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Glossary A-F

Pronunciation Guide
AB toxins The structure and activity of many exotoxins are based
on the AB model. In this model, the B portion of the
toxin is responsible for toxin binding to a cell but does
not directly harm it. The A portion enters the cell and
disrupts its function.
(See 797
accessory pigments !hotosynthetic pigments such as carotenoids and
phycobiliproteins that aid chlorophyll in trapping light
(See "9#
acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-
A combination of acetic acid and coen$yme A that is
energy rich% it is produced by many catabolic path&ays
and is the substrate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty
acid biosynthesis, and other path&ays.
(See "'(
acid dyes )yes that are anionic or have negatively charged groups
such as carboxyls.
(See *7
acid fast +efers to bacteria li,e the mycobacteria that cannot be
easily decolori$ed &ith acid alcohol after being stained
&ith dyes such as basic fuchsin.
(See -.(
acid-fast staining A staining procedure that differentiates bet&een bacteria
based on their ability to retain a dye &hen &ashed &ith
an acid alcohol solution.
(See *'
acidophile (as_id-o-
A microorganism that has its gro&th optimum bet&een
about p/ 0 and -.-.
(See "*(
ac"uired enamel pellicle A membranous layer on the tooth enamel surface formed
by selectively adsorbing glycoproteins (mucins from
saliva. This pellicle confers a net negative charge to the
tooth surface.
(See 9(.
ac"uired immune
deficiency syndrome
An infectious disease syndrome caused by the human
immunodeficiency virus and is characteri$ed by the loss
of a normal immune response, follo&ed by increased
susceptibility to opportunistic infections and an increased
ris, of some cancers.
(See '7'
ac"uired immune
The ability to produce antibodies against nonself
antigens &hile 1tolerating1 (not producing antibodies
against self2antigens.
(See 7-'
ac"uired immunity +efers to the type of specific immunity that develops
after exposure to a suitable antigen or is produced after
antibodies are transferred from one individual to another.
(See 7*9
actino&acteria (a'(t)!-no-
A group of gram2positive bacteria containing the
actinomycetes and their high 3 " 4 relatives.
(See -."
actinomycete (a'(t)!-no-
An aerobic, gram2positive bacterium that forms
branching filaments (hyphae and asexual spores.
(See -(7
actinorhizae Associations bet&een actinomycetes and plant roots.
(See #'*
acti*ated sludge (slu+) 5olid matter or sediment composed of actively gro&ing
microorganisms that participate in the aerobic portion of
a biological se&age treatment process. The microbes
readily use dissolved organic substrates and transform
them into additional microbial cells and carbon dioxide.
(See #-9
acti*ation energy The energy re6uired to bring reacting molecules together
to reach the transition state in a chemical reaction.
(See "#*
acti*e carrier An individual &ho has an overt clinical case of a disease
and &ho can transmit the infection to others.
(See '-.
acti*e immunization The induction of active immunity by natural exposure to
a pathogen or by vaccination.
(See 7#.
acti*e site The part of an en$yme that binds the substrate to form an
en$yme2substrate complex and cataly$e the reaction.
Also called the catalytic site.
(See "#*
acti*e transport The transport of solute molecules across a membrane
against an electrochemical gradient% it re6uires a carrier
protein and the input of energy.
(See "0"
acute carrier 5ee casual carrier.
(See '-.
acute infections 7irus infections &ith a fairly rapid onset that last for a
relatively short time.
(See ."0
acute *iral gastroenteritis An inflammation of the stomach and intestines, normally
caused by 8or&al, and 8or&al,li,e viruses, other
caliciviruses, rotaviruses, and astroviruses.
(See '9"
acyclo*ir (a-si_'lo-*ir) A synthetic purine nucleoside derivative &ith antiviral
activity against herpes simplex virus.
(See '*"
adenine (ad_e-nen) A purine derivative, #2aminopurine, found in
nucleosides, nucleotides, coen$ymes, and nucleic acids.
(See *"7
adenosine diphosphate
(A$P, ah-den_o-sen)
The nucleoside diphosphate usually formed upon the
brea,do&n of AT! &hen it provides energy for &or,.
(See "--
adenosine -_-triphosphate
The triphosphate of the nucleoside adenosine, &hich is a
high energy molecule or has high phosphate group
transfer potential and serves as the cell9s ma:or form of
energy currency.
