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2. The MASS of the SOLIDS CAN NOT be changed

3. Need to know phase relationships in soil.which I will show you next

Phase relationship in Soil

This represents the soil that you take from a

borrow pit. It is made up of AIR, WATER, and

SOLIDS.

So if you separated the soil into its components

it would look like this. It is referred to as a Soil

Phase Diagram.

When looking at a Soil Phase Diagram you

think of it two ways, 1. Volume, 2. Mass.

AIR

WATER

SOIL

AIR

WATER

SOIL

Volume

V

a

V

w

V

s

Mass

M

a

= 0

M

w

M

s

V

a

= Volume Air

V

w

= Volume Water

V

s

= Volume Solid

M

a

= Mass Air = 0

M

w

= Mass Water

M

s

= Mass Solid

V

t

= Volume Total = V

a

+ V

w

+ V

s

M

t

= Mass Total = M

w

+ M

s

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

**BORROW PIT VOLUMES**

Basic Terms/Formulas to know Soil Phase relationship

Density of Water = !

water

= M

w

/V

w

English Units = 62.42 pounds per CF(pcf)

SI Units = 1,000 g/liter = 1,000kg/m

3

Specific Gravity = G

s

= !

solids

/!

water

=M

s

/(V

s

* !

water

)

Moisture Content (w) = M

w

/M

s

Porosity (n) = V

v

/V

t

V

v

= Volume of Voids = V

w

+ V

a

V

t

= Total Volume = V

s

+V

w

+ V

a

Degree of Saturation (S) = V

w

/V

v

V

w

= Volume of Water

V

v

= Total Volume of Voids

Void Ratio (e) = V

v

/V

s

V

v

= Total Volume of Voids

V

s

= Volume of Solid

Total or Wet Density of Soil (!

wet

) = M/V

M

= M

w

+ M

s

V = V

w

+ V

s

+ V

a

Dry Density of Soil (!

dry

) = M

s

/V

V = V

w

+ V

s

+ V

a

Density of Solids = M

s

/V

s

Specific Gravity = the density of the solids divided by the density of Water

Moisture Content = Mass of Water divided by the Mass of Solids

Void Ratio = Volume of Voids divided by the Volume of Solids

Porosity = Volume of Voids divided by the Total Volume,

Higher porosity = higher permeability

Specific Gravity = S

* e = G

s

* w

Porosity (n) = e/(1+e)

Void Ratio (e) = n/(1-n)

Total or Wet Density of Soil (!

wet

) =

!

wet

= ((!

water

* G

s

( 1+w))/(1+e)

Dry Density of Soil (!

dry

) = !

wet

/(1+w)

(!

dry

) = (!

water

* G

s

)/(1+(w/S)*G

s

)

(!

dry

) = (!

water

* G

s

)/(1+e)

Relationships to know

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

**BORROW PIT VOLUMES**

Load and Shrinkage Factors

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

**BORROW PIT VOLUMES**

AIR

WATER

SOIL

AIR

WATER

SOIL

AIR

WATER

SOIL

1.0BCY

1.25LCY

.90CCY

V

B

V

L

= V

B

(1+SWELL)

V

L

= V

B

x SWELL FACTOR(or Load factor)

V

C

= V

B

(1 - SHRINKAGE)

V

C

= V

B

x SHRINKAGE FACTOR

DL = Dry Loose Unit Weight (!

DL

)

DC = Dry Compacted Unit Weight (!

DC

)

DB = Dry Bank Unit Weight (!

DB

)

Important Volume Change Relationships:

In excavation, 1+Swell is called Swell Factor

LCY to CCY:

CCY to BCY:

Borrow-Pit Method

! Another important concept to know is the Borrow Pit Method in order to calculate the

volume of the borrow pit. It is also called the unit-area method.

! The Volume is determined based on a predetermined grid pattern. The site is divided

into equal squares of sides 20,50, or a 100 ft. Elevations are then measured at the corners

of the grid, which are given titles that correspond to the coordinates of the corner in the

grid, ex: 3-D, 4-A,..

! Then for simplicity of calculations, the points are connected to the corners

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

**BORROW PIT VOLUMES**

WWW.LEARNCIVILENGINEERING.COM

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

**BORROW PIT VOLUMES**

Question #1: After surveying a borrow pit, the surveyor produced the

following borrow pit grid below. If you consider 0.0, the elevation that you

can cut to. What is the total cut volume (cy) available?

a. 250 cy

b. 232 cy

c. 201 cy

d. 343 cy

A

B

C

D

E

G

F

2.4

2.8

3.2

3.5

3.3

3.1

2.1

2.4

2.8

1.8

1.6

1.3

20 feet

20 feet

20 feet

20 feet

20 feet

Question # 2: 120cy of bank soil is excavated and stockpiled before being

trucked and then compacted. The soil has a swell of 25% and a shrinkage of

15%.

