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1. The process of diffusion and its importance in living organisms

Definition Fick’s Law Types of diffusion e.g. Facilitated diffusion, osmosis Gas exchange in unicells, fish, mammals
Definition Fick’s Law Types of diffusion e.g. Facilitated diffusion, osmosis Gas exchange in unicells, fish, mammals Fick’s Law
Definition Fick’s Law Types of diffusion e.g. Facilitated diffusion, osmosis Gas exchange in unicells, fish, mammals Types of diffusion e.g. Facilitated diffusion, osmosis
Gas exchange in unicells, fish, mammals and plants Law Types of diffusion e.g. Facilitated diffusion, osmosis Digestion and absorption of products Exchange of materials
Digestion and absorption of products osmosis Gas exchange in unicells, fish, mammals and plants Exchange of materials between blood in capillaries
Exchange of materials between blood in capillaries and tissues e.g. placenta mammals and plants Digestion and absorption of products Transpiration, root pressure, water and ion uptake by
Transpiration, root pressure, water and ion uptake by roots between blood in capillaries and tissues e.g. placenta Translocation and mass flow hypothesis Osmoregulation by
Translocation and mass flow hypothesis Transpiration, root pressure, water and ion uptake by roots Osmoregulation by blood and kidney, unicells e.g.
Osmoregulation by blood and kidney, unicells e.g. Amoeba pressure, water and ion uptake by roots Translocation and mass flow hypothesis Action potentials Synaptic transmission
Action potentials Translocation and mass flow hypothesis Osmoregulation by blood and kidney, unicells e.g. Amoeba Synaptic transmission
Synaptic transmissionby roots Translocation and mass flow hypothesis Osmoregulation by blood and kidney, unicells e.g. Amoeba Action

Muscle actione.g. Amoeba Action potentials Synaptic transmission Intracellular diffusion e.g. mitochondria, chloroplasts,

Intracellular diffusion e.g. mitochondria, chloroplasts, enzyme action, DNA replication and protein synthesisAction potentials Synaptic transmission Muscle action 2. The different ways in which organisms use ATP OR

2. The different ways in which organisms use ATP OR ATP and its roles in living organisms

The nature/structure of ATP and its importance as energy currency.organisms use ATP OR ATP and its roles in living organisms Production and use of ATP

Production and use of ATP in cytoplasm by glycolysisof ATP and its importance as energy currency. Production of ATP by mitochondria in Krebs cycle

Production of ATP by mitochondria in Krebs cycle and ETS – aerobic respiration. aerobic respiration.

Anaerobic respiration.in Krebs cycle and ETS – aerobic respiration. Role of chloroplasts in ATP production via light

Role of chloroplasts in ATP production via light independent reactionand ETS – aerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration. Uses e.g. Active transport (carrier protein shape changes),

Uses e.g. Active transport (carrier protein shape changes), Nerve action (maintaining resting potentials via Na + /K + pump and resynthesis of ACh), selective reabsorption by nephron, absorption by gut, + /K + pump and resynthesis of ACh), selective reabsorption by nephron, absorption by gut, Calvin cycle, muscle contraction (cross bridge formation), Biosynthesis of organic compounds, Contractile vacuoles, Translocation (loading of phloem), cell division (movement of chromosomes via spindle), CP formation in muscles, Nitrogen fixation (Blue- green algae), Kidney function, movement of sperm, secretion of digestive enzymes in saprophytic fungi, cilia and flagella action

3. The movement of substances within living organisms (Jan 2003) OR Transport mechanisms in living organisms

Diffusion e.g. Ion movement in Roots, Synapse, within a cell, O 2 /CO 2 in lungs and gills, factors affecting rate 2 /CO 2 in lungs and gills, factors affecting rate

Facilitated diffusion e.g. Glucose uptake, action potentialsO 2 /CO 2 in lungs and gills, factors affecting rate Osmosis e.g. Turgidity, uptake of

Osmosis e.g. Turgidity, uptake of water in plant roots, Kidney functionFacilitated diffusion e.g. Glucose uptake, action potentials Active Transport e.g. Na + /K + pump, Cl

Active Transport e.g. Na + /K + pump, Cl - in RBC, Glucose uptake in intestine, mineral ions in + /K + pump, Cl - in RBC, Glucose uptake in intestine, mineral ions in plant roots, neurotransmitters into presynaptic membranes, carrier proteins, mechanism

Endocytosis / exocytosis / Pinocytosis / phagocytosis e.g. Feeding in Amoebainto presynaptic membranes, carrier proteins, mechanism Mass flow e.g. Phloem, Xylem, Peristalsis, Ventilation in

Mass flow e.g. Phloem, Xylem, Peristalsis, Ventilation in lungs, gills and insect tracheoles, Bloodstream, Excretion, Cilia/ Pinocytosis / phagocytosis e.g. Feeding in Amoeba Unusual ideas e.g. Chromosome movement during cell division,

Unusual ideas e.g. Chromosome movement during cell division, organelle movement in cells, Sliding filament theory, reproductive cellsflow e.g. Phloem, Xylem, Peristalsis, Ventilation in lungs, gills and insect tracheoles, Bloodstream, Excretion, Cilia

4.

Mutation and its consequences

Definition.4. Mutation and its consequences Types of mutation – addition, deletion, substitution. Causes e.g. spontaneous,

Types of mutation – addition, deletion, substitution. addition, deletion, substitution.

Causes e.g. spontaneous, radiation, mutagenic chemicals.Types of mutation – addition, deletion, substitution. Effect of mutation on protein synthesis. A change in

Effect of mutation on protein synthesis.Causes e.g. spontaneous, radiation, mutagenic chemicals. A change in base sequence may result in a change

A change in base sequence may result in a change in amino acid sequence of a polypeptide, which affects the protein structure and its function.chemicals. Effect of mutation on protein synthesis. Metabolic blocks as a result e.g. PKU. Mutation in

Metabolic blocks as a result e.g. PKU.which affects the protein structure and its function. Mutation in CFTR gene in cystic fibrosis. Haemophilia.

Mutation in CFTR gene in cystic fibrosis.and its function. Metabolic blocks as a result e.g. PKU. Haemophilia. Somatic mutations e.g. cancer and

Haemophilia.a result e.g. PKU. Mutation in CFTR gene in cystic fibrosis. Somatic mutations e.g. cancer and

Somatic mutations e.g. cancer and germ line mutations e.g. colour blindness.PKU. Mutation in CFTR gene in cystic fibrosis. Haemophilia. Introns and exons – mutation may be

Introns and exons – mutation may be removed by post-transcriptional modifications. mutation may be removed by post-transcriptional modifications.

Diploid carriers e.g. sickle cell anaemia.may be removed by post-transcriptional modifications. The role of mutation in evolution e.g. sickle cell anaemia.

The role of mutation in evolution e.g. sickle cell anaemia.modifications. Diploid carriers e.g. sickle cell anaemia. Mutation as a source of genotypic variation e.g. bacteria

Mutation as a source of genotypic variation e.g. bacteria and antibiotics.The role of mutation in evolution e.g. sickle cell anaemia. Natural selection leading to changes in

Natural selection leading to changes in populations, changes within a species e.g. peppered moth, formation of a new species.source of genotypic variation e.g. bacteria and antibiotics. 5. The properties of enzymes and their importance

5. The properties of enzymes and their importance in living organisms OR The role of enzymes in living organisms

What is an enzyme? How do enzymes work – lock and key theory/induced fit and lowering activation energy/enzyme substrate
How do enzymes work What is an enzyme? – lock and key theory/induced fit and lowering activation energy/enzyme substrate complexes. lock and key theory/induced fit and lowering activation energy/enzyme substrate complexes.
Enzymes as proteins. and lowering activation energy/enzyme substrate complexes. Effects of extremes of temperature and pH – optimums –
Effects of extremes of temperature and pH energy/enzyme substrate complexes. Enzymes as proteins. – optimums – graphs. Inhibition – competitive and optimums graphs.
Inhibition of extremes of temperature and pH – optimums – graphs. – competitive and non-competitive. Activators, substrate competitive and non-competitive.
Activators, substrate concs. – graphs. Inhibition – competitive and non-competitive. Extra-cellular digestion - Fungal feeding. Digestion in
Extra-cellular digestion - Fungal feeding. and non-competitive. Activators, substrate concs. Digestion in animals e.g. proteases, lipases, carbohydrases.
Digestion in animals e.g. proteases, lipases, carbohydrases. substrate concs. Extra-cellular digestion - Fungal feeding. Enzymes in chemical processes e.g. Photosynthesis,
Enzymes in chemical processes e.g. Photosynthesis, Respiration, Nerve conduction, synapses, deamination, transamination, DNA replication, RNA production. Digestion in animals e.g. proteases, lipases, carbohydrases. Synthesis reactions. CO 2 carriage. Acrosome in sperm.
Synthesis reactions. conduction, synapses, deamination, transamination, DNA replication, RNA production. CO 2 carriage. Acrosome in sperm.
CO deamination, transamination, DNA replication, RNA production. Synthesis reactions. 2 carriage. Acrosome in sperm. 2 carriage.
Acrosome in sperm.conduction, synapses, deamination, transamination, DNA replication, RNA production. Synthesis reactions. CO 2 carriage.