(See "--
adhesin (ad-he_zin) A molecular component on the surface of a
microorganism that is involved in adhesion to a
substratum or cell. Adhesion to a specific host tissue
usually is a preliminary stage in pathogenesis, and
adhesins are important virulence factors.
(See 79*
ad+u*ant (a+_/-*/nt) ;aterial added to an antigen to increase its
immunogenicity. 4ommon examples are alum, ,illed
Bordetella pertussis, and an oil emulsion of the antigen,
either alone (<reund9s incomplete ad:uvant or &ith ,illed
mycobacteria (<reund9s complete ad:uvant.
(See 7."
adult .-cell leu'emia A type of &hite blood cell cancer caused by the /T=72"
(See ''7
aero&e (a_er-o&) An organism that gro&s in the presence of atmospheric
(See "*7
aero&ic anoxygenic
!hotosynthetic process in &hich electron donors such as
organic matter or sulfide, &hich do not result in oxygen
evolution, are used under aerobic conditions.
(See #".
aero&ic respiration
A metabolic process in &hich molecules, often organic,
are oxidi$ed &ith oxygen as the final electron acceptor.
(See "7(
aerotolerant anaero&es ;icroorganisms that gro& e6ually &ell &hether or not
oxygen is present.
(See "*7
aflatoxin (af(lah-to'_sin) A poly,etide secondary fungal metabolite that can cause
(See 9#7
agar (ahg_ar) A complex sulfated polysaccharide, usually extracted
from red algae, that is used as a solidifying agent in the
preparation of culture media.
(See "0-
agglutinates The visible aggregates or clumps formed by an
agglutination reaction.
(See 77-
agglutination reaction (ah-
The formation of an insoluble immune complex by the
cross2lin,ing of cells or particles.
(See 7-#
agglutinin (ah-gloo(t)!-
The antibody responsible for an agglutination reaction.
(See 7-#
A#$% 5ee ac6uired immune deficiency syndrome.
(See '7'
A#$%-related complex
A collection of symptoms such as lymphadenopathy
(s&ollen lymph glands, fever, malaise, fatigue, loss of
appetite, and &eight loss. It results from an /I7
infection and may progress to fran, AI)5.
(See '79
air&orne transmission The type of infectious organism transmission in &hich
the pathogen is truly suspended in the air and travels over
a meter or more from the source to the host.
(See '-.
a'inetes 5peciali$ed, nonmotile, dormant, thic,2&alled resting
cells formed by some cyanobacteria.
(See .7(
alcoholic fermentation A fermentation process that produces ethanol and 4>*
from sugars.
(See "79
alga (al_gah) A common term for a series of unrelated groups of
photosynthetic eucaryotic microorganisms lac,ing
multicellular sex organs (except for the charophytes and
conducting vessels.
(See -7"
algicide (al_+)!-s!d) An agent that ,ills algae.
(See "('
algology (al-gol_o-+e) The scientific study of algae.
(See -7"
al'alophile A microorganism that gro&s best at p/s from about '.-
to "".-.
(See "*(
allergen (al_er-+en) A substance capable of inducing allergy or specific
(See 7#'
allergic contact
An allergic reaction caused by haptens that combine &ith
proteins in the s,in to form the allergen that produces the
immune response.
(See 77"
allergy (al_er-+e) 5ee hypersensitivity.
(See 7#'
allograft (al_o-graft) A transplant bet&een genetically different individuals of
the same species.
(See 77(
allosteric enzyme (al_o-
An en$yme &hose activity is altered by the binding of a
small effector or modulator molecule at a regulatory site
separate from the catalytic site% effector binding causes a
conformational change in the en$yme and its catalytic
site, &hich leads to en$yme activation or inhibition.
(See "#-
allotype Allelic variants of antigenic determinant(s found on
antibody chains of some, but not all, members of a
species, &hich are inherited as simple ;endelian traits.
(See 7(.
alpha hemolysis A greenish $one of partial clearing around a bacterial
colony gro&ing on blood agar.
