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Previous Issue: 15 January 2012 Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016

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Primary contact: Naffaa, Mahmoud Youniss on 966-3-8809614

CopyrightSaudi Aramco 2012. All rights reserved.

Materials System Specification
32-SAMSS-004 15 April 2012
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee



Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

Table of Contents

1 Scope............................................................ 2
2 Conflicts and Deviations................................ 3
3 References.................................................... 3
4 Definitions...................................................... 6
5 Responsibilities............................................. 8
6 Proposals...................................................... 8
7 Mechanical Design........................................ 8
8 Nozzles and Manways................................ 16
9 Internals....................................................... 20
10 Vessel Support............................................ 20
11 Clips and Attachments................................ 23
12 Materials...................................................... 24
13 Fabrication................................................... 30
14 Nondestructive Examination........................ 38
15 Postweld Heat Treatment............................ 43
16 Examination, Inspection,
Pressure Tests and Repairs................ 43
17 Nameplates and Stampings........................ 48
18 Coatings and Painting................................. 49
19 Shipping Requirements............................... 49
20 Drawings, Calculations and Data................ 53

Table 1 Nondestructive Examination
Requirements... 55


Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


Page 2 of 55
1 Scope
1.1 This specification covers the minimum mandatory requirements for the
manufacture of pressure vessels (referred to hereinafter also as vessels).
The requirements are in addition to and supplement the requirements of the
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes.
1.2 Vessels under the scope of this specification are purchased on a stand-alone
basis or as an integral part of a skid-mounted packaged equipment unit.
Note: This is applicable irrespective of the party responsible for placing the relevant
purchase order (Saudi Aramco facility, LSTK contractor, sub-contractor, etc.).
1.3 This specification does not cover the following:
1) UM stamped pressure vessels per ASME SEC VIII D1.
2) In-service pressure vessels.
3) Devices used as an integral part of piping systems, made of what are
recognized as piping components (piping, fittings, etc.) and serve purposes
such as straining, filtering, mixing, separating, distributing, metering and
controlling flow.
4) Pressure vessels used as part of heating, ventilation and air conditioning
(HVAC) systems.
5) Compressed gas cylinders.
1.4 Pressure vessels under scope of this specification, having partial or complete
cladding, shall also conform to 32-SAMSS-031 in addition to the requirements
of this specification.
1.5 Low alloy steels for vessels intended for services within the scope of
API RP 934-A, API RP 934-C or API RP 934-E, shall meet all requirements of
the respective document of the aforementioned documents and this specification.
1.6 1 Cr- Mo and 1 Cr- Mo steels used for vessels not in hydrogen service
with design temperature below 440C, shall meet all requirements of
API RP 934-C and this specification.
1.7 Where a requirement of a licensors or a relevant industry standard/specification
is more stringent than that of this specification, the most stringent requirement
will govern.
1.8 A vessel that is an integral part of a skid-mounted packaged equipment unit shall
be designed and manufactured by a manufacturer of such unit per the relevant
SAP database.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


Page 3 of 55
2 Conflicts and Deviations
2.1 Any conflicts between this Specification and other applicable Saudi Aramco
Materials System Specifications (SAMSSs), Standard Drawings (SASDs), or
industry standards, codes, and forms shall be in writing by the Company or
Buyer Representative through the Manager, Consulting Services Department of
Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
2.2 Direct all requests to deviate from this specification in writing to the Company or
Buyer Representative, who shall follow internal company procedure SAEP-302
and forward such requests to the Manager, Consulting Services Department of
Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.
3 References
Materials or equipment supplied to this specification shall comply with the latest edition
of the references listed below, unless otherwise noted.
3.1 Saudi Aramco References
Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedures
SAEP-302 Instructions for Obtaining a Waiver of a Mandatory
Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirement
SAEP-347 Supplying Material from Stockists
Saudi Aramco Materials System Specifications
01-SAMSS-016 Qualification of Storage Tanks and Pressured
Equipment for Resistance to Hydrogen-Induced
Cracking
32-SAMSS-020 Manufacture of Trays and Packing
32-SAMSS-031 Manufacture of Clad Vessels and Heat Exchangers
32-SAMSS-036 Manufacture of Small Pressure Vessels
Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards
SAES-A-007 Hydrostatic Testing Fluids and Lay-Up Procedures
SAES-A-112 Meteorological and Seismic Design Data
SAES-A-206 Positive Materials Identification
SAES-H-001 Coating Selection and Application Requirements for
Industrial Plants and Equipment
SAES-L-133 Corrosion Protection Requirements for Pipelines,
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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Piping and Process Equipment
SAES-M-001 Structural Design Criteria for Non-Building
Structures
SAES-N-001 Industrial Insulation
SAES-W-010 Welding Requirements for Pressure Vessels
Saudi Aramco Standard Drawing
AA-036322 Anchor Bolt Details
Saudi Aramco Inspection Requirements
Form 175-321900 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels
Saudi Aramco Forms and Data Sheets
NMR-7919-1 Nonmaterial Requirements for Pressure Vessels
9527-ENG Pressure Vessel Data Sheet (herein referred to as
data sheet)
3.2 Industry Codes and Standards
American Institute of Steel Construction
AISC M011 Manual of Steel Construction
American Petroleum Institute
API RP 520 Part I - Sizing, Selection, and Installation of
Pressure Relieving Devices in Refineries
API RP 582 Recommended Practice and Supplementary Welding
Guidelines for the Chemical, Oil, and Gas
Industries
API RP 934-A Materials and Fabrication of 2 Cr-1Mo, 2 Cr-
1Mo-V, 3Cr-1Mo, and 3Cr-1Mo- V Steel
Heavy Wall Pressure Vessels for High-
temperature, High-pressure Hydrogen Service
API RP 934-C Materials and Fabrication of 1 Cr- Mo Steel
Heavy Wall Pressure Vessels for High-pressure
Hydrogen Service Operating at or Below 825F
(440C)
API RP 934-E Materials and Fabrication of 1 Cr- Mo Steel
Pressure Vessels for Service above 825F
(440C)
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


Page 5 of 55
American Society of Civil Engineers
ASCE 7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other
Structures
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes)
ASME SA-20 Specification for General Requirements for Steel
Plates for pressure Vessels
ASME SA-388 Ultrasonic Examination of Heavy Steel Forgings
ASME SA-578 Specification for Straight-Beam Ultrasonic
Examination of Rolled Steel Plates for Special
Applications
ASME SEC V Nondestructive Examination
ASME SEC VIII D1 Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
ASME SEC VIII D2 Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels,
Alternative Rules
ASME B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings NPS through
NPS 24
ASME B16.25 Butt-welding Ends
ASME B16.47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges NPS 26 through
NPS 60
ASME PCC-1 Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange
Joint Assembly
American Society for Testing and Materials
ASTM A380 Practice of Cleaning, Discleaning and Passivation
of Stainless Steel Part Equipment and System
ASTM E381 Standard Method of Macrotech Testing Steel Bars,
Billets, Blooms, and Forgings American Society
for Nondestructive Testing
American Society for Non-destructive Testing
ASNT CP-189 Standard for Qualification and Certification of
Nondestructive Testing Personnel
International Standards Organization
ISO 15156 Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries - Materials
for Use in H
2
S Containing Environments in Oil
and Gas Production
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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National Association of Corrosion Engineers
NACE RP0472 Methods of Control to Prevent In-Service Cracking
of Carbon Steel Welds in P-1 Materials in
Corrosive Petrochemical Refining Environments
NACE RP0590 Recommended Practice for Prevention, Detection
and Correction of Deaerator Cracking
NACE TM0208 Laboratory Test to Evaluate the Vapor-Inhibiting
Ability of Volatile Corrosion Inhibitor Materials
for Temporary Protection of Ferrous Metal
Surfaces
Process Industry Practices
VEFV1100 Vessel/S&T Heat Exchanger Standard Details
Welding Research Council
WRC 107 Welding Research Council Bulletin
WRC 297 Welding Research Council Bulletin
4 Definitions
AARH: Average arithmetic roughness height, which is a measure of surface texture.
Cyclic Service: Services that require fatigue analysis according to screening criteria
per 5.5.2 of ASME SEC VIII D2. This applies to Division 1 and Division 2 of
ASME SEC VIII.
Design Engineer: The Engineering Company responsible for specifying on the data
sheet the mechanical design requirements for pressure vessels.
Design Thickness: Sum of thickness required to withstand all primary loads and an
allowance for corrosion.
High - Alloy Steels: Steels with a total alloying content more than 5%.
Hot Forming: Forming operations carried out at an elevated temperature such that re-
crystallization occurs simultaneously with deformation.
Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) Environment: Process streams that introduce
HIC according to SAES-L-133.
Hydrogen Service: Process streams containing relatively pure hydrogen and process
streams containing hydrogen as a component with an absolute partial pressure of
350 kPa (50 psi) and higher.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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Lethal Services: Process streams containing a concentration of hydrogen sulfide in
excess of 20% volume per total volume of vessel shall be considered as lethal service.
Other services as determined by the project design may also be designated as lethal
services.
Low - Alloy Steels: Steels with a total alloying content of less than 5% but more than
specified for carbon steels.
MDMT: Minimum design metal temperature determined by the Design Engineer and
specified in the data sheet.
Nominal Thickness: Thickness selected as commercially available, and supplied to the
Manufacturer. For plate material, the nominal thickness is the measured thickness of the
plate at the joint or location under consideration after forming.
Pressure Vessel and Vessel: As defined in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Codes.
Saudi Aramco Buyer: The person or company authorized by Saudi Aramco to procure
pressure vessels to the requirements of this specification.
Saudi Aramco Engineer: The chairman of the Vessels Standards Committee.
Saudi Aramco Inspector: The person or company authorized by the Saudi Aramco
Inspection Department to inspect pressure vessels to the requirements of this
specification.
Skid-mounted packaged equipment unit: Self-contained units for process and utility
applications (e.g., air dryers, portable air compressors, filtering unit, nitrogen
generation, dehydration, etc.) fabricated and skid-mounted in one section. Such unit
consists of equipment (pressure vessels, compressors, pumps, storage tank, etc.),
interconnecting piping, electrical and/ or instrument components, and support
structures.
Sulfide Stress Cracking (SSC) Environment: Process streams that introduce SSC
according to SAES-L-133.
Thick Wall: Nominal thickness of a pressure-retaining vessels component (shell,
head, nozzle, etc.) greater than 50 mm.
Unfired Steam Drums: As defined in ASME SEC VIII D1, paragraph U-1 (g) (2).
Utility Services: Water, air and nitrogen services.
Vessel Manufacturer: The Company responsible for the manufacture of new pressure
vessels in accordance with this specification.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