Effect of insulin on enzyme production in liver cells.reactions. CO 2 carriage. Acrosome in sperm. Gut symbionts and cellulase production. Na + /K +

Gut symbionts and cellulase production.CO 2 carriage. Acrosome in sperm. Effect of insulin on enzyme production in liver cells. Na

Na + /K + pump + /K + pump

6.

The ways in which a mammal maintains constant conditions inside its body

Blood pH – decreased pH counteracted by secretion of HCO3 - from distal convoluted tubule and NH decreased pH counteracted by secretion of HCO3 - from distal convoluted tubule and NH 4 + from kidney cells and increased pH counteracted by secretion of H + from distal convoluted tubule

Exercise and blood flow to parts of the bodyby secretion of H + from distal convoluted tubule Temperature regulation – hypothalamus,

Temperature regulation – hypothalamus, vasoconstriction/vasodilation, piloerection, shivering, metabolic rate, sweating hypothalamus, vasoconstriction/vasodilation, piloerection, shivering, metabolic rate, sweating

Blood glucose regulation – pancreas, islets of Langerhans, Insulin, glucagon, liver, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis pancreas, islets of Langerhans, Insulin, glucagon, liver, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis

Water balance/Osmoregulation – Kidney, Nephron, ADH, permeability of the Loop of Henle, hypothalamus, Pituitary, Cl - transport, Kidney, Nephron, ADH, permeability of the Loop of Henle, hypothalamus, Pituitary, Cl - transport, Plasma sodium control by aldosterone

Regulation of hormones e.g. sex hormonesCl - transport, Plasma sodium control by aldosterone Negative feedback 7. Negative feedback in living organisms

Negative feedbackby aldosterone Regulation of hormones e.g. sex hormones 7. Negative feedback in living organisms (June 2005)

7. Negative feedback in living organisms (June 2005)

principle of negative feedback – departure from a norm initiates changes which restore a system to the norm. departure from a norm initiates changes which restore a system to the norm.

importance in homeostasis; principles of detection of change, role of receptors, corrective response, role of effectors.a norm initiates changes which restore a system to the norm. Thermoregulation; roles of thermoreceptors and

Thermoregulation; roles of thermoreceptors and hypothalamus in detection; heat loss and heat gain centres; sweating and vasodilatation in heat loss; vasoconstriction, hair erection, shivering and increased metabolism in heat gain.role of receptors, corrective response, role of effectors. Regulation of blood glucose; role of receptors in

Regulation of blood glucose; role of receptors in pancreas, secretion of insulin or glucagons; effect of insulin on surface membrane receptors/carrier proteins in stimulating uptake of glucose and glycogenesis; role of glucagons glycogenolysis.erection, shivering and increased metabolism in heat gain. Regulation of blood water potential; role of receptors

Regulation of blood water potential; role of receptors in hypothalamus; secretion of ADH from pituitary; effect of ADH on permeability of d.c.t and collecting duct; role of loop of Henle in maintaining high ion concentration in the medulla; effect on urine concentration.glucose and glycogenesis; role of glucagons glycogenolysis. Control of ventilation; stimulation of chemoreceptors in

Control of ventilation; stimulation of chemoreceptors in medulla; effect on inspiration; stimulation of stretch receptors in lungs; stimulation of expiratory cells in medulla.concentration in the medulla; effect on urine concentration. Control of heartbeat; roles of chemoreceptors and pressure

Control of heartbeat; roles of chemoreceptors and pressure receptors; inhibitory and acceleratory centres in medulla; effect on SAN and rate of heartbeat; effect of change in rate on pH/pressure of blood.in lungs; stimulation of expiratory cells in medulla. Metabolic pathways; examples of build-up of a product

Metabolic pathways; examples of build-up of a product in a metabolic pathway resulting in inhibition of its formation.heartbeat; effect of change in rate on pH/pressure of blood. Population stability; effect of increasing

Population stability; effect of increasing competition/predation on increasing population size and restoration of balance.metabolic pathway resulting in inhibition of its formation. (selection – stabilising selection resulting in

(selection – stabilising selection resulting in constancy of species) stabilising selection resulting in constancy of species)

(oestrous cycle; effect of feedback on hormone production, e.g. oestrogen on FSH and progesterone on both FSH and LH. From Option 8)stabilising selection resulting in constancy of species) Any other sensibly argued example showing negative feedback

Any other sensibly argued example showing negative feedback should be credited. In a good essay the description of the changes in a system should be clearly related to the principles of negative feedback, with sufficient detail for the relationship to be explained.

8.

Chemical coordination in organisms

Need for chemical coordination8. Chemical coordination in organisms General principles of chemical coordination Endocrine control in animals –

General principles of chemical coordinationcoordination in organisms Need for chemical coordination Endocrine control in animals – nature of hormones,

Endocrine control in animals – nature of hormones, glands, principles of hormone action nature of hormones, glands, principles of hormone action

Animal physiology – sexual reproduction, control of blood glucose, osmoregulation sexual reproduction, control of blood glucose, osmoregulation

PGR’s – auxins, gibberellins, ethane, cytokinins, ABA auxins, gibberellins, ethane, cytokinins, ABA

Plant physiology – growth, seed dormancy, leaf fall, root growth, bud development growth, seed dormancy, leaf fall, root growth, bud development

Ecdysis in insectsseed dormancy, leaf fall, root growth, bud development Chemotaxis 9. The production and elimination of metabolic

Chemotaxisleaf fall, root growth, bud development Ecdysis in insects 9. The production and elimination of metabolic

9. The production and elimination of metabolic waste products in living organisms

Requirement for removal of toxic metabolic waste products. Mechanisms of removal via specialised pathways or organs. CO 2 Aerobic respiration Diffusion by unicells
Mechanisms of removal via specialised pathways or organs. Requirement for removal of toxic metabolic waste products. CO 2 Aerobic respiration Diffusion by unicells
CO Mechanisms of removal via specialised pathways or organs. 2 Aerobic respiration Diffusion by unicells 2
of removal via specialised pathways or organs. CO 2 Aerobic respiration Diffusion by unicells Stomata/lenticels Aerobic respiration
Diffusion by unicells via specialised pathways or organs. CO 2 Aerobic respiration Stomata/lenticels Carriage by plasma in mammals as
Stomata/lenticels or organs. CO 2 Aerobic respiration Diffusion by unicells Carriage by plasma in mammals as HCO3-
Carriage by plasma in mammals as HCO3- Aerobic respiration Diffusion by unicells Stomata/lenticels Bohr shift Mass flow in lungs after diffusion from blood
Bohr shift Stomata/lenticels Carriage by plasma in mammals as HCO3- Mass flow in lungs after diffusion from blood
Mass flow in lungs after diffusion from blood Carriage by plasma in mammals as HCO3- Bohr shift Control mechanisms by medulla Removal by insects
Control mechanisms by medulla plasma in mammals as HCO3- Bohr shift Mass flow in lungs after diffusion from blood Removal
Removal by insects mammals as HCO3- Bohr shift Mass flow in lungs after diffusion from blood Control mechanisms by
Nitrogenous wastemammals as HCO3- Bohr shift Mass flow in lungs after diffusion from blood Control mechanisms by

Produced by deamination of amino acidsby medulla Removal by insects Nitrogenous waste Urea formation in liver (via ornithine cycle) Transport of

Urea formation in liver (via ornithine cycle)Nitrogenous waste Produced by deamination of amino acids Transport of urea by plasma Ultrafiltration and elimination

Transport of urea by plasmaof amino acids Urea formation in liver (via ornithine cycle) Ultrafiltration and elimination by kidneys Removal

Ultrafiltration and elimination by kidneysin liver (via ornithine cycle) Transport of urea by plasma Removal in other animals e.g. uric

Removal in other animals e.g. uric acid in birds and insectsof urea by plasma Ultrafiltration and elimination by kidneys Oxygen removal after photosynthesis Leaf abscission e.g.

