, 8hich the %ush 1dministration later ackno8ledged to have resulted
from a failure to commit enough U! ground troops<&46= Bt 8as not until >ay &'"", t8o years after %ush
left office, that bin 9aden 8as killed by U! forces %in 9aden@s successor, 1yman al4Qa8ahiri, as 8ell as
the leader of the Taliban, >ohammed ,mar, remain at large
*espite the initial success in driving the Taliban from po8er in Dabul, by early &''3 the Taliban 8as
regrouping, amassing ne8 funds and recruits<&4)= The &''. failure of ,peration /ed Wings sho8ed that the
Taliban had returned<&.'= Bn &''3, the Taliban insurgency appeared larger, fiercer and better organiHed than
e?pected, 8ith large4scale allied offensives such as ,peration >ountain Thrust attaining limited success
<&."= <&.&= <&.3= 1s a result, %ush commissioned 3,.'' additional troops to the country in >arch &''-<&.4=
Ira: invasion
>ain articles: BraC War and #eorge W %ush and the BraC War

0resident %ush, 8ith 7aval Flight ,fficer 9ieutenant /yan 0hilips, after landing on the U!! Abraham
$incoln prior to his >ission 1ccomplished speech, >ay ", &''3
%eginning 8ith his January &), &''& !tate of the Union address, %ush began publicly focusing attention on
BraC, 8hich he labeled as part of an Ea?is of evilE allied 8ith terrorists and posing Ea grave and gro8ing
dangerE to U! interests through possession of 8eapons of mass destruction<&33= <&..=
Bn the latter half of &''&, +B1 reports contained assertions of !addam $ussein@s intent of reconstituting
nuclear 8eapons programs, not properly accounting for BraCi biological and chemical 8eapons, and that
some BraCi missiles had a range greater than allo8ed by the U7 sanctions<&.3= <&.-= +ontentions that the
%ush 1dministration manipulated or e?aggerated the threat and evidence of BraC@s 8eapons of mass
destruction capabilities 8ould eventually become a maIor point of criticism for the president<&.6= <&.)=
Bn late &''& and early &''3, %ush urged the United 7ations to enforce BraCi disarmament mandates,
precipitating a diplomatic crisis Bn 7ovember &''&, $ans %li? and >ohamed ;l%aradei led U7 8eapons
inspectors in BraC, but 8ere advised by the U! to depart the country four days prior to the U! invasion,
despite their reCuests for more time to complete their tasks<&3'= The U! initially sought a U7 !ecurity
+ouncil resolution authoriHing the use of military force but dropped the bid for U7 approval due to vigorous
opposition from several countries<&3"=

0resident %ush paying a surprise visit to %aghdad Bnternational 1irport, 7ovember &-, &''3
>ore than &' nations 2most notably the United Dingdom5, designated the Ecoalition of the 8illingE Ioined the
United !tates<&3&= in invading BraC They launched the invasion on >arch &', &''3 The BraCi military 8as
Cuickly defeated The capital, %aghdad, fell on 1pril ), &''3 ,n >ay ", %ush declared the end of maIor
combat operations in BraC The initial success of U! operations increased his popularity, but the U! and
allied forces faced a gro8ing insurgency led by sectarian groupsJ %ush@s E>ission 1ccomplishedE speech
8as later criticiHed as premature<&33= From &''4 until &''-, the situation in BraC deteriorated further, 8ith
some observers arguing that there 8as a full4scale civil 8ar in BraC<&34= %ush@s policies met 8ith criticism,
including demands domestically to set a timetable to 8ithdra8 troops from BraC The &''3 report of the
bipartisan BraC !tudy #roup, led by James %aker, concluded that the situation in BraC 8as Egrave and
deterioratingE While %ush admitted that there 8ere strategic mistakes made in regards to the stability of BraC,
<&3.= he maintained he 8ould not change the overall BraC strategy<&33= <&3-=

0resident %ush 8ith BraCi 0rime >inister 7ouri al4>aliki, July &., &''3
Bn January &''., free, democratic elections 8ere held in BraC for the first time in .' years<&36= 1ccording to
BraCi 7ational !ecurity 1dvisor >o8affak al4/ubaie, EThis is the greatest day in the history of this
countryE<&36= %ush praised the event as 8ell, saying that the BraCis Ehave taken rightful control of their
country@s destinyE<&36= This led to the election of Jalal Talabani as 0resident and 7ouri al4>aliki as 0rime
>inister of BraC 1 referendum to approve a constitution in BraC 8as held in ,ctober &''., supported by most
!hiites and many Durds<&3)=
,n January "', &''-, %ush announced a surge of &",.'' more troops for BraC, as 8ell as a Iob program for
BraCis, more reconstruction proposals, and K"& billion for these programs<&-'= ,n >ay ", &''-, %ush used
his second4ever veto to reIect a bill setting a deadline for the 8ithdra8al of U! troops,<&-"= saying the
debate over the conflict 8as EunderstandableE but insisting that a continued U! presence there 8as crucial
Bn >arch &''6, %ush praised the BraCi government@s Ebold decisionE to launch the %attle of %asra against the
>ahdi 1rmy, calling it Ea defining moment in the history of a free BraCE<&-3= $e said he 8ould carefully
8eigh recommendations from his commanding #eneral *avid 0etraeus and 1mbassador /yan +rocker about
ho8 to proceed after the end of the military buildup in the summer of &''6 $e also praised the BraCis@
legislative achievements, including a pension la8, a revised de4%aathification la8, a ne8 budget, an amnesty
la8, and a provincial po8ers measure that, he said, set the stage for the BraCi elections<&-4= %y July &''6,
1merican troop deaths had reached their lo8est number since the 8ar began,<&-.= and due to increased
stability in BraC, %ush announced the 8ithdra8al of additional 1merican forces<&-.=
Follo8ing the events of !eptember "", %ush issued an e?ecutive order authoriHing the 0resident@s
!urveillance 0rogram 8hich included allo8ing the 7!1 to monitor communications bet8een suspected
terrorists outside the U! and parties 8ithin the U! 8ithout obtaining a 8arrant as reCuired by the Foreign
Bntelligence !urveillance 1ct<&-3= 1s of &''), the other provisions of the program remained highly
classified<&--= ,nce the *epartment of Justice ,ffice of 9egal +ounsel Cuestioned its original legal opinion
that FB!1 did not apply in a time of 8ar, the program 8as subseCuently re4authoriHed by the 0resident on the
basis that the 8arrant reCuirements of FB!1 8ere implicitly superseded by the subseCuent passage of the
1uthoriHation for Use of >ilitary Force 1gainst Terrorists<&-6= The program proved to be controversial, as
critics of the administration, as 8ell as organiHations such as the 1merican %ar 1ssociation, argued that it
8as illegal<&-)= Bn 1ugust &''3, a U! district court Iudge ruled that the 7!1 electronic surveillance
program 8as unconstitutional,<&6'= but on July 3, &''-, that ruling 8as vacated by the United !tates +ourt
of 1ppeals for the !i?th +ircuit on the grounds that the plaintiffs lacked standing<&6"= ,n January "-, &''-,
1ttorney #eneral 1lberto #onHales informed U! !enate leaders that the program 8ould not be reauthoriHed
by the 0resident, but 8ould be subIected to Iudicial oversight<&6&= 9ater in &''-, the 7!1 launched a
replacement for the program, referred to as 0/B!>, that 8as subIect to the oversight of the United !tates
Foreign Bntelligence !urveillance +ourt<&63= This program 8as not publicly revealed until reports by the
%ashinton Post <&63= and The Guardian <&64= emerged in June &'"3<&63=
Interrogation #o"icies

0resident %ush at the celebration of the si?tieth anniversary of victory in World War BB, /ed !Cuare, >osco8
%ush authoriHed the +B1 to use 8aterboarding as one of several enhanced interrogation techniCues<&6.=
<&63= <&6-= %et8een &''& and &''3 the +B1 considered certain enhanced interrogation techniCues, such as
8aterboarding, to be legal based on a secret Justice *epartment legal opinion arguing that terror detainees
8ere not protected by the #eneva +onventions@ ban on torture and Fice 0resident +heney said enhanced
interrogation including 8aterboarding 8as not torture or illegal<&66= <&6)= The +B1 had e?ercised the
techniCue on certain key terrorist suspects under authority given to it in the %ybee >emo from the 1ttorney
#eneral, though that memo 8as later 8ithdra8n<&)'= While not permitted by the U! 1rmy Field >anuals
8hich assert Ethat harsh interrogation tactics elicit unreliable informationE,<&66= the %ush administration
believed these enhanced interrogations Eprovided critical informationE to preserve 1merican lives<&)"=
+ritics, such as former +B1 officer %ob %aer, have stated that information 8as suspect, Eyou can get anyone
to confess to anything if the torture@s bad enoughE<&)&=
,n ,ctober "-, &''3, %ush signed into la8 the >ilitary +ommissions 1ct of &''3,<&)3= a la8 enacted in the
8ake of the !upreme +ourt@s decision in &amdan v. 'ums!eld, .46 U! ..- 2&''35,<&)4= 8hich allo8s the
U! government to prosecute unla8ful enemy combatants by military commission rather than a standard
trial The la8 also denies them access to habeas corpus and bars the torture of detainees, but allo8s the
president to determine 8hat constitutes torture<&)3=
,n >arch 6, &''6, %ush vetoed $/ &'6&,<&).= a bill that 8ould have e?panded congressional oversight
over the intelligence community and banned the use of 8aterboarding as 8ell as other forms of interrogation
not permitted under the United !tates 1rmy Field >anual on $uman Bntelligence +ollector ,perations,
saying that Ethe bill +ongress sent me 8ould take a8ay one of the most valuable tools in the War on TerrorE
<&)3= Bn 1pril &''), the 1+9U sued and 8on release of the secret memos that had authoriHed the %ush
administration@s interrogation tactics<&)-= ,ne memo detailed specific interrogation tactics including a
footnote that described 8aterboarding as torture as 8ell as that the form of 8aterboarding used by the +B1
8as far more intense than authoriHed by the Justice *epartment<&)6=
1orth 7orea conde(nation
>ain article: 7orth Dorea(United !tates relations

0resident %ush 8ith +hina@s 0resident and +ommunist party leader $u Jintao, &''3
%ush publicly condemned Dim Jong4il of 7orth Dorea, naming 7orth Dorea one of three states in an Ea?is of
evilE, and saying that Ethe United !tates of 1merica 8ill not permit the 8orld@s most dangerous regimes to
threaten us 8ith the 8orld@s most destructive 8eaponsE<&33= Within months, Eboth countries had 8alked
a8ay from their respective commitments under the U!4*0/D 1greed Frame8ork of ,ctober "))4E<&))=
7orth Dorea@s ,ctober ), &''3, detonation of a nuclear device further complicated %ush@s foreign policy,
8hich centered for both terms of his presidency on E<preventing= the terrorists and regimes 8ho seek
chemical, biological, or nuclear 8eapons from threatening the United !tates and the 8orldE<&33= %ush
condemned 7orth Dorea@s position, reaffirmed his commitment to Ea nuclear4free Dorean 0eninsulaE, and
stated that Etransfer of nuclear 8eapons or material by 7orth Dorea to states or non4state entities 8ould be
considered a grave threat to the United !tatesE, for 8hich 7orth Dorea 8ould be held accountable<3''= ,n
>ay -, &''-, 7orth Dorea agreed to shut do8n its nuclear reactors immediately pending the release of froHen
funds held in a foreign bank account This 8as a result of a series of three48ay talks initiated by the United
!tates and including +hina<3'"= ,n !eptember &, &''-, 7orth Dorea agreed to disclose and dismantle all of
its nuclear programs by the end of &''-<3'&= %y >ay &''), 7orth Dorea had restarted its nuclear program
and threatened to attack !outh Dorea<3'3=
,n June &&, &'"', EWhile !outh Dorea prospers, the people of 7orth Dorea have suffered profoundly,E he
said, adding that, Ecommunism had resulted in dire poverty, mass starvation and brutal suppression EBn
recent years,E he 8ent on to say, Ethe suffering has been compounded by the leader 8ho 8asted 7orth
Dorea@s precious fe8 resources on personal lu?uries and nuclear 8eapons programsE<3'4=
Syria sanctions

0resident %ush 8ith /ussian president Fladimir 0utin in !hanghai, ,ctober &", &''"
%ush e?panded economic sanctions on !yria<3'.= Bn early &''-, the Treasury *epartment, acting on a June
&''. e?ecutive order, froHe 1merican bank accounts of !yria@s $igher Bnstitute of 1pplied !cience and
Technology, ;lectronics Bnstitute, and 7ational !tandards and +alibration 9aboratory %ush@s order prohibits
1mericans from doing business 8ith these institutions suspected of helping spread 8eapons of mass
destruction <3'3= and being supportive of terrorism<3'-= Under separate e?ecutive orders signed by %ush in
&''4 and later &''-, the Treasury *epartment froHe the assets of t8o 9ebanese and t8o !yrians, accusing
them of activities to Eundermine the legitimate political process in 9ebanonE in 7ovember &''- Those
designated included: 1ssaad $alim $ardan, a member of 9ebanon@s parliament and current leader of the
!yrian !ocialist 7ational 0artyJ Wi@am Wahhab, a former member of 9ebanon@s government 2>inister of the
;nvironment5 under 0rime >inister ,mar Darami 2&''4(&''.5J $afiH >akhluf, a colonel and senior official
in the !yrian #eneral Bntelligence *irectorate and a cousin of !yrian 0resident %ashar al41ssadJ and
>uhammad 7asif Dhayrbik, identified as a close adviser to 1ssad<3'6=
%ush initiated the 0resident@s ;mergency 0lan for 1B*! /elief 0rogram 20;0F1/5 The U! government
has spent some K44 billion on the proIect since &''3 2a figure that includes K- billion contributed to the
#lobal Fund to Fight 1B*!, Tuberculosis, and >alaria, a multilateral organiHation5,<3')= saving an estimated
. million lives<3"'= 1ccording to New York Times correspondent 0eter %aker, E%ush did more to stop 1B*!
and more to help 1frica than any president before or sinceE<3"'=
'ssassination atte(#t
,n >ay "', &''., Fladimir 1rutyunian, a native #eorgian 8ho 8as born to a family of ethnic 1rmenians,
thre8 a live hand grenade to8ard a podium 8here %ush 8as speaking at Freedom !Cuare in Tbilisi, #eorgia
#eorgian 0resident >ikheil !aakashvili 8as seated nearby Bt landed in the cro8d about 3. feet 2&' m5 from
the podium after hitting a girl, but it did not detonate 1rutyunian 8as arrested in July &''., confessed, 8as
convicted and 8as given a life sentence in January &''3<3""=
;ther issues

0resident %ush, >ahmoud 1bbas, and 1riel !haron meet at the /ed !ea !ummit in 1Caba, Jordan, June 4,
%ush 8ithdre8 U! support for several international agreements, including the 1nti4%allistic >issile Treaty
21%>5 8ith /ussia $e also signed the !trategic ,ffensive /eductions Treaty 8ith /ussia
%ush emphasiHed a careful approach to the conflict bet8een Bsrael and the 0alestiniansJ he denounced
0alestine 9iberation ,rganiHation leader :asser 1rafat for his support of violence, but sponsored dialogues
bet8een 0rime >inister 1riel !haron and 0alestinian 7ational 1uthority 0resident >ahmoud 1bbas %ush
supported !haron@s unilateral disengagement plan, and lauded the democratic elections held in 0alestine after
1rafat@s death

0resident %ush and Ukrainian 0rime >inister :ulia Tymoshenko, 1pril ", &''6
%ush also e?pressed U! support for the defense of Tai8an follo8ing the stand4off in 1pril &''" 8ith the
0eople@s /epublic of +hina over the $ainan Bsland incident, 8hen an ;043; 1ries BB surveillance aircraft
collided 8ith a 0eople@s 9iberation 1rmy 1ir Force Iet, leading to the detention of U! personnel Bn
&''3(&''4, %ush authoriHed U! military intervention in $aiti and 9iberia to protect U! interests %ush
condemned the militia attacks *arfur and denounced the killings in !udan as genocide<3"&= %ush said that
an international peacekeeping presence 8as critical in *arfur, but opposed referring the situation to the
Bnternational +riminal +ourt
Bn his !tate of the Union address in January &''3, %ush outlined a five4year strategy for global emergency
1B*! relief, the 0resident@s ;mergency 0lan for 1B*! /elief %ush announced K". billion for this
effort<3"3= 8hich directly supported life4saving antiretroviral treatment for more than 3& million men,
8omen and children 8orld8ide<3"4=
,n June "', &''-, he met 8ith 1lbanian 0rime >inister !ali %erisha and became the first president to visit
1lbania<3".= %ush has voiced his support for the independence of Dosovo<3"3= %ush opposed !outh
,ssetia@s independence<3"-= ,n 1ugust "., &''6, %ush said of /ussia@s invasion of the country of #eorgia:
E%ullying and intimidation are not acceptable 8ays to conduct foreign policy in the &"st centuryE<3"6=
%ush opened the &''& Winter ,lympics in !alt 9ake +ity *eparting from previous practice, he stood among
a group of U! athletes rather than from a ceremonial stand or bo?, saying: E,n behalf of a proud,
determined, and grateful nation, B declare open the #ames of !alt 9ake +ity, celebrating the ,lympic Winter
#amesE<3")= Bn &''6, in the course of a good48ill trip to 1sia, he attended the !ummer ,lympics in
<udicia" a##oint(ents
Su#re(e &ourt
>ain article: #eorge W %ush !upreme +ourt candidates

!upreme +ourt Justice nominee John /oberts and 0resident %ush, July "), &''.
Follo8ing the announcement of !upreme +ourt Justice !andra *ay ,@+onnor@s retirement on July ", &''.,
%ush nominated John /oberts to succeed her ,n !eptember ., follo8ing the death of +hief Justice William
/ehnCuist, this nomination 8as 8ithdra8n and %ush instead nominated /oberts for +hief Justice to succeed
/ehnCuist /oberts 8as confirmed by the !enate as the "-th +hief Justice on !eptember &), &''.
,n ,ctober 3, &''., %ush nominated long time White $ouse +ounsel $arriet >iers for ,@+onnor@s position
1fter facing significant opposition from both parties, 8ho found her to be ill4prepared and uninformed on the
la8,<3&"= >iers asked that her name be 8ithdra8n on ,ctober &- Four days later, on ,ctober 3", %ush
nominated federal appellate Iudge !amuel 1lito 1lito 8as confirmed as the ""'th !upreme +ourt Justice on
January 3", &''3<3&&=
;ther courts
>ain article: 9ist of federal Iudges appointed by #eorge W %ush
Bn addition to his t8o !upreme +ourt appointments, %ush appointed 3" Iudges to the United !tates courts of
appeals and &3" Iudges to the United !tates district courts ;ach of these numbers, along 8ith his total of 3&4
Iudicial appointments, is third in 1merican history, behind both /onald /eagan and %ill +linton %ush
e?perienced a number of Iudicial appointment controversies *ebate during one confirmation session lasted
E3) stupefying hoursE according to The 7e8 :ork Times ,n 1ugust 3, &''", the !enate did not consent to
keep e?isting nominations in status (uo, returning 4' Iudicial nominations, and "34 total nominations<3&3=
<3&4= <3&.=
1t the outset, Judicature magaHine noted that the E!enate *emocrats 8ere gearing up for the approaching
confirmation hearingsE before the first set of nominees 8ere sent to the !enate Bt then cites the 7e8 :ork
Times as saying E!enate *emocrats have pledged they 8ill not automatically vote to confirm >r %ush@s
Iudicial nominees and 8ill subIect them to intense scrutinyE<3&3=
The !enate only confirmed 6 out of 3' Iudicial nominations by ,ctober &''" Bn February &''3, the
*emocrats successfully filibustered the nomination of >iguel ;strada<3&-=
Pub"ic i(age and #erce#tion
>ain article: 0ublic image of #eorge W %ush
!ee also: ;fforts to impeach #eorge W %ush