(See -(", 797
alpha-proteo&acteria >ne of the five subgroups of proteobacteria, each &ith
distinctive "#5 r+8A se6uences. This group contains
most of the oligotrophic proteobacteria% some have
unusual metabolic modes such as methylotrophy,
chemolithotrophy, and nitrogen fixing ability. ;any have
distinctive morphological features.
(See .'7
alternati*e complement
An antibody2independent path&ay of complement
activation that includes the 4(249 components of the
classical path&ay and several other serum protein factors
(e.g., factor B and properdin.
(See 7"#
al*eolar macrophage A vigorously phagocytic macrophage located on the
epithelial surface of the lung alveoli &here it ingests
inhaled particulate matter and microorganisms.
(See 7""
amantadine (ah-man_tah-
An antiviral compound used to prevent type A influen$a
(See '*"
ame&iasis (ame&ic
dysentery) (am(e-&i_ah-
An infection &ith amoebae, often resulting in dysentery%
usually it refers to an infection by ?ntamoeba histolytica.
(See 9-0
amensalism (a-men_s/l-
A relationship in &hich the product of one organism has
a negative effect on another organism.
(See #09
American trypanosomiasis
(Chagas2 disease)
5ee trypanosomiasis.
(See 9-7
Ames test A test that uses a special 5almonella strain to test
chemicals for mutagenicity and potential carcinogenicity.
(See *-(
amino acid acti*ation The initial stage of protein synthesis in &hich amino
acids are attached to transfer +8A molecules.
(See *##
aminoacyl or acceptor site
(A site)
The site on the ribosome that contains an aminoacyl2
t+8A at the beginning of the elongation cycle during
protein synthesis% the gro&ing peptide chain is
transferred to the aminoacyl2t+8A and lengthens by an
amino acid.
(See *70
aminoglycoside anti&iotics
A group of antibiotics synthesi$ed by 5treptomyces and
;icromonospora, &hich contain a cyclohexane ring and
amino sugars% all aminoglycoside antibiotics bind to the
small ribosomal subunit and inhibit protein synthesis.
(See '"#
amnesic shellfish poisoning
The disease arising in humans and animals that eat
seafood such as mussels contaminated &ith domoic acid
from diatoms. The disease produces short2term memory
loss in its victims.
(See -'0
amoe&oid mo*ement ;oving by means of cytoplasmic flo& and the formation
of pseudopodia (temporary cytoplasmic protrusions of
the cytoplasm.
(See -90
amphi&olic path1ays
;etabolic path&ays that function both catabolically and
(See "7#
amphitrichous (am-
A cell &ith a single flagellum at each end.
(See #(
amphotericin B (am_fo-
An antibiotic from a strain of 5treptomyces nodosus that
is used to treat systemic fungal infections% it also is used
topically to treat candidiasis.
(See '*0
ana&olism (ah-na&_o-
The synthesis of complex molecules from simpler
molecules &ith the input of energy.
(See "7(
anaero&e (an-a_er-o&) An organism that gro&s in the absence of free oxygen.
(See "*7
anaero&ic digestion (an_a-
The microbiological treatment of se&age &astes under
anaerobic conditions to produce methane.
(See #-9
anaero&ic respiration
An energy2yielding process in &hich the electron
transport chain acceptor is an inorganic molecule other
than oxygen.
(See "7(
anammox process The coupled use of nitrite as an oxidant and ammonium
ion as a reductant under anaerobic conditions to yield
nitrogen gas.
(See #"#
anamnestic response
The recall, or the remembering, by the immune system of
a prior response to a given antigen.
(See 7*9, 7.(
anaphylaxis (an_ah-f)!-
An immediate (type I hypersensitivity reaction
follo&ing exposure of a sensiti$ed individual to the
appropriate antigen. ;ediated by reagin antibodies,
chiefly Ig?.
(See 7#'
anaplerotic reactions
+eactions that replenish depleted tricarboxylic acid cycle
(See *"#
anergy (an_/r-+e) A state of unresponsiveness to antigens. Absence of the
ability to generate a sensitivity reaction to substances that
are expected to be antigenic.
(See 7-'
annotation The process of determining the location of specific genes
in a genome map after it has been produced by nucleic
acid se6uencing.
(See (.7
anogenital condylomata
(*enereal 1arts) ('on_d)!-
lo_ mah-tah)
@arts that are sexually transmitted and caused by types
#, "", and .* human papillomavirus. Asually occur
around the cervix, vulva, perineum, anus, anal canal,
urethra, or glans penis.