Oxygen removal after photosynthesisand elimination by kidneys Removal in other animals e.g. uric acid in birds and insects Leaf

Leaf abscission e.g. tanninselimination by kidneys Removal in other animals e.g. uric acid in birds and insects Oxygen removal

10.

The biological importance of water (Jan 2003) OR The role of water in the lives of organisms

Structure - dipolar nature, hydrogen bonds(Jan 2003) OR The role of water in the lives of organisms Solvent – Hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions

Solvent – Hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions leading to stability of membranes, proteins, nucleic acids etc, diffusion of Hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions leading to stability of membranes, proteins, nucleic acids etc, diffusion of molecules, dilution of toxic compounds e.g. urea

Osmosis and turgidity and their effects on plant supportof molecules, dilution of toxic compounds e.g. urea Transport medium – xylem, phloem, blood, lymph,

Transport medium – xylem, phloem, blood, lymph, secretion, excretion xylem, phloem, blood, lymph, secretion, excretion

High heat capacity – temperature regulation, constant external environment for aquatic organisms temperature regulation, constant external environment for aquatic organisms

High heat of vaporisation – cooling effect e.g. sweating, panting, transpiration cooling effect e.g. sweating, panting, transpiration

Surface tension and cohesion – Translocation, mosquito larvae, pond skaters Translocation, mosquito larvae, pond skaters

Chemical reagent e.g. in P/S it is a source of Hydrogen, hydrolysis reactionscohesion – Translocation, mosquito larvae, pond skaters Incompressibility – hydrostatic skeletons, eyes, joints,

Incompressibility – hydrostatic skeletons, eyes, joints, seed germination, amniotic fluid, shock absorption in brain hydrostatic skeletons, eyes, joints, seed germination, amniotic fluid, shock absorption in brain

Density – floats when frozen and insulates floats when frozen and insulates

Transparent – light penetration for aquatic organisms light penetration for aquatic organisms

Medium for movement e.g. gametes, seed dispersal, oceanic migration, mucus in alimentary canalTransparent – light penetration for aquatic organisms Protection e.g. lachrymal fluid, mucus Factor for evolution

Protection e.g. lachrymal fluid, mucusseed dispersal, oceanic migration, mucus in alimentary canal Factor for evolution e.g. terrestrial organisms have to

Factor for evolution e.g. terrestrial organisms have to adapt to conserve waterin alimentary canal Protection e.g. lachrymal fluid, mucus Water vapour can act as a greenhouse gas

Water vapour can act as a greenhouse gase.g. terrestrial organisms have to adapt to conserve water 11. The importance of proteins in living

11. The importance of proteins in living organisms

Structure and chemical composition of amino acids, amphoteric naturegas 11. The importance of proteins in living organisms Essential and non-essential amino acids Peptide bond,

Essential and non-essential amino acidsand chemical composition of amino acids, amphoteric nature Peptide bond, ionic bonds, disulphide bonds, hydrogen bonds

Peptide bond, ionic bonds, disulphide bonds, hydrogen bondsamphoteric nature Essential and non-essential amino acids Denaturation by heat, heavy metals, pH Primary, secondary,

Denaturation by heat, heavy metals, pHPeptide bond, ionic bonds, disulphide bonds, hydrogen bonds Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures

Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structuresbonds, hydrogen bonds Denaturation by heat, heavy metals, pH Fibrous (Collagen in tendons and bone, myosin

Fibrous (Collagen in tendons and bone, myosin in muscle, silk in spiders webs, keratin in hair, horn, nails and feathers) and globular (Enzymes, antibodies, hormones e.g. insulin, histones for compacting DNA) proteinspH Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures Conjugated proteins e.g. phosphoproteins (Casein in milk),

Conjugated proteins e.g. phosphoproteins (Casein in milk), Glycoproteins (Mucin), Nucleoproteins (viruses), chromoproteins (HB, Phytochrome, cytochrome), Lipoprotein (Membranes and for lipid transport in the blood), Flavoprotein (FAD in ETS), metal proteins (nitrate reductase in plants)hormones e.g. insulin, histones for compacting DNA) proteins Structural collagen in connective tissue, keratin in skin

Structural collagen in connective tissue, keratin in skin etc, elastin in ligaments, sclerotin in insect exoskeletons, mucoproteins in mucus, capsid proteins in viruses(FAD in ETS), metal proteins (nitrate reductase in plants) Enzymes: RUBISCO, any named Hormones: Insulin, glucagon

Enzymes: RUBISCO, any namedmucoproteins in mucus, capsid proteins in viruses Hormones: Insulin, glucagon Transport: Hb, Mb, serum albumin

Hormones: Insulin, glucagoncapsid proteins in viruses Enzymes: RUBISCO, any named Transport: Hb, Mb, serum albumin for lipid transport

Transport: Hb, Mb, serum albumin for lipid transportEnzymes: RUBISCO, any named Hormones: Insulin, glucagon Protective: Antibodies, fibrinogen and thrombin for blood

Protective: Antibodies, fibrinogen and thrombin for blood clottingTransport: Hb, Mb, serum albumin for lipid transport Contractile: myosin and actin Storage: ovalbumin in egg

Contractile: myosin and actinAntibodies, fibrinogen and thrombin for blood clotting Storage: ovalbumin in egg white, casein in milk Toxins:

Storage: ovalbumin in egg white, casein in milkAntibodies, fibrinogen and thrombin for blood clotting Contractile: myosin and actin Toxins: snake venom, diphtheria toxin

Toxins: snake venom, diphtheria toxinfibrinogen and thrombin for blood clotting Contractile: myosin and actin Storage: ovalbumin in egg white, casein

12. How the structure of proteins is related to their functions (Jan 2004) 12. Structure Structure

o

Primary structure peptide bond

o

Secondary structure

o

Tertiary structure Globular (bonds between R groups give spherical shape shape determines function active sites and receptor sites)

o

(Allow quaternary structure Hb incorporates ions for oxygen transport)

Structural proteinsstructure – Hb incorporates ions for oxygen transport) o o Fibrous – regular pattern of H

o

o

Fibrous regular pattern of H bonds coiling,

(e.g. keratin coils twist together to form rope like structures flexible and strong, e.g. collagen coils more tightly bound more rigid)

Transportcollagen – coils more tightly bound – more rigid) o o Channel – complementary shape –

o

o

Channel complementary shape charges-gated

Carrier complementary shape can change shape

o Active transport phosphate group attached by energy from ATP can change shape o Active transport – phosphate group attached by energy from ATP – Enzymes Enzymes

o Active site, enzyme-substrate complex

o Activation energy reduction explanation e.g. brings molecules closer o Activation energy reduction – Receptors Receptors

o

Synapse

o

Insulin / glucagons

o

ADH

o

Rhodopsin

Muscleo Synapse o Insulin / glucagons o ADH o Rhodopsin o Actin thin – binding site

o

Actin thin binding site

o

Myosin thick cross bridges

o

Tropomyosin block binding sites

13. The importance of lipids in living organisms

Structure and chemical compositionsites 13. The importance of lipids in living organisms Properties e.g. fats and oils, saturated and

Properties e.g. fats and oils, saturated and unsaturated, insolubility in waterin living organisms Structure and chemical composition Functions e.g. energy storage, insulation, protection of

Functions e.g. energy storage, insulation, protection of major organs, hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions, membranes, lipoproteins, myelin sheath in nerve action, buoyancy (aquatic organisms), metabolic water on hydrolysis (kangaroo rats), waterproofing (leaf cuticle, insect exoskeleton, synthesis of steroid sex hormones, glycolipids, structural (beeswax in honeycombs), Scents, Pigments (carotenoids and chlorophyll), cholesterol, rubberStructure and chemical composition Properties e.g. fats and oils, saturated and unsaturated, insolubility in water

14. The importance of carbohydrates in living organisms OR The structure and functions of carbohydrates (June 2003)

Contain C, H, O.OR The structure and functions of carbohydrates (June 2003) Monosaccharides: glucose (blood transport) and fructose,

Monosaccharides: glucose (blood transport) and fructose, monomers of which other carbohydrates are composed. Glucose as a source of energy; a substrate in aerobic and anaerobic respiration; brief outline of biochemistry of respiration. Structural formula.and functions of carbohydrates (June 2003) Contain C, H, O. Disaccharides: condensation reactions to form sucrose

Disaccharides: condensation reactions to form sucrose (glucose and fructose) used in phloem transport and Maltose (glucose and glucose)- and poly- saccharides, formula, glycosidic bond, hydrolysis.outline of biochemistry of respiration. Structural formula. Energy source e.g. glucose, fructose, galactose released via

Energy source e.g. glucose, fructose, galactose released via respirationand poly- saccharides, formula, glycosidic bond, hydrolysis. Respiration intermediates e.g. glyceraldehydes,

Respiration intermediates e.g. glyceraldehydes, dihydroxyacetonee.g. glucose, fructose, galactose released via respiration Photosynthesis intermediates in light independent reaction

Photosynthesis intermediates in light independent reaction e.g. Ribulose bisphosphate – formation of carbohydrates, CO 2 accepted by RuBP, reduction of gycerate-3-PO 4 to carbohydrate formation of carbohydrates, CO 2 accepted by RuBP, reduction of gycerate-3-PO 4 to carbohydrate and regeneration of RuBP.