Page 8 of 55
5 Responsibilities
5.1 The Vessel Manufacturer is responsible for the manufacture of pressure vessels,
which includes complete mechanical design, Code and structural calculations,
supply of all materials, fabrication, nondestructive examination, inspection,
testing, surface preparation, and preparation for shipment in accordance with the
completed data sheet and the requirements of this specification.
5.2 The vessel manufacturer shall neither prepare nor certify a Users Design
Specification.
6 Proposals
6.1 The Vessel Manufacturer's proposal shall be based on details for individual
vessels and the requirements of this specification.
6.2 The Vessel Manufacturer may offer an alternative design, but must quote on the
base inquiry documents.
6.3 The proposal shall include a detailed description of any exception to the
requirements of this specification.
7 Mechanical Design
7.1 General
7.1.1 All pressure vessels shall be designed in accordance with the rules of
the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes, ASME SEC VIII D1 or
ASME SEC VIII D2 (herein referred to as the Codes), and the
requirements of this specification.
7.1.2 The ASME SEC VIII D1 or ASME SEC VIII D2, to which a vessel is
to be manufactured, shall be in accordance with the data sheet.
7.1.3 Should the Vessel Manufacturer have any part of a stress analysis
executed by a third party, the Vessel Manufacturer shall advise the
Saudi Aramco Engineer.
7.1.4 No proof testing shall be permitted unless specifically approved by the
Saudi Aramco Engineer.
7.1.5 No credit shall be given to thickness of integrally-bonded or weld
metal overlay cladding in calculating material thickness, required to
sustain all primary loads.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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7.1.6 Application of ASME Code Cases to the manufacturing of pressure
vessels requires approval of the Saudi Aramco Engineer.
7.1.7 Unfired steam drums shall be manufactured and stamped in accordance
with the requirements of this specification.
7.1.8 All welded joints of category A, B, C and D shall be complete fusion
full penetration welds, except for joint welds of slip-on flanges
specified per paragraph 8.1.3(d) of this specification.
7.2 Design Pressure
The value of design pressure(s) shall be in accordance with the data sheet.
Commentary Note:
Design pressure is the maximum difference in pressure between the inside and
the outside of a vessel, or between the chambers of a combination unit. The term
internal design pressure is used when the internal pressure is greater than the
external pressure. However, the term external design pressure is used when
the internal pressure is less than the external pressure.
7.2.1 Unless otherwise specified on the data sheet the design pressure will be
assumed to be at the top of the vessel in the operating position.
7.2.2 Design pressure(s) acting at the bottom of vessels shall take into
account pressure heads, both static and dynamic, due to the maximum
liquid levels.
7.2.3 Design pressure differential for the partition(s) separating the
compartment(s) of multi-compartment vessels shall be as specified on
the data sheet.
7.2.4 The external design pressure and corresponding temperature shall be as
specified on the data sheet.
7.2.5 Requirements for the design of packing bed supports for vessels that
contains packing shall be as specified on the data sheet.
7.3 Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
7.3.1 The Vessel Manufacturer shall calculate the maximum allowable
working pressure (MAWP) acting on the top of a vessel, in the hot and
corroded condition in accordance with the applicable Code.
7.3.2 The MAWP of a vessel shall not be limited by flange ratings.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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7.4 Design Temperature
7.4.1 The value of design temperature(s) shall be as specified on the data
sheet.
7.4.2 Where there are differences in the design temperatures for different
zones in a vessel, the extremities of these zones will be shown on the
data sheet.
7.5 Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT)
The value(s) of the minimum design metal temperature (MDMT) shall be as
specified on the data sheet.
7.6 Service and Description
7.6.1 The service of a vessel; hydrocarbon, hydrogen, caustic, amine, wet
sour, steam or utility and whether the service is cyclic and/or lethal
shall be as specified on the data sheet.
7.6.2 The process description of a vessel (for examples: Amine Regenerator,
Air Receiver) shall be specified on the data sheet.
7.7 Joint Efficiency
7.7.1 The joint efficiency shall be as specified on the data sheet.
7.7.2 A joint efficiency of 85% or higher shall be specified for the design of
all pressure containing components of ASME SEC VIII D1 pressure
vessels.
7.8 Corrosion Resistance
7.8.1 Corrosion allowance shall be as specified on the data sheet.
7.8.2 The corrosion allowances required for tray assemblies, except for
attachments welded to pressure boundary components and intended to
support internals, e.g., tray support rings, brackets, etc., shall be in
accordance with the requirements of 32-SAMSS-020.
7.8.3 Cladding shall be applied according to the boundaries as specified on
the data sheet.
7.9 Nominal Thickness
Nominal thickness of shells and heads shall not be less than the following:
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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a) Carbon steels, 6 mm.
b) Low chrome alloy steels, 5 mm.
7.10 Head Types
7.10.1 Refer to the data Sheet for the type of head.
7.10.2 The type of heads to be used shall be ASME 2:1-ellipsoidal or ASME
hemispherical.
7.10.3 ASME flanged flat heads and ASME torispherical heads can be used only
for air and water services up to a design pressure of 690 kPa (100 psi).
7.10.4 One piece construction (made from one-piece or welded multi-piece
blanks) shall be used for heads with nominal thickness greater than
50 mm and vessels in cyclic, hydrogen or lethal services. Other types
of head construction shall require prior approval of Saudi Aramco
Engineer as defined in this specification.
Note: Following shall be submitted to support review of the proposed multi-
segment construction head:
a) Layout of head.
b) Nondestructive examination.
c) Forming procedure and,
d) Heat treatment procedure, as applicable.
7.10.5 Heads in vessels with design thickness greater than 50 mm shall be
hemispherical unless 2:1 ellipsoidal heads are deemed more
economical.
7.10.6 Minimum inside radius of knuckles for conical transition sections or
torispherical heads shall be as follows:
a) Not be less than 15% of the outside diameter of the adjoining
cylindrical section with conical section of thickness more than
50 mm.
b) Not be less than 10% of the outside diameter of the adjoining
cylindrical section with conical section of transition sections or
torispherical heads with thickness more than 19 mm or less than
50 mm.
c) Not be less than 6% of the outside diameter of the adjoining
cylindrical section with conical section of transition sections or
torispherical heads with thickness 19 mm and less.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


Page 12 of 55
7.10.7 Reinforcing for conical transition sections in vessels with design
thickness greater than 50 mm shall be provided by increased plate
thickness. Use of reinforcing rings is prohibited.
7.10.8 Shell-to-internal head joint shall be only any of the following details:
a) Forged junction ring according to ASME SEC VIII D2,
Table 4.2.5 - Detail 7.
b) Weld build-up construction connecting shell to internal head.
This is not applicable to vessels in cyclic service.
7.10.9 Joint details in paragraph 7.10.8 shall provide a smooth transition,
minimizing peak stress concentration effects. The inner radius of the
weld build-up and forged detail shall be minimum 1 inch. Backing
strips used in fabricating the junction shall be removed after
completion of welding. All welds shall be ground smooth flush
contour of the joined parts.
7.11 Loads
7.11.1 Wind and Earthquake Loads
a) The Vessel Manufacturer shall calculate the static effects of loads
due to wind and the effects due to earthquake loads acting on the
vessel in the operating position accordance with the requirements
of this specification.
b) Wind and seismic loads shall be calculated for the vessel in its
erected position in accordance with ASCE 7, using Occupancy
Category IV and based on design data corresponding to the site
location per SAES-A-112.
c) Wind pressures shall be assumed to act on the projected surface
area of the pressure vessel and shall include due allowances for
platforms, ladders, piping, insulation, and equipment supported
from the pressure vessel as specified on the data sheet.
d) Seismic loads shall include due allowances for platforms, ladders,
piping, insulation, and equipment supported from the pressure
vessel as specified on the data sheet.
e) The maximum allowable deflection in the corroded condition at
the top tangent line of a vessel shall not exceed 150 mm / 30 m of
height.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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7.11.2 Wind-induced Vibration
1) Vertical vessels shall be checked for wind-induced vibration by
the Vessel Manufacturer for the following cases:
a) H > 30 m with H/D ratio > 15
b) W/HD < 400
Where:
H is the height of the vessel in meters, including the
supports.
D is the diameter of vessel in meters.
(For multi-diameter vessels the diameter shall equal the
weighted diameter of the top third).
W is the weight of the vessel in kilograms in both the
erected empty and operating conditions.
2) The use of vortex breakers or guying devices in order to maintain
stresses, due to wind-induced vibration within allowable limits, is
prohibited.
3) The fatigue life of those vessels susceptible to wind induced
vibration shall be a minimum of one million cycles. The fatigue
curves in ASME SEC VIII D2 shall be used for the materials at
the specified design temperature.
7.11.3 Dead Weights of a Vessel
Design of vessels shall consider the following dead loads:
a) Weight of vessel including internals, supports (e.g., skirts, lugs,
saddles and legs), and appurtenances (e.g., platforms, ladders,
etc.).
b) Weight of vessel contents under operating and testing conditions.
c) Weight of refractory linings, insulation.
d) Weight of attached equipment such as motors machinery, valves,
other vessels, and piping.
7.11.4 Piping, Equipment and External Loads
a) The Vessel Manufacturer shall ensure that local stresses imposed
on a vessel due to piping (other than the dead load), equipment,
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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lifting, supports and other external loads do not exceed the
allowable limits in accordance with the applicable Code.
b) Refer to the data sheet for piping and equipment loads imposed
on a vessel.
7.11.5 Dynamic Loads
Dynamic loads caused by the action of vibratory equipment (e.g.,
agitators), liquid sloshing, sub-liquid surface jets, etc.
7.11.6 Thermal Loads
Thermal Loads are loads caused by thermal transients and restraining
thermal expansion/ interaction of the vessel and/ or its support(s).
7.12 Load Combinations
7.12.1 All components of a vessel, including its support(s), shall be designed
to withstand stresses resulting from load combinations in accordance
with, but not be limited to, those shown in Table 4.1.2 of
ASME SEC VIII D2.
7.12.2 Anchor bolts shall be designed for load combinations, based on the
allowable stress design method (Service Loads) in accordance with
SAES-M-001.
7.12.3 All pressure vessel components whether shop or field fabricated shall
be designed to withstand a full hydrostatic test in the erected position.
7.12.4 Combined stresses due to full hydrostatic test and the greater of wind
and earthquake loads shall be within the allowable limits per
ASME SEC VIII D2, paragraph 4.1.6.2, based on the lowest Specified
Minimum Yield Strength (SMYS) of the materials of construction at
test temperature. However, wind and earthquake design loads can be
reduced to 50% of its values.
7.12.5 In cases where it is desirable to pressure test a vessel partially filled
with liquid, the requirements of paragraph 7.12.4 shall be met, except
the pneumatic pressure applied above the liquid level shall at no point
result in a total pressure that causes the general membrane stress to
exceed 80% of the specified minimum yield strength of the material at
test temperature.
7.12.6 Loads (moments or forces) acting on a vessel due to external piping
that will affect the overall integrity of the vessel shall be added to
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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moments and forces due to other external primary loads (weight, wind
or earthquake loads). Addition of piping loads shall be based on
performing stress analysis.
7.13 Stress Analysis
7.13.1 Where applicable, the requirements for thermal stress and fatigue stress
analyses shall be as specified in the data sheet. Analysis methods and
stress combination limits presented in Division 2, Section 5, shall be
used for vessels under scope of Division 1 and Division 2. However,
allowable stresses shall be taken from the respective tables of
ASME SEC II for each division for the corresponding material and
temperature.
7.13.2 The Design Engineer is responsible for specifying the heat transfer
coefficients to be used for all thermal stress analysis.
7.13.3 Thermal Analysis
1) A thermal stress analysis is required for a vessel, if a thermal
gradient (calculated under steady state operating conditions and,
if applicable, transient operating conditions) across any vessel
section exceeds 65C (150F), in a distance equal to the square
root of R times T, where:
- R is the radius of the vessel component under consideration and,
- T is the thickness of the component under consideration
- R and T have the same units.
2) As a minimum, the scope of the stress analysis shall include the
following junctures, as applicable:
- Head-to-shell
- Support-to-vessel
- Nozzle-to-shell, considering external piping loads
- Tray supports to vessel wall
3) Thermal analysis shall be based on gradients under steady state
design conditions and also, if applicable, transient design
conditions.
4) Thermal gradients may be reduced to within allowable limits
with the provision of:
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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a) Thermal sleeves in pressure-retaining components
b) Hot-box design at the skirt-to-vessel junction in skirt-
supported vessels with design temperatures greater than
260C (500F).
7.13.4 Fatigue Analysis
1) Scope of the required stress analysis shall be as specified in the
data sheet, in accordance with the rules of Division 2, by the
Design Engineer.
2) As a minimum, the scope of the stress analysis shall include the
following junctures, as applicable:
- Head-to-shell
- Support-to-vessel
- Nozzle-to-shell, considering external piping loads
- Tray supports to vessel wall
3) Analysis shall be based on the calculated number of cycles for a
minimum 20 year service life, as determined in accordance with
the rules of Division 2, paragraph 5.5.2.
4) The number of cycles shall include the number of start-ups, shut-
downs, emergency shut-downs, and upset conditions.
7.13.5 Local Stress Analysis
Stress analysis due to piping, equipment, lifting, supports and other
external loads shall be completed in accordance with the procedures as
detailed in WRC 107, WRC 297 or a finite element analysis.
8 Nozzles and Manways
8.1 General
8.1.1 The quantities, sizes, ratings, (ASME pressure classes), facings,
elevations, and orientations of nozzles and manways shall be as
specified on the data sheet.
8.1.2 Unless otherwise specified on the data sheet, the minimum projections
for nozzles and manway necks, as measured from the outside surface
of the shell or head to the face of a flange, shall meet the following
requirements:
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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a) 6 inches for NPS 6 nozzles and smaller.
b) 8 inches for NPS 8 nozzles and larger and manways necks.
c) For insulated vessels, projection shall be sufficient to allow
bolting of studs without interference with the insulation.
d) For vessel drain connections and other connections, where a
process stream is likely to be stagnant, the projection shall not
exceed three times the connection nominal diameter.
8.1.3 Permissible types of flanges for nozzles and manways are according to
the following:
a) Forged steel long welding neck flange.
b) Forged steel welding neck flange. Such type of flange is welded
to seamless pipe, rolled plate with 100% radiography or an
integrally reinforced contour shaped forged nozzle or manway.
The bore of flange shall match the bore of nozzle and manway, as
applicable.
c) Studded nozzles and proprietary designs may be offered as
alternatives provided their design is in accordance with the
applicable Code and approved by the Saudi Aramco Engineer.
d) Slip-on type flange with seamless pipe nozzle necks or rolled
plate with 100% radiography is permissible for vessels, which are
integral parts of skid-mounted packaged equipment units, in only
non-cyclic air and water services with design temperature and
design pressure not exceeding 121C (250F) and 1.7 MPA (245
psi), respectively. Slip-on flange shall be welded on the front or
face and at the back of the hub.
8.1.4 A body flange shall be constructed of a single-piece forging.
8.1.5 Nozzles less than 2-inch NPS are not permissible.
8.1.6 Only flanged nozzles shall be used.
8.1.7 Vessels in services other than air and water shall be provided with a
minimum 2-inch NPS flanged steam-out connection.
8.1.8 The ends of butt-welded connections shall be in accordance with
ASME B16.25.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
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8.1.9 The Vessel Manufacturer shall design nozzles that are required for the
supporting of mechanical mixers and shall include the additional loads
and dimensional tolerances as specified on the data sheet.
8.1.10 Minimum four gusset plates for the reinforcement of nozzles
supporting mixers shall be provided.
8.1.11 Minimum inside corner radius of integrally reinforced contour nozzles
and manways shall be 13 mm.
8.1.12 Design of flanged connections with stud bolts of diameter 1 inch and
above shall be such as to provide clearance to permit use of a stud and
bolt-tensioning device.
8.2 Reinforcement of Openings
8.2.1 Reinforcement of vessel openings shall be in accordance with the
applicable Code and this specification.
8.2.2 The thickness of reinforcing pads shall not exceed the shell or head
thickness of a vessel.
8.2.3 Use of internal reinforcing elements is not permitted.
8.3 Flange Ratings, (ASME Pressure Classes) and Facings
8.3.1 The ASME pressure classes and facings shall be as specified on the
data sheet.
8.3.2 Bolted joints specified with non-ASME flanges shall be designed to
meet all anticipated loading conditions of the vessel.
8.3.3 Pressure ratings for standard flanges shall be in accordance with the
following:
a) ASME B16.5 for flanges NPS 24 and smaller.
b) ASME B16.47, Series A for flanges larger than NPS 24.
8.3.4 Gasket seating surfaces shall comply with the following:
a) For spiral wound gaskets, 125 to 250 AARH, in all services,
except hydrogen.
b) For spiral wound gaskets in hydrogen service, 125 to 150 AARH.
c) The side-walls of rings joint flanges in all services, 63 AARH.
d) For Nonmetallic gaskets, 250 to 500 AARH.
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8.3.5 Machined surfaces other than gasket contact faces shall not exceed
500 AARH.
8.4 Manways
8.4.1 The number, nominal inside diameter and locations of manways shall
be as specified in the data sheet.
8.4.2 All manways shall be circular. The manway covers shall be hinged or
provided with handling davits as specified on the data sheet, according
to PIP VEFV1100.
8.5 Attachment Details for Nozzles, Manways and their Connections
8.5.1 All nozzles and manway necks shall be attached by welding completely
through the total thickness of the vessel shell, head or nozzle wall,
including any reinforcement. Backing rings used in attaching nozzles
and manways to vessels shall be removed after welding.
8.5.2 Permissible types of nozzles, manways and their connections shall be
according to the table below.