(See '9.
anoxic (/-no'_ si') @ithout oxygen present.
(See #(-
!hotosynthesis that does not oxidi$e &ater to produce
oxygen% the form of photosynthesis characteristic of
purple and green photosynthetic bacteria.
(See "99, .#'
antheridium (an_ther-
id_e-um, pl34 antheridia)
A male gamete2producing organ, &hich may be
unicellular or multicellular.
(See -#", -7.
anthrax (an_thra's) An infectious disease of animals caused by ingesting
Bacillus anthracis spores. 4an also occur in humans and
is sometimes called &oolsorter9s disease.
(See 9"(
anti&iotic (an_t)!-&i-
A microbial product or its derivative that ,ills susceptible
microorganisms or inhibits their gro&th.
(See '0#
A glycoprotein produced in response to the introduction
of an antigen% it has the ability to combine &ith the
antigen that stimulated its production. Also ,no&n as an
immunoglobulin (Ig.
(See 7(.
anti&ody-dependent cell-
mediated cytotoxicity
The ,illing of antibody2coated target cells by cells &ith
<c receptors that recogni$e the <c region of the bound
antibody. ;ost A)44 is mediated by 8B cells that have
the <c receptor or 4)"# on their surface.
(See 7*(
anti&ody-mediated 5ee humoral immunity.
immunity (See 7*9
anticodon triplet The base triplet on a t+8A that is complementary to the
triplet codon on m+8A.
(See *##
antigen (an_t)!-+en) A foreign (nonself substance (such as a protein,
nucleoprotein, polysaccharide, or sometimes a
glycolipid to &hich lymphocytes respond% also ,no&n
as an immunogen because it induces the immune
(See 7("
antigen-&inding fragment
1<ragment antigen binding.1 A monovalent antigen2
binding fragment of an immunoglobulin molecule that
consists of one light chain and part of one heavy chain,
lin,ed by interchain disulfide bonds.
(See 7(.
antigenic determinant site
5ee epitope.
(See 7("
antigenic drift A small change in the antigenic character of an organism
that allo&s it to avoid attac, by the immune system.
(See '-*
antigenic shift A ma:or change in the antigenic character of an organism
that alters it to an antigenic strain unrecogni$ed by host
immune mechanisms.
(See '-*
antigen-presenting cells Antigen2presenting cells (A!4s are cells that ta,e in
protein antigens, process them, and present antigen
fragments to B cells and T cells in con:unction &ith class
II ;/4 molecules so that the cells are activated.
;acrophages, B cells, dendritic cells, and =angerhans
cells may act as A!4s.
(See 7.-
antimeta&olite (an_t)!-
A compound that bloc,s metabolic path&ay function by
competitively inhibiting a ,ey en$yme9s use of a
metabolite because it closely resembles the normal
en$yme substrate.
(See '"*
antimicro&ial agent An agent that ,ills microorganisms or inhibits their
(See "(9
antisense 05A A single2stranded +8A &ith a base se6uence
complementary to a segment of another +8A molecule
that can specifically bind to the target +8A and inhibit
its activity.
(See *'(
antisepsis (an(t)!-sep_sis) The prevention of infection or sepsis.
(See "('
antiseptic (an(t)!-
4hemical agents applied to tissue to prevent infection by
,illing or inhibiting pathogens.
(See "('
antiserum (an_t)!-
5erum containing induced antibodies.
(See 7.*
antitoxin (an_t)!-
An antibody to a microbial toxin, usually a bacterial
exotoxin, that combines specifically &ith the toxin, in
vivo and in vitro, neutrali$ing the toxin.
(See 7-#, 79#
apical complex (ap_)!-
A set of organelles characteristic of members of the
phylum ApicomplexaC polar rings, subpellicular
microtubules, conoid, rhoptries, and micronemes.
(See -9"
apicomplexan (a_p)!-
A sporo$oan protist that lac,s special locomotor
organelles but has an apical complex and a spore2
forming stage. It is either an intra2 or extracellular
parasite of animals% a member of the phylum
(See -9"
aplanospore (a_plan-o-
A nonflagellated, nonmotile spore that is involved in
asexual reproduction.