Synthesis of e.g. Nucleic acids are pentoses (ribose and deoxyribose) – sugar phosphate backbone provides strength, coenzymes (NAD, NADP, CoA, FAD), AMP, ADP, ATP, Disacs sugar phosphate backbone provides strength, coenzymes (NAD, NADP, CoA, FAD), AMP, ADP, ATP, Disacs (sucrose, lactose, maltose), Polysaccharides (Starch/amylose, glycogen, cellulose, callose, inulin) - No osmotic effects, compact molecules, easily converted into sugars, relationship of structure to function, starch, glycogen and cellulose are all polymers of glucose differing in the number and arrangement of the glucose molecules. Starch helical shape for compact storage, insoluble for storage (osmotically inactive), large size cannot pass through membranes, provides large numbers of glucose molecules for respiration.

Glycogen – similar to starch but more branches, insoluble storage compound in liver and muscles. Conversion similar to starch but more branches, insoluble storage compound in liver and muscles. Conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage. Importance of control of blood glucose.

Structural e.g. cellulose (long straight chains, OH groups linked by H bonds forming microfibrils and macrofibrils. Layers of fibrils orientated in different directions are interwoven and embedded in a matrix providing a rigid cell wall; gaps in layers provide permeability), pectins, hemicellulose, mureinfor storage. Importance of control of blood glucose. Optical isomers – only D forms used in

Optical isomers – only D forms used in nature only D forms used in nature

Transport e.g. sucrose in phloemmurein Optical isomers – only D forms used in nature Food store e.g. lactose in milk,

Food store e.g. lactose in milk, starch in plants, glycogen in animals.only D forms used in nature Transport e.g. sucrose in phloem Glycoproteins, glycolipids, mucopolysacs (chitin –

Glycoproteins, glycolipids, mucopolysacs (chitin – insect exoskeletons, nails, murein – bacterial cell walls, pectins – form gels, hemicellulose, heparin insect exoskeletons, nails, murein bacterial cell walls, pectins form gels, hemicellulose, heparin - anticoagulant, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin very viscous component of synovial fluid and cartilage and cornea, gums and mucilage drought resistance)

15.

How the structure of cells is related to their function (June 2002)

Leaf mesophyll cells – chloroplasts, thylakoids for P/S chloroplasts, thylakoids for P/S

Xylem – waterproof, no end walls, lignified for support and water transport waterproof, no end walls, lignified for support and water transport

Phloem – minimal cytoplasm, end plates for sucrose transport minimal cytoplasm, end plates for sucrose transport

Guard cells – mechanisms of controlling gas exchange by stoma control mechanisms of controlling gas exchange by stoma control

Epidermal cells – flattened for protection flattened for protection

Sclerenchyma – polygonal for support polygonal for support

Root endodermis – casparian strip for regulating entry of substances casparian strip for regulating entry of substances

Collenchyma – cells thickened at corner for support cells thickened at corner for support

Pollen grains – hooks for attaching to insects hooks for attaching to insects

Ciliated tracheal epithelium – moving material away from lungs moving material away from lungs

Squamous epithelium of alveoli and bowmans capsule – thin for diffusion thin for diffusion

Gut epithelial cells - microvilli for absorptionof alveoli and bowmans capsule – thin for diffusion Cornified cells of skin – flattened and

Cornified cells of skin – flattened and keratinised for protection flattened and keratinised for protection

Nerve cells – long, myelin sheath, mitochondria, neurotransmitters long, myelin sheath, mitochondria, neurotransmitters

RBC – shape for increased SA, Hb for carrying O 2 , no nucleus shape for increased SA, Hb for carrying O 2 , no nucleus

Sperm cells - tail and mitochondria for swimmingshape for increased SA, Hb for carrying O 2 , no nucleus Egg cells Muscle cell

Egg cellsno nucleus Sperm cells - tail and mitochondria for swimming Muscle cell – actin and myosin

Muscle cell – actin and myosin for contraction actin and myosin for contraction

Secretory cells e.g. goblet cells – secretory vesicles, sER secretory vesicles, sER

Rods and Cones in retina – light sensitive pigments etc light sensitive pigments etc

Pyramidal neurones in brain – many dendrites = parallel processing many dendrites = parallel processing

Bacterial cells – flagella for movement, capsule for defence/adhesion flagella for movement, capsule for defence/adhesion

16. Natural selection and the effects of environmental change

Natural selectionNatural selection and the effects of environmental change o Variety amongst individuals of same species o

o

Variety amongst individuals of same species

o

Survival characteristics

o

Selective advantages

o

Survival, breeding genes/alleles passed on to next generation

o

Advantageous characteristics become common

Change in gene pool Environment and selection pressureo Advantageous characteristics become common o environmental factors exert pressure o e.g.’s

o

environmental factors exert pressure

o

e.g.’s of environmental factors e.g. climate change, pollution, predation, food availability, disease

o

Environmental change favours certain characteristics

o

Differential mortality/natality

o

Stabilising selection

o

Directional selection

o

Disruptive selection

o

Isolation and speciation

Specific exampleso Disruptive selection o Isolation and speciation o Industrial melanism in the peppered moth o Heavy

o

Industrial melanism in the peppered moth

o

Heavy metal tolerance in plants

o

Insecticide/antibiotic resistance

o

Sickle cell anaemia in Afro-American population

o

Banding patterns in Cepaea

17.

Gas exchange in animals and flowering plants

Surface area: volume17. Gas exchange in animals and flowering plants Specialised surfaces e.g. gills alveoli Diffusion Plants o

Specialised surfaces e.g. gills alveoliin animals and flowering plants Surface area: volume Diffusion Plants o Lenticels o Leaf structure,

DiffusionSurface area: volume Specialised surfaces e.g. gills alveoli Plants o Lenticels o Leaf structure, mesophyll and

Plantsvolume Specialised surfaces e.g. gills alveoli Diffusion o Lenticels o Leaf structure, mesophyll and

o

Lenticels

o

Leaf structure, mesophyll and stomata

Animalso Lenticels o Leaf structure, mesophyll and stomata o Transport mechanisms o Fish – gills o

o

Transport mechanisms

o

Fish gills

o

Insects tracheoles and spiracles

o

Protozoans

MammalsInsects – tracheoles and spiracles o Protozoans o thorax structure, alveoli, ventilation, breathing control

o thorax structure, alveoli, ventilation, breathing control

18. The importance of molecular shape in living organisms

Receptor interactions18. The importance of molecular shape in living organisms o Drugs and Toxins o Immunoglobulins or

o

Drugs and Toxins

o

Immunoglobulins or antibody/antigen

o

Hormones second messenger or direct action

o

Neurotransmitters and synapses

Carbohydratesor direct action o Neurotransmitters and synapses o Structural (cellulose), storage (starch, glycogen)

o Structural (cellulose), storage (starch, glycogen)

Proteinso Structural (cellulose), storage (starch, glycogen) o levels of structure, globular, fibrous, enzymes,

o levels of structure, globular, fibrous, enzymes, specificity, properties, channel proteins

Lipidsfibrous, enzymes, specificity, properties, channel proteins o Phospholipids, storage, structural (beeswax) Water o

o Phospholipids, storage, structural (beeswax)

WaterLipids o Phospholipids, storage, structural (beeswax) o Dipole – polarity, cohesion, adhesion Haemoglobin o

o Dipole polarity, cohesion, adhesion

Haemoglobin(beeswax) Water o Dipole – polarity, cohesion, adhesion o Quaternary structure and O2 binding/release DNA Double

o Quaternary structure and O2 binding/release

DNA Double helixHaemoglobin o Quaternary structure and O2 binding/release o accurate copying, stability, base pairing etc Pigments o

o accurate copying, stability, base pairing etc

PigmentsDNA Double helix o accurate copying, stability, base pairing etc o Rhodopsins/opsins, chl, phytochrome Isomers

o Rhodopsins/opsins, chl, phytochrome Isomerso

19.