Design Conditions / Services Group Attachment
Figure Reference from Indicated
ASME Code Section VIII
Division 1 Vessels Division 2 Vessels
Group I

a. Pressure-retaining vessels component (shell, head,
nozzle or manway) with design thickness greater
than 50 mm

b. Unfired steam boilers with design pressure
exceeding 50 psi

c. Lethal, hydrogen and cyclic services

d. Openings larger than 900 mm (Note 1)

e. Design temperature greater than 400C (Note 1)

f. Low alloy steel vessels with design thickness greater
than 25 mm (Note 1)

g. Vessels that will undergo PWHT (Note 1)
All nozzle sizes and
manway necks


Connections attached
to nozzles and
manways
Figure UW-16.1, details:
(f-1), (f-2), (f-3) or
(f-4)
Table 4.2.13, details: (1),
(2), (3), (4), (5) or (6)
Group II

Design conditions and service other than those in
Group I of this table
NPS 4 and smaller
nozzles
Figure UW-16.1, details: (a),
(a-1), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f-1),
(f-2), (f-3), (f-4) or (g).
- Table 4.2.10, details: (1),
(2), (3), (4), (6), (7) or (9)

- Table 4.2.11, detail (2)

- Table 4.2.13, details: (1),
(2), (3), (4), (5) or (6)
Nozzles larger than NPS
4 and manway necks
Figure UW-16.1, details:
(c), (d), (e), (f-1), (f-2),
(f-3), (f-4) or (g)
Connections attached to
nozzles and manways

Note 1: Alternatively, detail per Figure UW-16.1(g) may be used for Division 1 vessels provided that design conditions/ services per a, b
and/or c of group I are not applicable.

Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
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8.5.3 Integrally reinforced contour shaped attachments made partially or
completely of weld build up are prohibited.
9 Internals
9.1 All fixed and removable internals, including trays, packing, distributors, screens,
etc. shall be specified on the data sheet.
9.2 Tray rings and tray supports that are welded to vessels shall be designed by the
tray manufacturer and supplied and installed by the Vessel Manufacturer in
accordance with the requirements of 32-SAMSS-020.
9.3 The Vessel Manufacture shall design, supply and install all other internals,
except for trays, as specified on the data sheet.
9.4 All removable internals are to be designed so that they may be passed through
tray and vessel manways.
9.5 Internal ladder rungs shall be provided by the Vessel Manufacturer according to
PIP document VEFV1100.
10 Vessel Support
10.1 General
10.1.1 Refer to the data sheet for the type of support.
10.1.2 Supports shall be designed to prevent excessive localized stresses due
to deformations produced by the internal pressure, primary loads and,
if applicable, thermal gradients in the vessel and support system.
10.1.3 Each vessel shall be designed as a self-supporting unit in accordance
with the requirements of the applicable Code and AISC.
10.1.4 All supports shall be continuously welded to the vessel.
10.1.5 The material of anchor bolts shall be in accordance with this
specification.
10.1.6 Base plates shall be designed by the Vessel Manufacturer for all
loading conditions in accordance with this specification.
10.1.7 The allowable concrete bearing stress to be used for the design of base
plates shall be 5170 kPa.
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10.2 Supports for Vertical Vessels
10.2.1 The data sheet shall specify the type, location and overall dimensions
required for the design of supports for vertical vessels.
10.2.2 The Vessel Manufacturer shall design all supports required, including
skirts, legs, lugs, base plates, number of anchor bolts in accordance
with the data sheet.
10.2.3 Skirts shall have a minimum thickness of 6 mm.
10.2.4 The mean corroded diameter of the shell and the mean diameter of the
skirt shall coincide [rounded off to the nearest 3 mm], and shall be
symmetrical about the vessel centerline. Exceeding this offset limit
shall require prior approval of the Saudi Aramco Engineer, as defined
in this specification, supported by stress analysis.
10.2.5 Hot-box design when specified for skirt-supported vessels with design
temperatures greater than 205C (400F) shall be in accordance with
PIP VEFV1100 and dimensions that meet the intent of reducing the
thermal gradient at the skirt-to-vessel junction.
10.2.6 One minimum 500 mm diameter skirt access opening shall be provided
for vessels with diameters equal to and larger than 1200 mm.
For vessels with diameters less than 1200 mm, skirt access opening
diameter shall be minimum one half of the vessel diameter.
Skirt access opening diameters smaller than the above specified shall
require prior approval of the Saudi Aramco Engineer. It is the vessel
manufacturer's responsibility to determine the need for reinforcing the
opening, according to the applicable Code.
10.2.7 Piping passing through skirt openings shall be adequately supported to
prevent damage during shipment.
10.2.8 The Vessel Manufacturer shall provide skirt bracing to prevent
buckling during shipping and lifting in the field.
10.2.9 Skirt-to-vessel juncture details for vessels with design thickness greater
than 50 mm and vessels in cyclic, hydrogen or lethal services shall be
only any of the following details:
a) Forged junction ring: according to ASME SEC VIII D2,
Figure 4.2.4(e).
b) Weld build-up construction (connecting skirt to head): according
to ASME SEC VIII D2, Figure 4.2.4(b). (Exception: This is not
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
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applicable to vessels in cyclic service.)
c) Weld build-up construction (connecting skirt to shell): according
to ASME SEC VIII D2, Figure 4.2.4(f). (Exception: This is not
applicable to vessels in cyclic service.)
d) Forged skirt-to-shell junction ring: similar to ASME SEC VIII, D2,
Table 4.2.5 - Detail 7.
10.2.10 Joint details in paragraph 10.2.9 shall provide a smooth transition,
minimizing peak stress concentration effects. The inner radius of the
weld build-up and forged detail shall be minimum 1 inch.
Backing strips used in fabricating the junction shall be removed after
completion of welding. All welds shall be ground smooth flush
contour of the joined parts.
10.2.11 Skirt-to-vessel juncture in vessels other those specified in paragraph
10.2.9 shall be according to ASME SEC VIII D2, Figure 4.2.4, detail
(a), (b) or (c) and shall meet the following weld spacing requirements:
1. Adjacent edges of the head-to-shell and skirt-to-head welds shall
not be closer than the head thickness or 1 inch, whichever is
greater.
2. Adjacent edges of the skirt-to-shell weld and any category B weld
joint shall not be closer than the shell thickness or 1 inch,
whichever is greater.
10.3 Supports for Horizontal Vessels
10.3.1 Two saddles with anchor bolts shall be used to support horizontal
pressure vessels. The vessel shall be fixed at one saddle support and
free to slide at the other saddle. Saddle base plates shall be in full
direct contact with the foundation.
10.3.2 The data sheet shall specify locations of the fixed and sliding saddles
and dimension from vessel centerline to underside of saddle base plate.
10.3.3 The shell shall be analyzed in accordance with the LP Zick method.
Saddle supports and the vessel shell shall be analyzed for operating and
hydrotest loads including any piping, wind or other external loads.
10.3.4 Minimum of 10 mm thick reinforcing pad is required at the junction of
the saddle and the vessel with all corners rounded to a minimum radius
of 50 mm.
10.3.5 The anchor bolt holes on the sliding-end saddle shall be slotted to
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
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facilitate thermal expansion/ contraction along the longitudinal axis of
the vessel.
10.4 Anchor Bolts
10.4.1 The Vessel Manufacturer shall determine the size and number of
anchor bolts required.
10.4.2 Anchor bolts shall straddle vessel centerlines on the north-south, east-
west axes.
10.4.3 Anchor bolts shall not be less than 19 mm minimum nominal diameter.
10.4.4 Design of anchor bolts shall be based on the following allowable stresses:
a) 104 MPa (tension).
b) 69 MPa (shear).
10.4.5 Vessels supported on skirts, lugs or legs shall be provided with an even
number of anchor bolts with a minimum of four anchor bolts.
10.4.6 Vessels supported on saddles shall be provided with an even number of
anchor bolts with a minimum of two anchor bolts per saddle.
11 Clips and Attachments
11.1 General
The Vessel Manufacturer shall supply and install all clips and attachments as
specified on the data sheet.
11.2 Insulation Supports
11.2.1 Support for insulation system shall be according to the data sheet.
11.2.2 The Vessel Manufacturer shall supply and install supports required for
insulation.
11.2.3 The bottom heads of vertical vessels that are externally insulated shall
be provided with 12 mm blank nuts. Blank nuts shall be welded on
edge and located on 300 mm square centers.
11.3 Refractory Supporting System
11.3.1 Anchoring system of refractory lining shall be according to the data
sheet.
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11.3.2 The Vessel Manufacturer shall supply and install anchoring system
required for refractory.
11.4 Fireproofing Supports
11.4.1 Support for fireproofing system shall be according to the data sheet.
11.4.2 The Vessel Manufacturer shall supply and install supports required for
fireproofing materials.
11.4.3 Vertical vessels, which are not externally insulated, shall be provided
with a 5 mm thick steel weather cap on the skirt to provide a flashing
for fireproofing.
11.5 Grounding Lugs
All pressure vessels shall be provided with a grounding lug connection welded
to the vessel support in accordance with PIP VEFV1100.
11.6 Equipment Davit
11.6.1 A davit for the lifting of equipment shall be supplied when specified on
the data sheet.
11.6.2 The davit shall be in accordance with PIP VEFV1100.
11.7 Reinforcing Pads
Reinforcing pads for all internal and external welded attachments shall be sized
to meet requirements of paragraph 7.11.4 of this specification. Pads shall be a
minimum of 10 mm (3/8") thick, but shall not exceed the shell thickness; with
all of their corners rounded to a minimum radius of 50 mm. Distance from any
edge of the attachment to the closest edge of the reinforcing pad shall not be less
than 50 mm.
12 Materials
12.1 General
12.1.1 All carbon, low alloy and high alloy steels required for pressure and
non-pressure components shall be as specified on the data sheet.
12.1.2 Prior approval by the Saudi Aramco Engineer is required for use of
alternative materials of construction for carbon and low alloy steels
pressure vessels. Alternative materials must comply with all the
requirements of the applicable Code and this specification.
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12.1.3 Material specifications and tests procedures for base metal and
weldments materials for 1 Cr- Mo, 1 Cr- Mo, 2 Cr-1 Mo,
2 Cr-1 Mo- V, 3 Cr-1 Mo and 3 Cr-1 Mo- V shall be submitted
to Saudi Aramco Engineer for review and approval prior to ordering
the materials from the mill.
12.1.4 All materials must be clearly identified and provided with legible
original or certified true copies of Mill Test Certificates. Lack of
adequate identification and certification shall be cause for rejection.
12.1.5 1 Cr- Mo and 1 Cr- Mo steels with thickness exceeding 100 mm
can be used for components (shell, head, integrally reinforced nozzles,
flanges, etc.) of vessels within scope of API RP 934-C, API RP 934-E
and paragraph 1.6 of this specification, provided that fracture toughness
requirements of the respective document of the aforementioned
documents and this specification can be met.
12.1.6 Use of high alloy steels, including austenitic stainless steels, shall be
on a case-by-case basis, with prior approval of the Saudi Aramco
Engineer as defined in this specification. Material selection shall be
based on the design temperature, minimum design metal temperature
and intended service.
12.1.7 All materials, except carbon steels, shall be alloy-verified by the
Vessel Manufacturer in accordance with SAES-A-206.
12.1.8 The use of C- Mo steels in hydrogen services is prohibited.
12.1.9 Material of construction (pressure-retaining and attachments used for
supporting or lifting the vessel) shall be tested, as applicable, to verify
that their mechanical properties will be retained considering all of the
following thermal treatments that could affect the material:
a) All heat treatment cycles that will be required for the fabrication
of the vessel, including as applicable: normalizing, normalizing
and tempering, quenching and tempering, intermediate stress
relief (ISR), and final postweld heat treatment (PWHT),
b) Two PWHT cycles to account for future repairs and/or
alterations.
12.1.10 As an alternative to material qualification requirements per paragraph
12.1.9 of this specification for carbon steel nozzles and standard
flanges according to ASME B16.5 and B16.47 that do not require
impact testing, materials of construction shall have minimum 70 MPa
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
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(10 ksi) over their specified minimum yield strength and ultimate
tensile strength values.
12.1.11 Forgings shall meet a material cleanliness C2/R2/S2 rating, as
described in ASTM E381.
12.1.12 Specimens for material testing shall be taken per the following:
a) Plates
Specimens shall be taken from each plate transverse to the rolling
direction in accordance with SA-20 at the standard test locations
and at a depth of T (T = maximum heat-treated thickness)
location. If required, T specimens should be used for hot
tensile and step cooling tests.
b) Plate-like forgings (forged rings, tubesheets, blind flanges, etc.)
Specimens shall be taken from each heat transverse to the major
working direction in accordance with the material specification,
and at a depth of T of a prolongation or of a representative
separate test block.
c) Standard flanges according to ASME B16.5 and B16.47.
1. For flanges with T equal to or less than 50 mm, specimens
shall be removed in accordance with the material specification.
2. For flanges with T greater than 50 mm, specimens shall be
removed in accordance with the material specification from a
production forging or a representative separate test block that
are machined to essentially the finished product configuration
prior to heat treatment. The center axis of the specimen shall
be at a depth of T and the mid-length of the test specimen
shall be at a depth at least equal to T from any second heat-
treated surface.
d) Other forgings that are contour shaped or machined to essentially
the finished product configuration prior to heat treatment, test
specimens shall be removed in accordance with the material
specification of a production forging or a representative separate
test block. The center axis of the specimen shall be at a depth of
T and the mid-length of the test specimen shall be at a depth at
least equal to T from any second heat-treated surface.
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e) Pipe
Specimens shall be taken from each heat and lot of pipe,
transverse to the major working direction in accordance with
used material specification except that test specimens should be
taken from a depth of T.
f) A separate test block, if used, should be made from the same heat
and should receive substantially the same reduction and type of
hot working as the production forgings that it represents.
It should be of the same nominal thickness as the production
forgings and shall be machined to essentially the finished product
configuration prior to heat treatment. The separate test forgings
should be heat-treated in the same furnace charge and under the
same conditions as the production forgings.
12.1.13 Layered constructions are prohibited for all vessels.
12.1.14 Materials for pressure vessels for de-aeration service shall be in
accordance with NACE RP0590.
12.1.15 Materials for vessels exposed to SSC environments shall be in
accordance with the following:
a) Forged flanges and forged fittings are restricted to: SA-350 LF1
or LF2 or SA-266 Grade 4.
b) Flanges above 24-inch diameter shall be SA-266 Grade 4.
c) Studs are restricted to: SA-193 B7M or SA-320 L7M.
d) Nuts are restricted to: SA-194 Grade 2HM.
e) It shall satisfy the requirements of ISO 15156 and NACE RP0472.
12.1.16 Low alloy steels shall not be mixed. For example, a vessel requiring
1 Cr- Mo materials shall have all components manufactured from
1 Cr- Mo.
12.1.17 Low alloy steels shall be specified in the normalized and tempered
heat-treated or quenched and tempered conditions. Material of
construction shall be tested, as applicable, to verify that their
mechanical properties will be retained considering thermal treatments
specified in paragraph 12.1.9 of this specification.
12.1.18 Material for nameplate mounting brackets shall be of the same type
and material grade as the shell material.
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12.1.19 SA-36 and SA-285 materials may be used only for pressure retaining
components of vessels in water and air services with plate thickness
not exceeding 19 mm.
12.1.20 Materials of supports shall be as follows:
1) Legs and lugs: same material as vessel wall base material.
Supports of vessels described in paragraph 12.1.19 of this
specification may be of the same ASME material P No. as that of
the vessel wall base material.
2) Skirts: same material as the vessel wall base material for a
minimum distance of 300 mm measured below the vessel-to-skirt
connection line, unless thermal calculations require additional
length. Remaining section of skirt shall be of the same material
or same ASME material P No.
3) Saddles: same material as the vessel wall base material.
12.1.21 External attachments, other than those in paragraph 12.1.20 of this
specification, and internal attachments welded to the vessel shall be of
the same material as the vessel wall base material. With prior approval
of Saudi Aramco Engineer as defined in this specification, Stainless
Steel (SS) internal attachments can be welded to carbon steel pressure-
retaining parts of vessels in non-sour services.
12.1.22 Internal attachments to clad vessels shall be of the same material as
that of the cladding. SS 321 and SS 347 can be used interchangeably.
12.1.23 Material of construction for anchor bolts shall be ASTM A193 /
A193M, ASTM F1554 Grade 36 or ASTM F1554 Grade 105 with the
corresponding material of construction for nuts according to SASD
AA-036322.
12.1.24 One temper embrittlement test block shall be installed in hydrotreating
or hydrocracking reactors made of 2 Cr-1Mo, 2 Cr-1Mo- V,
3Cr-1Mo or 3Cr-1Mo- V. Test block shall be made from
prolongation of a shell ring or a shell plate used for constructing the
reactor shell. Test block shall be 300 mm long, 300 mm wide, and
have thickness same as the shell. Test block shall be weld overlaid
from 5 sides with the same welding procedures used to fabricate the
reactors. After weld overlay, test block shall be exposed to the
minimum post weld heat treatment cycle before attaching to a bottom
structure of the reactor. Fabricator shall provide the test block
attachment drawing for Saudi Aramco approval.
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12.1.25 One manual UT test block and one TOFD UT test block shall be
provided by the fabricator of hydrotreating or hydrocracking reactors
made of 2 Cr-1Mo, 2 Cr-1Mo- V, 3Cr-1Mo or 3Cr-1Mo- V
with shell thickness greater than 150 mm. Test blocks shall be made
from prolongation of a shell ring or a shell plate used for constructing
the reactor. Test blocks shall be prepared in such a way that they can
be used to meet all fabricators UT calibration procedures and that
inspection according to API RP 934A, Appendix A can be performed
on site in a later date, if deemed necessary.
12.2 HIC Resistant Materials
Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) resistant steel shall be qualified in accordance
with 01-SAMSS-016. HIC resistant steel shall be procured from Saudi Aramco
approved manufacturers within a list available by the Saudi Aramco buyer, as
defined in this specification.
12.3 Gasket Materials
Types and material specifications of gaskets shall be as specified on the data
sheet.
12.4 Impact Testing
12.4.1 The Vessel Manufacturer is responsible of determining the required
Charpy impact energy value(s) based on the test temperature specified
on the data sheet and the purchased vessels component thickness.
12.4.2 Impact test temperature for a component of a vessel shall be as
specified on the data sheet.
12.4.3 Minimum acceptable Charpy impact energy values for all materials of
construction (base and weld metals) shall not be less than the highest
of the following applicable values:
1) 40/32 Joules for carbon steels thicker than 50 mm
2) As specified by ASME SEC VIII D2, but not less than
34/27 Joules
3) As specified by the licensors specification, but not less than
34/27 Joules
4) 55/47 Joules for 1 Cr- Mo, 1 Cr- Mo, 2 Cr- 1 Mo, 2
Cr- 1 Mo- V, 3 Cr- 1 Mo and 3 Cr- 1 Mo- V steels.
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Commentary Notes:
a) The first number of required energy values is the minimum average
energy of three specimens and the second number is the minimum for
one specimen of the impact test results. The second number shall not
be less than 80% of the average value.
b) Minimum acceptable Charpy impact energy values are applicable to
Div. 1 and Div.2 vessels.
12.4.4 For Div. 1 vessels the impact testing exemptions of UG-20 (f),
UCS-66 (b) (1) and (3), UCS-68(c), UG-84 (b) (2) and by reference to
Table UG-84.4 are not permitted. For Div. 2 vessels the exemptions of
3.11.2.3, 3.11.2.4, 3.11.2.5, 3.11.2.6, 3.11.2.8, 3.11.2.10, 3.11.3.1 and
3.11.4 are not permitted.
12.4.5 Impact testing is required, with no exception, for pressure vessels made
of low alloy steels.
12.4.6 Impact testing of materials and welding procedures are required when
test temperature is lower than -28C.
12.5 All forgings shall be forged as close as practicable to finished shape and size to
develop metal flow in a direction most favorable for resisting the stresses
encountered in service.
12.6 All flanges, fittings and piping for use as integral parts of pressure vessels shall
be purchased from Saudi Aramco approved manufacturers, either directly or
through approved stockists. Procurement of these items from stockists shall be
in accordance with SAEP-347.
13 Fabrication
13.1 Fabrication Tolerances
13.1.1 Fabrication tolerances shall be in accordance with the more stringent of
the applicable Code and PIP document VEFV1100, with the following
exceptions to tolerances on page 1 of drawing VEFV1102:
Tolerance 1: Height from base line to face of top nozzle shall be the
smaller of 4 mm per 3000 mm of height or 19 mm.
Tolerance 2: Flange face of nozzle with agitator shall be aligned
within degree of indicated plan in any direction.
Tolerance 7: Unless more stringent tolerances are specified by the
process licensor, alignment of flange face of nozzle
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without an agitator shall be within degree of
specified plan, but not to exceed 5 mm across the
diameter.
Tolerance 12: Bottom of vessel support to base line 0 mm, -6 mm.
Tolerance 13: For supports located above baseline, tolerances shall be
0 mm, + 6 mm.
Tolerance 14: Maximum difference in peak deviations from straight,
applied to the shell at any location along the
circumference clear of openings, shall be: 3 mm in any
3000 mm of length, 12 mm in any 15000 mm of length,
and shall not exceed 19 mm over the overall length of
shell. In addition, distortion caused by welding of
longitudinal or circumferential joints shall not exceed
6 mm maximum depth in a 900 mm length of shell
centered on the weld.
Tolerance 20: Deviation from average I.D. (as determined by
strapping) from nominal I.D. shall be as follows:
a) 3 mm for I.D. 1200 mm
b) 6 mm for I.D. > 1200 mm
Out-of- roundness tolerances shall be according to
applicable ASME SEC VIII.
Tolerance 26: Supports out of level shall be within 3 mm.
Deviation from flatness of support base plate is not
acceptable, i.e., support base plates shall be in full
direct contact with the foundation.
Tolerance 28: Delete.
Tolerance 31: Distance between centerlines of support bolt holes
shall be within 6 mm and maximum diagonal
measurements shall be within 6 mm.
13.1.2 Use of fitness-for-service assessment methodology to qualify the
design of components that do not satisfy the fabrication tolerances
according to this specification is prohibited.
13.1.3 Dished heads shall achieve at least the minimum required thickness in
all areas after forming.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
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13.2 Forming and Assembly
13.2.1 Tapered transitions shall be made only on the external surface of the
vessel, according to the rules of the applicable Code, in the following
conditions:
a) There will be an interference with the removal of a vessel's
internals.
b) Vessels that have strict requirements regarding smooth internal
profiles for flow or cyclic loading conditions or internal volume
constraints.
13.2.2 The beveled edges of weld preparations for carbon steel plates with
thickness 25 mm and thicker and all ferrous alloy plates shall be
magnetic particle examined for linear discontinuities. Defects shall not
exceed limits as per ASME SA-20.
13.2.3 Plate edge laminations revealed by magnetic particle examination shall
be completely removed and repaired.
13.2.4 Each shell section shall be completely welded longitudinally and
corrected for out of roundness and peaking of the weld seam prior to
welding to adjoining shell or head.
13.2.5 All re-rolling or forming of the shell sections is to be completed prior
to radiography.
13.2.6 Welds Encroachment
13.2.6.1 It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that the
outer edge of welds attaching manways, nozzles (with and
without reinforced pads) and other structural attachments
(with and without reinforced pads), except those in paragraph
10.2.11, to pressure-retaining components shall not be closer
than 1 inch from the adjacent edge of any other weld. It is the
responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that requirements
of paragraph 7.11.4 of this specification are met in the vicinity
of the welds.
Commentary Note:
Weld spacing requirements for skirt-to-vessel junctures shall
be according to paragraph 10.2.11 of this specification.
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13.2.6.2 Where the optimized fabrication layout and/ or process design
requirements do not absolutely allow meeting the spacing
requirement in paragraph 13.2.6.1 of this specification, NDE
per paragraph 14.6 shall be performed.
13.2.6.3 It is prohibited to cover butt welds in wall of vessels that will
undergo PWHT by structural attachments (with or without
reinforcing pads).
13.2.7 Telltale Holes in Reinforcing Pads
13.2.7.1 - inch telltale vent holes drilled and tapped for -inch NPT
shall be provided in reinforcing pads for welded attachments,
including nozzles and manways, per the following:
1) One hole in single piece reinforcing pad.
2) Where a pad is split, each segment shall have at least
one hole.
13.2.7.2 Telltale holes shall be located at the lowest position
accessible for inspection with center of the hole 25 mm
from edge of the pad. This is applicable to each segment of
a split reinforcing pad.
Commentary Note:
In case of reinforcing pads for attachments, other than
nozzles and manways, center of telltale hole shall be
25 mm from the closest edge of the pad.
13.2.7.3 Telltale holes in reinforcing pads for external welded
attachments shall be plugged with grease or other materials
adequate for the operating temperature but not capable of
retaining pressure, to prevent moisture ingress between the
pad and the vessel pressure-retaining component. Telltale
holes in internal attachment pads shall be seal welded.
13.2.8 Segments of split reinforcing pad shall be welded together without
using a backing strip.
13.2.9 All internal and external attachments, including clips, welded directly
to pressure-retaining parts, shall be fully seal welded, except for blank
square nuts used for external insulation where tack welding is allowed.
13.2.10 No tack welding is permitted between heads and skirts on the inside of
skirts.
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13.2.11 Vessels with large diameter and/ or overall length which fabrication
cannot be completely done in shop shall be designed to minimize the
amount of field welding, radiography and heat treatment. Where
adjacent sections are of such a size that shop fabrication and field
assembly is required, the sections shall be match marked to ensure
proper field fit up.
13.2.12 Forming
13.2.12.1 General
a) Cold forming is performed at temperatures within the
range of above 20C (68F) and below 120C (248F).
b) Hot forming is any forming performed above the
austenite phase start temperature of 740C (1364F).
c) All tempering heat treatments must be at least 25C
(45F) above the nominal PWHT temperature as
given in the applicable ASME code for the respective
material.
13.2.12.2 Hot Forming
1) All quenched and tempered materials must be
completely heat-treated after hot forming to achieve
the original material properties.
2) All hot forming procedures require approval of the
Saudi Aramco Engineer as defined in this
specification prior to commencement of any of
forming activities. Hot forming procedure shall
describe all heat treatment operations and tests to be
performed. The tests shall include, but not limited to,
all of the mechanical tests required by the original
material specification.
3) Normalized materials that are hot formed need to be
heat treated unless the below rules are followed:
a) Normalized materials that are hot formed in the
range of 750C (1382F) to 950C (1742F) and
still air-cooled.
b) Normalized materials that are hot formed in a
multi-step sequence must be cooled to below 200C
(392F) prior to the last step. The material will then
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be re-heated within the range of 750C (1382F) to
950C (1742F) for forming in the last step.
c) Normalized and tempered materials that are formed
in accordance with either 13.2.14.2(3)(a) or
13.2.14.2(3)(b) of this specification need only
receive a tempering heat treatment. The tempering
temperature must not exceed the temperature stated
in the steel manufacturers Material Test Certificate.
13.2.12.3 Cold Forming
a) Heat treatment requirements for Carbon Steels (P-1)
and Low Alloy Steels (P-3, 4, 5, 9A and 9B) that
undergo cold forming (by pressing or cold spinning)
shall be as follows:

Material Fiber Elongation Strain
f
(%) Heat Treatment Requirement
Carbon Steels P-1
Less than or equal to 5
None
(Exception: PWHT per the applicable Code
shall be performed for cold spun heads)
Greater than 5 and
equal to or less than 10
PWHT per the applicable Code
Greater than 10
Normalizing, Normalizing and tempering or
quenching and tempering, as required to
maintain original material properties.
Low Alloy Steels P-3, P-4,
P-5, P-9A & P9B
Less than or equal to 3
None
(Exception: PWHT per the applicable Code
shall be performed for cold spun heads)
Greater than 3 and
equal to or less than 10
PWHT per the applicable Code
Greater than 10
Normalizing, normalizing and tempering or
quenching and tempering, as required to
maintain original material properties.
High Alloy Materials
Table 6.2 of ASME Section VIII,
Division 2
Table 6.2 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2
Non-ferrous Materials
Table 6.3 of ASME Section VIII,
Division 2
Table 6.3 of ASME Section VIII, Division 2

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b) Calculation of forming fiber elongation strain f (%)
shall be according to the following:

Type of Part Being Formed Fiber Elongation Strain
f
(%)
For double curvature heads that are formed from
one-piece or welded multi-piece blanks by any
process that includes dishing or cold spinning (e.g.,
dished heads or cold spun heads)

f
=100 ln

[D
b
/(D
f
-2t
a
)]
For heads that are assembled from formed segments
(e.g., spherical dished shell plates or dished segments
of ellipsoidal or torispherical heads)

f
=100 t
b
/ R
fd

Cylinders and cones formed from plate
f
=(50 t
b
/ R
fc
) [1-(R
fc
/ R
o
)]

Where:
ln is the natural logarithm
D
b
is the diameter of unformed blank plate or diameter of intermediate product
D
f
is original outside diameter
R
fd
is the smallest mean radius of curvature of formed segment (mean radius of spherical
segment, mean knuckle radius of knuckle segment of multi sectional semi-ellipsoidal or
torispherical heads)
R
fc
is the mean radius of curvature of finished product (mean radius of cylinder, mean
radius of the smaller diameter of cone)
R
o
is the mean radius of initial product (flat plate) or the intermediate product (in case of
unformed initial product equals to infinity)
t
a
is the nominal thickness of the plate before forming or intermediate product
t
b
is the nominal thickness of the plate before forming

Commentary Notes:
i) Cold spun heads with nominal thickness exceeding 50 mm shall be heat treated by normalizing,
normalizing and tempering or quenching and tempering, as required to maintain original material
properties), irrespective of the calculated fiber elongation strain.
ii) For semi-ellipsoidal and torispherical heads formed from one-piece or welded multi-piece blanks,
maximum calculated extreme fiber elongation strain among all heads zones shall be used to
determine the need of heat treatment. Separate calculation for each zone (spherical crown,
knuckle area, etc.) shall be made, using the greatest measured thickness and smallest radius of
curvature of the zone after forming.
iii) Separate calculation of extreme fiber elongation shall be made for each formed segment
(e.g., spherical dished shell plates or dished segments of ellipsoidal or torispherical heads).
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Need for heat treatment shall be determined for each segment individually using the greatest
measured thickness and smallest radius of curvature after forming.
iv) In case of different forming steps without intermediate heat treatment are employed, extreme
fiber elongation is the total amount of elongation of the individual forming steps. In case of
intermediate heat treatment, the deformation is that elongation achieved after the last previous
heat treatment. This is applicable for all types of formed part.
v) Filler metal used in items subjected to hot forming temperatures, or normalized, shall satisfy the
weld joint design requirements after such heat treatment. This is considering that such welds will
generally suffer significant strength reduction.