(See -7(
apoenzyme (ap_o-
The protein part of an en$yme that also has a nonprotein
(See "#"
apoptosis (ap(o-to_sis) !rogrammed cell death. The fragmentation of a cell into
membrane2bound particles that are eliminated by
phagocytosis. Apoptosis is a physiological suicide
mechanism that preserves homeostasis and occurs during
normal tissue turnover. It is responsible for cell death in
pathological circumstances, such as exposure to lo&
concentrations of xenobiotics and infections by /I7 and
various other viruses. Apoptotic cells display profound
structural changes such as plasma membrane blebbing
and nuclear collapse. )8A is cleaved into short
oligonucleosomal length )8A fragments. Apoptosis
usually occurs after the activation ofr calcium2dependent
endogenous endonuclease.
(See 7-0, ''"
aporepressor An inactive form of the repressor protein, &hich
becomes the active repressor &hen the corepressor binds
to it.
(See *7#
ar&uscular mycorrhizal
(A6) fungi
The mycorrhi$al fungi in a symbiotic fungus2root
association that penetrate the outer layer of the root,
gro& intracellularly, and form characteristic much2
branched hyphal structures called arbuscules.
(See #'"
ar&uscules Branched, treeli,e structures formed in cells of plant
roots coloni$ed by endotrophic mycorrhi$al fungi.
(See #'"
Archaea The domain that contains procaryotes &ith isoprenoid
glycerol diether or diglycerol tetraether lipids in their
membranes and archaeal r+8A (among many
(See .*., .-"
arthroconidium (ar_thro-
'o-nid_e-um, pl34
A thallic conidium released by the fragmentation or lysis
of hypha. It is not notably larger than the parental hypha,
and separation occurs at a septum.
(See --7
arthrospore (ar_thro-
A spore resulting from the fragmentation of a hypha.
(See --7
artificially ac"uired acti*e
The type of immunity that results from immuni$ing an
animal &ith a vaccine. The immuni$ed animal no&
produces its o&n antibodies and activated lymphocytes.
(See 7(0
artificially ac"uired
passi*e immunity
The type of immunity that results from introducing into
an animal antibodies that have been produced either in
another animal or by in vitro methods. Immunity is only
(See 7("
ascocarp (as_'o-'arp) A multicellular structure in ascomycetes lined &ith
speciali$ed cells called asci in &hich nuclear fusion and
meiosis produce ascospores. An ascocarp can be open or
closed and may be referred to as a fruiting body.
(See -#"
ascogenous hypha A speciali$ed hypha that gives rise to one or more asci.
(See -#"
ascogonium (as('o-go_ne-
um, pl34 ascogonia)
The receiving (female organ in ascomycetous fungi
&hich, after fertili$ation, gives rise to ascogenous hyphae
and later to asci and ascospores.
(See -#"
ascomycetes (as('o-mi-
A division of fungi that form ascospores.
(See -#0
ascospore (as_'o-spor) A spore contained or produced in an ascus.
(See --'
ascus (as_'us) A speciali$ed cell, characteristic of the ascomycetes, in
&hich t&o haploid nuclei fuse to produce a $ygote,
&hich immediately divides by meiosis% at maturity an
ascus &ill contain ascospores.
(See -#"
aseptic meningitis
5ee meningitis.
(See 90*
aspergillosis (as(per-+il-
A fungal disease caused by species of Aspergillus.
(See 9.'
assimilatory reduction The reduction of an inorganic molecule to incorporate it
into organic material. 8o energy is made available during
this process.
(See *"0, *"", #".
associati*e nitrogen
8itrogen fixation by bacteria in the plant root $one
(See #7-
athlete2s foot 5ee tinea pedis.
(See 9..
atomic force microscope A type of scanning probe microscope that images a
surface by moving a sharp probe over the surface at a
constant distance% a very small amount of force is exerted
on the tip and probe movement is follo&ed &ith a laser.
(See ('
A.P-&inding cassette
transporters (ABC
;embrane protein complexes that use AT! energy to
move substances across membranes &ithout modifying
the compound being transported. They re6uire an
extracytoplasmic substrate2binding protein for proper
(See "0"
attenuation (ah-ten(u-
". A mechanism for the regulation of transcription of
some bacterial operons by aminoacyl2t+8As. *. A
procedure that reduces or abolishes the virulence of a
pathogen &ithout altering its immunogenicity.