The factors affecting the growth and size of populations

Population defined Description and explanation of typical population growth curve Carrying capacity
Description and explanation of typical population growth curve Population defined Carrying capacity
Carrying capacityPopulation defined Description and explanation of typical population growth curve

Population change (Birth + immigration) – (death + emigration) (death + emigration)

Density dependent and density independent factorschange (Birth + immigration) – (death + emigration) Examples of abiotic factors e.g. light, inorganic ions,

Examples of abiotic factors e.g. light, inorganic ions, oxygen, temperatureDensity dependent and density independent factors Competition for abiotic factors Examples of biotic factors

Competition for abiotic factorsfactors e.g. light, inorganic ions, oxygen, temperature Examples of biotic factors e.g. food supply, spread of

Examples of biotic factors e.g. food supply, spread of disease/parasitism, predator prey relationships, interspecific competition, intraspecific competition, competitive exclusionions, oxygen, temperature Competition for abiotic factors Demographic changes in human populations/ population

Demographic changes in human populations/ population pyramidsintraspecific competition, competitive exclusion Birth control. 20. Cycles in Biology (June 2003) Ecological

Birth control.changes in human populations/ population pyramids 20. Cycles in Biology (June 2003) Ecological cycles o N

20. Cycles in Biology (June 2003)

Ecological cyclespyramids Birth control. 20. Cycles in Biology (June 2003) o N cycle – role of microorganisms

o

N cycle role of microorganisms in the processes of saprophytic nutrition, deamination, nitrification, nitrogen fixation and denitrification.

o

C cycle role of microorganisms in the breakdown (respiration) of complex organic compounds into CO 2 making it available for reuse

Metabolic cyclescompounds into CO 2 making it available for reuse o Kreb’s cycle: acetyl CoA combines with

o

Kreb’s cycle: acetyl CoA combines with a 4C molecule to produce a 6C molecule which enters Kreb’s cycle; the 4C compound is regenerated during the cycle involving a series of oxidation reactions and the release of CO 2 ; production of ATP and reduced NAD and FAD.

o

ETS: cyclical reduction and oxidation of NAD, FAD and other ‘carriers’.

o

Synthesis and breakdown of ATP

o

Light independent reactions CO2 accepted by RuBP to form 2 molecules of Glycerate- 3-PO 4 , reduction of Glycerate-3-PO 4 to carbohydrate, and regeneration of RuBP.

Physiological cycles4 to carbohydrate, and regeneration of RuBP. o Negative feedback mechanisms: regulation of body

o

Negative feedback mechanisms: regulation of body temp/blood glucose/blood water potential.

o

Cardiac cycle: relate pressure and volume changes in the heart and aorta to maintenance of blood flow.

o

Role of tropomyosin, calcium ions and ATP in the cycle of actomyosin bridge formation.

o

Nerve function depolarisation/repolarisation of a neurone in terms of differential membrane permeability and cation pumps, synthesis and resynthesis of Ach (synaptic transmission)/rhodopsin (rods) and restoration of a resting potential.

o

Menstrual cycle.

o

Ventilation in fish, mammals, insects.

Life cyclescycle. o Ventilation in fish, mammals, insects. o Mitosis / cell cycle – explanation of stages

o

Mitosis / cell cycle explanation of stages of mitosis, importance in growth and sexual reproduction vegetative reproduction.

o

Meiosis importance of maintaining a constant chromosome number from generation to generation; outline of process (no detail).

o

E.g.’s of life cycles might be provided in terms of mitosis, meiosis, fertilisation, and chromosome number.

o

DNA replication semi-conservative replication.

o

Predator / prey cycles.

21. The causes of variation and its biological importance (Jan 2004)

Gene mutationcauses of variation and its biological importance (Jan 2004) o Addition o Deletion substitution o Effect

o

Addition

o

Deletion substitution

o

Effect on alleles

o

Effect on polypeptide / protein

Sexual reproductionEffect on alleles o Effect on polypeptide / protein o Crossing over o Independent assortment o

o

Crossing over

o

Independent assortment

o

Random fusion of gametes

o

(allow chromosome mutation)

Environmentalfusion of gametes o (allow chromosome mutation) o Nutrients o Disease o Light o

o

Nutrients

o

Disease

o

Light

o

Temperature

Biological importanceo Disease o Light o Temperature o Enables adaptation o Natural selection o

o

Enables adaptation

o

Natural selection

o

Speciation

o

Evolution

22. The process of osmosis and its importance to living organisms (June 2004)

definitionosmosis and its importance to living organisms (June 2004) effects on cells turgidity and support plasmolysis

effects on cellsits importance to living organisms (June 2004) definition turgidity and support plasmolysis (idea) lysis cystic

turgidity and supportto living organisms (June 2004) definition effects on cells plasmolysis (idea) lysis cystic fibrosis importance in

plasmolysis (idea)2004) definition effects on cells turgidity and support lysis cystic fibrosis importance in animals role in

lysiseffects on cells turgidity and support plasmolysis (idea) cystic fibrosis importance in animals role in relationship

cystic fibrosison cells turgidity and support plasmolysis (idea) lysis importance in animals role in relationship between plasma

importance in animals role in relationship between plasma and tissue fluidand support plasmolysis (idea) lysis cystic fibrosis role in medulla of kidney reabsorption in gut sweat

role in medulla of kidneyanimals role in relationship between plasma and tissue fluid reabsorption in gut sweat production neutral importance

reabsorption in gutbetween plasma and tissue fluid role in medulla of kidney sweat production neutral importance in plants

sweat production neutraltissue fluid role in medulla of kidney reabsorption in gut importance in plants role in movement

importance in plantsof kidney reabsorption in gut sweat production neutral role in movement of water from soil to

role in movement of water from soil to leaves in plantsreabsorption in gut sweat production neutral importance in plants role in mass flow hypothesis for movement

role in mass flow hypothesis for movement in plantsreabsorption in gut sweat production neutral importance in plants role in movement of water from soil

23. Energy transfers which take place inside living organisms (June 2004)

ATPwhich take place inside living organisms (June 2004) Synthesis from ADP and P Role as an

Synthesis from ADP and Pwhich take place inside living organisms (June 2004) ATP Role as an energy source Photosynthesis o

Role as an energy sourceliving organisms (June 2004) ATP Synthesis from ADP and P Photosynthesis o excitation of electrons o

Photosynthesis2004) ATP Synthesis from ADP and P Role as an energy source o excitation of electrons

o

excitation of electrons

o

generation of ATP and reduced NADP

o

photolysis

o

reduction of glycerate phosphate to carbohydrate

o

structure of chloroplast in relation to energy transfer

Respirationo structure of chloroplast in relation to energy transfer o net gain of ATP in glycolysis

o

net gain of ATP in glycolysis

o

production of ATP in Krebs cycle

o

synthesis of ATP associated with electron transfer chain

o

ATP production in anaerobic respiration

o

Structure of mitochondrion in relation to energy transfer

Uses of energy in biological processesStructure of mitochondrion in relation to energy transfer o active transport o muscle contraction o

o

active transport

o

muscle contraction

o

nerve transmission

o

synthesis

o

translocation

o

kidney function

o

nitrogen fixation

o

receptors

24. How microscopes have contributed to our understanding of living organisms (Jan 2005)

reference to both light and electron microscopesto our understanding of living organisms (Jan 2005) o e.g. resolution, magnification, techniques. o

o

e.g. resolution, magnification, techniques.

o

good candidates e.g. clear distinction of advantages disadvantages of each, historical developments, reference to wavelength employed and limitations.

cell structures (typically) visible with eachreference to wavelength employed and limitations. o good candidates – how observation of structures can

o good candidates how observation of structures can inform about function; viewing isolated organelles and their internal structure.

tissue structureviewing isolated organelles and their internal structure. o e.g. histology of digestive system related to function,

o

e.g. histology of digestive system related to function, muscle structure, kidney tubules, leaf structure.

o

good candidates explanation linking appearance of features to understanding function

observation of processeslinking appearance of features to understanding function o e.g. cell division, fertilization, capillary

o

e.g. cell division, fertilization, capillary circulation

o

good candidates appreciation of using microscopes to observe dynamic processes, use of tracers.

observation of organisms; classificationmicroscopes to observe dynamic processes, use of tracers. o e.g. bacteria and viruses, taxonomic differences in

o

e.g. bacteria and viruses, taxonomic differences in small organisms.

o

good candidates importance in understanding of disease.

other usescandidates – importance in understanding of disease. o e.g. understanding effects of disease/cancer,

o e.g. understanding effects of disease/cancer, opportunities to improve/alter/etc living organisms.