13.2.13 Bolt tensioning device shall be used for bolting up flanged connections
with stud bolts of diameter 1- inch and above. Bolt up of flanges,
irrespective of bolt diameter shall be according to ASME PCC-1
requirements.
13.2.14 Correction of fit-up offsets of the closing longitudinal butt joint in a
rolled shell ring shall be achieved by only employing rolling machine
operation until the deviations are within the specified Code tolerances.
13.2.15 Alignment of pre-formed sections of multi-piece vessel head at butt
joints, with fit-up deviations exceeding the Code tolerances, shall be
achieved by only reforming (employing pressing machine) the head
segments until the deviations are within the specified limits.
13.2.16 Alignment of completely fabricated sections at girth joints (shell ring-to-
shell ring and head-to-shell ring), with fit-up deviations exceeding the
Code tolerances, shall be achieved by only reforming the shell (using
rolling machine) or head (employing pressing machine), whichever is
out-of-true, until the deviations are within the specified limits.
13.3 Welding
13.3.1 All welding shall be in accordance with the requirements of
SAES-W-010.
13.3.2 Dissimilar metal welds (DMW) are not permitted in sulfide stress
cracking environment as defined in this specification. Welds in clad
systems are acceptable if the DMW interface with the ferritic steel is
not in contact with the sour fluid.
13.3.3 Following maximum allowable carbon equivalent, based on thickness
(t) shall be met for pressure vessels intended for sulfide stress cracking
environment.
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Thickness (mm) Carbon Equivalent (%)
6 < t < 60 0.43
60 < t < 100 0.45
t > 100 0.48

13.3.4 The method of weld overlay shall be such as to produce a minimum of
3.2 mm thickness meeting the specified chemical composition of the
specified weld overlay material.
14 Nondestructive Examination
14.1 General
14.1.1 All required Nondestructive Examination (NDE) shall be performed in
accordance with inspection procedures that are in complete compliance
with ASME SEC V and this specification. This written procedure shall
address each inspection method and technique used including
acceptance criteria. When required by the purchase order or this
specification the procedure(s) shall be submitted to Saudi Aramco
Inspection Department for approval.
14.1.2 All Nondestructive Examination, including Magnetic Particle and Liquid
Penetrant examinations, shall be performed by personnel certified in
accordance with ASNT CP-189, or equivalent National Certification
Programs that has been approved by the Saudi Aramco Inspection
Department. Personnel responsible for interpretation of Nondestructive
Examination results shall be certified to a minimum of Level II.
14.1.3 All required NDE for final acceptance of the vessel shall be performed
after the completion of all welding and repairs and prior to pressure
testing. In vessels requiring PWHT, all NDE for final acceptance shall
be performed after the final PWHT.
14.1.4 All pressure and non-pressure welds shall be visually inspected where
accessible. All segments of longitudinal, circumferential or built-up
head pressure weld seams covered or rendered inaccessible by
internals, lifting lugs or other attachments shall be fully radiographed
over the entire affected length plus minimum 5 cm (2 inches) either
side prior to installation of the attachment.
14.1.5 Magnetic particle examination or liquid penetrant examination per the
applicable Code shall be performed on the surfaces of hot formed and
reheat treated parts.
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14.2 Radiographic Examination
14.2.1 All radiography shall be performed with intensifying screens. Only lead
or lead foil (fluoro-metallic) screens shall be permitted unless otherwise
approved by the Saudi Aramco Inspection Department.
14.2.2 Tungsten inclusions in Gas Tungsten Arc welds shall be evaluated as
individual rounded indications. Clustered or aligned tungsten
inclusions shall be removed and repaired.
14.2.3 Radiography examination requirements for weld joints categories A, B,
C and D shall be according to Table 1 of this specification and the
following:
a) Butt welds connecting forged junction ring, conforming to
ASME SEC VIII D2, Figure 4.2.4(e), to shell and head shall be
100% radiographed. Use of ultrasonic examination method that
generates permanent records can be used as a substitute to
radiography, as applicable (see relevant requirements per Note 3
of Table 1).
b) Butt welds in multi-piece plate blanks to be formed into heads
shall be 100% radiographed after forming. Use of ultrasonic
examination method that generates permanent records can be
used as a substitute to radiography (see relevant requirements per
Note 3 of Table 1).
14.2.4 100% radiography examination is required for the following weld joints:
a) Butt welds connecting skirt to forged junction ring, conforming
to ASME SEC VIII D2, Figure 4.2.4(e).
b) Butt welds connecting skirt to weld build-up construction at
vessel-to-skirt junction per paragraph 10.2.9 of this specification.
c) Butt welds connecting forged junction ring according to
ASME SEC VIII D2, Table 4.2.5 - Detail 7 to shell and head.
14.3 Ultrasonic Examination
14.3.1 Ultrasonic examination requirements for weld joints categories A, B, C
and D shall be according to Table 1 of this specification.
14.3.2 All plates with thickness more than and including 50 mm (2.0 inches)
shall be ultrasonically examined by the Vessel Manufacturer in
accordance with ASTM SA578. Acceptance criteria shall be Level C
of SA-578.
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14.3.3 Plates with thickness more than 12.5 mm (0.5 inch) and less than
50 mm (2.0 inches) shall be ultrasonically examined by the vessel
manufacturer in accordance with ASME SA-435. Any area where one
or more discontinuities produce a continuous total loss of back
reflection accompanied by continuous indications on the same plane
(within 5% of plate thickness) that cannot be encompassed within a
25 mm (1 inch) diameter circle is unacceptable.
14.3.4 100% Ultrasonic examination is required for the following weld joints:
a) Butt-welds in vessel supports.
c) Full-penetration welds in external attachments (supports,
brackets, lugs, etc.) to pressure retaining parts.
14.3.5 All forgings shall be 100% ultrasonically examined by the equipment
manufacturer in accordance with ASME SA388. Acceptance criteria
shall be in accordance with ASME SEC VIII D2, paragraph 3.3.4.2.
Indications per ASME SEC VIII D2, paragraphs 3.3.4.3 and 3.3.4.4 are
not acceptable.
14.3.6 100% ultrasonic examination is required for welds attaching vessel
directly to skirt and conforming to ASME SEC VIII D2,
Figures 4.2.4(a), 4.2.4(b) and 4.2.4(c). Where ultrasonic examination
cannot be utilized, due to only construction geometric configuration,
the whole joint shall be either magnetic particle (MP) or liquid
penetrant (LP) examined after each 6 mm depth of weld deposit and
the finished weld surface.
14.3.7 100% conventional ultrasonic examination is required for all full
penetration welds in vessel supports. Alternatively, 100% radiography
examination shall be used.
14.3.8 Weld build-ups construction at vessel-to-skirt junction per paragraphs
10.2.9 and 10.2.10 of this specification shall be 100% ultrasonically
examined.
14.4 Magnetic Particle Examination
14.4.1 Permanent magnetic yokes are not permitted.
14.4.2 Prods are not permitted for use on air-hardenable materials, materials
that require impact testing, and on the fluid side of pressured
components for vessels in wet sour service.
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14.4.3 Except for non-Ferro magnetic materials, magnetic particle
examination using an AC yoke is required for the following welds:
a) Pressure containing weld joints categories A, B, C and D per
Table 1 of this specification.
b) Welds in vessel support (skirt, saddle, lug, and leg)
c) Attachment welds to the pressure vessel
d) Areas where temporary attachments have been removed
e) Arc strike areas
Internal welds shall be examined with Wet fluorescent MPI. External
welds shall be examined with wet visible MPI or Wet fluorescent MPI.
Note: If wet visible MPI is used, a white color contrast coating shall be
applied prior to the examination.
14.4.4 All edges prepared for welding and all openings shall be magnetic
particle examined in accordance with the applicable Code.
14.4.5 Forgings shall be examined on all surfaces, utilizing wet fluorescent
magnetic particle method after final machining. All defects shall be
removed and repaired by welding in accordance with SAES-W-010.
Exception:
Except for welding edges, liquid penetrant examination is acceptable
as an alternative to magnetic particle examination.
14.5 Liquid Penetrant Examination
For non-Ferro magnetic materials, liquid penetrant examination shall be used for
the following welds:
a) Pressure containing welds joints categories A, B, C and D per Table 1 of
this specification.
b) Welds in vessel support (skirt, saddle, lug, and leg)
c) Attachment welds to the pressure vessel
d) Areas where temporary attachments have been removed
e) Arc strike areas
14.6 Welds Encroachment
Where the optimized fabrication layout and/ or process design requirements do
not absolutely allow meeting the spacing requirement in paragraph 13.2.6.1 of
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this specification, NDE per the following table shall be performed.

Case PWHT is required ( Note 1) PWHT is not required
1. Nozzle or manway without a reinforcing
pad installed onto a butt weld in vessel
wall
RT of butt weld in vessel for a length equal
to three times the diameter of the opening
with the center of the opening at mid-length.
Same as when PWHT is required.
2. Nozzle or manway with a reinforcing
pad installed onto a butt weld in vessel
wall
N/A
(See paragraph 8.5.2 of this specification)
RT of butt weld in vessel for a length equal
to three times the diameter of the opening
with the center of the opening at mid-length.
The butt weld shall be ground flush prior to
installation of the pad.
3. Nozzle or manway, without a
reinforcing pad, encroaching on a butt
weld in vessel wall
RT of butt weld in vessel for a length equal
to three times the diameter of the opening
with the center of the opening at mid-length.
Same as when PWHT is required.
4. Reinforced nozzle or manway with the
reinforcing pad encroaching on the butt
weld in vessel wall
N/A
(See paragraph 8.5.2 of this specification)
RT of butt weld in vessel for a length equal
to three times the diameter of the opening
with the center of the opening at mid-length.
5. Reinforced nozzle or manway with
penetration encroaching the butt weld
and the reinforcing pad covering it
N/A
(See paragraph 8.5.2 of this specification)
RT of butt weld in vessel for a length equal
to three times the diameter of the opening
with the center of the opening at mid-length.
The butt weld shall be ground flush prior to
installation of the pad.
6. Structural attachment, without a
reinforcing pad, encroaching on a butt
weld in vessel wall
RT of butt weld in vessel for a length equal
to the projection of the attachment weld plus
a minimum of 50 mm on either side.
Minimum length of the radiographed weld is
12 inches.
Same as when PWHT is required.
7. Reinforced structural attachment, with
the reinforcing pad encroaching on a
butt weld in vessel wall
RT of butt weld in vessel for a length equal
to the projection of the reinforcing pad
attachment weld plus a minimum of 50 mm
on either side. Minimum length of the
radiographed weld is 12 inches.
Same as when PWHT is required.
8. Structural attachment, without a
reinforcing pad, covering a butt weld in
vessel wall
N/A
(See prohibition in paragraph 13.2.6.3 of this
specification)
RT of butt weld in vessel for a length equal
to the projection of the reinforcing pad
attachment weld plus a minimum of 50 mm
on either side. Minimum length of the
radiographed weld is 12 inches.
9. Reinforced structural attachment, with
the reinforcing pad covering a butt weld
in vessel wall
N/A
(See prohibition in paragraph 13.2.6.3 of this
specification)
RT of butt weld in vessel for a length equal
to the projection of the reinforcing pad
attachment weld plus a minimum of 50 mm
on either side. Minimum length of the
radiographed weld is 12 inches. The butt
weld shall be ground flush prior to
installation of the pad.
10. Structural attachment (with or without
reinforcing pads) encroaching:
a) Another structural attachment (with or
without reinforcing pads)
b) Reinforced nozzle or manway
c) Nozzle or manway without a
reinforcing pad
MP or LP on the entire outermost fillet weld
of each attachment on the vessel side per
paragraph 14.4 or 14.5, as applicable, after
completion of all welds in all attachments.
Same as when PWHT is required.