(See *'", 7##
attenuator A rho2independent termination site in the leader
se6uence that is involved in attenuation.
(See *79
autocla*e (a1_to-'la*) An apparatus for sterili$ing ob:ects by the use of steam
under pressure. Its development tremendously stimulated
the gro&th of microbiology.
(See ".0
autogenous infection (a1-
An infection that results from a patient9s o&n microbiota,
regardless of &hether the infecting organism became part
of the patient9s microbiota subse6uent to admission to a
clinical care facility.
(See '##
autoimmune disease
A disease produced by the immune system attac,ing self2
antigens. Autoimmune disease results from the activation
of self2reactive T and B cells that damage tissues after
stimulation by genetic or environmental triggers.
(See 77*
autoimmunity (a1(to-)!-
Autoimmunity is a condition characteri$ed by the
presence of serum autoantibodies and self2reactive
lymphocytes. It may be benign or pathogenic.
Autoimmunity is a normal conse6uence of aging% is
readily inducible by infectious agents, organisms, or
drugs% and is potentially reversible in that it disappears
&hen the offending 1agent1 is removed or eradicated.
(See 77*
autolysins (a1-tol_)!-
?n$ymes that partially digest peptidoglycan in gro&ing
bacteria so that the peptidoglycan can be enlarged.
(See **(
autotroph (a1_to-trof) An organism that uses 4>* as its sole or principal source
of carbon.
(See 9#
auxotroph (a1'_so-trof) A mutated prototroph that lac,s the ability to synthesi$e
an essential nutrient and therefore must obtain it or a
precursor from its surroundings.
(See *.-
axial filament The organ of motility in spirochetes. It is made of axial
fibrils or periplasmic flagella that extend from each end
of the protoplasmic cylinder and overlap in the middle of
the cell. The outer sheath lies outside the axial filament.
(See ##, .79
&acillus (&ah-sil_lus) A rod2shaped bacterium.
(See .(
&acteremia (&a'_ter-e_me-
The presence of viable bacteria in the blood.
(See 79(
Bacteria (&a'-te_re-/) The domain that contains procaryotic cells &ith primarily
diacyl glycerol diesters in their membranes and &ith
bacterial r+8A. Bacteria also is a general term for
organisms that are composed of procaryotic cells and are
not multicellular.
(See .*.
&acterial artificial
chromosome (BAC)
A cloning vector constructed from the ?. coli <2factor
plasmid that is used to clone foreign )8A fragments in
?. coli.
(See ((-
&acterial (septic)
5ee meningitis.
(See 90*
&acterial *aginosis (&a'-
te_re-/l *a+_)!-no_sis)
Bacterial vaginosis is a sexually transmitted disease
caused by 3ardnerella vaginalis, ;obiluncus spp.,
;ycoplasma hominis, and various anaerobic bacteria.
Although a mild disease it is a ris, factor for obstetric
infections and pelvic inflammatory disease.
(See 9".
&actericide (&a'-ter_)!- An agent that ,ills bacteria.
sid) (See "('
&acteriochlorophyll (&a'-
A modified chlorophyll that serves as the primary light2
trapping pigment in purple and green photosynthetic
(See "99
&acteriocin (&a'-te_re-o-
A protein produced by a bacterial strain that ,ills other
closely related strains.
(See *97, 7"*, 97*
&acteriophage (&a'-te_re-
A virus that uses bacteria as its host% often called a phage.
(See (#., ('*
&acteriophage (phage)
A techni6ue in &hich strains of bacteria are identified
based on their susceptibility to a variety of
(See '.*
&acteriostatic (&a'-te_re-
Inhibiting the gro&th and reproduction of bacteria.
(See "('
&acteroid (&a'_t)e-roid) A modified, often pleomorphic, bacterial cell &ithin the
root nodule cells of legumes% after transformation into a
symbiosome it carries out nitrogen fixation.
(See #7#
&aeocytes 5mall, spherical, reproductive cells produced by
pleurocapsalean cyanobacteria through multiple fission.
(See .7-
&alanced gro1th ;icrobial gro&th in &hich all cellular constituents are
synthesi$ed at constant rates relative to each other.