25. Enzymes and their importance in plants and animals (Jan 2005)

principles of enzyme actionand their importance in plants and animals (Jan 2005) o e.g. catalysis, protein structure, active site,

o

e.g. catalysis, protein structure, active site, activation energy, enzyme-substrate complex, specificity.

o

good candidates relate protein structure to specificity/active site, catalysis to activation energy

factors affecting enzyme actionto specificity/active site, catalysis to activation energy o e.g. temperature, pH, enzyme/substrate concentration,

o

e.g. temperature, pH, enzyme/substrate concentration, inhibition

o

good candidates relate changes in activity to denaturing/tertiary structure; effects of concentration to active site availability, distinguish competitive/non competitive inhibition.

enzyme synthesisdistinguish competitive/non competitive inhibition. o reference to protein synthesis; link to genes, gene

o

reference to protein synthesis; link to genes, gene expression, effects of mutation.

o

good candidates appreciation of connection between genes and enzyme production, e.g. ‘one gene, one enzyme’.

o

roles and functions of enzymes in different processes. In each case good candidates should specify enzyme and its function.

digestioncase good candidates should specify enzyme and its function. o enzymes involved in mammalian digestive system,

o

enzymes involved in mammalian digestive system, breakdown of polymers in other circumstances, e.g. saprophytic digestion/mobilisation of storage compounds

o

good candidates range of enzymes giving source and action in sequence in mammalian digestion; reference to other breakdown.

metabolic pathways – photosynthesis and respiration photosynthesis and respiration

o

e.g. light independent reaction, Krebs cycle, ATP formation.

o

good candidates reference to specific roles e.g. in light independent reseaction, distribution in mitochondria/chloroplasts.

other specific examplesreseaction, distribution in mitochondria/chloroplasts. o e.g. in nervous system, such as role of

o

e.g. in nervous system, such as role of acetylcholinesterase in synapses,

o

in homeostasis, such as in glycogenesis,

o

in muscle action, such as role of ATPase,

o

in fertilisation, such as enzymes in acrosome,

o

in transcription/translation, such as role of polymerase.

26. Mean temperatures are rising in many parts of the world. The rising temperatures may result in physiological and ecological effects on living organisms. Describe and explain these effects. (June 2005)

Principle of destabilising effect of rising temperature on metabolic systems within organisms and on balance in ecosystems.organisms. Describe and explain these effects. (June 2005) effect on rate of diffusion/gaseous exchange; possible

effect on rate of diffusion/gaseous exchange; possible consequences, e.gsystems within organisms and on balance in ecosystems. increased evaporation, more rapid uptake of ions by

increased evaporation, more rapid uptake of ions by plants.of diffusion/gaseous exchange; possible consequences, e.g effect on proteins; possible increased rate of denaturation

effect on proteins; possible increased rate of denaturation of tertiary structure. Increased rate of enzyme activity; possible increased dislocation of metabolic pathways.increased evaporation, more rapid uptake of ions by plants. Effect on photosynthesis (light independent reaction);

Effect on photosynthesis (light independent reaction); increased rate with small increases, disruption with larger; increased rate of growth of (some) plants; possible increased rate of crop growth; effect of other limiting factors.possible increased dislocation of metabolic pathways. Effect on transpiration; increased rate of water loss and

Effect on transpiration; increased rate of water loss and hence wilting /dehydration; reduced stomatal opening may effect photosynthesis; possible consequences of drought on ecosystemrate of crop growth; effect of other limiting factors. Effect on respiration and metabolism; increased effect

Effect on respiration and metabolism; increased effect on growth and activity, especially of ectotherms.possible consequences of drought on ecosystem Ecological effects of disruption of food webs and the

Ecological effects of disruption of food webs and the dynamics of ecosystems, with changes in niches and hence communities.effect on growth and activity, especially of ectotherms. Effect on species; extinction of species that are

Effect on species; extinction of species that are unable to adapt, especially ones with specialised requirements, limited opportunity for plants and some animals to spread to more suitable conditions as climate changes.of ecosystems, with changes in niches and hence communities. Effect on agriculture, increased growth of some

Effect on agriculture, increased growth of some crops and loss of others, and effect on productivity; possible redistribution to different parts of the world, and overall loss of agricultural land.to spread to more suitable conditions as climate changes. Ecological effect of increased rates of growth

Ecological effect of increased rates of growth and reproduction, especially of bacteria, insects and pests; possible increased incidence of disease.parts of the world, and overall loss of agricultural land. role of natural selection in adaptation

role of natural selection in adaptation to change.insects and pests; possible increased incidence of disease. There are many possible alternative approaches to this

There are many possible alternative approaches to this essay and any biologically sensible effect of increasing change in temperature on living organism should be credited. In a good essay the specific effects of rising temperature will be explained and explicitly linked to their possible effects on physiology or ecology. A good candidate will also recognise the complex interactions involved and avoid giving simplistic explanations and doomsday scenarios.

27. The transfer of substances containing carbon between organisms and between organisms and the environment

Transfer between organisms:between organisms and between organisms and the environment o food chains and feeding relationships o carbon

o

food chains and feeding relationships

o

carbon cycle

o

nitrogen cycle

o

digestion

o

cell transport

Transfer to/from the non-living environmentnitrogen cycle o digestion o cell transport o photosynthesis o respiration o exchange

o

photosynthesis

o

respiration

o

exchange surfaces

o

(production and) removal of urea

o

human activities

o

agricultural ecosystems

Transfer of substances containing carbon between organisms and the environmento human activities o agricultural ecosystems Transfer between organisms: o Food chains and feeding

Transfer between organisms:containing carbon between organisms and the environment o Food chains and feeding relationships o plants

o

Food chains and feeding relationships

o

plants producers

o

idea of food chains as feeding relationships

o

with transfer energy

o

in substances containing carbon

o

Digestion and absorption (possible link to bacteria and fungi)

o

digestion/hydrolysis of large carbon-containing compounds

o

by enzymes

o

producing small/soluble compounds

o

which can be absorbed

o

Transport of organic molecules in and out of cells/across exchange surface

o

(possible link to bacteria and fungi

o

organic molecules (including sugars and amino acids) cross cell membranes

o

by facilitated diffusion

o

active transport

o

which requires ATP from respiration

o

involving carrier proteins and/or enzymes

Transfer to/from the non-living environmento involving carrier proteins and/or enzymes o Carbon cycle (and relevant parts of nitrogen cycle)

o

Carbon cycle (and relevant parts of nitrogen cycle)

o

carbon enters biotic by photosynthesis

o

leaves biotic by respiration/combustion

o

role of bacteria/fungi as decomposers

o

of dead organisms/ faeces/ excretory products/urea

Photosynthesiso of dead organisms/ faeces/ excretory products/urea o light-independent reaction o carbon dioxide

o

light-independent reaction

o

carbon dioxide reacts with ribulose bisphosphate

o

glycerate 3-P reduced to sugar

o

reduced NADP and ATP from light-dependent reaction

o

Calvin cycle

Respirationo link reaction/Krebs cycle o oxidation of intermediates o generation of reduced coenzymes o loss

o

link reaction/Krebs cycle

o

oxidation of intermediates

o

generation of reduced coenzymes

o

loss of carbon dioxide

o

Exchange surfaces - for carbon dioxide

o

for animals

o

and plants

o

large surface area - alveoli - mesophyll cells

o

short diffusion pathways - epithelium and endothelium - thin leaves and many stomata

o

maintaining diffusion gradient - capillary and respiration - photosynthesis and

o

respiration in mesophyll cells (time of day)

