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Introduction :

Kai : Hi Im Kai and this is my friend Luna, now we will discuss about optics. First, lets talk about
light.
Light can be defined as package of energy which had properties of mass less particle, and can
travel in vacuum space through electromagnetic radiation. While moving in this state, light also
can acts like wave, which mean it had wave's properties such as wavelengths. This is helped us to
categorize the light by its wavelengths, but actually there are no definite boundaries between
each type's wavelengths.
Luna : We cant always think light as wave. It depends on the circumstances. First, we must take
account of light's properties and our tool's properties which we use to observe light.
If


We use Geometrical Optics method.
If


We can observe light as wave, disregarding the quantum physics.
If


We can model the light as particle or photon.
= Wavelength
D = Dimension of the observation tool
E = Energy of the light
S = Sensitivity of the observation tool

Kai : When we want to observe light with Geometrical Optics, we model the light as rays, which its
propagation is straight line. So we use Fermats principle of least time in our analysis.
Fermats principle of least time said that when light travels from one point to another, it always
choose the path that has the least time.
Take a look at this picture


When light reflected from A to B through mirror, we can know which point that light will take. First
imagine point B, point inside the mirror. Then we draw the straight line from A to B, and we get
point C. Its the point that the light will take. So the path with least time is A-C-B
From that figure we get the relation of lights incoming angle and lights reflection angle, which is

Now in lense, take a look at this picture


When the light goes straight from A to B there will be a delay of time, so the time that light takes
from A to B is the same when it takes the other path.
To help us understand the behavior of light rays, we use mathematic tools. Take a look at this
figure

Ketika sudutnya sangat kecil maka berlaku persamaan ini :
When the angle is small, we get

Now we start talking about light rays behavior. Take a look at this figure.

Suppose we have a single refracting surface, separating two media with different refraction indices.
The speed at the left side is v and at the right side surface v/n
According to the Fermats principle of least time, the time needed for the ray which takes path
OQO must be same with the ray which takes path OPO.

t
OQO
=t
OPO

OV
+
VQ
+
QO
=
OV
+
VQ1
+
Q1P
+
PQ2
+
Q2O
Solving the equation, we get
( 1)
R
=
1


The conventions are as follows:
1. The object distance s is positive if the point O is to the left of the surface.
2. The image distance s is positive if the point O is to the right of the surface.
3. The radius of curvature of the surface is positive if the center is to the right of the surface.
1

We can use that equation for mirror as well. Note for mirror that n1=1 and n2=-1. Because the
speed of light reflected is same but with different in direction so we got n2 is negative.
If s =
Then
f =
R
(n 1)



Then we understand that:
1. Light coming parallel to the axis will be refracted towards the focus.
2. Light coming through the focus will be refracted parallel to the axis.
The equation also can be written as:

=

R


1
Feynman-Leighton-Sands.The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Volume 1 Online edition. Chapter 27 27-2
Now if the surface has a thickness, we need to use equation 27.3 for the two surfaces individually.
Suppose if the light come from medium with refraction index n
1
and the lens have refraction index
n
2
.

1

+
2

=
2 1
R1

2

=
2 1
R1



After we got the value of s we analyze the second surface, and we got
2

+
1

=
1 2
R2

1

2 1
R1
+
1

=
1 2
R2

1

+
1

=
1 2
R2
+
2 1
R1

1

+
1

= (2 1)
1
1

1
2

Solving the equation, we got
1

= ( 1)
1
1

1
2



Luna : If there are a system of lenses and the light coming from and going from the same medium,
we obtain that these system of lenses is equivalent with a thin lenses. We can create an equivalent
thin lens with two surfaces to ease our analysis rather than calculate the light comes into the first
surface and then the second surface manually. These two surfaces are called principal planes.

2

Luna: Take a look at this picture

If we have an object with height y, the image formed according to the figure using geometry
relation, we can get




y/y is the magnification of the lens.

Luna: Now I will explain resolving power, take a look at this figure

If I have two objects with a close distance, suppose at point P and P, then how much apart must
they be so that we can see them as different image?
Luna: For see them as two different image, then the time must be different between these two
rays from the object. The difference between extreme rays from object P must exceed a certain
amount so that it wont create an image at point T, which is

V is the frequency of the light. Taking the extreme rays at point S and R, t
1
=PST t
2
=PRT. If the
refraction index at point P is n and at point T is n
Solving the problem with geometry we get that we can define SO-SO as the minimal distance
between object D.
>



Now we obtain the relation for resolving power. Note that n and sin is a factor from the lens that
we call numerical aperture NA=n sin, so
>





By using the reciprocal relation, if we have one object and the time diference is more than 1 /
frequency, then the lens have aberration.
Kai : now lets talk about the light as electromagnetic radiation.
According to coulombs law, the electric field produced by a charge is
=

40r

But when the charge is moving up and down in oscillatory motion, then the unit vector will have
an acceleration, and we also must add a correction of time because the acceleration we observed
is delayed by r/c, so the equation become


q sin a0
4
0
r
2
= amplitude of E = A
= cos ( /)
We also get the phase =(t-r/c)
So the equation become
E(t)=A cos (t+)
Luna: And from Euler function we can rewrite again the function as
=
(+)

Now if we have two wave E1 and E2 with
= 1
(+
1
)

= 2
(+
2
)

From superposition law we get
= (1

+2


= (1

+2

)

We can find the length of R (A
R
) by multiply R with its conjugate to obtain the square of the length

2
= (1

+2

)(1

+2

2
= 1
2
+2
2
+(12
(
1

2
)
+12
(
1

2
)
)
Analog with this equation

= + + =2 cos
We can get

2
= 1
2
+2
2
+212 cos(
1

2
)
From this we can conclude that the phenomenon of interference is the third term
212 cos(
1

2
)

Now suppose we have two different wave sources as this figure shows

E1=Ae
i(t)
Ae
i(t+)
.
is the relative phase difference between 1 and 2
With the phase different is
k.dsin
k = rate of change of phase with distance
k.dsin=(2 sin)/
Then we got the equation of interference as
212cos +
2

sin

And we got the relation of amplitudes, phases and wavelengths with interference.