(See "".
&alanitis (&al_ah-ni_tis) Inflammation of the glans penis usually associated &ith
4andida fungi% a sexually transmitted disease.
(See 9-0
&arophilic (&ar_o-fil_i') or
>rganisms that prefer or re6uire high pressures for
gro&th and reproduction.
(See "*9, #..
&arotolerant >rganisms that can gro& and reproduce at high pressures
but do not re6uire them.
(See "*9, #*.
&asal &ody The cylindrical structure at the base of procaryotic and
eucaryotic flagella that attaches them to the cell.
(See #., 90
&ase analogs ;olecules that resemble normal )8A nucleotides and
can substitute for them during )8A replication, leading
to mutations.
(See *.#
&asic dyes )yes that are cationic, or have positively charged groups,
and bind to negatively charged cell structures. Asually
sold as chloride salts.
(See *7
&asidiocarp (&ah-sid_e-o-
The fruiting body of a basidiomycete that contains the
(See -#"
&asidiomycetes (&ah-sid_e-
A division of fungi in &hich the spores are born on club2
shaped organs called basidia.
(See -#"
&asidiospore (&ah-sid_e-o-
A spore born on the outside of a basidium follo&ing
,aryogamy and meiosis.
(See --'
&asidium (&ah-sid_e-um,
pl34 &asidia)
A structure that bears on its surface a definite number of
basidiospores (typically four that are formed follo&ing
,aryogamy and meiosis. Basidia are found in the
basidiomycetes and are usually club2shaped.
(See -#"
&asophil (&a_so-fil) A phagocytic leu,ocyte &hose granules stain bluish2
blac, &ith a basic dye. It has a segmented nucleus. The
granules contain histamine and heparin.
(See 707
&atch culture A culture of microorganisms produced by inoculating a
closed culture vessel containing a single batch of
(See ""(
B cell4 also 'no1n as a B
A type of lymphocyte derived from bone marro& stem
cells that matures into an immunologically competent
cell under the influence of the bursa of <abricius in the
chic,en and bone marro& in nonavian species. <ollo&ing
interaction &ith antigen, it becomes a plasma cell, &hich
synthesi$es and secretes antibody molecules involved in
humoral immunity. 70-,
(See 7-"
B-cell antigen receptor
A transmembrane immunoglobulin complex on the
surface of a B cell that binds an antigen and stimulates
the B cell. It is composed of a membrane2bound
immunoglobulin, usually Ig) or a modified Ig;,
complexed &ith another membrane protein (the Ig2aDIg2b
(See 7-"
&enthic (&en_thic) !ertaining to the bottom of the sea or another body of
(See -7"
&eta hemolysis A $one of complete clearing around a bacterial colony
gro&ing on blood agar. The $one does not change
significantly in color.
(See -(*, 797
&-oxidation path1ay The ma:or path&ay of fatty acid oxidation to produce
8A)/, <A)/*, and acetyl coen$yme A.
(See "9*
&eta-proteo&acteria >ne of the five subgroups of proteobacteria, each &ith
distinctive "#5 r+8A se6uences. ;embers of this
subgroup are similar to the alpha2proteobacteria
metabolically, but tend to use substances that diffuse
from organic matter decomposition in anaerobic $ones.
(See .9-
&inal symmetry The symmetry of some virus capsids (e.g., those of
complex phages that is a combination of icosahedral and
helical symmetry.
(See (7#
&inary fission Asexual reproduction in &hich a cell or an organism
separates into t&o cells.
(See .90, -7(, -'#
&inomial system The nomenclature system in &hich an organism is given
t&o names% the first is the capitali$ed generic name, and
the second is the uncapitali$ed specific epithet.
(See .*#
&iochemical oxygen
demand (B7$)
The amount of oxygen used by organisms in &ater under
certain standard conditions% it provides an index of the
amount of microbially oxidi$able organic matter present.
(See #-7
&iodegradation (&i_o-
The brea,do&n of a complex chemical through
biological processes that can result in minor loss of
functional groups, fragmentation into larger
constitutents, or complete brea,do&n to carbon dioxide
and minerals. >ften the term refers to the undesired
microbial2mediated destruction of materials such as
paper, paint, and textiles.