o

ventilation - breathing - via air spaces in leaf

28. Cells are easy to distinguish by their shape. How are the shapes of cells related to their function? (June 2006)

Epithelial cells in animalsthe shapes of cells related to their function? (June 2006) o epithelial cells from small intestine

o

epithelial cells from small intestine

o

epithelial cells of alveoli, gill lamellae

Epidermal cells in plantso epithelial cells of alveoli, gill lamellae o palisade mesophyll cells o stomatal guard cells

o

palisade mesophyll cells

o

stomatal guard cells

o

root hair cells

Reproductioncells o stomatal guard cells o root hair cells o differences between egg and sperm cells

o differences between egg and sperm cells

Transport of substances in organismsReproduction o differences between egg and sperm cells o red blood cells o endothelial cells of

o

red blood cells

o

endothelial cells of capillaries

o

xylem vessels

o

phloem sieve cells

Nervous coordinationo xylem vessels o phloem sieve cells o neurones o rod and cone cells Muscle o

o neurones

o rod and cone cells

Musclecells Nervous coordination o neurones o rod and cone cells o skeletal muscle Animals: o Epithelial

o skeletal muscle

Animals:o neurones o rod and cone cells Muscle o skeletal muscle o Epithelial cells - intestinal,

o

Epithelial cells - intestinal, alveolar, kidney tubule, gill lamellae

o

Two examples allowed

o

As appropriate, relating to transport function(s)

(collectively) large SA

flattened - short diffusion pathway

folded membrane - larger SA for stated function

podocytes - pores for filtrate formation

o

Blood transport

red blood cells

biconcave shape - increase SA for oxygen exchange

move through capillaries

o

Blood - exchange

endothelial cells of capillaries

flattened - short diffusion pathway

fenestrated in glomerulus

o Blood white cells

phagocytes/macrophages

amoeboid properties.

related to movement into tissues/engulfing e.g. bacteria

Nervous system - neurones (and Schwann cells)related to movement into tissues/engulfing e.g. bacteria   o dendrites - make synaptic connection to other

 

o

dendrites - make synaptic connection to other neurons

o

axon/dendron - carry nerve impulses over long distances

o

shapes of relay, motor and sensory

o

related to function

o

myelin sheath - faster transmission of impulses

o

Nervous system - receptors - NB could be other than light

o

cone/rod cells with distinctive ’heads’ - containing pigment

o

detect light

o

dendrites to synapse with bipolar/ganglion cell(s)

Muscleo dendrites to synapse with bipolar/ganglion cell(s)   o elongated - contain rows of sarcomeres o

 

o

elongated - contain rows of sarcomeres

o

leads to contraction in length

o

force generated in particular plane

o

branched in cardiac - give contraction in more than one plane

Ciliatedin cardiac - give contraction in more than one plane   o cells lining air passages/oviducts

 

o

cells lining air passages/oviducts

o

push mucus/eggs along

o

remove trapped microorganisms/towards uterus

Spermalong o remove trapped microorganisms/towards uterus   o sperm have beating tail/flagellum o

 

o

sperm have beating tail/flagellum

o

streamlined shape

o

help sperm to move

o

find egg cell

o

acrosome with (digestive/hydrolytic) enzymes

o

digest way into egg cell

Plants and any other organisms:enzymes o digest way into egg cell o Hair cells - of root o root -

o

Hair cells - of root

o

root - extension of epidermal cell

o

increases SA

o

for absorption of water and mineral ions

o

Hair cells - of leaf

o

leaf - extension of epidermal cell

o

reduces air flow/traps air near leaf surface

o

reduces water potential gradient for diffusion of water

o

reduces water loss by transpiration

o

Leaf cells (guard cell structure not in spec., but could be known and used)

o

palisade mesophyll are elongated

o

allows more to be packed side by side

o

to absorb maximum amount of light for photosynthesis

o

Transport in xylem and/or phloem

o

elongated cells

o

xylem vessels no end walls/ phloem sieve cells end plates

o

rows end to end to form ’tubes’

o

no/less resistance to flow

o

Bacterial cells flagellum rotates pushes against external medium moves bacterium

o

Fungal hyphae (though usually cyncitial)

o

hyphae grow and branch through substrate increasing SA for absorption

29. Movements inside cells. (June 2007)

Plasma membranes and movement acrossSA for absorption 29. Movements inside cells. (June 2007) Protein synthesis Movement through ER and Golgi

Protein synthesiscells. (June 2007) Plasma membranes and movement across Movement through ER and Golgi Cell division and

Movement through ER and Golgi2007) Plasma membranes and movement across Protein synthesis Cell division and chromosome movement Water movement in

Cell division and chromosome movementacross Protein synthesis Movement through ER and Golgi Water movement in plants/xylem Translocation Neurones and

Water movement in plants/xylemthrough ER and Golgi Cell division and chromosome movement Translocation Neurones and synaptic vesicles Actin and

Translocationand chromosome movement Water movement in plants/xylem Neurones and synaptic vesicles Actin and myosin DNA

Neurones and synaptic vesiclesmovement Water movement in plants/xylem Translocation Actin and myosin DNA replication and mutation Electron

Actin and myosinin plants/xylem Translocation Neurones and synaptic vesicles DNA replication and mutation Electron transport chains

DNA replication and mutationNeurones and synaptic vesicles Actin and myosin Electron transport chains Molecular/atomic/ionic movement

Electron transport chainsvesicles Actin and myosin DNA replication and mutation Molecular/atomic/ionic movement Any other sensible example

Molecular/atomic/ionic movement Any other sensible example of movement inside cells should be credited. In a good essay, the emphasis should be on movement.DNA replication and mutation Electron transport chains 30. Transfers through ecosystems. (June 2007)

30. Transfers through ecosystems. (June 2007)

Photosynthesis – energy transfer energy transfer

Respiration – energy transfer energy transfer

Carbon cycle– energy transfer Respiration – energy transfer Nitrogen cycle Food chains Ecological pyramids Pesticide

Nitrogen cycletransfer Respiration – energy transfer Carbon cycle Food chains Ecological pyramids Pesticide

Food chains– energy transfer Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Ecological pyramids Pesticide toxicity/bioaccumulation

Ecological pyramids– energy transfer Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Food chains Pesticide toxicity/bioaccumulation Eutrophication Digestion

Pesticide toxicity/bioaccumulationCarbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Food chains Ecological pyramids Eutrophication Digestion and absorption Transfer of genetic

EutrophicationEcological pyramids Pesticide toxicity/bioaccumulation Digestion and absorption Transfer of genetic material Water

Digestion and absorptionpyramids Pesticide toxicity/bioaccumulation Eutrophication Transfer of genetic material Water cycle Any other sensible

Transfer of genetic materialEutrophication Digestion and absorption Water cycle Any other sensible example of transfer through

Water cycle Any other sensible example of transfer through ecosystems should be credited. In a good essay, the emphasis should be on transfers.pyramids Pesticide toxicity/bioaccumulation Eutrophication Digestion and absorption Transfer of genetic material

31. The part played by the movement of substances across cell membranes in the functioning of different organs and organs systems (June 2008).

Plasma membranes and movement acrossof different organs and organs systems (June 2008). Gaseous exchange system/ lungs Digestive system/small

Gaseous exchange system/ lungssystems (June 2008). Plasma membranes and movement across Digestive system/small intestine Blood vascular system

Digestive system/small intestinemembranes and movement across Gaseous exchange system/ lungs Blood vascular system Transpiration/root/stem Mass

Blood vascular systemexchange system/ lungs Digestive system/small intestine Transpiration/root/stem Mass flow/leaf/stem Nervous

Transpiration/root/stemlungs Digestive system/small intestine Blood vascular system Mass flow/leaf/stem Nervous system/eye Excretory system/

Mass flow/leaf/stemintestine Blood vascular system Transpiration/root/stem Nervous system/eye Excretory system/ kidney Muscle systems

Nervous system/eyevascular system Transpiration/root/stem Mass flow/leaf/stem Excretory system/ kidney Muscle systems Liver, blood glucose

Excretory system/ kidneyMass flow/leaf/stem Nervous system/eye Muscle systems Liver, blood glucose Root mineral ions Lungs

Muscle systemsflow/leaf/stem Nervous system/eye Excretory system/ kidney Liver, blood glucose Root mineral ions Lungs cystic fibrosis