Note 1: NDE for final acceptance of the vessel shall be performed after the final PWHT per paragraph 14.1.3 of this
specification.

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14.7 Hardness Testing
Weld hardness testing shall be in accordance with the requirements of
SAES-W-010.
15 Postweld Heat Treatment
15.1 Postweld heat treatment shall be done when required by the applicable Code or
when specified on the data sheet.
15.2 Code exemptions for postweld heat treatment of ferritic materials based on the
use of austenitic or nickel-based electrodes are not permitted for vessels in
sulfide stress cracking environments as defined in this specification.
15.3 Code exemptions for postweld heat treatment of P4 and P5 materials are not
permitted for applications involving either wet sour or hydrogen services or for
materials exceeding 1.25% nominal chromium content.
15.4 The maximum postweld heat treating soaking temperature for quenched and
tempered carbon steel materials shall not exceed the temperature at which the
test pieces were heat treated, as shown on the Mill Test Reports or 650C
maximum for carbon steel and 700C for low chrome alloy steels.
15.5 Time and temperature of post weld heat treatment for carbon steel vessel with
potential environmental cracking shall be in accordance with requirements of
API RP582.
15.6 Final postweld heat treatment shall follow all welding and repairs but shall be
performed prior to any hydrotest or other load test.
15.7 A sign shall be painted on a postweld heat treated vessel and located such that it
is clearly visible from grade reading:
Caution-Vessel Has Been Postweld Heat Treated-Do Not Weld
15.8 Postweld heat treatment shall be in accordance with the requirements of
SAES-W-010 and this specification.
16 Examination, Inspection, Pressure Tests and Repairs
16.1 Examination
16.1.1 The responsibility for examination rests with the Vessel Manufacturer
in accordance with the applicable Code and the requirements of this
specification.
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16.1.2 Additional examination of any weld joint at any stage of the fabrication
may be requested by the Saudi Aramco Inspector, including repeating
examination of previously examined joints. The Saudi Aramco
Inspector also has the right to request or conduct independent
Nondestructive Examination of any joint. If such examination should
disclose nonconformance to the requirements of the applicable Code or
this specification, all repair and Nondestructive examination costs shall
be done at the Vessel Manufacturer's expense.
16.1.3 All necessary safety precautions shall be taken for each examination
method.
16.1.4 Surface irregularities, including weld reinforcement, inhibiting
accurate interpretation of the specified method of nondestructive
examination shall be ground smooth.
16.1.5 Examination of all welds shall include a band of base metal at least one
inch wide on each side of the weld.
16.2 Inspection
16.2.1 The Saudi Aramco Inspector shall have free access to the work at all
times.
16.2.2 Saudi Aramco shall have the right to inspect the fabrication at any
stage and to reject material or workmanship, which does not conform
to the specified requirements.
16.2.3 Saudi Aramco reserves the right to inspect, photograph, and/or
videotape all material, fabrication, coating, and workmanship and any
materials, equipment, or tools used or to be used for any part of the
work to be performed.
16.2.4 Saudi Aramco may reject the use of any materials, equipment, or tools
that do not conform to the specification requirements, jeopardize safety
of personnel, or impose hazard or damage to Saudi Aramco property.
16.2.5 All of the rights of Saudi Aramco and their designated representatives
for access, documentation, inspection, and rejection shall include any
work done by sub-contractors or sub-vendors.
16.2.6 The Vessel Manufacturer shall provide the Saudi Aramco Inspector all
reasonable facilities to satisfy him that the work is being performed as
specified.
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16.2.7 The fabricator shall furnish, install, and maintain in a safe operating
condition all necessary scaffolding, ladders, walkways, and lighting for
a safe and thorough inspection.
16.2.8 Pressure vessels manufactured in accordance with this specification are
subject to verification by the Saudi Aramco Inspector in accordance
with Saudi Aramco Inspection Requirements Form 175-321900,
Manufacture of Pressure Vessels.
16.2.9 Prior to final inspection and pressure testing, the inside and outside of
the vessel shall be thoroughly cleaned of all slag, scale, dirt, grit, weld
spatter, paint, oil, etc.
16.2.10 Inspection at the mill, shop, or fabrication yard shall not release the
Vessel Manufacturer from responsibility for repairing or replacing any
defective material or workmanship that may be subsequently
discovered in the field.
16.3 Pressure Testing
16.3.1 After completion of all external and internal welding, nondestructive
examination, repairs and heat treatment, as applicable, and prior to
painting, vessels shall be pressure tested using water as the testing
media in accordance with the applicable Code, SAES-A-007 and this
specification.
16.3.2 Pneumatic testing in lieu of hydrostatic testing requires the approval of
the Manager of the Saudi Aramco Inspection Department.
16.3.3 Hydrostatic test pressure shall be held for a minimum of one hour per
25 mm of vessel thickness and in no case less than one hour.
16.3.4 Pressure testing for acceptance of the vessel shall not be made prior to
the final postweld heat treatment.
16.3.5 All welded attachments provided with telltale holes shall be
pneumatically tested at minimum 70kPa (10 psi) prior to heat treatment
and vessel pressure testing.
16.3.6 Telltale holes in external attachments must not be plugged during the
vessel pressure test. Telltale holes in internal attachments must be seal
welded prior to pressure testing of the vessel.
16.3.7 The use of shellacs, glues, lead, etc., on gaskets during testing is
prohibited. No paint or primer shall be applied to a vessel prior to
hydrostatic testing.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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16.3.8 The Vessel Manufacturer shall furnish all test materials and facilities,
including blinds, bolting, and gaskets.
16.3.9 Hydrostatic pressure testing shall be performed with gaskets and bolting
identical to those required in service and as specified on the data sheet.
These gaskets may be used as service gaskets if the bolted joint is not
disassembled after completion of hydrostatic pressure testing.
16.3.10 The manufacturer shall supply the following:
a) Minimum two sets of spare gaskets with a blind flange for each
manway and blinded nozzle in the vessel.
b) Minimum one set of service gasket set and two sets of spare
gaskets for each nozzle with companion flanges in the vessel.
c) All bolting with minimum 10% spare bolting (3 minimum for
each size) per vessel.
16.3.11 Test pressure measured at the top of the vessel shall be:
16.3.11.1 For Division 1 vessels per UG-99(b):
P
T
=1.3 MAWP (S/S
T
)
16.3.11.2 For Division 2 vessels per 8.2.1:
Greater of:
i) P
T
= 1.43 MAWP
ii) P
T
= 1.25 MAWP (S
T
/ S)
Where,
P
T
is the minimum test pressure
S is the allowable stress at design temperature
S
T
is the allowable stress at test temperature
S
T
/S is the lowest ratio for the pressure boundary
materials, excluding bolting materials, of which
the vessel is constructed.
16.3.12 Water used for pressure testing shall be potable. For vessels
manufactured from stainless steel, the water shall not contain more
than 50 ppm chlorides with pH value not exceeding 7 at the time of
filling the vessel.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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16.3.13 Testing Conditions
a) Metal temperature throughout a pressure vessel shall be
maintained at all times during pressure testing as follows:
1. At least 17C (30F) above the warmest MDMT based on
the temperature values on the impact test exemption curves
of the applicable code, considering materials of
construction for all of the vessels components.
2. Not below 15C (59F).
3. Not above 50C (122F), unless there is information on the
brittle characteristics of the equipment material indicating
that a higher test temperature is needed.
b) The temperature of the test water shall be maintained at least
15C (59F) at all times during hydrostatic testing.
c) For pneumatic testing, medium test temperature shall be
maintained at least 11C (20F) above the dew point temperature
of the testing medium at all times during pneumatic testing.
When compressed air is used, testing shall be performed when
the dew point of air is between -20C to -70C (-4F to -94F).
d) The test pressure shall not be applied until the vessel and the test
fluid are at about the same temperature.
16.3.14 Vertical vessels that are pressure tested in the horizontal position shall
be adequately supported such that the primary stresses in any part of
the vessel do not exceed 90% of the minimum specified yield strength
of the vessel material.
16.3.15 Horizontal vessels shall be tested while resting on their permanent
support saddles without additional supports or cribbing.
16.3.16 Vessels shall be protected from being over pressured, while being
pressure tested, by use of pressure test relief valve(s) meeting the
following:
a) Relief valves shall be of adequate capacity set to relieve at 10%
above the test pressure, provided requirements of paragraph
7.12.3 are met.
b) Sizing of relief valve(s) shall be according to API RP520, Part I.
c) The relief valve(s) shall be tested, dated, and tagged within one
week prior to the pressure test.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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d) The pressure test relief valve shall be accompanied with a
calibration certificate that includes the cold differential test
pressure (CDTP), test date and the spring range. The CDTP shall
be within the spring range.
16.3.17 After completion of pressure testing, the vessel shall be completely
drained and thoroughly dried including surfaces of internals.
For vessels made completely of stainless steels and vessels internally
cladded or weld-overlaid with these materials, pickling and passivation
shall be applied according to ASTM A380.
16.4 Manufacturing Repairs
16.4.1 The Saudi Aramco Engineer must review and approve crack repair
procedures, required by the applicable Code, prior to commencement
of repairs. It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to ensure that
repairs done by the mill of any material defects, per the applicable
Code, are documented.
16.4.2 After completion of repairs required by the applicable Code the
following shall be repeated:
a) Heat treatment of the repaired section if it has been heat-treated
prior to the repairs.
b) All nondestructive examinations (radiography, magnetic particle,
dye-penetrant, etc.) performed on the repaired section prior to the
repairs.
c) A weld map of all repairs shall be made a part of the final vessel
documentation. The weld map shall include the nondestructive
examination procedure and results, the welding procedure
specifications and stress relief charts.
17 Nameplates and Stampings
17.1 Each vessel shall be identified by a nameplate and marked with the information
required by the applicable Code and the requirements of this specification.
17.2 Vessels manufactured inside and outside Saudi Arabia shall be Code stamped
for all services in accordance with the applicable Code.
17.3 Nameplates and nameplate mounting brackets shall be located such that they
will not be covered by insulation and are easily readable from grade or a
platform. Brackets shall extend from the outside of vessel to clear insulation,
and with sufficient access for surface preparation, and painting. The nameplate
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
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Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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markings as required by the applicable Code shall be stamped or engraved such
that the nameplate material is permanently deformed with the symbols.
17.4 Nameplates shall be 3-mm minimum thickness and manufactured from type 304
stainless steel or Monel and continuously welded to the mounting bracket
according to PIP VEFV1100.
17.5 The mounting bracket shall be continuously seal-welded and positioned such as
not to allow for collection of moisture or rain.
17.6 Nameplate for internally coated vessels shall show: the Saudi Aramco Painting
System Numbers, type of coating, brand name, and date of application.
18 Coatings and Painting
18.1 Type of coating and painting systems shall be as specified on the Vessel data
Sheet.
18.2 Surfaces to be coated shall be cleaned and prepared prior to its coating in
accordance with SAES-H-100.
18.3 Gasket contact surfaces shall be properly protected from blasting and shall not
be coated or painted.
19 Shipping Requirements
19.1 General
19.1.1 Vessel shall be protected against corrosion during shipping and at
fabrication yard and construction sites.
19.1.2 Prior to shipping, vessels are to be completely and thoroughly dried
and cleaned from all loose scales, weld slags, dirt and debris to the
satisfaction of the Saudi Aramco Inspector.
19.1.3 The Vessel Manufacturer is responsible for ensuring that the vessels
and internals being shipped are adequately braced and shall provide
temporary supports where appropriate to ensure adequate supporting of
the vessel during shipment.
19.1.4 Vessels partially shop fabricated and/or liable to suffer distortion
during transit and erection shall be suitably braced. All ends that will
be open during shipment shall be covered to prevent ingress of dirt and
other foreign matters. The Vessel Manufacturer shall advise the Saudi
Aramco Engineer of the method of protection for review and approval.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
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Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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19.1.5 Markings shall be done with water-insoluble materials that contain no
harmful substances that would attack or harmfully affect the vessel at
both ambient and design temperatures.
19.1.6 Marking materials shall be free of lead, sulfur, zinc, cadmium,
mercury, chlorine, or any other halogens.
19.1.7 Export packaging marking and shipping shall be in accordance with
the purchase order.
19.2 Internal Protection
19.2.1 Thoroughly dry the internal surface of the vessel. Remove all free
water. Thoroughly purge vessel with dry air so that relative humidity
inside vessel is less than 40% at the lowest ambient temperature likely
to be experienced in shipping and storage.
19.2.2 The interior surfaces of vessels, including internals, shall be protected
from corrosion by the use of a nontoxic liquid or powder vapor phase
corrosion inhibitor (VpCI) that is compatible with the metallurgy of all
components in the equipment being protected and is environmentally
friendly for disposal at sea. The chemistry shall be based on amine
carboxylates, amine benzoates, or amine oleates with additional
components as necessary. Nitrites shall not be used.
Following are specific requirements for corrosion inhibitors:
19.2.2.1 Water-soluble liquid products shall provide both vapor phase
and contact inhibition. These products shall be applied at the
rate of 1 liter per cubic meter of internal space or the
minimum specified by the inhibitor manufacturer, whichever
is greater. Liquid products are preferred as these are easily
removed with the process flow on start up.
19.2.2.2 Ready to spray, oil soluble liquid vapor phase corrosion
inhibitors can be used at a surface application rate of 25 to
30 square meters per liter of chemical, or the minimum
application rate recommended by vendor, whichever is greater.
Oil soluble inhibitors will leave an oily film on the interior of
the equipment that must be acceptable to the end user.
19.2.2.3 Powders shall be free flowing crystals for ease of application
and be environmentally friendly for disposal at sea if
necessary. Powder products shall be applied at the rate of
0.3 kg per cubic meter of internal void space or the
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
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Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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minimum specified by the inhibitor manufacturer, whichever
is greater. Powder can be fogged into the equipment or it
can be placed inside Tyvek bags and then placed inside the
equipment. Tyvek bags must be removed before start-up.
For gas and LNG service, excess loose powder must be
removed before start-up by vacuuming or by water rinsing.
19.2.2.4 Products shall be tested per NACE TM0208-2008 and shall
provide Grade 3 or Grade 4 performance. When the equipment
contains a copper/copper alloy component, the VpCI shall also
be tested per Section 7 of NACE TM0208-2008.
19.2.2.5 For any questions on application rates, or any situations
requiring clarification or for approval of other products,
forms, or chemistries of vapor phase corrosion inhibitors,
obtain the prior written approval of the Supervisor,
Corrosion Technology Unit, Materials Engineering and
Corrosion Control Division, CSD.
19.2.2.6 Vessels must be sealed vapor tight using metallic covers, for
inhibitors to be effective.
19.2.3 For vessels made completely of stainless steels and vessels internally
cladded or weld-overlaid with these materials, in addition vapor phase
corrosion inhibitors applied per 19.2.2, nitrogen blanketing shall be
used during shipment or periods of storage at the construction site.
To apply nitrogen blanketing, pressurize the vessel to 60 psig with
nitrogen and bleed down slowly to 5 psig. Pressurization in this
manner shall be repeated 3 times. Bleed down must be slow and
controlled to minimize the loss of vapor phase inhibitor. The vessel
shall be clearly marked with a warning:
Warning: asphyxiation hazard--preserved with nitrogen.
19.2.4 For vessels that have permanent internal coatings covering some or all
of the vessel internals, the Vessel Manufacturer shall contact the
Supervisor, Corrosion Technology Unit, Materials Engineering and
Corrosion Control Division, CSD, and obtain prior written agreement
on required preservation techniques.
19.2.5 Use of non-toxic desiccants is considered acceptable as an alternative
internal protection measure against corrosion for vessels ONLY when
the warranty will be revoked by using non-toxic vapor phase inhibitor;
provided that the following conditions are met:
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
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Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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19.2.5.1 The plan is pre-approved in writing by the Supervisor,
Corrosion Technology Unit, Materials Engineering and
Corrosion Control Division, CSD.
19.2.5.2 Silica gel application rate shall be a minimum of 3.0 kg per
cubic meter of internal space.
19.2.5.3 The vessel shall be maintained 100% vapor tight using
bolted metal blind flanges.
19.2.5.4 The plan includes methods and designated responsible
persons to evaluate the condition of the desiccant and re-
apply if necessary.
19.2.5.5 Calcium chloride desiccants shall not be used.
19.2.5.6 The desiccant must be removed on site prior to operating the
vessel.
Commentary Note:
These circumstances have arisen in the past when a vessel is shipped
from a manufacturer with a catalyst in place prior to field erection.
19.2.6 Other preservation products or methods may be applied with the prior
written approval of the Supervisor, Corrosion Technology Unit,
Materials Engineering and Corrosion Control Division, CSD.
19.3 External Protection
19.3.1 The protection of external surfaces shall be obtained by using one of
the following:
a) A hard temporary preservative appropriate for the metallurgy of
the vessel and can be easily removed at site prior to surface
preparation and application of the Saudi Aramco coating and
painting system.
b) Prepare the surface and apply the complete (primer and final
coatings) Saudi Aramco surface preparation, and coating and
painting system in the shop.
c) For solid Stainless Steel vessels, which are to be shipped via ocean
freight, shall be protected using a temporary protective system
compatible with stainless steel and suitable outdoor exposure.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
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Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