#allupT)#A Today %ush public opinion polling from February &''" to January &'') %lue denotes approve,
red disapprove and green unsure
%ush@s upbringing in West Te?as, his accent, his vacations on his Te?as ranch, and his penchant for country
metaphors contribute to his folksy, 1merican co8boy image<3&6= <3&)= EB think people look at him and think
John Wayne,E said 0iers >organ, editor of the %ritish Daily Mirror<33'= Bt has been suggested that %ush@s
accent 8as an active choice, as a 8ay of distinguishing himself from 7ortheastern intellectuals and anchoring
himself to his Te?as roots<33"= %oth supporters and detractors have pointed to his country persona as
reasons for their support or criticism<3&)=
%ush has been parodied by the media,<33&= comedians, and other politicians<333= <334= *etractors tended to
cite linguistic errors made by %ush during his public speeches, 8hich are colloCuially referred to as
%ushisms<33.= !ome pundits labeled %ush Ethe 8orst president everE<333= <33-= <336= <33)= <34'= Bn contrast
to his father, 8ho 8as perceived as having troubles 8ith an overarching unifying theme, %ush embraced
larger visions and 8as seen as a man of larger ideas and associated huge risks<34"= Tony %lair 8rote in &'"'
that the caricature of %ush as being dumb is EludicrousE and that %ush is Every smartE<34&=
<ob a##rova"
%ush began his presidency 8ith approval ratings near .'L<343= 1fter the !eptember "" attacks, %ush
gained an approval rating of )'L,<344= maintaining 6'()'L approval for four months after the attacks Bt
remained over .'L during most of his first term<"4= and then fell to as lo8 as ")L in his second term<34.=
Bn &''' and again in &''4, Time magaHine named #eorge W %ush as its 0erson of the :ear, a title a8arded
to someone 8ho the editors believe Ehas done the most to influence the events of the yearE<343= Bn >ay
&''4, #allup reported that 6)L of the /epublican electorate approved of %ush<34-= $o8ever, the support
8aned due mostly to a minority of /epublicans@ frustration 8ith him on issues of spending, illegal
immigration, and >iddle ;astern affairs<346=
Within the United !tates armed forces, according to an unscientific survey, the president 8as strongly
supported in the &''4 presidential elections<34)= While -3L of military personnel said that they 8ould vote
for %ush, "6L preferred his *emocratic rival, John Derry<34)= 1ccording to 0eter * Feaver, a *uke
University political scientist 8ho has studied the political leanings of the U! military, members of the
armed services supported %ush because they found him more likely than Derry to complete the War in BraC
%ush@s approval rating 8ent belo8 the .'L mark in 104Bpsos polling in *ecember &''4<3.'= Thereafter,
his approval ratings and approval of his handling of domestic and foreign policy issues steadily dropped
%ush received heavy criticism for his handling of the BraC War, his response to $urricane Datrina and to the
1bu #hraib prisoner abuse, 7!1 8arrantless surveillance, the 0lame affair, and #uantanamo %ay detention
camp controversies<3."= There 8ere calls for %ush@s impeachment, though most polls sho8ed a plurality of
1mericans 8ould not support such an action<3.&= The arguments offered for impeachment usually centered
on the 7!1 8arrantless surveillance controversy,<3.3= the %ush administration@s Iustification for the 8ar in
BraC,<3.4= and alleged violations of the #eneva +onventions<3..= /epresentative *ennis Ducinich 2*4,$5,
8ho had run against %ush during the &''4 presidential campaign, introduced 3. articles of impeachment on
the floor of the $ouse of /epresentatives against %ush on June ), &''6, but !peaker 7ancy 0elosi 2*4+15
declared that impeachment 8as Eoff the tableE<3.3=
0olls conducted in &''3 sho8ed an average of 3-L approval ratings for %ush,<3.-= the lo8est for any
second4term president at that point of his term since $arry ! Truman in >arch ")." 28hen Truman@s
approval rating 8as &6L5,<3.'= <3.6= 8hich contributed to 8hat %ush called the EthumpingE of the
/epublican 0arty in the &''3 mid4term elections<3.)= Throughout most of &''-, %ush@s approval rating
hovered in the mid4thirtiesJ<33'= the average for his entire second term 8as 3-L, according to #allup<33"=

0resident %ush@s approval rating 8ith key events marked, &''"(&''3
%y the beginning of &''6, his final year in office, %ushNs approval rating had dropped to a lo8 of Iust ")L,
largely from the loss of support among /epublicans<34.= +ommenting on his lo8 poll numbers and
accusations of being Ethe 8orst president,E<33&= <333= %ush 8ould say, EB make decisions on 8hat B think is
right for the United !tates based upon principles B frankly don@t give a damn about the pollsE<334=
Bn the spring of that year, %ush@s disapproval ratings reached the highest ever recorded for any president in
the -'4year history of the #allup poll, 8ith 3)L of those polled in 1pril &''6 disapproving of the Iob %ush
8as doing as president and &6L approving ( although the maIority 233L5 of /epublicans still approved of
his Iob performance<33.= Bn polls conducted in the fall, Iust before the &''6 election, his approval ratings
remained at record lo8s of ")(&'L,<333= <33-= 8hile his disapproval ratings ranged from 3-L to as high as
-.L<33-= <336= Bn polling conducted January )M"", &''), his final Iob approval rating by #allup 8as 34L,
8hich placed him on par 8ith Jimmy +arter and $arry Truman, the other presidents 8hose final #allup
ratings measured in the lo8 3'@s 2/ichard 7i?on@s final #allup approval rating 8as even lo8er, at &4L5<33)=
1ccording to a +%! 7e8sTNew York Times poll conducted January ""M"., &''), %ush@s final approval
rating in office 8as &&L<333=
;arly in his presidency, follo8ing the !eptember "", &''" terrorist attacks, he had achieved the highest Iob
approval rating of any 1merican president since World War BB, at )'LJ<33.= <333= but %ush left the White
$ouse as one of the most unpopular presidents, second in overall unpopularity only to /ichard 7i?on<33)=
8oreign #erce#tions

0resident %ush 8ith 0resident 0erveH >usharraf of the Bslamic /epublic of 0akistan, !eptember &&, &''3
%ush 8as criticiHed internationally and targeted by the global anti48ar and anti4globaliHation campaigns for
his administration@s foreign policy<3-"= <3-&= Fie8s of him 8ithin the international community 8ere more
negative than those of most previous 1merican 0residents, even from close ally France<3-3=
%ush 8as described as having especially close personal relationships 8ith Tony %lair of the UD and Ficente
Fo? of >e?ico, although formal relations 8ere sometimes strained<3-4= <3-.= <3-3= ,ther leaders, such as
1fghan president $amid DarHai,<3--= Ugandan president :o8eri >useveni,<3-6= !panish prime minister
JosR 9uis /odrUgueH Qapatero,<3-)= and FeneHuelan president $ugo +hVveH,<36'= openly criticiHed the
president 9ater in %ush@s presidency, tensions arose bet8een himself and Fladimir 0utin, 8hich led to a
cooling of their relationship<36"=

1nti48ar demonstration during 0resident %ush@s visit to 9ondon, June &''6
Bn &''3, most respondents in "6 of &" countries surveyed around the 8orld 8ere found to hold an
unfavorable opinion of %ush /espondents indicated that they Iudged his administration as negative for 8orld
security<36&= <363= Bn &''-, the 0e8 #lobal 1ttitudes 0roIect reported that during the %ush presidency,
attitudes to8ards the United !tates, and to8ards 1mericans, became less favorable around the 8orld<364=
1 >arch &''- survey of 1rab opinion conducted by Qogby Bnternational and the University of >aryland
found that %ush 8as the most disliked leader in the 1rab 8orld<36.=
The 0e8 /esearch +enter@s &''- #lobal 1ttitudes poll found that out of 4- countries, in only nine countries
did most respondents e?press Ea lot of confidenceE or Esome confidenceE in %ush: ;thiopia, #hana, Bndia,
Bsrael, Bvory +oast, Denya, >ali, 7igeria, and Uganda<363=
*uring a June &''- visit to the predominantly >uslim<36-= ;astern ;uropean nation of 1lbania, %ush 8as
greeted enthusiastically 1lbania has a population of &6 million,<366= has troops in both BraC and
1fghanistan, and the country@s government is highly supportive of 1merican foreign policy<36)= 1 huge
image of the 0resident 8as hung in the middle of the capital city of Tirana flanked by 1lbanian and
1merican flags 8hile a local street 8as named after him<3)'= <3)"= 1 shirt4sleeved statue of %ush 8as
unveiled in Fushe4DruIe, a fe8 kilometers north8est of Tirana<3)&= The %ush administration@s support for
the independence of 1lbanian4maIority Dosovo, 8hile endearing him to the 1lbanians, has troubled U!
relations 8ith !erbia, leading to the February &''6 torching of the U! embassy in %elgrade<3)3=
'c-no."edg(ents and dedications
,n >ay -, &''., during an official state visit to 9atvia, %ush 8as a8arded the ,rder of the Three !tars
presented to him by 0resident Faira FWXe4Freiberga<3)4= 1 fe8 places outside the United !tates bear %ush@s
name Bn &''., the Tbilisi +ity +ouncil voted to rename a street in honor of the U! president<3).=
0reviously kno8n as >elaani *rive, the street links the #eorgian capital@s airport 8ith the city center and
8as used by %ush@s motorcade during his visit four months earlier<3)3= 1 street in Tirana, formerly kno8n
as 'rua Puntor*t e 'ilend+es, situated directly outside the 1lbanian 0arliament, 8as renamed after %ush a
fe8 days before he made the first4ever visit by an 1merican president to 1lbania in June &''-<3)-= Bn
Jerusalem, a small plaHa 8ith a monument bearing his name is also dedicated to %ush<3)6=
Bn &'"&, ;stonian 0resident Toomas $endrik Blves a8arded %ush the ,rder of the +ross of Terra >ariana for
his 8ork in e?panding 71T,<3))=

#eorge and 9aura %ush 8aving to a cro8d of "''' at 1ndre8s 1ir Force %ase before their final departure to
Te?as, January &', &'')
Follo8ing the inauguration of %arack ,bama, %ush and his family fle8 from 1ndre8s 1ir Force %ase to a
homecoming celebration in >idland, Te?as, follo8ing 8hich they returned to their ranch in +ra8ford,
Te?as<4''= They bought a home in the 0reston $ollo8 neighborhood of *allas, Te?as, 8here they settled
$e makes regular appearances at various events throughout the *allasTFort Worth area, most notably 8hen
he conducted the opening coin toss at the *allas +o8boys first game in the team@s ne8 stadium in
1rlington <4'&= and an 1pril &'') visit to a Te?as /angers game, 8here he thanked the people of *allas for
helping him settle in and 8as met 8ith a standing ovation<4'3= $e also attended every home playoff game
for the Te?as /angers &'"' season and, accompanied by his father, thre8 out the ceremonial first pitch at
/angers %allpark in 1rlington for #ame 4 of the &'"' World !eries on ,ctober 3", &'"'<4'4=
,n 1ugust 3, &'"3, %ush 8as successfully treated for a coronary artery blockage 8ith a stent The blockage
had been found during an annual medical e?amination<4'.=

#eorge W %ush, 0resident ,bama, and %ill +linton meeting in the ,val ,ffice, January "3, &'"'
!ince leaving office, %ush has kept a relatively lo8 profile<4'3= though he has made public appearances,
most notably after the release of his memoirs in &'"' and for the "'th anniversary of the !eptember ""
attacks in &'"" Bn >arch &''), he delivered his first post4presidency speech in +algary, 1lberta,<4'-= <4'6=
appeared via video on The ,olbert 'eport during 8hich he praised U! troops for earning a Especial place in
1merican history,E<4')= and attended the funeral of !enator Ted Dennedy<4"'= %ush made his debut as a
motivational speaker on ,ctober &3 at the E#et >otivatedE seminar in *allas<4""= Bn the aftermath of the
Fort $ood shooting that took place on 7ovember ., &''), in Te?as, the %ushes paid an undisclosed visit to
the survivors and victims@ families the day follo8ing the shooting, having contacted the base commander
reCuesting that the visit be private and not involve press coverage<4"&=
%ush released his memoirs, Decision Points, on 7ovember ), &'"' *uring a pre4release appearance
promoting the book, %ush said he considered his biggest accomplishment to be keeping Ethe country safe
amid a real dangerE, and his greatest failure to be his inability to secure the passage of !ocial !ecurity
reform<4"3= $e also made ne8s defending his administration@s enhanced interrogation techniCues,
specifically the 8aterboarding of Dhalid !heikh >ohammed, saying, EB@d do it again to save livesE<4"4=
Bn &'"&, he 8rote the fore8ord of The -. #olution/ )nleashin the 0conomic Growth America Needs, an
economics book published by the #eorge W %ush 0residential +enter<4".= <4"3= <4"-= $e also presented the
book at the 0arkland >emorial $ospital in *allas, Te?as<4"6=
%ush appeared on 7%+@s The Toniht #how with 1ay $eno on 7ovember "), &'"3, along 8ith the former
First 9ady When asked by 9eno 8hy he does not comment publicly about the ,bama administration, %ush
said, EB donNt think it@s good for the country to have a former president criticiHe his successorE<4")=
1longside the &'"4 United !tates(1frica 9eaders !ummit, %ush, >ichelle ,bama, the !tate *epartment,
and the #eorge W %ush Bnstitute hosted a daylong forum on education and health 8ith the spouses of the
1frican leaders attending the summit %ush urged 1frican leaders to avoid discriminatory la8s that make the
treatment of $BFT1B*! more difficult<4&'=
1t 0resident ,bama@s reCuest, %ush and %ill +linton established the +linton %ush $aiti Fund to raise
contributions for relief and recovery efforts follo8ing the &'"' $aiti earthCuake earlier in January<4&"=
,n >ay &, &'"", 0resident ,bama called %ush, 8ho 8as at a restaurant 8ith his 8ife, to inform him that
,sama bin 9aden had been killed<4&&= The %ushes Ioined the ,bamas in 7e8 :ork +ity to mark the tenth
anniversary of the !eptember "", &''", terrorist attacks 1t the #round Qero memorial, %ush read a letter
that 0resident 1braham 9incoln 8rote to a 8ido8 8ho lost five sons during the +ivil War<4&3=
Bush as an artist
1fter serving as U! president, %ush has started painting as a hobby !ubIects include dogs and still lifes
<4&4= $e has also painted self4portraits and portraits of 8orld leaders, including Fladimir 0utin and Tony
%lair<4&.= <4&3= <4&-=
#eorge W %ush@s legacy remains a contested one, 8ith both liberals and conservatives still holding strong
feelings 8ith regards to his overall place in history !upporters credit %ush@s counterterrorism policies 8ith
preventing another maIor terrorist attack from occurring after )T"", and have also praised individual policies
such as the 7o +hild 9eft %ehind 1ct, the >edicare prescription drug benefit and the 1B*! relief program
kno8n as 0;0F1/ $is critics often point to his handling of the BraC War, specifically the failure to find
Weapons of >ass *estruction that 8ere initially the basis for the 8ar, as 8ell as his handling of ta? policy,
$urricane Datrina and the &''6 financial crisis as proof that #eorge W %ush 8as unfit to be president<4&6=
*espite the ongoing debate bet8een liberals and conservatives, it is often ackno8ledged that %ush 8as one
of the most conseCuential presidents in 1merican history 1ccording to 0rinceton University scholar Julian
QeliHer, %ush@s presidency 8as a EtransformativeE one, and stated that Esome people hate him, some people
love him, but B do think he@ll have a much more substantive perception as time goes onE<43'= %ryon
Williams of The $uffington 0ost referred to %ush as Ethe most note8orthy president since F*/E and pointed
to policies such as the 0atriot 1ct 8hich he argues Eincreased authority of the e?ecutive branch at the
e?pense of Iudicial opinions about 8hen searches and seiHures are reasonableE as evidence<43"= These
arguments are further reflected in the continuation of many policies implemented during his presidency $is
administration presided over the largest ta? cuts since the /eagan administration,<43&= and his homeland
security reforms proved to be the most significant e?pansion of the federal government since the #reat
!ociety,<433= 8ith much of these policies having endured in the administration of %ush@s *emocratic
successor, %arack ,bama<434= <43.=
!ince leaving office, %ush@s presidency has received mostly negative revie8s from professional scholars 1
&'"' !iena +ollege poll of &36 0residential scholars found that %ush 8as ranked 3)th out of 43, 8ith poor
ratings in handling of the economy, communication, ability to compromise, foreign policy accomplishments
and intelligence,<433= 8hile a &'"3 $istory 7e8s 7et8ork poll of 34 historians sho8ed that 3. of them,
rated his presidency as a failure<43-=
1mong the public, his reputation has improved some8hat since his presidency ended in &'') Bn February
&'"&, #allup reported that E1mericans still rate #eorge W %ush among the 8orst presidents, though their
vie8s have become more positive in the three years since he left officeE<436= #allup had earlier noted that
%ush@s favorability ratings in public opinion surveys had begun to rise a year after he had left office, from
4'L in January &'') and 3.L in >arch &''), to 4.L in July &'"', a period during 8hich he had remained
largely out of the ne8s<43)= ,ther pollsters have noted similar trends of slight improvement in %ush@s
personal favorability since the end of his presidency<44'= Bn 1pril &'"3, %ush@s approval rating stood at 4-L
approval and .'L disapproval in a poll Iointly conducted for the Washington 0ost and 1%+, his highest
approval rating since *ecember &''. %ush had achieved notable gains among seniors, non4college 8hites,
and moderate and conservative *emocrats since leaving office, although maIorities disapproved of his
handling of the economy 2.3L5 and the BraC War 2.-L5<44"= $is 4-L approval rating 8as eCual to that of
0resident ,bama@s in the same polling period<44&= 1 +77 poll conducted that same month found that ..L
of 1mericans said %ush@s presidency had been a failure, 8ith 6'L of /epublican calling it a success, but only
43L of independents calling it a success and nearly )'L of *emocrats calling it a failure<443=
See a"so
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Boo-= George W. Bush
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9ist of nicknames for #eorge W %ush
9ist of nicknames used by #eorge W %ush
0olitical positions of #eorge W %ush
" <u(# u# > !eelye, Datharine A 21pril "3, &''"5 E%ush +elebrates ;aster at an ,utdoor !erviceE
The New York Times 1rchived from the original on >ay "3, &'"" /etrieved July 3, &'')
& Y Jump up to:

EThe Jesus FactorE 0%! /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
3 <u(# u# > +ooperman, 1lan 2!eptember "3, &''45 E,penly /eligious, to a 0ointE The %ashinton
Post /etrieved June ., &'"3
4 <u(# u# > Feteran Tributes: #eorge W %ush
. <u(# u# > E!election and !uccession of the 0residentE Ushistoryorg 1rchived from the original on
*ecember ", &'"' /etrieved July 3", &'"&
3 <u(# u# > E9ife 0ortraitsE 1merican 0residents 1rchived from the original on >ay 3, &'')
/etrieved >arch "3, &'"'
- <u(# u# > E%ush calls for ban on same4se? marriagesE +77 February &., &''4
6 <u(# u# > E/epublican right abandoning %ushE >!7%+ 1ssociated 0ress >ay ., &''3 1rchived
from the original on >ay "-, &''3 /etrieved June &3, &'')
) <u(# u# > Delley %eaucar Flahos 2February "3, &''35 EBllegal Bmmigration, Unchecked !pending
!iphon +onservatives From #,0 %aseE Fo? 7e8s +hannel 1rchived from the original on >arch 4,
&'') /etrieved >ay "", &''6
"'<u(# u# > %aker, Devin, E!econd4Term %lues: Why $ave ,ur 0residents 1lmost 1l8ays !tumbled
after Their First Four :earsZE American &eritae 1ug(!ep &''3 1rchived from the original on
June "3, &'""
""<u(# u# > EDatrinagate fury spreads to U! mediaE TF7Q !eptember -, &''. 1rchived from the
original on July "-, &'') /etrieved >arch "3, &'"'
"&<u(# u# > >ike > 1hlers 21pril "4, &''35 E/eport: +riticism of F;>1@s Datrina response
deservedE +77 1rchived from the original on 1pril &., &'') /etrieved >arch "3, &'"'
"3<u(# u# > E,nline 7e8s$our Update: 1mid Widespread +riticism, #overnment 0repares for 7e?t
$urricane !easonE 0%! >ay ), &''3 1rchived from the original on 1ugust "&, &'"' /etrieved
>arch "3, &'"'
"4Y Jump up to:

E%ush Job 1pproval at &6L, 9o8est of $is 1dministrationE #allup 0oll 1pril "",
&''6 1rchived from the original on July &, &'') /etrieved January &', &'')
".<u(# u# > E0rotesters greet %ush@s UD visitE %%+ 7e8s June "., &''6 1rchived from the original
on January 3', &'"" /etrieved June "., &''6
"3<u(# u# > Btalie, $illel 2,ctober -, &'"'5 E#eorge W %ush@s memoir, @*ecision 0oints@, to have
print run of ".> copiesE )#A Today 1ssociated 0ress
"-<u(# u# > E$istorians /ank #eorge W %ush 1mong Worst 0residents, 9incoln and Washington
8ere rated as the bestE U! 7e8s !eptember &, &'') 1rchived from the original on February &,
&'"" /etrieved January ", &'"&
"6<u(# u# > 1ustin, *avid E$istory 7e8s 7et8ork [ $istorians !till *espise #eorge W %ushE
$77 1rchived from the original on >ay ", &'"3 /etrieved >ay ", &'"3
")<u(# u# > Jones, Jeffrey > 21pril &., &'"35 E$istory usually kinder to e?4presidentsE
1rchived from the original on 1pril &), &'"3
&'<u(# u# > Jones, Jeffrey > 2June "&, &'"35 EFormer 0resident #eorge W %ush@s image ratings
improveE 1rchived from the original on June "3, &'"&
&"<u(# u# > June &', &'"4 #allup 0oll Americans view each o! the !our !ormer livin presidents more
positively than neatively2 while ivin Bill ,linton and Geore &.%. Bush hiher !avorable ratins
than Geore %. Bush and 1immy ,arter. ,urrent President Barack 3bama has a net4neative
!avorable ratin.
&&<u(# u# > 1hles, *ick 2*ecember &4, &'''5 E%ush@s %irthplaceZ Bt@s *eep in the $eart of 7e8
$avenE The New York Times 1rchived from the original on ,ctober 3', &'') /etrieved *ecember
&-, &'"'
&3<u(# u# > E#eorge Walker %ushE 5amous Te6ans February 3, &''. 1rchived from
<\http:TT888famouste?anscomTgeorge8bushhtm the original= on January &3, &''' /etrieved
!eptember ", &''6
&4<u(# u# > E%ush, 0rescott !heldon, 2"6).(")-&5E Bioraphical Directory o! the )nited #tates
,onress 1rchived from the original on !eptember "", "))) /etrieved February "&, &'"'
&.<u(# u# > E1ncestry of #eorge W %ushE Wargscom /etrieved 1pril &', &'"'
&3<u(# u# > %ush, then the #overnor of Te?as, 8as the commencement speaker at !t John@s
1cademy in ")).: E1n Bnventory of 0ress ,ffice !peech Files at the Te?as !tate 1rchives, ")63,
")6)(&''', undated 2bulk ")).(&'''5E Te?as !tate 9ibrary and 1rchives +ommission /etrieved
>ay ", &''6
&-<u(# u# > Dristof, 7icholas * 2June "', &'''5 E#eorge W %ush@s Journey The ,heerleader :
;arning 1@s in 0eople !kills at 1ndoverE The New York Times 1rchived from the original on
,ctober &-, &''' /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&6<u(# u# > Duper, !imon 2*ecember 3, &'''5 E/uthian rise of *ubyaE The 3bserver 29ondon: The
#uardian5 1rchived from the original on ,ctober &3, &'"" /etrieved January &4, &'""
&)<u(# u# > E%iography of 0resident #eorge W %ushE The White $ouse 1rchived from the original
on January &&, &'') /etrieved June &3, &'')
3'<u(# u# > /omano, 9oisJ 9ardner, Jr, #eorge 2July &-, ")))5 E%ush: !o4!o !tudent but a +ampus
>overE The %ashinton Post /etrieved 1pril 6, &'')
3"<u(# u# > !imone %erko8er E+heerleading of the N&'s: ;pitome of masculinityE :ale *aily 7e8s
1rchived from the original on ,ctober "', &'"& /etrieved July 3", &'"&
3&<u(# u# > Feinstein, JessicaJ !abin, Jennifer 2,ctober -, &''45 E*D; ] :0U: Filling precedential
shoesE The Yale Daily News 1rchived from the original on ,ctober "&, &''- /etrieved 1pril 6,
33<u(# u# > %ush, #eorge W, A ,hare to 7eep, 2")))5 B!%7 '43664"-44"46
34<u(# u# > +ain, 7ick ] #ro8den, #reg E+hapter &": Ten 0eculiar Facts about /ugbyE in 'uby
)nion !or Dummies 2&nd ;dition5, +hichester: John Wiley and !ons, p &)- B!%7 )-64'44-'4'3.3-4.
3.<u(# u# > E!elf4*eprecating %ush Talks to :ale #radsE Fo? 7e8s +hannel 1ssociated 0ress >ay
&", &''" /etrieved !eptember ", &''6 J E%ushT#ore #rades and !1T !coresE 8nside Politics June
"-, &''. 1rchived from the original on 1u6gust &-, &''' /etrieved !eptember ", &''6 +heck date
values in: |archivedate= 2help5
33<u(# u# > EDerry #rades 7ear %ush@s While at :aleE The New York Times June 6, &''. 1rchived
from the original on 1pril "4, &'"4 /etrieved >arch &4, &'"&
3-<u(# u# > E#W%: $%! >%1E The 1merican Thinker 1rchived from the original on *ecember 3,
&''3 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
36Y Jump up to:

/omano, 9ois 2February 3, &''45 E%ush@s #uard !ervice Bn AuestionE The
%ashinton Post pp 1'6 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6 <dead link=
3)<u(# u# > 9ardner, #eorge Jr and 9ois /omano 2July &6, ")))5 E1t $eight of Fietnam, %ush
0icks #uardE The Washington 0ost
4'<u(# u# > :ork, %yron 21ugust &3, &''45 EThe Facts about %ush and the 7ational #uardE
National 'eview 1rchived from the original on 1ugust 3', &''6 /etrieved !eptember ",
&''6 <dead link=
4"<u(# u# > 9ois /omano 2February 3, &''45 E%ush@s #uard !ervice Bn AuestionE The %ashinton
Post /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
4&<u(# u# > E,fficial *o* service records of Te?as 1ir 7ational #uard member #eorge Walker
%ushE *epartment of *efense June "-, &''. 1rchived from the original on ,ctober &3, &''4
/etrieved !eptember ", &''6 <dead link=
43<u(# u# > EWinton %lount, 6", a Founder ,f the 7e8 0ostal !erviceE The 7e8 :ork Times
,ctober &3, &''& 1rchived from the original on >ay "3, &'"" /etrieved February "&, &'"'
44<u(# u# > Walker, Jessica > 2February "3, &''45 E%ush seen in 1labama in ")-&E U!1 Today
/etrieved February "&, &'"'
4.<u(# u# > /utenberg, Jim 2>ay "-, &''45 /utenberg, Jim 2>ay "-, &''45 E1 Film to 0olariHe
1long 0arty 9inesE The 7e8 :ork Times 1rchived from the original on January 3', &'"3
43<u(# u# > %rit $ume, >ara 9iasson, Jeff %irnbaum, +harles Drauthammer 2July ), &''45 EThe
1ll4!tar 0anel *iscusses John Derry@s !hifting 0ositions on BraC War !pendingE 5o6 News Network
4-Y Jump up to:



E/ead her lips: 9iteracy efforts on first lady@s agendaE +77 1pril 6, &''"
1rchived from the original on 1ugust -, &''" /etrieved >ay &., &''6
46<u(# u# > /omano, 9oisJ #eorge 9ardner Jr 2July &., ")))5 E%ush@s 9ife4+hanging :earE The
%ashinton Post /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
4)<u(# u# > E&''' *riving /ecordE *epartment of the !ecretary of !tate of >aine 7ovember &,
&''' 1rchived from the original on >ay "6, &''6 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
1dam +ohen 27ovember "3, &'''5 EFallout From 1 >idnight /ideE Time 1rchived from the
original on *ecember 3, &''- /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
.'<u(# u# > 9eonard, >ary 2January &3, &'''5 ETurning 0oint: #eorge W %ush, 1 9egacy
/eclaimedE Boston Globe 1rchived from the original on ,ctober "&, &''- /etrieved !eptember ",
."<u(# u# > +ohen, /ichard 2*ecember 3', &''65 E#eorge W %ush as an 1vid /eaderE The
%ashinton Post /etrieved 1ugust 3, &'"4
.&<u(# u# > $arrington, Walt 21utumn &'""5 E*ubya and >eE The American #cholar /etrieved
!eptember "', &'""
.3<u(# u# > #eorge W %ush Talks 1bout 9ife 1fter the White $ouse at >emphis $ospital
+elebration The *aily %east July "-, &'"& /etrieved July "., &'"3
.4<u(# u# > 10 21pril "4, &'"35 E#eorge W %ush becomes a grandpaE )#A Today
..<u(# u# > E%ush Wasn@t 1l8ays a Front4/unnerE The Washington 0ost ,ctober "-, ")))
/etrieved !eptember ", &''6
.3Y Jump up to:






















Geore Bush >!7 ;ncarta 1rchived from the

original on ,ctober 3", &'') /etrieved 1ugust 3, &''6
.-<u(# u# > !tone, 0eter $ 2July 4, &''"5 E%ig oil@s White $ouse pipelinesE National 1ournal 2335:
"'4& B!!7 '33'44&"-
.6<u(# u# > +arlisle, John D 2January 3, &''45 E#eorge !oros@s 0lan to *efeat #eorge %ushE
&uman 0vents
.)<u(# u# > EFiles: %ush Dne8 Firm@s 0light %efore !tock !aleE The %ashinton Post July &",
&''& /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
3'<u(# u# > %ush, #eorge WJ %ill 1dler 2&''45 The ;uotable Geore %. Bush/ A Portrait in &is
3wn %ords 1ndre8s >c>eel 0ublishing B!%7 )-64'4-4'-44".446 ,+9+ &3-)&-4&'
3"<u(# u# > E#eorge W %ush and the religious right in the ")66 campaign of #eorge $W %ushE
PB# June "-, &''. /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
3&<u(# u# > Farrey, Tom 27ovember ", ")))5 E1 series of beneficial movesE ;!07 1rchived from
the original on >arch &6, &'') /etrieved >arch 4, &'')
33<u(# u# > E#eorge W %ush in 9ittle 9eague uniformE Te?as !tate 9ibrary and 1rchives
+ommission /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
34<u(# u# > E"))6 Ta? returnE 20*F5 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
3.<u(# u# > E!even Who Will >anage %ush@s "))& 0residential +ampaignE The New York Times
*ecember 3, "))" /etrieved June &3, &'')
33<u(# u# > Jack ; White and 9aurence B %arrett 2*ecember "3, "))"5 EThe White $ouse: +learing
the *ecksE Time 1rchived from the original on 1ugust ., &'""
3-Y Jump up to:

Wayne !later, James >oore 2&''35 Bush<s Brain/ &ow 7arl 'ove Made Geore %.
Bush Presidential Wiley p &"' B!%7 )-64'44-"44&3&-4'
36<u(# u# > E1nn /ichardsE 9ondon: Telegraph 2UD5 !eptember "., &''. /etrieved 7ovember &.,
3)<u(# u# > Tapper, Jake 21ugust "", ")))5 E#uns and >oneyE #alon News 1rchived from the
original on ,ctober "&, "))) /etrieved June &3, &'')
-'<u(# u# > Joshua #reen 27ovember &''45 EDarl /ove in a +ornerE The Atlantic 1rchived from
the original on July &-, &''. /etrieved 7ovember &., &''6
-"<u(# u# > ;d8ard ;pstein, +hronicle Washington %ureau 2,ctober &), &''.5 E+B1 9eak 0robe:
9ibby Bndicted T 0o8erful aide /ove could still feel heat from investigationE #an 5rancisco
,hronicle 1rchived from the original on February ), &''3 /etrieved January &&, &'')
-&<u(# u# > E9os 1ngeles 7e8s ( *onNt >ess With Te?as ( page "E 91 Weekly !eptember "3,
&''4 1rchived from the original on June 3, &'') /etrieved January &&, &'')
-3<u(# u# > E;lections of Te?as #overnors, "64.(&''3E 20*F5 Te6as Almanac 1rchived from the
original on July &4, &''6 <dead link=J
E#eorge %ushE M#N 0ncarta 1rchived from the original on ,ctober 3", &'')
-4<u(# u# > EFiolence 1gainst Women 1ct: $istory and Federal FundingE 20*F5 +ongressional
/esearch !ervice ( The 9ibrary of +ongress *ecember ", &''. /etrieved >ay &4, &'')
-.<u(# u# > !%- 9a8 te?tTe6as $eislature 3nline, >ay "))) /etrieved !eptember &4, &'""
-3<u(# u# > ETe?as /ene8able 0ortfolio !tandardE Te6as #tate 0nery ,onservation 3!!ice
/etrieved !eptember &4, &'""
--<u(# u# > ETe?as /ene8able 0ortfolio !tandardE Pew ,enter on Global ,limate ,hane
!eptember &4, &'"" 1rchived from the original on 1pril &-, &'"&
-6<u(# u# > Dorono8ski, /yan BtNs 7ot Just ,il: Wind 0o8er 1pproaches 6L of Te?as ;lectricity in
&'"' 'epower America<2 1anuary =>2 ?@==. 'etrieved #eptember ?-2 ?@==.
-)<u(# u# > #albraith, Date and 0rice, 1sher 21ugust &'""5 E1 mighty 8indE Te?as >onthly p .
1rchived from the original on >arch &, &'"4 /etrieved February &3, &'"4
6'<u(# u# > E!8ift %oats and Te?as WindE Windsectortumblrcom July &6, &'"" 1rchived from
the original on January "6, &'"& /etrieved July 3", &'"&
6"<u(# u# > ETe?as #ov #eorge W %ush 8ins in landslideE +77 1ssociated 0ress 7ovember 3,
"))6 1rchived from the original on >ay "., &''3 /etrieved June 3', &''3 <dead link=
6&<u(# u# > ETe?as 0olitics ( The ;?ecutive %ranchE Te?aspoliticslaitsute?asedu /etrieved
January &&, &'')
63<u(# u# > EJesus *ay proclamationE 2J0;#5 >arch "-, &''' /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
64<u(# u# > *avis, /ichard $ 2>arch &", &''45 EThe anatomy of a smear campaignE Boston Globe
1rchived from the original on 1pril -, &''4 /etrieved June &3, &'')
6.<u(# u# > $ook, JanetJ >ichael Finnegan 2>arch "-, &''-5 E>c+ain loses some of his rebel
edgeE $os Aneles Times 1rchived from the original on !eptember "6, &''6 /etrieved June &3,
63<u(# u# > !teinhauer, Jennifer 2,ctober "), &''-5 E+onfronting #hosts of &''' in !outh +arolinaE
The New York Times 1rchived from the original on >arch &, &'"4 /etrieved 1pril "4, &'"3
6-<u(# u# > !ack, Devin and Toner, /obin 21ugust "3, &'''5 EThe &''' +ampaign: The /ecordJ Bn
+ongress, #ore !elected Bssues /eady for 0rime TimeE The New York Times 1rchived from the
original on >ay "&, &'"" /etrieved June &3, &'')
66<u(# u# > #eorge W %ush, et al, 0etitioners v 1lbert #ore, Jr, et al, .3" U! )6 2&'''5
/etrieved February "&, &'"'
6)<u(# u# > E0oll: >aIority of 1mericans accept %ush as legitimate presidentE Turner %roadcasting
!ystem, Bnc *ecember "3, &''' 1rchived from the original on ,ctober &), &'"' /etrieved 1pril
&-, &'""
)'Y Jump up to:

E&''' ,fficial #eneral ;lection 0residential /esultsE Federal ;lection
+ommission *ecember &''" /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
)"<u(# u# > E1n Bntervie8 With Darl /oveE News&our with 1im $ehrer 0%! 1ugust ", &''4
1rchived from the original on !eptember &, &''4 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
)&Y Jump up to:




Dirkpatrick, *avid * 21ugust &., &''45 EThe &''4 +ampaign: The /epublican
1gendaJ *raft #,0 0latform %acks %ush on !ecurity, #ay >arriage, and BmmigrationE The New
York Times 1rchived from the original on >ay "3, &'"" /etrieved June &3, &'')
)3<u(# u# > E&''4 /epublican 0arty 0latform: on +ivil /ightsE ,nTheBssuesorg 1rchived from the
original on !eptember ., &''. /etrieved 1ugust &', &''6
)4<u(# u# > 1fter initial comments made in >arch, there 8as no statement on the latter issue until
June /osenberg, *ebra 2June &6, &''45 E1 #ay4>arriage WedgeE Newsweek 943 2&35 p 6
).<u(# u# > E&''4 /epublican 0arty 0latform: on ;nergy ] ,ilE ,ntheBssuesorg 1rchived from the
original on !eptember ., &''. /etrieved 1ugust &', &''6
)3<u(# u# > Dirkpatrick, *avid * 21ugust &3, &''45 EThe &''4 +ampaign: The 0latformJ
+onservatives >ount !tem +ell and Bmmigration +hallengesE The New York Times 1rchived from
the original on >ay "3, &'"" /etrieved June &3, &'')
)-<u(# u# > %orger, Julian 27ovember 4, &''45 E1nd no8 four more yearsE The Guardian
29ondon5 1rchived from the original on 1pril &&, &''6 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
)6<u(# u# > >ilbank, *ana 2!eptember &, &''45 EFrom $is @#reat #oals@ of &''', 0resident@s
1chievements >i?edE The %ashinton Post /etrieved June "), &'')
))<u(# u# > E%ush Job 1pproval $ighest in #allup $istoryE #allup 0oll 1rchived from the original
on July &, &''- /etrieved ,ctober &', &''6
"''<u(# u# > E0resident %ush@s 1pproval /atingsE The %ashinton Post /etrieved June &3, &'')
"'"<u(# u# > Drasny, /on 21pril &4, &'')5 E!F Fed ;conomics see longest recession since WW&E
/euters 1rchived from the original on June 3, &'') /etrieved 1pril &4, &'')
"'&<u(# u# > ,rigins of the +rash: The #reat %ubble and Bts Undoing, /oger 9o8enstein, 0enguin
%ooks, &''4, B!%7 "4.)4&'4''343, B!%7 )-64"4.)4&'4''346 page ""44"".
"'3<u(# u# > $istorical %udget *ata, +ongressional %udget ,ffice, Tables F4", F43, F4-, F4), and
"'4<u(# u# > !pending Under 0resident #eorge W %ush, FeroniCue de /ugy, >ercatus +enter,
#eorge >ason University, >ar &''), Table &
"'.<u(# u# > E%ush@s /egulatory Diss4,ff ( ,bama@s assertions to the contrary, the 43rd president
8as the biggest regulator since 7i?onE 'eason January &'') 1rchived from the original on ,ctober
"', &'"3
"'3<u(# u# > ,ffice of >anagement^ and %udgetJ 7ational ;conomic +ouncil, !eptember &-, &'''
"'-<u(# u# > 1 %9U;0/B7T F,/ 7;W %;#B77B7#! ( 1 /;!0,7!B%9; %U*#;T F,/
1>;/B+1 ! 0/B,/BTB;! , U! #,F;/7>;7T 0/B7TB7# ,FFB+;, W1!$B7#T,7 &''",
page -
"'6<u(# u# > Wallace, Delly 2June -, &''"5 EK"3. trillion ta? cut becomes la8E ,NN 8nsidePolitics
archives 1rchived from the original on June &', &''" /etrieved June 3', &''3
"')<u(# u# > E+%! Bntervie8s Former Treasury !ecretary 0aul ,@7eillE 1rchived from the original
on January "4, &''4 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
""'<u(# u# > E,@7eill !ays $e _+learly@ *isagreed With %ush Ta? +utsE The Washington 0ost
*ecember 3, &'"' /etrieved *ecember "&, &'"'
"""<u(# u# > E#ross *omestic 0roductE %ureau of ;conomic 1nalysis July 3", &'"3 /etrieved
1ugust ", &'"3
""&<u(# u# > 0rice, 9, /atner, * 2,ctober &3, &''.5 E;conomy pays price for %ush@s ta? cutsE
1rchived from the original on July &3, &'') /etrieved June &3, &'')
""3<u(# u# > E$istorical 0rices for *o8 Jones Bndustrial 1verageE :ahoo^ Finance 1rchived from
the original on ,ctober ., &'"3
""4<u(# u# > E9abor Force !tatistics from the +urrent 0opulation !urveyE United !tates *epartment
of 9abor 1rchived from the original on January &), "))6 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
"".<u(# u# > 9uhby, Tami 2July &4, &''65 E>iddle class: @,n the edge@E +77 >oney 1rchived
from the original on July &3, &''6 /etrieved July &4, &''6
""3<u(# u# > $oma, Den EFrom +linton to %ush, after4ta? household income is up^E The $oma
Files 1rchived from the original on !eptember "), &'"3
""-<u(# u# > E$istorical 0overty TimelineE United !tates +ensus 1rchived from the original on
January 3, &''- /etrieved *ecember 3", &''3
""6<u(# u# > #reenburg, Jan +ra8ford !upreme +onflict: The Bnside !tory of the !truggle for
+ontrol of the United !tates !upreme +ourt, &''-, 0enguin %ooks, p &-3
"")<u(# u# > *ebt nation, post t8o, !mall %usiness !ervices +01 #roup, Bnc
"&'<u(# u# > E/evenues, ,utlays, !urpluses, *eficits, and *ebt $eld by the 0ublic, ")3& to &''3E
20*F5 +ongressional %udget ,ffice 1rchived from the original on June &6, &''- /etrieved
!eptember ", &''6 <dead link=
"&"<u(# u# > E!pending and the 7ational *ebtE The %ashinton Times !eptember &, &''-
1rchived from the original on >ay "", &'"" /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
"&&<u(# u# > FiedlerJ Dogan, / 2*ecember "3, &''35 EFrom !urplus to *eficit: 9egislation ;nacted
,ver the 9ast !i? :ears $as /aised the *ebt by K&3 TrillionE 1rchived from the original on June
"6, &'') /etrieved 7ovember "', &''-
"&3<u(# u# > E!aying _no@ to raising the debt ceilingE ,hicao Tribune 1pril "", &'"" 1rchived
from the original on >ay "3, &'"&
"&4<u(# u# > E&''6 ;mployment !ituationE United !tates *epartment of 9abor /etrieved June &3,
"&.<u(# u# > E!F Fed ;conomics see longest recession since WW&E /euters 1pril &4, &'')
1rchived from the original on ,ctober "., &'"" /etrieved 1pril &4, &'')
"&3<u(# u# > #uodong, *u 2February &-, &''65 E*ollar hits record lo8 against euro, oil prices rallyE
Ginhua 7e8s 1gency 1rchived from the original on >arch ., &''6 /etrieved June &3, &'')
"&-<u(# u# > 1versa, Jeannine, ;mployers !lash 33,''' Jobs in February, >ost in . :ears, Feeding
/ecession FearsE, 1ssociated 0ress, >arch -, &''6 /etrieved July "", &''6
"&6<u(# u# > E/ecession in the U! @has arrived@E %%+ 7e8s January 6, &''6 1rchived from the
original on January ), &''6 /etrieved June &3, &'')
"&)<u(# u# > !tephen 9abaton 2!eptember "", &''35 E7e8 1gency 0roposed to ,versee Freddie
>ac and Fannie >aeE The New York Times 1rchived from the original on >arch &., &'')
/etrieved June &3, &'')
"3'<u(# u# > %ecker, J,J !heryl #ay !tolbergJ !tephen 9abaton 2*ecember &', &''65 EThe
/eckoning ( %ushNs 0hilosophy !toked the >ortgage %onfireE The New York Times p 4 of 3
1rchived from the original on >arch &, &'"4
"3"Y Jump up to:

E$/ "43" 2"')th5: Federal $ousing Finance /eform 1ct of &''.E >ay &., &''.
1rchived from the original on !eptember "', &'"3
"3&<u(# u# > 9andler, >ark and !heryl #ay !tolberg 2!eptember &', &''65 E%ush can share the
blame for financial crisisE The New York Times 1rchived from the original on 1pril "4, &'"4
/etrieved ,ctober ), &''6
"33<u(# u# > !ee 1merican Bnternational #roup for details and citations
"34<u(# u# > ;lliott, 9arry 2>arch "6, &''65 E1 financial crisis unmatched since the #reat
*epressionE The Guardian 29ondon5 1rchived from the original on 7ovember ., &'"3 /etrieved
June &3, &'')
"3.<u(# u# > EWorst Financial +risis !ince @3's, With 7o ;nd :et in !ightE Fo? 7e8s +hannel
!eptember "6, &''6 1rchived from the original on 7ovember "", &'"3 /etrieved June &3, &'')
"33<u(# u# > Br8in, 7eil and 1mit / 0aley 2,ctober &4, &''65 E#reenspan !ays $e Was Wrong ,n
/egulationE The %ashinton Post /etrieved *ecember ), &''6
"3-<u(# u# > E%ush hails financial rescue planE %%+ 7e8s !eptember &', &''6 1rchived from the
original on !eptember &', &''6 /etrieved !eptember &&, &''6
"36<u(# u# > E;mployers cut .33D Iobs in 7ovember, most in 34 yearsE M#N Money 2%lacklisted
7e8s5 *ecember ., &''6 1rchived from the original on >arch &, &'"4 /etrieved June &3, &'')
"3)<u(# u# > E%ureau of 9abor !tatisticsE 20*F5 January ), &'') 1rchived from the original on
,ctober 3, &'"3
"4'<u(# u# > #oldman, *avid 2January ), &'')5 EWorst year for Iobs since @4.E +77 >oney
1rchived from the original on January "-, &'') /etrieved June &3, &'')
"4"<u(# u# > +ommittee on 1ppropriations M*emocratic !taff 2!eptember "&, &''35 E0resident
%ush and $ouse /epublicans Undermine 9ife !aving $ealth /esearchE United !tates $ouse of
"4&<u(# u# > *illon, !am 2>arch "3, &'"'5 E7o +hild 9eft %ehind 1ctE The New York Times
1rchived from the original on ,ctober "), &''- /etrieved !eptember &3, &'"'
"43<u(# u# > E0resident !igns 9andmark 7o +hild 9eft %ehind ;ducation %illE The White $ouse
January 6, &''& 1rchived from the original on 7ovember -, &'"' /etrieved >ay ., &''6
"44<u(# u# > 0aley, 1mit / 2June 3, &''-5 E!cores Up !ince @7o +hild@ Was !ignedE The
%ashinton Post /etrieved >ay 3', &''6
"4.<u(# u# > W James 1ntle BBB 21ugust ", &''.5 E9eaving 7o +hild 9eft %ehindE The American
,onservative 1rchived from the original on !eptember "', &'"& /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
"43<u(# u# > $arvard #raduate !chool of ;ducation 2June ", &''&5 E7o +hild 9eft %ehindZE &G#0
News 1rchived from the original on ,ctober &3, &''& /etrieved !eptember ", &''6 J ;dited by
#ary ,rfield and >indy 9 Dornhaber 2>ay ", &''"5 'aisin #tandards or 'aisin Barriers" The
+entury Foundation 0ress
"4-<u(# u# > #reenburg, Jan +ra8ford, !upreme +onflict: The Bnside !tory of the !truggle for
+ontrol of the United !tates !upreme +ourt, &''-, 0enguin %ooks, p &-4
"46<u(# u# > >ichael 1bramo8itH and Jonathan Weisman 2,ctober 4, &''-5 E%ush Fetoes $ealth
>easureE The %ashinton Post /etrieved ,ctober ), &''-
"4)<u(# u# > E%ush Fetoes +hild $ealth %ill 0rivatelyE The New York Times ,ctober 4, &''-
/etrieved !eptember ", &''6
".'<u(# u# > E!ummary of >edicare 1ct of &''3E /etrieved 1ugust &', &''6
"."<u(# u# > E0resident !igns >edicare 9egislationE The White $ouse *ecember 6, &''3 1rchived
from the original on >ay "4, &'"" /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
".&Y Jump up to:



Wolk, >artin 2February "3, &''.5 E%ush pushes his !ocial !ecurity overhaulE
>!7%+ 1rchived from the original on 7ovember 4, &'"3 /etrieved 1ugust &', &''6
".3<u(# u# > Jim Fande$ei and 0eter %aker 2February "&, &''.5 E!ocial !ecurity: ,n With the
!ho8E The %ashinton Post /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
".4<u(# u# > E%ush shifts approach on !ocial !ecurity reformE 5inancial Times 1pril &6, &''.
/etrieved !eptember ), &''-
"..<u(# u# > 0atrick ,@+onnor 2June ", &''.5 E!ocial !ecurity in 9imboE The &ill 1rchived from
the original on *ecember ., &''. <dead link=
".3<u(# u# > :eager, $olly 2!eptember &&, &''.5 E$urricane dims %ush@s hopes on !ocial !ecurityE
5inancial Times 1rchived from the original on >ay "), &''6 /etrieved !eptember ), &''-
".-<u(# u# > E9etter from the 0resident to !enators $agel, $elms, +raig, and /obertsE ,ffice of the
0ress !ecretary >arch "3, &''" 1rchived from the original on >ay -, &'"3
".6<u(# u# > E!ummary of the Dyoto /eportM1ssessment of ;conomic BmpactsE ;nergy
Bnformation 1dministration July "3, &''& 1rchived from the original on June &4, &'"&
".)<u(# u# > %ush, #eorge W ;?ecutive ,rder "3&"&M1ctions To ;?pedite ;nergy4/elated
0roIects )nited #tates Department o! 0nery, >ay "6, &''" 1mendment /etrieved !eptember &4,
"3'<u(# u# > !ovacool et al 0reventing 7ational ;lectricity4Water +risis 1reas in the United !tates
0*F p36) ,olumbia 1ournal o! 0nvironmental $aw, July &', &'') /etrieved !eptember &4, &'""
"3"<u(# u# > E;?ecutive !ummaryMThe +lear !kies BnitiativeE The White $ouse February "4,
&''& /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
"3&<u(# u# > E+lear !kies 0roposal Weakens the +lean 1ir 1ctE The !ierra +lub 1rchived from the
original on !eptember "-, &''6 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
"33<u(# u# > EBntervie8 8ith 0resident %ushE %hite &ouse Transcript 20olitico5 >ay "3, &''6
/etrieved >ay "4, &''6 EA >r 0resident, for the record, is global 8arming realZ 1 :es, it is real,
sure isE
"34<u(# u# > E0ress +onferenceE The White $ouse June &3, &''3 1rchived from the original on
February ), &'"' /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
"3.<u(# u# > E71!1 !cientist /ips %ush on #lobal WarmingE >!7%+ ,ctober &-, &''4
1rchived from the original on >ay -, &'"3 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6 J E3' >inutes: /e8riting
the !cienceE +%! 7e8s >arch "), &''3 1rchived from the original on 1pril "3, &''3 /etrieved
!eptember ", &''6
"33<u(# u# > /omm, Joe 2&''35 &ell or &ih %ater William >orro8 B!%7 )-64'4'34""-&"&4'
,+9+ --.3--36 J /omm calls %ush@s Edon@t rush to IudgmentE and E8e need to ask more CuestionsE
stance a classic delay tactic 0art &
"3-<u(# u# > E0resident #eorge W %ush@s address before a Ioint session of the +ongress on the !tate
of the UnionE +4!017 January 3", &''3 /etrieved ,ctober ", &''3
"36<u(# u# > E%ush creates 8orldNs biggest ocean preserveE >!7%+ June "3, &''3 1rchived from
the original on 7ovember 4, &'"3 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
"3)<u(# u# > EThe 7ature +onservancy 1pplauds 0resident %ush for +reating WorldNs 9argest
>arine +onservation 1rea in $a8aiiE The 7ature +onservancy June "3, &''3 1rchived from the
original on >arch "3, &'"" /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
"-'<u(# u# > E0resident %ush *elivers !tate of the Union 1ddressE The White $ouse January &3,
&''- 1rchived from the original on 1pril "', &'') /etrieved June &3, &'')
"-"Y Jump up to:

E%ush lifts e?ecutive ban on offshore oil drillingE +77 July "4, &''6 1rchived
from the original on July "-, &''6 /etrieved 1ugust 3, &''6
"-&<u(# u# > E0resident %ush *iscusses ;nergyE The White $ouse June "6, &''6 1rchived from
the original on July 6, &'"' /etrieved 1ugust 3, &''6
"-3<u(# u# > 1merican /hetoric 2January &6, &''65 E#eorge W %ush: &''6 !tate of the Union
1ddressE 1rchived from the original on 1ugust "', &''-
"-4<u(# u# > E111! 0olicy %rief: !tem +ell /esearchE 1merican 1ssociation for the 1dvancement
of !cience /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
"-.<u(# u# > E0resident *iscusses !tem +ell /esearchE ,ffice of the 0resident 1rchived from the
original on >ay 3, &'"3
"-3<u(# u# > E7B$@s /ole in Federal 0olicy !tem +ell /esearchE 7ational Bnstitutes of $ealth
/etrieved June &3, &'') <dead link=
"--<u(# u# > 9emonick, >ichael * 21ugust "", &''35 E!tem +ells in 9imboE Time 1rchived from
the original on !eptember 3', &''- /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
"-6<u(# u# > E%ush Fetoes ;mbryonic !tem +ell %illE +77 !eptember &., &''3 1rchived from
the original on ,ctober &-, &''3 /etrieved June &3, &'')
"-)<u(# u# > E#enetic Bnformation 7ondiscrimination 1ct of &''6E #enomegov /etrieved July ".,
"6'<u(# u# > E0U%9B+ 91W ""'(&33M>1: &", &''6E ,ak /idge 7ational 9aboratory /etrieved
February &, &'"4
"6"<u(# u# > Dlein, /ick 2June &3, &''-5 E%ush +alls Bmmigration %ill 1mnestyE 1%+ 7e8s
/etrieved February 3, &'""
"6&<u(# u# > E%est of the Bmmigration Fact +heck: Top "' +ommon >ythsE 20ress release5 The
White $ouse June 6, &''- 1rchived from the original on June "&, &''- /etrieved February 3,
"63<u(# u# > E!tudy: Bmmigration gro8s, reaching record numbersE U!1 Today *ecember "&,
"64<u(# u# > EBmmigration surge called @highest ever@EE The Washington Times *ecember "&, &''.
1rchived from the original on January 6, &'"'
"6.<u(# u# > E%ush takes tough talk on immigration to Te?asE +77 7ovember &), &''. 1rchived
from the original on 1ugust "3, &''- /etrieved !eptember ), &''3
"63<u(# u# > EFact !heet: %order !ecurity and Bmmigration /eformE 20ress release5 The White
$ouse >ay "-, &''- 1rchived from the original on >ay "4, &'"" /etrieved February 3, &'"&
"6-<u(# u# > #arrett, >aIor and Trish Turner 2June &3, &''65 E!enate Fotes to +ontinue Work on
Bmmigration /eform +ompromiseE Fo? 7e8s +hannel 1rchived from the original on 7ovember "",
&'"3 /etrieved >ay 3', &''6
"66<u(# u# > ETalk radio helped sink immigration reformE 0oliticocom 1ugust &', &''-
"6)<u(# u# > Dlaus >arre 2June &6, &''-5 E43(.3, immigration bill goes do8n in defeatE The &ill
")'<u(# u# > E!enate immigration bill suffers crushing defeatE +77 1rchived from the original on
June &), &''- J E0resident %ush *isappointed by +ongress@s Failure to 1ct on +omprehensive
Bmmigration /eformE The White $ouse June &6, &''- 1rchived from the original on >ay 3, &'"3
")"<u(# u# > EThe White $ouse Fact !heet: Bmproving %order !ecurity and Bmmigration Within
;?isting 9a8E The White $ouse 1ugust "', &''- 1rchived from the original on >ay &, &'"3
")&<u(# u# > /avid, %arak 2!eptember "-, &'"'5 E,lmert: %ush offered to absorb "'','''
0alestinian refugees if peace deal reachedE $aaretH Bsrael 1rchived from the original on >ay "3,
&'"" /etrieved ,ctober &-, &'"'
")3<u(# u# > Dnabb, /ichard *J /home, Jamie /J %ro8n, *aniel 0 2*ecember &', &''.5 ETropical
+yclone /eport: $urricane Datrina: 1ugust &3(3', &''.E 7ational $urricane +enter
")4<u(# u# > E!tatement on Federal ;mergency 1ssistance for 9ouisianaE The White $ouse 1ugust
&-, &''. 1rchived from the original on >ay -, &'"3
").<u(# u# > E!tatement on Federal ;mergency 1ssistance for >ississippiE The White $ouse
1ugust &6, &''. 1rchived from the original on >ay -, &'"3 J E!tatement on Federal ;mergency
1ssistance for 1labamaE The White $ouse 1ugust &6, &''. 1rchived from the original on >ay -,
")3<u(# u# > *yson, >ichael ;ric 2&''35 ,ome &ell or &ih %ater/ &urricane 7atrina and the
,olor o! Disaster %asic +ivitas p .- B!%7 )-64'443.4'"-3"44
")-<u(# u# > E!tatement on Federal *isaster 1ssistance for 9ouisianaE The White $ouse 1ugust &),
&''. 1rchived from the original on >ay -, &'"3
")6<u(# u# > E0ress #aggle 8ith !cott >c+lellanE The White $ouse 1ugust 3", &''. 1rchived
from the original on January "4, &'"' /etrieved February "4, &''6
"))Y Jump up to:

ET0> $urricane Datrina TimelineE T0> !eptember &', &''. 1rchived from the
original on ,ctober ", &''. /etrieved June &3, &'') <dead link=
&''<u(# u# > E7ational #uard descends on 7e8 ,rleans, giving evacuees hopeE U!1 Today
1ssociated 0ress !eptember 3, &''. /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&'"<u(# u# > $su, !pencer !J !usan b #lasser 2!eptember 3, &''.5 EF;>1 *irector !ingled ,ut
by /esponse +riticsE The Washington 0ost
&'&<u(# u# > 0ete :ost 21ugust 3', &''.5 E,verseas deployments hinder 7ational #uard hurricane
presenceE 8ndependent Media ,enter 1ssociated 0ress 1rchived from the original on >arch &,
&'"4 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&'3<u(# u# > ETranscript, 0residential Fideoconference %riefingE 20*F5 )#A Today 1ugust &6,
&''. p 0age 3 /etrieved >ay 3, &'"'
&'4<u(# u# > ETranscript, 0residential Fideoconference %riefingE 20*F5 )#A Today 1ugust &6,
&''. p 0age . /etrieved >ay 3, &'"'
&'.<u(# u# > EB don@t think anybody anticipated the breach of the leveesE #eorge W %ush to *iane
!a8yer, Good Mornin America, !eptember ", &''.
&'3<u(# u# > EDatrina called %ush@s biggest blunderE The %oston #lobe >ay 3", &'"& p 0age "
1rchived from the original on *ecember "', &'"&
&'-<u(# u# > #ill, Dathy 2>arch &&, &''-5 EThe Firing ,f U! 1ttorneys M 7efarious ,r %usiness
1s UsualZE 1boutcom 1rchived from the original on >ay &&, &''- /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&'6<u(# u# > 1ttorney #eneral 1lberto / #onHales 2>arch -, &''-5 EThey lost my confidenceE
)#A Today /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&')<u(# u# > ;ggen, *anJ >ichael Fletcher 21ugust &6, &''-5 E;mbattled #onHales /esignsE The
Washington 0ost /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&"'<u(# u# > 1lberto #onHales 21ugust &3, &''-5 E#onHales@ /esignation 9etterE United !tates
*epartment of Justice E0lease accept my resignation as 1ttorney #eneral of the United !tates,
effective !eptember "-, &''-E
&""<u(# u# > E>ukasey 8on@t pursue contempt probe of %ush aidesE /euters >arch ", &''6
1rchived from the original on 1pril "4, &'')
&"&<u(# u# > 0orter, 0atrick 2>arch "', &''65 E$ouse Iudiciary panel files civil la8suit to enforce
>iers, %olten subpoenasE Jurist 9egal 7e8s and /esearch 1rchived from the original on >arch "",
&''6 /etrieved >ay 3', &''6
&"3<u(# u# > 1puHHo, >att 2July 3", &''65 EFederal Iudge rules %ush@s aides can be subpoenaedE
)#A Today /etrieved 1pril &', &'"'
&"4<u(# u# > Jordan, 9ara Jakes 2!eptember "., &''-5 E1ttorney general bids fare8ell to Justice:
0raises 8ork of departmentE The %oston #lobe 1ssociated 0ress 1rchived from the original on
>arch 3", &''. /etrieved !eptember "), &''-
&".<u(# u# > 9ichtblau E%ush@s 9a8: The /emaking of 1merican Justice 1fter )T""E p &)3
1!B7 '3-.4&4)&
&"3<u(# u# > Jordan, 9ara Jakes 21pril 3, &''-5 E#onHales aide #oodling resignsE 7%+ 7e8s
1ssociated 0ress 1rchived from the original on *ecember 3, &'"3 /etrieved 1pril -, &''-
&"-<u(# u# > >ike ;manuel and 10 21ugust "3, &''-5 E%ush 1dvisor Darl /ove to /esign at ;nd of
>onthE Fo? 7e8s +hannel 1rchived from the original on ,ctober &', &'"& /etrieved July 3",
&"6Y Jump up to:

>ichael 1 Fletcher 2>ay &6, &''-5 E1nother Top %ush 1ide >akes an ;?itE
The Washington 0ost
&")<u(# u# > !tout, *avid 2July &., &''-5 E0anel $olds T8o %ush 1ides in +ontemptE The New
York Times 1rchived from the original on >arch &, &'"4 /etrieved !eptember &&, &'"' EThe
$ouse Judiciary +ommittee voted today to seek contempt of +ongress citations against a top aide to
0resident %ush and a former presidential aide over their refusal to cooperate in an inCuiry about the
firing of federal prosecutors presidentNs chief of staff, and $arriet ; >iersE
&&'<u(# u# > !tout, *avid 2July &., &''-5 E0anel $olds T8o %ush 1ides in +ontemptE The New
York Times /etrieved July &3, &''-
&&"<u(# u# > E#eorge %ush adviser Darl /ove@s role in firing U! attorney detailed in ne8ly released
transcripts ( 0age &E Daily News 27e8 :ork5 1ssociated 0ress 1ugust "&, &'') 1rchived from the
original on ,ctober &', &'"& /etrieved 1pril "&, &'""
&&&<u(# u# > 1puHHo, >attJ :ost, 0ete 2July &", &'"'5 E*,J: 0rosecutor firing 8as politics, not
crimeE The %oston #lobe 1rchived from the original on July &3, &'"' /etrieved July 3", &'"&
&&3<u(# u# > *ecision 0oints %ush, #eorge W /andom $ouse &'"' page ""3
&&4<u(# u# > E0resident %ush !peech on >issile *efenseE Federation of 1merican !cientists >ay ",
&''" 1rchived from the original on 1pril "4, &''& /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&&.<u(# u# > E%ush backs +hina@s WT, entry despite standoffE +77 1pril 3, &''" 1rchived from
the original on >ay "., &'""
&&3<u(# u# > 0, %o? 4''4'3 2January &), &''&5 E!tate of the Union 1ddress 2January &), &''&5M
>iller +enterE >illercenterorg 1rchived from the original on ,ctober "", &'"" /etrieved July 3",
&&-<u(# u# > EDey points from %ush speechE +77 7ovember 3', &''. 1rchived from the original
on >ay "., &'"" /etrieved January "), &'')
&&6<u(# u# > E7uclear deal announced as %ush visits BndiaE U!1 Today >arch &, &''3 /etrieved
>arch "3, &'"'
&&)<u(# u# > EU!4Bndia Joint !tatementE The White $ouse >arch &, &''3 1rchived from the
original on June "", &'') /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&3'<u(# u# > E/oemer key to U!4Bndia relationship ( *aniel 9ibit and 9aura /oHenE 0olitico+om
1rchived from the original on >arch &, &'"4 /etrieved >arch "3, &'"'
&3"<u(# u# > *iehl, Jackson 21pril &4, &''.5 E/etreat From the Freedom 1gendaE The Washington
0ost /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&3&<u(# u# > %ush, #eorge W 2!eptember &', &''"5 E1ddress to a Joint !ession of +ongress and
the 1merican 0eopleE The White $ouse 1rchived from the original on >ay &-, &'') /etrieved
1pril 3, &'""
&33<u(# u# > E0resident %ush !alutes $eroes in 7e8 :orkE The White $ouse !eptember "4, &''"
1rchived from the original on 1pril &', &'"' /etrieved June &3, &'')
&34<u(# u# > E1ddress to a Joint !ession of +ongress and the 1merican 0eopleE The White $ouse
!eptember &', &''" 1rchived from the original on >ay &-, &'') /etrieved June &3, &'')
&3.<u(# u# > ETranscript of 0resident %ush@s address to a Ioint session of +ongress on Thursday
night, !eptember &', &''"E +77 !eptember &', &''" 1rchived from the original on !eptember &",
&''" /etrieved June &3, &'')
&33Y Jump up to:



E0resident *elivers !tate of the Union 1ddressE The White $ouse January &),
&''& /etrieved June &3, &'')
&3-<u(# u# > E7ational !ecurity +ouncilE The White $ouse 1rchived from the original on January
&", &'') /etrieved June &3, &'')
&36<u(# u# > E0resident %ush: Job /atingsE 0olling /eport 1rchived from the original on ,ctober
"), &''. /etrieved June &3, &'')
&3)<u(# u# > +umings, %ruceJ ;rvand 1brahamian, >oshe >a@oH 2&''35 8nventin the A6is o! 0vil/
The Truth About North 7orea2 8ran2 and #yria 7e8 0ress B!%7 )-64"4.)..64'364&
,+9+ 3&&&.6"&
&4'<u(# u# > 9opeH, #eorge, E0erils of %ush@s 0re4emptive War *octrineE, The 8ndianapolis #tar,
,ctober 3, &''3
&4"<u(# u# > E0revent ,ur ;nemies from Threatening Us, ,ur 1llies, and ,ur Friends 8ith Weapons
of >ass *estructionE White $ouse 1rchived from the original on !eptember &4, &''& /etrieved
1pril &', &'"'
&4&<u(# u# > E7B;: 1l Aaeda @*amaged@ %ecoming >ore !catteredE +77 !eptember &3, &''3
1rchived from the original on !eptember &3, &''3
&43<u(# u# > *e:oung, Daren 2!eptember &4, &''35 E!py 1gencies !ay BraC War $urting U!
Terror FightE The Washington 0ost
&44Y Jump up to:

!hanker, Tom and ;ric !chmitt 2*ecember "", &''"5 E1 7ation +hallengedJ
>ilitary +ampaignJ Taliban *efeated, 0entagon 1sserts, but War #oes ,nE The 7e8 :ork Times
1rchived from the original on ,ctober 3", &'"' /etrieved June &3, &'')
&4.<u(# u# > EFact !heet: Bnternational !ecurity 1ssistance Force 2B!1F5 in 1fghanistanE +enter for
*efense Bnformation February "4, &''& 1rchived from the original on June "&, &''& /etrieved
!eptember ", &''6
&43<u(# u# > E>ore *utch troops for 1fghanistanE %%+ 7e8s February 3, &''3 1rchived from the
original on February 4, &''3 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&4-<u(# u# > Dristof, 7icholas *, E1 >erciful War,E The New York Times2 February ", &''& E7o8
aid is pouring in and lives are being saved on an enormous scale Unicef, for e?ample, has vaccinated
-34,''' children against measles over the last t8o months, in a country 8here virtually no one had
been vaccinated against the disease in the previous "' years %ecause measles often led to death in
1fghanistan, the vaccination campaign 8ill save at least 3.,''' children@s lives each year$eidi J
9arson of Unicef says that if all goes 8ell, child and maternal mortality rates 8ill drop in half in
1fghanistan over the ne?t five years That 8ould mean ""&,''' fe8er children and -,.'' fe8er
pregnant 8omen dying each yearE
&46<u(# u# > #ellman, %artonJ /icks, Thomas ; 21pril "-, &''&5 EU! +oncludes bin 9aden
;scaped at Tora %ora FightE The %ashinton Post /etrieved 7ovember &-, &'"&
&4)<u(# u# > ETaliban 1ppears To %e /egrouped and Well4FundedE The ,hristian #cience Monitor
>ay 6, &''3 1rchived from the original on June "-, &''3 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&.'<u(# u# > +apaccio, Tony 2January ), &'"45 E#ates: %ombs 18ay in >emoir M $o8 #reen
9antern *rove a *ecisionE %loomberg 90 /etrieved January ), &'"4
&."<u(# u# > EWorld +annot #ive Up on 1fghanistan, +oalition ,fficials !ayE United !tates
*epartment of *efense June &6, &''3 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&.&<u(# u# > 9eithead, 1lastair 2July &&, &''35 EFrustrated DarHai toughens stanceE %%+ 7e8s
1rchived from the original on July 4, &''3 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&.3<u(# u# > Wiseman, 0aul 2July &&, &''35 E/evived Taliban 8aging @full4blo8n insurgency@E
U!1 Today /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&.4<u(# u# > %aker, 0eter 2>arch "", &''-5 E1dditional Troop Bncrease 1pprovedE The Washington
0ost p 1"" /etrieved >ay 3", &''6
&..<u(# u# > EBraC: The War +ardE The +enter for 0ublic Bntegrity 1rchived from the original on
January ), &'"& /etrieved 7ovember ), &'"' <dead link=
&.3<u(# u# > EBraC@s Weapons of >ass *estruction 0rogramsE +B1 ,ctober &''& 1rchived from the
original on !eptember "", &'"3
&.-<u(# u# > E+B1 Whites ,ut +ontroversial ;stimate on BraC WeaponsE The 7ational !ecurity
1rchive July ), &''4 1rchived from the original on June &3, &'') /etrieved June &3, &'')
&.6<u(# u# > Judis, John % and 1ckerman, !pencer, `The !elling of the BraC Wara, The New
'epublic, June &''3
&.)<u(# u# > $ersh, !eymour >, EThe !tovepipeE, The New Yorker, ,ctober &-, &''3
&3'<u(# u# > EU! advises 8eapons inspectors to leave BraCE )#A Today 1ssociated 0ress >arch
"-, &''3 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&3"<u(# u# > E;nforcement >easures under +hapter FBB of the United 7ations +harterE )nited
Nations ,harter February "3, &''3 1rchived from the original on >arch &3, &''3 /etrieved
!eptember ", &''6
&3&<u(# u# > !chifferes, !teve 2>arch "6, &''35 EU! names @coalition of the 8illing@E %%+ 7e8s
1rchived from the original on >arch &6, &''3 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&33<u(# u# > E>ission 7ot 1ccomplishedE Time ,ctober 3, &''3 1rchived from the original on
,ctober 3, &''3 /etrieved June &3, &'') <dead link=
&34<u(# u# > E+olin 0o8ell says BraC in a @civil 8ar@E Truthout 7ovember &6, &''3 1rchived from
the original on 1pril "4, &'"4 /etrieved February "-, &''-
&3.<u(# u# > E%ush: 8e 8ent to 8ar on faulty intelligenceE The Times 2UD5 *ecember "4, &''.
1rchived from the original on >ay 3", &'"' /etrieved June &3, &'')
&33<u(# u# > E0resident #eorge W %ush speaks during a video teleconference 8ith Fice 0resident
*ick +heney, on screen, and military commandersE ,ctober &", &''3 1rchived from the original on
>ay "4, &'"" /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&3-<u(# u# > E%ush /evie8s BraC War !trategy as Fiolence >ounts 2Update35E %loomberg 90
,ctober &", &''3 1rchived from the original on !eptember 3', &''- /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&36Y Jump up to:


E!poradic violence doesn@t deter BraCi votersE +77 January 3", &''. 1rchived
from the original on February 3, &''. /etrieved >ay 3", &''6 <dead link=
&3)<u(# u# > EBraC +onstitution 0asses in /eferendumE Fo? 7e8s +hannel 1ssociated 0ress
,ctober &., &''. 1rchived from the original on 1pril &-, &''3 /etrieved >ay 3", &''6
&-'<u(# u# > E1dmitting strategy error, %ush adds BraC troopsE >!7%+ January "", &''- 1rchived
from the original on 1pril &&, &''6
&-"<u(# u# > !tolberg, !heryl #ayJ Qeleny, Jeff 2>ay ", &''-5 E%ush Fetoes %ill Tying BraC Funds
to ;?itE The 7e8 :ork Times 1rchived from the original on >arch &, &'"4
&-&<u(# u# > E%ush on anniversary: War in BraC must go onE +77 >arch "), &''6
&-3<u(# u# > E%aghdad on lockdo8n as rockets, bombs flyE +77 >arch &6, &''6 1rchived from
the original on >arch 3', &''6
&-4<u(# u# > E%ush: %aghdad@s move against !hiite militias a @bold decision@E +77 >arch &-, &''6
1rchived from the original on 1pril 3, &''6
&-.Y Jump up to:

>yers, !teven 9ee and !abrina Tavernise 21ugust ", &''65 E+iting !tability in
BraC, %ush !ees Troop +utsE The 7e8 :ork Times 1rchived from the original on 1pril "., &'"4
/etrieved 1ugust 3, &''6
&-3<u(# u# > E0ress %riefing by 1ttorney #eneral 1lberto #onHales and #eneral >ichael $aydenE
20ress release5 The White $ouse *ecember "), &''. 1rchived from the original on >ay "4, &'""
/etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&--<u(# u# > Bnspectors #eneral of the *o*, *,J, +B1, 7!1, and ,*7 2July "', &'')5 2!cribd5
Unclassified /eport on the 0residentNs !urveillance 0rogram 2/eport5
/etrieved July "", &'') EThe specific intelligence activities that 8ere permitted by the 0residential
1uthoriHations remain highly classified, e?cept that beginning in *ecember &''. the 0resident and
other 1dministration officials ackno8ledged that these activities included the interception 8ithout a
court order of certain international communications 8here there is Ea reasonable basis to conclude
that one party to the communication is a member of al4Aa@ida, affiliated 8ith al4Aa@ida, or a member
of an organiHation affiliated 8ith al4Aa@idaEE
&-6<u(# u# > U! *epartment of Justice White 0aper on 7!1 9egal 1uthorities E9egal 1uthorities
!upporting the 1ctivities of the 7ational !ecurity 1gency *escribed by the 0residentE 20*F5
January "), &''3 1rchived from the original on January "3, &'"3
&-)<u(# u# > E#onHales defends 8iretaps amid protestE +77 January &3, &''3 1rchived from the
original on February 6, &''3 /etrieved !eptember &, &''- J E9a8yers #roup +riticiHes !urveillance
0rogramE The %ashinton Post February "4, &''3 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6 J
&6'<u(# u# > EJudge 1sked to !uspend /uling 1gainst WiretapsE The Washington 0ost February ),
&''3 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&6"<u(# u# > 1ndrea $opkins 2July 3, &''-5 E+ourt dismisses la8suit on spying programE /euters
1rchived from the original on July 6, &''- /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&6&<u(# u# > #onHales, 1lberto 2January "-, &''-5 E9etter from the 1# to the !enate leadersE
%ikisource 1rchived from the original on >ay "", &'"" /etrieved June &3, &'')
&63Y Jump up to:


#ellman, %artonJ 0oitras, 9aura 2June 3, &'"35 EU! intelligence mining data
from nine U! Bnternet companies in broad secret programE The Washington 0ost /etrieved June 3,
&64<u(# u# > #reen8ald, #lenn 2June 3, &'"35 E7!1 taps in to internet giants@ systems to mine user
data, secret files revealE The Guardian 29ondon5 1rchived from the original on June -, &'"3
/etrieved June 3, &'"3
&6.<u(# u# > Talev, >argaretJ >arisa Taylor 21pril &3, &'')5 E%ush4era interrogations: From
8aterboarding to forced nudityE The 3lympian /etrieved June &3, &'')
&63<u(# u# > >aHHetti, >ark 21pril "3, &'')5 E,bama /eleases Bnterrogation >emos, !ays +B1
,peratives Won@t %e 0rosecutedE The New York Times 1rchived from the original on 1pril "-,
&'') /etrieved June &3, &'')
&6-<u(# u# > >iller, #reg 2February -, &''65 EWaterboarding is legal, White $ouse saysE 9os
1ngeles Times 1rchived from the original on 1ugust 6, &''3 /etrieved >ay 3', &''6
&66Y Jump up to:

E+heney *efends U! Use ,f WaterboardingE +%! 7e8s February 6, &''6
1rchived from the original on February "", &''6 /etrieved >ay ", &''6
&6)<u(# u# > E+heney, /umsfeld, other %ush officials claim credit for nabbing %in 9aden, talk up
8aterboardingE 7: *aily 7e8s 27e8 :ork5 >ay 6, &'"" 1rchived from the original on June "3,
&'"3 /etrieved 1pril "&, &'"4
&)'<u(# u# > %radbury, !teven # 2January "., &'')5 E>emorandum for the Files: /e: !tatus of
+ertain ,9+ ,pinions Bssued in the 1ftermath of the Terrorist 1ttacks of !eptember "", &''"E
United !tates *epartment of Justice /etrieved >ay "&, &'')
&)"<u(# u# > Tran, >ark 2February ., &''65 E+B1 admit @8aterboarding@ al4Aaida suspectsE The
Guardian 29ondon5 1rchived from the original on February "&, &''6 /etrieved February &", &''6
&)&<u(# u# > /oss, %rianJ ;sposito, /ichard 27ovember "6, &''.5 E+B1@s $arsh Bnterrogation
TechniCues *escribedE 1%+ 7e8s 1rchived from the original on *ecember "4, &''- /etrieved
July &3, &'')
&)3Y Jump up to:

E%ush@s detainee interrogation and prosecution plan approved by !enateE )#A
Today 1ssociated 0ress !eptember &6, &''. /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
&)4<u(# u# > E/ushing ,ff a +liffE The 7e8 :ork Times !eptember &6, &''3
&).<u(# u# > E%ill Te?t: ""'th +ongress 2&''-(&''65: $/&'6&;7/E T&3MA# 9ibrary of
+ongress /etrieved ,ctober &-, &'"'
&)3<u(# u# > E%ush vetoes bill banning 8aterboardingE >!7%+ 1ssociated 0ress >arch 6, &''6
1rchived from the original on July &), &'"& /etrieved July &), &'"&
&)-<u(# u# > +77 0olitics 2July &4, &''65 E0reviously secret torture memo releasedE +77
1rchived from the original on July &), &'"& /etrieved July &), &'"&
&)6<u(# u# > !tein, !am 21pril "3, &'')5 E%ush memo footnotes define 8aterboarding as tortureE
The $uffington 0ost 1rchived from the original on 1pril "), &'') /etrieved July &3, &'')
&))<u(# u# > E0ollack, Jonathan EThe United !tates, 7orth Dorea, and the ;nd of the 1greed
Frame8orkE !VI 235 Naval %ar ,ollee 'eview !ummer &''3 1rchived from the original on
1ugust "6, &''3 <dead link=
3''<u(# u# > E0resident %ush@s !tatement on 7orth Dorea 7uclear TestE The %hite &ouse ,ctober
), &''3 1rchived from the original on >ay &3, &'') /etrieved June &3, &'')
3'"<u(# u# > E7orth Dorea /eady to !hut *o8n /eactor @Bmmediately@E Fo? 7e8s +hannel
1ssociated 0ress >ay -, &''- 1rchived from the original on >ay ), &''- /etrieved !eptember ",
3'&<u(# u# > EU!: 7orth Dorea agrees to shut do8n nuke facilitiesE +77 1ssociated 0ress
!eptember &, &''- 1rchived from the original on !eptember "-, &''-
3'3<u(# u# > >c+urry, Justin 2>ay &-, &'')5 E7orth Dorea restarts nuclear reactor and threatens to
attack southE The Guardian 2UD5 1rchived from the original on >ay &), &'') /etrieved June &3,
3'4<u(# u# > 0ark, Joseph 2June &&, &'"'5 E#eorge W %ush *elivers >essage 1t Dorean War
0rayer >eeting Bn !eoulE ,ontinental News 2France5 1rchived from the original on >arch &6, &'"3
/etrieved June &4, &'"'
3'.<u(# u# > E%ush e?pands sanctions on !yriaE %%+ 7e8s February "4, &''6 1rchived from the
original on February "6, &''6 /etrieved February "3, &''6
3'3<u(# u# > EU! Treasury moves to clamp do8n on !yrian entities accused of spreading
8eaponsE<dead link= /egistration reCuired January 4, &''- /etrieved June &3, &'')
3'-<u(# u# > E!yria and TerrorismE U! *epartment of !tate ,ctober 3', &''3 1rchived from the
original on >ay "., &''6 /etrieved >ay 3", &''6 <dead link=
3'6<u(# u# > E1dministration announces sanctions to combat !yrian influence on 9ebanonE )4T #an
Dieo 1ssociated 0ress 7ovember 3, &''- 1rchived from the original on July ), &'"4 /etrieved
!eptember &6, &'"'
3')<u(# u# > EThe 0resident@s ;mergency 0lan for 1B*! /elief 20;0F1/5 %lueprint: +reating an
1B*!4free #enerationE U! *epartment of !tate 7ovember &), &'"&
3"'Y Jump up to:

+aryl, +hristian 2February "4, &'"35 EWhat #eorge W %ush *id /ightE 5orein
Policy 1rchived from the original on >ay &6, &'"3
3""<u(# u# > +hilcote 2January "", &''35 E%ush grenade attacker gets lifeE +77 1rchived from the
original on July 4, &''6 /etrieved January 3, &''-
3"&<u(# u# > Jim Fande$ei 2June &, &''.5 EBn %reak With U7, %ush +alls !udan Dillings
#enocideE The %ashinton Post /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
3"3<u(# u# > E7e8s Tip: 1B*! /elief in 1frica is ,ne of %ush@s >ost Fisible 9egacies, !ays *uke
;?pertE Duke Today 2*uke University5 1ssociated 0ress January "4, &'') 1rchived from the
original on 1ugust "", &'"" /etrieved January 3', &'')
3"4<u(# u# > E9atest /esultsE U! #overnment 1rchived from the original on February "", &'""
/etrieved July &), &'"" <dead link=
3".<u(# u# > !heryl #ay !tolberg 2June "', &''-5 E%ush is #reeted Warmly in 1lbaniaE The New
York Times 1rchived from the original on 1pril 3, &''6
3"3<u(# u# > E%ush $ails Dosovo BndependenceE americagov February "), &''6 1rchived from
the original on 1ugust &", &''6 /etrieved !eptember "), &''6
3"-<u(# u# > E/ussia condemned for recogniHing rebel regionsE +77 1ugust &3, &''6 1rchived
from the original on 1ugust 3', &''6
3"6<u(# u# > E%ush hits /ussia on @bullying and intimidation@E )#A Today 1ugust "., &''6
1rchived from the original on ,ctober &&, &'"&
3")<u(# u# > E0resident %ush ,pens &''& ,lympic #amesE The White $ouse February 6, &''&
1rchived from the original on >ay "4, &'"" /etrieved June &3, &'')
3&'<u(# u# > E%ush: ,lympics e?ceeded my e?pectationsE 1ssociated 0ress 1ugust &&, &''6
3&"<u(# u# > #reenburg, Jan +ra8ford !upreme +onflict: The Bnside !tory of the !truggle for
+ontrol of the United !tates !upreme +ourt&''- 0enguin %ooks 0age &-6
3&&<u(# u# > EU! !enate /oll +all Fotes ( 7omination of !amuel 1litoE !enategov 1rchived
from the original on 1ugust &), &''6 /etrieved July 3", &'"&
3&3<u(# u# > E0resident %ush *iscusses Judicial 1ccomplishments and 0hilosophyE +incinnati,
,hio: The White $ouse ,ctober 3, &''6 1rchived from the original on 1ugust "3, &'') /etrieved
June &3, &'')
3&4<u(# u# > E01#; TW,: %UQQW,/*!E The 7e8 :ork Times 7ovember "3, &''3 1rchived
from the original on 1pril &4, &'"3
3&.<u(# u# > *enis !teven /utkus, >itchel 1 !ollenberger, 7ova 0ublishers 2&''45 1udicial
Nomination #tatistics/ ).#. District and ,ircuit ,ourts2 =>AAB?@@? p 43 1rchived from the original
on June 4, &'"3
3&3<u(# u# > *ancey, 9oganJ 7elson, DIersten /J /ingsmuth, ;ve > 27ovember ", &'""5 EE!trict
!crutinyZE the +ontent of !enate Judicial +onfirmation $earings during the #eorge W %ush
1dministrationE 1udicature $igh%eam /esearch 1rchived from the original on 7ovember -, &'"&
/etrieved January &4, &'"4
3&-<u(# u# > >altese, John 1nthony 2>arch &&, &''35 E+onfirmation gridlock: the federal Iudicial
appointments process under %ill +linton and #eorge W %ushE 1ournal o! Appellate Practice and
Process $igh%eam /esearch 1rchived from the original on 7ovember -, &'"& /etrieved January
&4, &'"4
3&6<u(# u# > $alberstam, *avid EThe $istory %oysE Canity 5air 1rchived from the original on
June "", &'') /etrieved January &6, &'')
3&)Y Jump up to:

Westcott, Dathryn 2June 3, &''35 E%ush revels in co8boy speakE %%+ 7e8s
1rchived from the original on !eptember "), &''6 /etrieved January &6, &'')
33'<u(# u# > /odgers, Walter 2January 3', &''35 E@John Wayne@ president has criticsE +77
1rchived from the original on !eptember -, &''6 /etrieved January &6, &'')
33"<u(# u# > +olloff, 0amela 2June &''35 E*ra8l or 7othin@E 2republished by 0%!5 Te6as Monthly
1rchived from the original on *ecember 3', &''3 /etrieved January 3', &'"&
33&<u(# u# > %aker, 0eter 21ugust &', &''35 E0undits /enounce The 0residentE The Washington
0ost /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
333<u(# u# > Walters, !imon 21ugust "), &''35 E%lair @feels betrayed by %ush on 9ebanon@E Mail
3nline 29ondon: *aily >ail5 1rchived from the original on !eptember "), &''6 /etrieved
!eptember ", &''6
334<u(# u# > Bmmelman, 1ubrey 2January "4, &''"5 E%ush gets bad rap on intelligenceE The !t
+loud Times 1rchived from the original on 1pril "., &'"4 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
33.<u(# u# > +urtis, Jacob 21ugust &4, &''"5 EThe +omplete %ushismsE #late 1rchived from the
original on ,ctober &4, &''" /etrieved January 3', &'"& |first2= missing |last2= in
1uthors list 2help5
333<u(# u# > WilentH, !ean 21pril &", &''35 EThe Worst 0resident in $istoryE Truthout 1rchived
from the original on February ", &'"4 /etrieved June &3, &'')
33-<u(# u# > $orton, !cott 21pril &''65 EWorst 0resident;verE &arper<s MaaDine 1rchived from
the original on >ay "", &'"" /etrieved June &3, &'')
336<u(# u# > Fon $offman, 7icholas 2February "4, &''-5 EThe Worst 0resident ;verE The Nation
1rchived from the original on 1ugust ., &'"" /etrieved June &3, &'')
33)<u(# u# > #utman, $uck 2July 6, &''.5 EThe Worst U! 0resident ;verZE +ommon *reams
7e8s+enter 1rchived from the original on July &6, &'"" /etrieved June &3, &'')
34'<u(# u# > Foner, ;ric 2*ecember 3, &''35 E$e@s The Worst ;verE The %ashinton Post
/etrieved June &3, &'')
34"<u(# u# > %umiller, ;lisabeth 2January "&, &''45 E%ush #ets @Fision Thing@ and ;mbraces %ig
/isksE The New York Times 1rchived from the original on >ay "3, &'"" /etrieved ,ctober ),
34&<u(# u# > %lair, Tony 2!eptember &, &'"'5 ETony %lair on +linton, %ush and the 1merican
+haracter Time !eptember &, &'"'E Time /etrieved ,ctober &-, &'"'
343<u(# u# > /oper +enter 2&''35 EJob 0erformance /atings for 0resident %ushE 1rchived from the
original on !eptember "6, &''6 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
344<u(# u# > E%ush@s Final 1pproval /ating: && 0ercentE +%! 7e8s January "3, &'') 1rchived
from the original on *ecember "., &'"3 /etrieved January &4, &'"4
34.Y Jump up to:

E%ush@s 0opularity: 1 2/eally5 7e8 9o8ZE The New York Times February &",
&''6 1rchived from the original on *ecember &, &''6 /etrieved July "&, &'"&
343<u(# u# > 7ancy #ibbs 2*ecember &., &'''5 E0erson of the :earE Time /etrieved >arch "),
&''6 J 7ancy #ibbs and John F *ickerson 2*ecember "), &''45 E0erson of the :earE Time
1rchived from the original on July &-, &''6 /etrieved >arch "), &''6
34-<u(# u# > E*econstructing the *rop in %ush@s Job 1pproval /atingE #allup ,rganiHation June ",
&''4 1rchived from the original on !eptember "), &''- /etrieved 1ugust "), &''6
346<u(# u# > E/epublicans criticiHe /ice over %ush >ideast policyE )#A Today 1ssociated 0ress
February "., &''3 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
34)Y Jump up to:


>oniH, *ave 2,ctober 3, &''45 ETroops in survey back %ush 44to4" over DerryE
)#A Today /etrieved >ay ), &''6
3.'Y Jump up to:

E%ush@s Iob approval rating creeps up in 104Bpsos pollE Taipei Times >arch "',
&''- 1rchived from the original on June "3, &''6 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
3."<u(# u# > Dakutani, >ichiko 2July 3, &''-5 EUnchecked and UnbalancedE The New York Times
1rchived from the original on 1pril 3, &''6 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
3.&<u(# u# > Joyner, James 2*ecember "&, &''.5 E/asmussen 0oll: Third of 1mericans Want %ush
BmpeachedE ,utsideThe%elt8aycom, ,T% >edia 1rchived from the original on !eptember "),
&''6 /etrieved >ay &), &''6
3.3<u(# u# > John W *ean 2*ecember 3', &''.5 E#eorge W %ush as the 7e8 /ichard > 7i?on:
%oth Wiretapped Bllegally, and BmpeachablyE /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
3.4<u(# u# > /obert !cheer 2July "6, &''35 E1 Firm %asis for BmpeachmentE 1rchived from the
original on !eptember "6, &''6 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
3..<u(# u# > /othschild, >atthe8 2>arch 6, &''35 E#rounds for BmpeachmentE
+ommon*reamsorg 1rchived from the original on !eptember "6, &''6 /etrieved !eptember ",
3.3<u(# u# > %resnahan, John 2June ), &''65 EDucinich ,ffers Bmpeachment 1rticles 1gainst %ushE
+%! 7e8s 1rchived from the original on !eptember &-, &''6 /etrieved June &3, &'')
3.-<u(# u# > E0resident %ushM,verall Job /atingE Pollin 'eport 1rchived from the original on
!eptember "3, &'') /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
3.6<u(# u# > !ilva, >ark 2>arch -, &''-5 E%ush@s second4term slumpE The #wamp 2+hicago
Tribune5 1rchived from the original on 1pril &&, &''6 /etrieved 1pril &-, &''-
3.)<u(# u# > !teve $olland 27ovember 6, &''35 E%ush admits /epublicans took a EthumpingEE
/euters 1rchived from the original on 1pril "., &'"4
33'<u(# u# > E0resident %ush Job 1pprovalE /eal+lear0olitics 1rchived from the original on
1ugust &-, &''6 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
33"<u(# u# > E#eorge W %ush 0residential Job 1pprovalE Gallup 1rchived from the original on
1pril &, &'') /etrieved July "&, &'"&
33&<u(# u# > EThe Worst 0resident in $istoryE 'ollin #tone &''3 1rchived from the original on
1ugust &&, &''6 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
333<u(# u# > E*efending the home frontE The Australian July "4, &''- 1rchived from the original
on ,ctober ), &''- /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
334<u(# u# > ETranscript: 0resident %ush on @F,G 7e8s !unday@E Fo? 7e8s +hannel February "",
&''6 1rchived from the original on >arch "&, &'')
33.Y Jump up to:

0age, !usan 21pril &&, &''65 E*isapproval of %ush breaks recordE )#A Today
/etrieved 1pril &3, &''6
333Y Jump up to:


+%! 7e8s 2February "", &'')5 E%ush@s Final 1pproval /ating: &&LE +%!
7e8s /etrieved July "&, &'"&
33-Y Jump up to:

E/epublicans #ive #eorge W %ush@s ,verall Job 1pproval /ating a Final %oostE
American 'esearch Group January "), &'') 1rchived from the original on January &., &'')
/etrieved January &., &'')
336<u(# u# > E0resident %ush ,verall Job /ating in 7ational 0ollsE 0olling/eportcom 1rchived
from the original on February 3, &'') /etrieved July "&, &'"&
33)Y Jump up to:

!aad, 9ydia 2January "4, &'')5 E%ush 0residency +loses With 34L 1pproval,
3"L *isapprovalE #allupcom 1rchived from the original on January "), &'') /etrieved June &3,
3-'<u(# u# > $arnden, Toby 2January "), &'')5 E%arack ,bama inauguration: 0resident4;lect
invokes spirit of >artin 9uther DingE The Daily Teleraph 2UD5 1rchived from the original on
January &&, &'') /etrieved June &3, &'')
3-"<u(# u# > > ,verhaus, ! !chieder 2&''&5 E*ie aubenpolitischen 0ositionen der 0arteien im
%undestags8ahlkampf &''&E 20*F5 Politik im NetD 2in #erman5 3
3-&<u(# u# > John #ray 2*ecember "4, &''.5 EWas the 1merican ambassador meddling in a
+anadian electionZE +%+ 7e8s 1rchived from the original on 1ugust &3, &''- /etrieved June &3,
3-3<u(# u# > Walt, Fivienne 2February "3, &''35 EFrench see %ush as the ugly 1mericanE )#A
Today /etrieved June &3, &'')
3-4<u(# u# > >arcela !ancheH 2>arch 3, &''35 EDeeping the U! at %ay, >e?ican 0residential
+andidate 9ooks to >ove 0ast Fo?@s FailuresE The %ashinton Post
3-.<u(# u# > E>e?ico@s 0resident !nubs %ush, Ficente Fo? +ancels Fisit To %ush /anch To 0rotest
;?ecutionE +%! 7e8s 1ugust "., &''& 1rchived from the original on 1pril &4, &''6
3-3<u(# u# > ;8en >ac1skill, $ugh >uir, and Julian %orger 27ovember "", &''35 E/o8 over %ush
security as %lair defends visitE The GuardianE $ondon 2Washington5 1rchived from the original on
1pril &&, &''6
3--<u(# u# > #all, +arlotta 21pril &3, &''65 E1fghan 9eader +riticiHes U! on +onduct of WarE
The New York Times 1rchived from the original on *ecember "", &''6 /etrieved 1pril "4, &'"3
3-6<u(# u# > Wass8a, $enry 2,ctober "4, &''45 EUganda@s president criticiHes %ush administration@s
handling of 8ar in BraCE !udan Tribune 1rchived from the original on ,ctober &', &''- /etrieved
June &3, &'')
3-)<u(# u# > Tremlett, #iles 2>arch "3, &''45 E!panish leader accuses %ush and %lairE The
Guardian 2UD5 1rchived from the original on *ecember &", &'') /etrieved June &3, &'')
36'<u(# u# > ;d 0ilkington in 7e8 :ork 2!eptember &", &''35 E+hVveH attacks @devil@ %ush in U7
speechE The Guardian 2UD5 1rchived from the original on 1ugust &-, &'') /etrieved ,ctober &',
36"<u(# u# > +ondon, #eorge ; Jr 2July &", &''35 E%ush, White $ouse no8 leery of 0utin as
/ussian turns back on democracyE )4T #an Dieo 1rchived from the original on >ay &4, &''6
/etrieved !eptember ", &''6
36&<u(# u# > EBn "6 of &" +ountries 0olled, >ost !ee %ush@s /eelection as 7egative for World
!ecurityE %%+ World !ervice and 0rogram on Bnternational 0olicy 1ttitudes &''4 1rchived from
the original on June ), &''6 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
363<u(# u# > E0olls: World 7ot 0leased With %ushE +%! 7e8s 1ssociated 0ress >arch 4, &''4
1rchived from the original on >arch &4, &''4 /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
364<u(# u# > E1merica@s Bmage in the World: Findings from the 0e8 #lobal 1ttitudes 0roIectE
>arch "4, &''- 1rchived from the original on *ecember &6, &''6 /etrieved June &3, &'')
36.<u(# u# > 0eter Diernan 2>arch ", &''-5 E>iddle ;ast ,pinion: Bran Fears 1ren@t $itting the
1rab !treetE World 0olitics /evie8 ;?clusive 1rchived from the original on >ay "&, &'"3
363<u(# u# > E0e8 #lobal 1ttitudes 0roIect: !pring &''-, !urvey of 4- 0ublics, Final &''-
+omparative ToplineE 20*F5 0e8 /esearch +enter June &-, &''- /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
36-<u(# u# > E>apping the #lobal >uslim 0opulation ( 1 /eport on the !iHe and *istribution of the
World@s >uslim 0opulationE 1rchived from the original on ,ctober "', &'') /etrieved ,ctober 3',
366<u(# u# > http:TTcensusalT/esourcesT*ataT+ensus&'""TBnstatcprintL&'pdf<dead link=
36)<u(# u# > E%ush greeted as hero in 1lbaniaE %%+ June "', &''- 1rchived from the original on
February ., &'') /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
3)'<u(# u# > Ficky ,@$ara 2June "', &''-5 E%ush #ets Warm /eception in 1lbaniaE 70/
1rchived from the original on 1pril "4, &'') /etrieved !eptember ", &''6
3)"<u(# u# > E1lbanian !treet 7amed 1fter #eorge W %ushE %alkan Bnsight June 6, &''-
1rchived from the original on 1ugust &3, &'"" /etrieved July 3, &'""
3)&<u(# u# > E1lbanian to8n thanks #eorge W %ush 8ith statueE /euters July 3, &'"" 1rchived
from the original on July ), &'"" /etrieved July 3, &'""
3)3<u(# u# > %ilefsky, *an 2*ecember 4, &''65 E!erbian official blames U! for recent violenceE
The New York Times 1rchived from the original on >ay "3, &'"" /etrieved 1pril ), &'"'
3)4<u(# u# > E!tate 0resident a8ards the Three !tar ,rder to the U!0residentE 2in 9atvian5 9atvian
0resident@s +hancery >ay -, &''. 1rchived from the original on >ay "", &'"" /etrieved
7ovember ., &'"'
3).<u(# u# > ETbilisi +ity +ouncil 7ames !treet after U! 0resident %ushE +ivil #eorgia
!eptember "., &''. 1rchived from the original on July 3, &''4 /etrieved >arch "-, &'"3
3)3<u(# u# > E#eorgian capital names street after %ushE Tampa Bay Times !eptember "., &''.
1rchived from the original on January 3, &''3 /etrieved ,ctober &", &'"&
3)-<u(# u# > E1lbanian !treet 7amed 1fter #eorge W %ushE Balkan 8nsiht June 6, &''-
1rchived from the original on 1ugust &3, &'"" /etrieved ,ctober &", &'"&
3)6<u(# u# > W %ush 0laHa, Jerusalem [ Flickr ( +ondivisione di foto^ Flickrcom June &, &'')
/etrieved July "., &'"3
3))<u(# u# > E%ush to be honored by ;stoniaE United 0ress Bnternational February ", &'"&
/etrieved >arch "-, &'"3
4''<u(# u# > E;?40resident %ush and Wife 9eave Washington for Te?asE Fo? 7e8s +hannel
1ssociated 0ress January &', &'') 1rchived from the original on January &3, &'') /etrieved
January &', &'')
4'"<u(# u# > %ro8n, 1ngela D 2January &", &'')5 E;nthusiastic +ro8ds Welcome %ush %ack to
Te?asE Fo? 7e8s +hannel 1rchived from the original on 1pril "4, &'"4 /etrieved >arch 4, &'""
4'&<u(# u# > E+oin toss from #eorge and 9aura %ush 8as a brief taste of luck for +o8boys fansE
5ort %orth #tar4Teleram !eptember &", &'') 1rchived from the original on 7ovember -, &'')
/etrieved ,ctober "', &'')
4'3<u(# u# > Qaleski, Datharine 21pril -, &'')5 E%ush thro8s first pitch at /angers game
2!lidesho85E The &u!!inton Post 1rchived from the original on 1pril "', &'') /etrieved
7ovember ", &'"'
4'4<u(# u# > Jaynes, ;than 2,ctober 3", &'"'5 EFideo: #eorge W %ush Thro8s ,ut First 0itch
#ame 4 World !eries, 9et@s *iscuss BtE 7e8s !ports 1rchived from the original on 7ovember 4,
&'"' /etrieved 7ovember ", &'"'
4'.<u(# u# > Jackson, *avid 21ugust 3, &'"35 E#eorge W %ush has heart surgeryE U!1 Today
/etrieved 1ugust 3, &'"3
4'3<u(# u# > !8ami, 0rerana 2July &6, &'')5 E9aura %ush *iscusses $er $usband@s 9o8 0rofileE
+%! 7e8s 1rchived from the original on June "", &'') /etrieved June 6, &'')
4'-<u(# u# > E%ush says ,bama @deserves my silence@E >!7%+ 1ssociated 0ress >arch "-, &'')
1rchived from the original on >ay "6, &'') /etrieved June &3, &'')
4'6<u(# u# > 1llen, >ike 2>arch "6, &'')5 E%ush promises not to attack ,bamaE Politico
1rchived from the original on >arch &", &'') /etrieved >arch "6, &'')
4')<u(# u# > ETroops in BraC hailed by %ush on @+olbert /eport@E +%! 7e8s June "&, &'')
1rchived from the original on 7ovember 4, &'"3 /etrieved June ., &'"3
4"'<u(# u# > Weir, /ichard 21ugust 3', &'')5 EFuneral mass unites polsE Boston &erald 1rchived
from the original on !eptember &&, &'') /etrieved 1ugust 3', &'')
4""<u(# u# > Jordan, >ary 2,ctober &3, &'')5 E%ush@s first stand on a ne8 podiumE The
%ashinton Post /etrieved 7ovember "', &'')
4"&<u(# u# > !ammon, %ill 27ovember -, &'')5 E#eorge W %ush !ecretly Fisits Fort $ood
FictimsE Fo? 7e8s +hannel 1rchived from the original on 7ovember "', &'') /etrieved
7ovember "6, &'')
4"3<u(# u# > !chlikerman, %ecky 2,ctober &", &'"'5 E%ush promotes book in +hicagoE ,hicao
Tribune 1rchived from the original on ,ctober &., &'"' /etrieved February &&, &'""
4"4<u(# u# > /oelofs, Ted 2June &, &'"'5 E@B@d do it again@ former 0resident %ush tells #rand /apids
cro8d about 8aterboarding terroristsE The Grand 'apids Press 1rchived from the original on June
3, &'"' /etrieved June 3, &'"'
4".<u(# u# > 1ssociated 0ress, 9o8 ta?es, reform immigration and cut government spending: %ush
book tells U! ho8 to solve country@s economic 8oes, The Daily Mail, July "-, &'"&
4"3<u(# u# > Jamie !tengle, %ush institute launches book on economic gro8th, $ubbock
Avalanche41ournal, July "6, &'"&
4"-<u(# u# > !onia !mith, #eorge W %ush@s 1rmchair ;conomic 1dvice, Te6as Monthly, July "-,
4"6<u(# u# > EThe 4L !olution: Unleashing the ;conomic #ro8th 1merica 7eedsE, Book TC
4")<u(# u# > 9oinaH, 1le?is 9 27ovember &', &'"35 E#eorge W %ush #ushes 1bout
#randdaughter on The Tonight !ho8E People 1rchived from the original on 7ovember &&, &'"3
/etrieved 7ovember &3, &'"3
4&'<u(# u# > %aker, 0eter 23 1ugust &'"45 E%ush Urges /ene8ed Fight 1gainst *eadly *iseases in
1fricaE 7e8 :ork Times /etrieved 3 1ugust &'"4
4&"<u(# u# > E$illary +linton meets 8ith $aiti leader after arrivalE +77 January "-, &'"'
1rchived from the original on January "), &'"' /etrieved January "", &'""
4&&<u(# u# > Franke4/uta, #arance 2>ay "3, &'""5 EWhen %ush #ot the %in 9aden +all 2While
;ating a !ouffle5E The Atlantic 1rchived from the original on >ay "3, &'"" /etrieved >ay "4,
4&3<u(# u# > E0residents ,bama and %ush commemorate )T"" anniversaryE +77 !eptember "",
&'"" 1rchived from the original on ,ctober ), &'""
4&4<u(# u# > Travis *iehl 2>arch &3, &'"35 E7o, #eorge W %ushNs paintings tell us nothing about
BraCE #alon 1rchived from the original on >arch &-, &'"3 /etrieved 1pril 4, &'"4
4&.<u(# u# > E#eorge W %ush e?pects stellar revie8s of ne8 paintingsE M#NB, 1pril 3, &'"4
1rchived from the original on 1pril 3, &'"4 /etrieved 1pril 4, &'"4
4&3<u(# u# > 7ick %ryant 21pril 4, &'"45 E#eorge W %ush e?hibits his paintings of 8orld leadersE
%%+ 7e8s ,nline 1rchived from the original on 1pril ., &'"4 /etrieved 1pril 4, &'"4
4&-<u(# u# > E1rt ;?pert /evie8s #eorge W %ush@s 0aintingsE People 1pril ), &'"4 1rchived
from the original on 1pril "&, &'"4 /etrieved 1pril ), &'"4
4&6<u(# u# > E#eorge W %ushNs top five successes M and failuresE #5Gate !an Francisco
+hronicle 1pril &3, &'"3 1rchived from the original on 1pril &6, &'"3 /etrieved 1pril 3', &'"3
4&)<u(# u# > E*ebate continues over #eorge W %ushNs legacyE 7%+ 7e8s 1pril &4, &'"3
1rchived from the original on &'"34'44&6 /etrieved >arch &, &'"4
43'<u(# u# > E$istorian tips rethink of %ush presidencyE 1%+ ,nline !eptember &&, &'"'
1rchived from the original on >arch &, &'"4
43"<u(# u# > %yron Williams 2January -, &'""5 EBs #eorge W %ush the >ost @!ignificant@ 0resident
!ince F*/ZE The &u!!inton Post /etrieved >arch &, &'"4
43&<u(# u# > E+omparing the Dennedy, /eagan and %ush Ta? +utsE Ta? Foundation 1ugust &4,
&''4 /etrieved 1pril "&, &'"4
433<u(# u# > >ichael * Tanner 2>arch 4, &''-5 E9eviathan on the /ightE The New York Times
1rchived from the original on >arch &, &'"4
434<u(# u# > Julian QeliHer 2January 3, &'"35 E1merica lives under the shado8 of #eorge W %ushE
+77 1rchived from the original on July &-, &'"3
43.<u(# u# > Jim Duhnhenn 21pril &4, &'"35 E,bama +ontinues !ome #eorge %ush 0olicies *espite
*ifferences Bn Bdeology, TemperamentE Associate Press 2The $uffington 0ost5
433<u(# u# > E/ushmore 0lus ,neJ F*/ Ioins >ountainside Figures Washington, Jefferson, Teddy
/oosevelt and 9incoln as Top 0residentsE #iena 'esearch 8nstitute July ", &'"'
43-<u(# u# > Walsh, *avid 1ustin 21pril &3, &'"35 E$istorians still despise #eorge W %ushE $77
1rchived from the original on >ay ", &'"3
436<u(# u# > Jackson, *avid 2February "), &'"&5 E#allup: /eagan and +linton are favorite
presidentsE )#A Today 1rchived from the original on February &', &'"&
43)<u(# u# > E%ill +linton >ore 0opular Than %arack ,bamaE #allup 0olitics 1rchived from the
original on July &", &'"' /etrieved January &4, &'"4
44'<u(# u# > E#eorge W %ush: Favorability /atingsE pollingreportcom 1rchived from the original
on January &3, &'') /etrieved *ecember "4, &'"&
44"<u(# u# > +illiHHa, +hrisJ !ullivan, !ean 21pril &3, &'"35 E#eorge W %ushNs approval rating Iust
hit a -4year high $ereNs ho8E The %ashinton Post /etrieved 1pril &4, &'"3
44&<u(# u# > >ali, >eghashyam 21pril &3, &'"35 E0oll: #eorge W %ush@s approval rating rising
post4White $ouseE The &ill 1rchived from the original on 1pril &4, &'"3 /etrieved 1pril &4,
443<u(# u# > !teinhauser, 0aul 21pril &4, &'"35 E+77 poll: ho8 8ill history remember #eorge W
%ushZE +77 1rchived from the original on 1pril &6, &'"3
8urther reading
1bramson, 0aul /, John $ 1ldrich, and *avid W /ohde ,hane and ,ontinuity in the ?@@- and
?@@F 0lections 2&''-5, 3&4pp e?cerpt and te?t search
1llard, !cott W EThe +hanging Face of Welfare *uring the %ush 1dministrationE Publius &''-
3-235: 3'4(33& Bssn: ''464.).'
%arone, >ichael The Almanac o! American Politics 2&''4, &''3, &''6, &'"'5, highly detailed
coverage of electoral politics and +ongress
%erggren, * Jason, and 7icol + /ae EJimmy +arter and #eorge W %ush: Faith, Foreign 0olicy,
and an ;vangelical 0residential !tyleE Presidential #tudies ;uarterly. 33d4 &''3 pp 3'3e online
+ampbell, +olin, %ert 1 /ockman, and 1ndre8 /udalevige, eds The Geore %. Bush $eacy
+ongressional Auarterly 0ress, &''-, 3.&ppJ "4 essays by scholars e?cerpts and online search from
+ongressional Auarterly ,; Almanac Plus highly detailed annual compilation of events in +ongress,
White $ouse, !upreme +ourt, summariHing the 8eekly E+ongressional Auarterly Weekly /eportE
2annual, &''&(&'')5
+onlan, Tim and John *inan EFederalism, the %ush 1dministration, and the Transformation of
1merican +onservatismE Publius &''- 3-235: &-)(3'3 Bssn: ''464.).'
+orrado, 1nthony, ; J *ionne Jr, Dathleen 1 Frankovic The 0lection o! ?@@@/ 'eports and
8nterpretations 2&''"5 online edition
*aynes, %yron W and #len !ussman E+omparing the ;nvironmental 0olicies of 0residents #eorge
$ W %ush and #eorge W %ushE %hite &ouse #tudies &''- -2&5: "33("-) Bssn: ".3.44-36
*esch, >ichael + E%ush and the #eneralsE 5orein A!!airs &''- 63235: )-("'6 Bssn: ''".4-"&'
Fullte?t: ;bsco
;ckersley, /obyn E1mbushed: the Dyoto 0rotocol, the %ush 1dministration@s +limate 0olicy and the
;rosion of 9egitimacyE 8nternational Politics &''- 442&(35: 3'3(3&4 Bssn: "3644.-46
;d8ards BBB, #eorge + and 0hilip John *avies, eds New ,hallenes !or the American Presidency
7e8 :ork: 0earson 9ongman, &''4 &4. pp articles from Presidential #tudies ;uarterly
;d8ards BBB, #eorge + and *esmond Ding, eds The PolariDed Presidency o! Geore %. Bush
2&''-5, 4-6ppJ essays by scholarsJ e?cerpt and online search from 1maHoncom
Fortier, John + and 7orman J ,rnstein, eds #econd4term Blues/ &ow Geore %. Bush &as
Governed 2&''-5, "43pp e?cerpt and online search from 1maHoncom
#raham John * Bush on the &ome 5ront/ Domestic Policy Triumphs and #etbacks 2Bndiana
University 0ress, &'"'5 4&. pagesJ covers ta?ation, education, health care, energy, the environment,
and regulatory reform
#reenstein, Fred B ed The Geore %. Bush Presidency/ An 0arly Assessment Johns $opkins
University 0ress, &''3
#reenstein, Fred B `The +ontemporary 0residency: The +hanging 9eadership of #eorge W %ush 1