Liver, blood glucoseNervous system/eye Excretory system/ kidney Muscle systems Root mineral ions Lungs cystic fibrosis Any other sensible

Root mineral ionsExcretory system/ kidney Muscle systems Liver, blood glucose Lungs cystic fibrosis Any other sensible example of

Lungs cystic fibrosis Any other sensible example of the movement of substances across cell membranes in the functioning of different organs and organ systems should be credited. In a good essay, the emphasis should be on movement across membranes involving organ function.kidney Muscle systems Liver, blood glucose Root mineral ions 32. The part played by enzymes in

32. The part played by enzymes in the functioning of different cells, tissues and organs (June 2008)

Action of enzymes Enzyme properties Extracellular digestion Nutrient cycles Digestion in humans Replication of DNA Protein and enzyme
Enzyme properties Action of enzymes Extracellular digestion Nutrient cycles Digestion in humans Replication of DNA Protein and enzyme
Extracellular digestion Action of enzymes Enzyme properties Nutrient cycles Digestion in humans Replication of DNA Protein and enzyme
Nutrient cycles Action of enzymes Enzyme properties Extracellular digestion Digestion in humans Replication of DNA Protein and enzyme
Digestion in humans Enzyme properties Extracellular digestion Nutrient cycles Replication of DNA Protein and enzyme synthesis Metabolic
Replication of DNA Extracellular digestion Nutrient cycles Digestion in humans Protein and enzyme synthesis Metabolic pathways Mutations
Protein and enzyme synthesis Nutrient cycles Digestion in humans Replication of DNA Metabolic pathways Mutations Coenzymes and enzyme action
Metabolic pathways Digestion in humans Replication of DNA Protein and enzyme synthesis Mutations Coenzymes and enzyme action Homeostasis
Mutations in humans Replication of DNA Protein and enzyme synthesis Metabolic pathways Coenzymes and enzyme action Homeostasis
Coenzymes and enzyme action cycles Digestion in humans Replication of DNA Protein and enzyme synthesis Metabolic pathways Mutations Homeostasis
Homeostasisin humans Replication of DNA Protein and enzyme synthesis Metabolic pathways Mutations Coenzymes and enzyme action

Neurone/synapseMutations Coenzymes and enzyme action Homeostasis Muscle contraction Pesticide toxicity Any other sensible

Muscle contractionCoenzymes and enzyme action Homeostasis Neurone/synapse Pesticide toxicity Any other sensible example of the part

Pesticide toxicity Any other sensible example of the part played by enzymes in the functioning of different cells, tissues and organs should be credited. In a good essay, the emphasis should be on the part played by enzymes.synthesis Metabolic pathways Mutations Coenzymes and enzyme action Homeostasis Neurone/synapse Muscle contraction

33. Ions and Organisms (June 2009)

Osmosis and turgor33. Ions and Organisms (June 2009) Haemoglobin dissociation, pH and carbon dioxid Uptake/movement of water/mineral ions

Haemoglobin dissociation, pH and carbon dioxid33. Ions and Organisms (June 2009) Osmosis and turgor Uptake/movement of water/mineral ions by/in plants Ions

Uptake/movement of water/mineral ions by/in plantsand turgor Haemoglobin dissociation, pH and carbon dioxid Ions in biological molecules Hydrogen, photosynthesis and

Ions in biological moleculesdioxid Uptake/movement of water/mineral ions by/in plants Hydrogen, photosynthesis and respiration Anaerobic

Hydrogen, photosynthesis and respirationwater/mineral ions by/in plants Ions in biological molecules Anaerobic respiration and lactate Nerve impulses and

Anaerobic respiration and lactatemolecules Hydrogen, photosynthesis and respiration Nerve impulses and synaptic transmission Regulation of blood

Nerve impulses and synaptic transmissionand respiration Anaerobic respiration and lactate Regulation of blood water potential/kidney function Muscle

Regulation of blood water potential/kidney functionand lactate Nerve impulses and synaptic transmission Muscle contraction Nitrogen cycle Eutrophication Movement

Muscle contractionRegulation of blood water potential/kidney function Nitrogen cycle Eutrophication Movement across membranes

Nitrogen cycleof blood water potential/kidney function Muscle contraction Eutrophication Movement across membranes Cystic fibrosis Any

Eutrophicationpotential/kidney function Muscle contraction Nitrogen cycle Movement across membranes Cystic fibrosis Any other sensible

Movement across membranesfunction Muscle contraction Nitrogen cycle Eutrophication Cystic fibrosis Any other sensible example of the role of

Cystic fibrosis Any other sensible example of the role of ions, or exchange of ions by organisms should be credited. In a good essay, the emphasis should be on the ions rather than describing a process and then linking an ion to the process.Nitrogen cycle Eutrophication Movement across membranes 34. DNA and the transfer of information (June 2009)

34. DNA and the transfer of information (June 2009)

Genes/how information is carried on DNA Replication of DNA Cell division - Mitosis and meiosis Transcription and translation Mutation Genetic engineering
Replication of DNA Genes/how information is carried on DNA Cell division - Mitosis and meiosis Transcription and translation Mutation
Cell division - Mitosis and meiosis Genes/how information is carried on DNA Replication of DNA Transcription and translation Mutation Genetic engineering
Transcription and translation Genes/how information is carried on DNA Replication of DNA Cell division - Mitosis and meiosis Mutation
Mutation is carried on DNA Replication of DNA Cell division - Mitosis and meiosis Transcription and translation
Genetic engineeringis carried on DNA Replication of DNA Cell division - Mitosis and meiosis Transcription and translation

Gene therapyand translation Mutation Genetic engineering Genetically modified organisms Variation (in populations)

Genetically modified organismstranslation Mutation Genetic engineering Gene therapy Variation (in populations) Evolution Inheritance Any other

Variation (in populations)engineering Gene therapy Genetically modified organisms Evolution Inheritance Any other sensible example of the

EvolutionGenetically modified organisms Variation (in populations) Inheritance Any other sensible example of the transfer of

Inheritance Any other sensible example of the transfer of information involving DNA should be credited. In a good essay, the emphasis should be on the transfer of information.Mutation Genetic engineering Gene therapy Genetically modified organisms Variation (in populations) Evolution

35. Carbon dioxide may affect organisms directly or indirectly. Describe and explain these effects. (June 2010)

Carbon dioxide affects the physiology of organismsindirectly. Describe and explain these effects. (June 2010) o Pulmonary ventilation and the mechanism of breathing

o

Pulmonary ventilation and the mechanism of breathing

o

Light-independent reaction of photosynthesis. Limiting factors

o

Role of chemoreceptors in controlling heart rate

The direct effects of increasing carbon dioxide concentrationo Role of chemoreceptors in controlling heart rate o Respiration, photosynthesis and human activity giving

o

Respiration, photosynthesis and human activity giving rise to short-term fluctuations and long-term change.

o

Yield of crop plants

Carbon cycleand long-term change. o Yield of crop plants o Indirect effects of increasing carbon dioxide

o

Indirect effects of increasing carbon dioxide concentration

o

Role of carbon dioxide in producing global warming

o

Life cycles and number of insect pests

o

Distribution of animals and plants

o

Effect of temperature on enzymes

36. The causes of disease in humans (June 2010).

Pathogenson enzymes 36. The causes of disease in humans (June 2010). o Pathogens include bacteria, viruses

o

Pathogens include bacteria, viruses and fungi

o

Pathogens cause disease by damaging cells and producing toxins

o

Cholera bacteria produce toxins resulting in diarrhoea

o

Symptoms and transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis

o

Horizontal gene transmission and MRSA

Lifestyletuberculosis o Horizontal gene transmission and MRSA o Risk factors associated with cancer and coronary heart

o

Risk factors associated with cancer and coronary heart disease

o

The effects of fibrosis, asthma and emphysema on lung function

o The biological basis of heart disease o Genetics Genetics

o

Differences in bases may lead to non-functional enzymes

o

Relationship between the cell cycle and cancer

o

Proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes

o

Gene mutations

37. The role of carbon containing compounds in living organisms

38. The role of nitrogen containing compounds in living organisms

39. The roles of membranes in living organisms

40. The role of DNA in living organisms

41. Applications and implications of gene technology

42. Genetic variation and speciation

43. Control of the internal environment in living organisms

44. The movement of molecules and ions through membranes

45. Roles of pigments in living organisms

46. Light and life

47. Support and movement in living organisms

48. The chemical and biological control of insect pests