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19.3.2 Telltale holes in reinforcing pads shall be protected with wooden plugs
or packed with rust preventative grease.
19.3.3 Flanged connections and all other machined surfaces shall be protected
by a coating suitable for the metallurgy of the vessel and can be easily
removed in the field. Connections shall be fitted with steel or wood
cover, 3 mm thick and neoprene gaskets.
19.3.4 Covers shall be securely attached by a minimum of four bolts equally
spaced. For ocean shipment, flanged connections shall also be covered
with heavy-duty plastic bags securely taped to the nozzles.
19.3.5 Flanges with permanent blind flanges or covers shall be secured with
the gaskets and bolting specified for service.
20 Drawings, Calculations and Data
20.1 The Vessel Manufacturer shall Prepare drawings, calculations, and data in
accordance with NMR-7919-1, Nonmaterial Requirements. Calculations shall
include, but not limited to:
a. ASME Code Section VIII calculations.
b. Wind and earthquake calculations, as applicable.
c. Support calculations.
d. Calculations associated with lifting and erecting the vessel
e. Nozzle load analysis for local and gross effect, when required.
f. Design of internal and external attachments.
g. Design loads and load combinations.
20.2 Drawings and calculations that are approved by the Design Engineer shall not
relieve the Vessel Manufacturer from the responsibility to comply with the
Codes, and this specification.
20.3 Vessel manufacturer shall prepare drawings which indicate the ultrasonic
thickness of the vessel shell section, heads and nozzles. An adequate number of
readings shall be taken to represent the actual thickness of the components.
20.4 All approved data sheets, drawings and forms are to be submitted to
EK&RD/Drawing Management Unit (DMU) for inclusion into Corporate
Drawings Management System.

Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


Page 54 of 55

Revision Summary
23 February 2011 Major revision.
22 May 2011 Editorial revision intended for clarifying some requirements of the document.
13 December 2011 Minor revision intended to reflect changes to some requirements, which have been already
included in the relevant SAES-D-001.
15 January 2012 Editorial revision intended for clarifying some requirements of the document.
15 April 2012 Editorial revision intended for clarifying some requirements of the document.
Document Responsibility: Vessels Standards Committee 32-SAMSS-004
Issue Date: 15 April 2012
Next Planned Update: 23 February 2016 Manufacture of Pressure Vessels


Page 55 of 55

Table 1 Nondestructive Examination Requirements

Weld Joint Category Radiography (RT) Ultrasonic (UT)
Liquid Penetrant (LP) or
Magnetic Particle (MP)
A and B
Per Design Code Criteria
(Spot or 100%) (1) & (3)
See Notes (2) & (3) 100%
C 100% (3) 100% (3) 100% (6)
D See Note (4) See Note (4) See Note (4)

Notes:
(1) 100% RT is required for vessels under any of the following services or design conditions:
Weld joints requiring full radiography per the applicable code.
Lethal services.
Hydrogen services.
Cyclic services.
Unfired steam boilers with design pressure exceeding 50 psi.
Thick wall.
(2) 100% conventional UT is required for only vessels under any of the services or design conditions per note 1 of
this table.
(3) 100% UT, employing methods that generate permanent records may be used as a substitute for the
combination of 100% RT and 100% conventional UT specified for vessels under common services and design
conditions per notes 1 and 2 of this table. Such UT methods must be approved by Inspection Department prior
to commencement of any work.
(4) Inspection for Category - D weld joint shall meet the following:
a) 100% RT and 100% Conventional UT for design conditions/ services Group I per paragraph 8.5.2 of this
specification. Alternatively, 100% UT employing methods that generate permanent records can be used,
where such methods must be approved by the Inspection Department prior to commencement of any
work.
b) Following design details shall be used where RT is required for Category - D weld joint:
i. For Division 1 vessels: Figures UW-16.1: (f-1), (f-2), (f-3) or (f-4).
ii. For Division 2 vessels: Figures 4.2.13: (1), (2), (3), (4), (5) or (6).
c) Where RT cannot be utilized, due to only joint geometry, 100% UT shall be performed on the joint from an
accessible side. If conventional UT method can not be utilized, other UT methods shall be used and must
be approved by Inspection Department prior to commencement of any work.
d) Where RT and UT cannot be utilized, due to only joint geometry, following examination shall be performed:
i. For attachments without a reinforcing pad, the whole joint shall be either 100% magnetic particle (MP)
or 100% liquid penetrant (LP) examined at the root pass, after each 6 mm depth of weld deposit and
the final weld surface. Where PWHT is required, final surfaces of weld joints shall be examined for
acceptance after final PWHT.
ii. For attachments with a reinforcing plate, similar examination as in (i) above shall be performed at the
nozzle. 100% MT or 100% LP shall be also performed on the final surface of the fillet welds attaching
the reinforcing pad to vessel and nozzle.
(5) Inspection requirements for connections attached to nozzles and manways per paragraph 8.5.2 shall be
according to note 4 of this table.
(6) 100% MT or 100% LP shall be applied to the root pass and final surface of lap-welded Category - C weld joint.