What is the final volume of the compacted soil?

a. 68 cy

b. 102 cy

c. 150 cy

d. 128 cy

Question #3. A 10 ft wide, 500 ft long, 2 ft thick road is being constructed. The soil

density after compaction was found to be 112.1 pcf at an optimum moisture content

of 10.5%. The soil from the borrow pit has a total density of 105pcf and a moisture

content of 8.5%

What is the total volume(cf) of soil that needs to be hauled from the borrow pit?

a. 45,395 cf

b. 12,856 cf

c. 11,584 cf

d. 5,260 cf

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

**BORROW PIT VOLUMES**

Question # 4. Soil borings at a proposed Borrow Pit indicate that the soil is

primarily a sandy clay. Cores taken of the soil in the pit indicates an average

dry density of 88pcf at a moisture content of 22%.

The volume of the contained soil in the fill when constructed is 20,000 cy.

Based on the average results of a Standard Proctor compaction test the soil

will be compacted to a density of 95 pcf at a moisture content of 25%.

Dump trucks with a capacity of 15cy will be used to transport the soil from the

borrow pit to the proposed road bed.

1. Assuming that the soil in the dump truck has a dry density of 69 pcf at a

moisture content of 22% estimate the number of loads that will be necessary.

2. Compute the volume of the hole at the borrow pit after the soil is removed

a. 68 trucks

b. 12,856 trucks

c. 658 trucks

d. 1,836 trucks

a. 36,568 cy

b. 21,591 cy

c. 24,564 cy

d. 19,836 cy

WWW.LEARNCIVILENGINEERING.COM

Answer #1:

Step 1: Setup a chart to get the volume under each square; Then sum up all

the volumes.

Step 2: Find Volume in Cubic yards

! V

total

= 6260 cf / (27cf/cy) = 232 cy

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

**BORROW PIT VOLUMES**

Grid Area (sf) Average depth (ft) Volume (cf)

A 400 (2.4+3.5+2.8+3.3)/4 = 3.0 1200

B 200 (3.5+3.3+2.1)/3 = 2.97 594

C 400 (2.8+3.3+3.2+3.1)/4 = 3.1 1240

D 400 (3.3+2.1+3.1+2.4)/4 = 2.7 1080

E 400 (2.1+1.8+2.4+1.6)/4 = 1.98 792

F 200 (3.1+2.4+2.8)/3 = 2.77 554

G 400 (2.4+2.8+1.6+1.3)/4 = 2.0 800

V

total

= 6260cf

Answer #2:

The shrinkage factor is taken with respect to the bank volume condition.

- so, V

compacted fill

=(1-.15)(120cy) = 102cy

For your information the swell is taken with respect to the bank volume

condition too.

- so, V

stockpile

=(1+.25)(120cy) = 150cy

Answer #3:

Step 1: Find the mass of solids (M

s

) required for the controlled fill:

- Volume of Compacted soil = (500ft)(10ft)(2ft) = 10,000 cf

- dry density of the compacted soil is given = 112.1 pcf

- using Dry Density of Soil (!

dry

) = M

s

/V = 112.1pcf = M

s

/10,000cf, so M

s

=

1,121,000 lbs

Step 2: Find total volume of soil that needs to be hauled from the borrow pit:

- using Moisture Content (w) = M

w

/M

s

, .085 = M

w

/1,121,000lbs = M

w

= 95,285

lbs

- Total Mass at borrow pit = 1,121,000lbs + 95,285lbs = 1,216,285 lbs

- using Total or Wet Density of Soil (!

wet

) =

M/V = 105pcf = 1,216,285 lbs/V, V = 11,583.7 cf

FYI ----to figure out the Mass of water in compacted soil

- Moisture content in compacted soil given at 10.5% = .105

- using Moisture Content (w) = M

w

/M

s

, .105 = M

w

/1,121,000lbs = M

w

=

117,705 lbs

Answer #4:

Step 1: Find the mass of solids (M

s

) required for the controlled fill:

- Volume of Compacted soil = 20,000 cy * 27cf/cy = 540,000 cf

- dry density of the compacted soil is given = 95 pcf

- using Dry Density of Soil (!

dry

) = M

s

/V = 95 pcf = M

s

/540,000 cf, so M

s

=

51,300,000 lbs

Step 2: Find the # of Trucks required to haul Soil.

- M

s

= 51,300,000 lbs, and the dry density of the soil to be hauled is 69 pcf

- so, 51,300,000 lbs/69pcf = 743,478 cf / 27cf/cy = 27,536 cy

- so the number of trucks needed is 27,536cy/15cy/truck = 1836 trucks

Step 3: Find the Volume at the borrow pit

- dry density of the compacted soil is given = 88 pcf

- (!

dry

) = M

s

/V, 88pcf = 51,300,000 lbs/V, V= 51,300,000lbs/88pcf = 582,955cf

- convert to cy, 582,955cf/(27cf/cy) = 21,591cy

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