0re4 and 0ost4)T"" +omparisona in Presidential #tudies ;uarterly v 3&d& &''& pp 36-e online
#regg BB, #ary 9 and >ark J /oHell, eds ,onsiderin the Bush Presidency ,?ford University 0ress,
&''4 &"' pp %ritish perspectives
$endrickson, /yan +, and Dristina !pohr /eadman, EFrom the %altic to the %lack !ea: %ush@s
71T, ;nlargementE %hite &ouse #tudies. 2&''45 4d3 pp: 3")e online edition<dead link=
$illiard, %ryan, Tom 9ansford, and /obert 0 Watson, eds Geore %. Bush/ 0valuatin the President
at Midterm !U7: 0ress &''4
Jacobson, #ary + `The %ush 0residency and the 1merican ;lectoratea Presidential #tudies
;uarterly v 33 7o4 &''3 pp -'"e online edition
Jacobson, #ary + E/eferendum: the &''3 >idterm +ongressional ;lectionsE Political #cience
;uarterly &''- "&&2"5: "(&4 Bssn: ''3&43"). Fullte?t: ;bsco
>ilkis, !idney > and Jesse $/hodes E#eorge W %ush, the 0arty !ystem, and 1merican
FederalismE Publius &''- 3-235: 4-6(.'3 Bssn: ''464.).'
>oens, 1le?ander The 5orein Policy o! Geore %. Bush/ Calues2 #tratey2 and $oyalty. 1shgate,
&''4 &&- pp
/abe, %arry E;nvironmental 0olicy and the %ush ;ra: the +ollision %et8een the 1dministrative
0residency and !tate ;?perimentationE Publius &''- 3-235: 4"3(43" Bssn: ''464.).'
!abato, 9arry J ed The #i6th Year 8tch/ The 'ise and 5all o! the Geore %. Bush Presidency 2&''-5,
e?perts on the &''3 elections in maIor states
!troHeski, Josh, et al EFrom %enign 7eglect to !trategic Bnterest: the /ole of 1frica in the Foreign
0olicies of %ush 4" and 43E %hite &ouse #tudies &''- -2"5: 3.(." Bssn: ".3.44-36
Wekkin, #ary * E#eorge $ W %ush and #eorge W %ush: 0uHHling 0residencies, or the 0uHHle of
the 0residencyZE %hite &ouse #tudies &''- -2&5: ""3("&4 Bssn: ".3.44-36
Wong, Denneth and #ail !underman E;ducation 1ccountability as a 0residential 0riority: 7o +hild
9eft %ehind and the %ush 0residencyE Publius &''- 3-235: 333(3.' Bssn: ''464.).'
/eflections on the %ush presidency
%arnes, Fred 'ebel4in4,hie!/ &ow Geore %. Bush 8s 'ede!inin the ,onservative Movement and
Trans!ormin America 2&''35
%artlett, %ruce 8mpostor/ &ow Geore %. Bush Bankrupted America and Betrayed the 'eaan
$eacy 2&''35
+heney, *ick 8n My Time/ A Personal and Political Memoir 2&'""5
*raper, /obert 8nside the Bush %hite &ouse/ The Presidency o! Geore %. Bush 2&''-5
Ferguson, >ichaele 9 and 9ori Jo >arso % #tands !or %omen/ &ow the Geore %. Bush
Presidency #haped a New Politics o! Gender 2&''-5
#erson, >ichael J &eroic ,onservatism/ %hy 'epublicans Need to 0mbrace America<s 8deals 9And
%hy They Deserve to 5ail 8! They Don<t: 2&''-5, e?cerpt and te?t search
#reenspan, 1lan The Ae o! Turbulence/ Adventures in a New %orld 2&''-5
$ayes, !tephen F ,heney/ The )ntold #tory o! America<s Most Power!ul and ,ontroversial Cice
President 2&''-5, e?cerpts and online search
$ughes, Daren Geore %. Bush/ Portrait o! a $eader 2&''.5
>abry, >arcus Twice as Good/ ,ondoleeDDa 'ice and &er Path to Power 2&''-5
>oore, James and Wayne !later Bush<s Brain/ &ow 7arl 'ove Made Geore %. Bush Presidential
2&''35 online edition
/ice, +ondoleeHHa No &iher &onor/ A Memoir o! My Years in %ashinton 2&'""5
/umsfeld, *onald 7nown and )nknown/ A Memoir 2&'""5
!uskind, /on The Price o! $oyalty/ Geore %. Bush2 the %hite &ouse2 and the 0ducation o! Paul
3GNeill 2&''45, e?cerpts and online search from 1maHoncom
Wood8ard, %ob Plan o! Attack 2&''35, e?cerpt and te?t search
0rimary sources
+ouncil of ;conomic 1dvisors, 0conomic 'eport o! the President 2annual ")4-(5 , complete series
onlineJ important analysis of current trends and policies, plus statistical tables
%ush, #eorge W Geore %. Bush on God and ,ountry/ The President #peaks 3ut About 5aith2
Principle2 and Patriotism 2&''45
%ush, #eorge W Decision Points 2&'"'5
0terna" "in-s
!isten to this artic"e 2infoTdl5
This audio file 8as created from a revision of the E#eorge W %ushE article dated &'"&4'.4&&, and does not reflect subseCuent edits to the article 21udio help5
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#eorge W %ush 0residential 9ibrary and >useum
#eorge W %ush at *>,Q
,fficial White $ouse biography
1rchived White $ouse 8ebsite from January &', &'') ( 7ational 1rchives and /ecords
#eorge W %ush 0residential !peech 1rchive at the Bnternet 1rchive
;ssays on %ush, each member of his cabinet and First 9ady the >iller +enter of 0ublic 1ffairs
#eorge W %ush photos ( $istory +hannel collection of presidential photographs
George W. Bush
43rd 0resident of the United !tates 2&''"(&'')5
43th #overnor of Te?as 2")).(&'''5
%orn July 3, ")43
First inauguration
!econd inauguration
First term
!econd term
*omestic policy
9egislation and programs
;conomic policy
Foreign policy
%ush *octrine
War in 1fghanistan
BraC War
7o +hild 9eft %ehind 1ct
>edicare 0rescription *rug, Bmprovement, and >oderniHation 1ct
U!1 Freedom +orps
*epartment of $omeland !ecurity
!pace policy
!trategic ,ffensive /eductions Treaty
EWar on TerrorE
0resident@s +ouncil on !ervice and +ivic 0articipation
Judicial appointments
!upreme +ourt
Bmpeachment efforts
0residential library
;arly life
0rofessional life
#overnorship of Te?as
0rairie +hapel /anch
%ush compound
+linton %ush $aiti Fund
1?is of evil
>ission 1ccomplished
!tate of the Union address
United !tates $ouse of /epresentatives elections, ")-6
Te?as gubernatorial election "))4
0residential campaign &'''
/epublican 0arty presidential primaries, &'''
/epublican 7ational +onvention &'''
United !tates presidential election, &'''
Bush v. Gore
United !tates presidential election, &''4
Pub"ic i(age
1s the subIect of books and films
FictionaliHed portrayals
>iss >e :etZ
A ,hare to 7eep 2")))5
Decision Points 2&'"'5
9aura %ush 28ife5
%arbara 0ierce %ush 2daughter5
Jenna %ush $ager 2daughter5
#eorge $W %ush 2father, presidency5
%arbara %ush 2mother5
Jeb %ush 2brother5
7eil %ush 2brother5
>arvin 0 %ush 2brother5
*orothy %ush Doch 2sister5
0rescott %ush 2grandfather5
*orothy Walker %ush 2grandmother5
#eorge 0 %ush 2nephe85
%arney 2dog5
>iss %eaHley 2dog5
Bndia 2cat5
!pot Fetcher 2dog5
f Bi"" &"inton
Barac- ;ba(a A
;ffices and distinctions
Party #o"itica" offices
0receded by
&"ayton Wi""ia(s
Teas )e#ub"ican gubernatoria"
"))4, "))6
!ucceeded by
)ic- Perry
0receded by
Bob 5o"e
)e#ub"ican #residentia" no(inee
&''', &''4
!ucceeded by
<ohn *c&ain
Po"itica" offices
0receded by
'nn )ichards
Governor of Teas
January "-, ")).(*ecember &", &'''
!ucceeded by
)ic- Perry
0receded by
Bi"" &"inton
President of the United States
January &', &''"(January &', &'')
!ucceeded by
Barac- ;ba(a
5i#"o(atic #osts
0receded by
<ac:ues &hirac
&hair#erson of the Grou# of B
!ucceeded by
Tony B"air
United States order of #recedence $cere(onia"%
0receded by
Bi"" &"inton
as !ormer "resident of the United
;rder of Precedence of the United
!ormer "resident of the United States
!ucceeded by
'(bassadors fro( the United
$.hi"e at their #osts%
!ucceeded by
;ther.ise <ohn 7erry
as Secretary of State
'rtic"es re"ated to George W. Bush
Bush fa(i"y
Prescott Bush ancestors
5orothy Wa"-er Bush
!amuel 0rescott %ush 2"633(")465
James !mith %ush 2"6&.("66)5
,badiah 7e8comb %ush 2"-)-("6."5
#eorge $erbert Walker 2"6-.(").35
*avid *avis Walker 2"64'(")"65
#eorge ; Walker 2"-)-("6345
Thomas Walker 2"-.6("-))5
Sa(ue" P. Bush C 8"ora
0rescott !heldon %ush 2"6).(")-&5 2m5 *orothy Wear Walker
/obert %ush
>ary $ouse %ush
>argaret +lement %ush
James %ush
Prescott Bush $9BDEF9DG3%
0rescott %ush Jr 2")&&(&'"'5
#eorge $erbert Walker %ush 2m5 %arbara 0ierce
7ancy Walker %ush ;llis 2m5 1le?ander % ;llis BB 2")&&(")6)5
Jonathan James %ush 2m5 Josephine %radley
William $enry Trotter %ush
George 6. W. Bush $9D34F%
1ancy Wa"-er Bush 0""is
<onathan Bush $9D39F%
George Wa"-er Bush 2m5 9aura 9ane Welch
0auline /obinson %ush 2")4)(").35
Jeb %ush 2m5 +olumba #arnica #allo
7eil >allon %ush 2mTdiv "st5 !haron !mithJ 2m &nd5 >aria
>arvin 0ierce %ush 2m5 >argaret >olster
*orothy Walker %ush 2mTdiv "st5 William 9e%lond J 2m &nd5
/obert 0 Doch
John 0rescott ;llis
1le?ander ;llis BBB
Josiah Wear ;llis
7ancy Walker ;llis
%illy %ush 2m5 !ydney *avis
Jonathan ! %ush
George W. Bush $9D46F%
<eb Bush $9DE3F%
1ei" Bush $9DEEF%
*arvin Bush $9DE6F%
5orothy 7och $9DEDF%
%arbara 0ierce %ush
Jenna Welch %ush 2m5 $enry $ager
#eorge 0rescott %ush 2m5 1manda Williams
7oelle %ush
John ;llis %ush, Jr
9auren %ush 2m5 *avid 9auren
1shley %ush
0ierce %ush
>arshall %ush 2adopted5
Walker %ush 2adopted5
!am 9e%lond
;llie 9e%lond
/obert Doch
#igi Doch
See a"so *avid *avis
The %ush +ompound
%uckeye !teel +astings
# $ Walker ] +o
The 5amily/ The 'eal #tory o! the Bush Dynasty
0olitical line
Presidents of the United States
" #eorge Washington
& John 1dams
3 Thomas Jefferson
4 James >adison
. James >onroe
3 John Auincy 1dams
- 1ndre8 Jackson
6 >artin Fan %uren
) William $enry $arrison
"'John Tyler
""James D 0olk
"&Qachary Taylor
"3>illard Fillmore
"4Franklin 0ierce
".James %uchanan
"31braham 9incoln
"-1ndre8 Johnson
"6Ulysses ! #rant
")/utherford % $ayes
&'James 1 #arfield
&"+hester 1 1rthur
&&#rover +leveland
&3%enIamin $arrison
&4#rover +leveland
&.William >cDinley
&3Theodore /oosevelt
&-William $o8ard Taft
&6Woodro8 Wilson
&)Warren # $arding
3'+alvin +oolidge
3"$erbert $oover
3&Franklin * /oosevelt
33$arry ! Truman
34*8ight * ;isenho8er
3.John F Dennedy
339yndon % Johnson
3-/ichard 7i?on
36#erald Ford
3)Jimmy +arter
4'/onald /eagan
4"#eorge $ W %ush
4&%ill +linton
43George W. Bush
44%arack ,bama
Governors and !ieutenant Governors of Teas
J 0 $enderson
J W $enderson
J Ferguson
> Ferguson
> Ferguson
J W Flanagan
* W Flanagan
1 % *avidson
$obby, !r
9 *avidson
T W *avidson
J 9 !mith
0 !mith
$obby, Jr
&abinet of President George W. Bush $3449F344D%
Secretary of State
+olin 0o8ell 2&''"(&''.5
+ondoleeHHa /ice 2&''.(&'')5
Secretary of the Treasury
0aul ,@7eill 2&''"(&''&5
John W !no8 2&''3(&''35
$enry 0aulson 2&''3(&'')5
Secretary of 5efense
*onald /umsfeld 2&''"(&''35
/obert #ates 2&''3(&'')5
'ttorney Genera"
John 1shcroft 2&''"(&''.5
1lberto #onHales 2&''.(&''-5
>ichael >ukasey 2&''-(&'')5
Secretary of the Interior
#ale 7orton 2&''"(&''35
*irk Dempthorne 2&''3(&'')5
Secretary of 'gricu"ture
1nn Feneman 2&''"(&''.5
>ike Johanns 2&''.(&''-5
;d !chafer 2&''6(&'')5
Secretary of &o((erce
*onald ;vans 2&''"(&''.5
+arlos #utierreH 2&''.(&'')5
Secretary of !abor
;laine +hao 2&''"(&'')5
Secretary of 6ea"th and
6u(an Services
Tommy Thompson 2&''"(&''.5
>ike 9eavitt 2&''.(&'')5
Secretary of 6ousing and
Urban 5eve"o#(ent
>el >artineH 2&''"(&''35
1lphonso Jackson 2&''3(&''65
!teve 0reston 2&''6(&'')5
Secretary of Trans#ortation
7orman >ineta 2&''"(&''35
>ary 0eters 2&''3(&'')5
Secretary of 0nergy
!pencer 1braham 2&''"(&''.5
!amuel %odman 2&''.(&'')5
Secretary of 0ducation
/od 0aige 2&''"(&''.5
>argaret !pellings 2&''.(&'')5
Secretary of Veterans 'ffairs
1nthony 0rincipi 2&''"(&''.5
Jim 7icholson 2&''.(&''-5
James 0eake 2&''-(&'')5
Secretary of 6o(e"and
Tom /idge 2&''3(&''.5
>ichael +hertoff 2&''.(&'')5
Vice President *ick +heney 2&''"(&'')5
White 6ouse &hief of Staff
1ndre8 +ard 2&''"(&''35
Joshua %olten 2&''3(&'')5
'd(inistrator of the
0nviron(enta" Protection 'gency
+hristine Todd Whitman 2&''"(&''35
>ike 9eavitt 2&''3(&''.5
!tephen 9 Johnson 2&''.(&'')5
5irector of the ;ffice of
*anage(ent and Budget
>itch *aniels 2&''"(&''35
Joshua %olten 2&''3(&''35
/ob 0ortman 2&''3(&''-5
Jim 7ussle 2&''-(&'')5
5irector of 1ationa" 5rug
&ontro" Po"icy
John 0 Walters 2&''"(&'')5
Trade )e#resentative
/obert Qoellick 2&''"(&''.5
/ob 0ortman 2&''.(&''35
!usan !ch8ab 2&''3(&'')5
Princi#a" o.ners of the Teas )angers franchise
Washington Senators $9D69F9DG9%
;l8ood /ichard Auesada
James Johnson ] James 9emon
James 9emon
%ob !hort
Teas )angers $9DG3F#resent%
%ob !hort
%rad +orbett
;ddie +hiles
George W. Bush
Tom $icks
+huck #reenberg ] 7olan /yan
7olan /yan
/ay *avis and %ob / !impson
;rder of Precedence in the United States of '(ericaH
The President
The Fice 0resident
The #overnors of the !tates
The >ayors of the +ities
The !peaker of the $ouse
The +hief Justice
Former 0resident +arter
Former 0resident #$W %ush
Former 0resident +linton
8or(er President GW Bush
1mbassadors of the United !tates
The !ecretary of !tate
>rs /eagan
The 1ssociate Justices
/etired Justice !tevens
/etired Justice ,@+onnor
/etired Justice !outer
The 0resident@s +abinet
The 0resident 0ro Tempore of the !enate
The !enate
Former Fice 0resident >ondale
Former Fice 0resident Auayle
Former Fice 0resident #ore
Former Fice 0resident +heney
The $ouse of /epresentatives
Hnot includin actin o!!iceholders2 visitin dinitaries2 au6iliary e6ecutive and military personnel and most
Time Persons of the ,ear
Jimmy +arter 2")-35
1n8ar !adat 2")--5
*eng Giaoping 2")-65
1yatollah Dhomeini 2")-)5
/onald /eagan 2")6'5
9ech Waghsa 2")6"5
The +omputer 2")6&5
/onald /eagan T :uri 1ndropov 2")635
0eter Ueberroth 2")645
*eng Giaoping 2")6.5
+oraHon 1Cuino 2")635
>ikhail #orbachev 2")6-5
The ;ndangered ;arth 2")665
>ikhail #orbachev 2")6)5
#eorge $ W %ush 2"))'5
Ted Turner 2"))"5
%ill +linton 2"))&5
`The 0eacemakersa: :itHhak /abin T 7elson >andela T F W de Dlerk T :asser 1rafat 2"))35
0ope John 0aul BB 2"))45
7e8t #ingrich 2")).5
*avid $o 2"))35
1ndre8 #rove 2"))-5
%ill +linton T Den !tarr 2"))65
Jeffrey 0 %eHos 2")))5
George W. Bush 2&'''5
+omplete roster
Time Persons of the ,ear
/udolph #iuliani 2&''"5
The Whistleblo8ers : +ynthia +ooper T +oleen /o8ley T !herron Watkins 2&''&5
The 1merican !oldier 2&''35
George W. Bush 2&''45
The #ood !amaritans : %ono T %ill #ates T >elinda #ates 2&''.5
:ou 2&''35
Fladimir 0utin 2&''-5
%arack ,bama 2&''65
%en %ernanke 2&'')5
>ark Quckerberg 2&'"'5
The 0rotestor 2&'""5
%arack ,bama 2&'"&5
0ope Francis 2&'"35
+omplete roster
)e#ub"ican Party
of the )1&
T % >orton
/ >orton
9a?alt TFahrenkopf
/eagan TFahrenkopf
FrRmont T*ayton
9incoln T$amlin
9incoln TJohnson
#rant T+olfa?
#rant TWilson
$ayes TWheeler
#arfield T1rthur
%laine T9ogan
$arrison T>orton
$arrison T/eid
>cDinley T$obart
>cDinley T/oosevelt
/oosevelt TFairbanks
Taft T!herman
Taft T!hermanT%utler
$ughes TFairbanks
$arding T+oolidge
+oolidge T*a8es
$oover T+urtis 2t8ice5
9andon TDno?
Willkie T>c7ary
*e8ey T%ricker
*e8ey TWarren
;isenho8er T7i?on 2t8ice5
7i?on T9odge
#old8ater T>iller
7i?on T1gne8 2t8ice5
Ford T*ole
/eagan T# $ W %ush 2t8ice5
# $ W %ush TAuayle 2t8ice5
*ole TDemp
G. W. BushT+heney 2t8ice5
>c+ain T0alin
/omney T/yan
Parties by state
and territory
7e8 $ampshire
7e8 Jersey
7e8 >e?ico
7e8 :ork
7orth +arolina
7orth *akota
/hode Bsland
!outh +arolina
!outh *akota
West Firginia
*istrict of +olumbia
7orthern >ariana Bslands
0uerto /ico
Firgin Bslands
"6.3 20hiladelphia5
"63' 2+hicago5
"634 2%altimore5
"636 2+hicago5
"6-& 20hiladelphia5
"6-3 2+incinnati5
"66' 2+hicago5
"664 2+hicago5
"666 2+hicago5
"6)& 2>inneapolis5
"6)3 2!aint 9ouis5
")'' 20hiladelphia5
")'4 2+hicago5
")'6 2+hicago5
")"& 2+hicago5
")"3 2+hicago5
")&' 2+hicago5
")&4 2+leveland5
")&6 2Dansas +ity5
")3& 2+hicago5
")33 2+leveland5
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!hort description 43rd 0resident of the United !tates
*ate of birth July 3, ")43
0lace of birth 7e8 $aven, +onnecticut
*ate of death
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