(See "0"0
&iofilms >rgani$ed microbial systems consisting of layers of
microbial cells associated &ith surfaces, often &ith
complex structural and functional characteristics.
Biofilms have physicalDchemical gradients that influence
microbial metabolic processes. They can form on
inanimate devices (catheters, medical prosthetic devices
and also cause fouling (e.g., of ships9 hulls, &ater pipes,
cooling to&ers.
(See #*0, 9*0
&iogeochemical cycling The oxidation and reduction of substances carried out by
living organisms andDor abiotic processes that results in
the cycling of elements &ithin and bet&een different
parts of the ecosystem (the soil, a6uatic environment, and
(See #""
&ioinsecticide A pathogen that is used to ,ill or disable un&anted insect
pests. Bacteria, fungi, or viruses are used, either directly
or after manipulation, to control insect populations.
(See "0"'
&iologic transmission A type of vector2borne transmission in &hich a pathogen
goes through some morphological or physiological
change &ithin the vector.
(See '-'
&ioluminescence (&i_o-
The production of light by living cells, often through the
oxidation of molecules by the en$yme luciferase.
(See -0-
&iomagnification The increase in concentration of a substance in higher2
level consumer organisms.
(See #"'
&iopesticide The use of a microorganism or another biological agent
to control a specific pest.
(See "0"'
&ioremediation The use of biologically mediated processes to remove or
degrade pollutants from specific environments.
Bioremediation can be carried out by modification of the
environment to accelerate biological processes, either
&ith or &ithout the addition of specific microorganisms.
(See "0"*
&iosensor The coupling of a biological process &ith production of
an electrical signal or light to detect the presence of
particular substances.
(See "0"7
&iosynthesis 5ee anabolism.
(See "7(
&ioterrorism The intentional or threatened use of viruses, bacteria,
fungi, or toxins from living organisms to produce death
or disease in humans, animals, and plants.
(See '#(
&iotransformation or The use of living organisms to modify substances that are
micro&ial transformation not normally used for gro&th.
(See "009
&lac' peidra (pe-a_drah) A fungal infection caused by !iedraia hortae that forms
hard blac, nodules on the hairs of the scalp.
(See 9.(
&lastomycosis (&las(to-mi-
A systemic fungal infection caused by Blastomyces
dermatitidis and mar,ed by suppurating tumors in the
s,in or by lesions in the lungs.
(See 9.#
&lastospore (&las_to-
A spore formed by budding from a hypha.
(See --7
B lymphocyte 5ee B cell.
(See 70-, 7-"
&otulism (&och_oo-lizm) A form of food poisoning caused by a neurotoxin
(botulin produced by 4lostridium botulinum serotypes
A23% sometimes found in improperly canned or
preserved food.
(See 9*9
&right-field microscope A microscope that illuminates the specimen directly &ith
bright light and forms a dar, image on a brighter
(See "9
Bright2s disease 5ee glomerulonephritis.
(See 90-
&road-spectrum drugs 4hemotherapeutic agents that are effective against many
different ,inds of pathogens.
(See '0'
lymphoid tissue (BA8.)
The type of defensive tissue found in the lungs. !art of
the nonspecific immune system.
(See 7"0
&ronchial asthma An example of an atopic allergy involving the lo&er
respiratory tract.
(See 7#9
&u&o (&u_&o) A tender, inflamed, enlarged lymph node that results
from a variety of infections.
(See 9""
&u&onic plague 5ee plague.
(See 9""
&udding A vegetative outgro&th of yeast and some bacteria as a
means of asexual reproduction% the daughter cell is
smaller than the parent.
(See .90
&ul'ing sludge 5ludges produced in se&age treatment that do not settle
properly, usually due to the development of filamentous
(See #-9
&ursa of Fa&ricius
(&/r_s/ f/-&ris_e-/s)
<ound in birds% the blind sacli,e structure located on the
posterior &all of the cloaca% it performs a thymusli,e
function. A primary lymphoid organ &here B2cell
maturation occurs. Bone marro& is the e6uivalent in
(See 70'
&urst 5ee rise period.
(See ('(
&urst size The number of phages released by a host cell during the
lytic life cycle.
(See ('(
&utanediol fermentation A type of fermentation most often found in the family
?nterobacteriaceae in &hich *,(2butanediol is a ma:or
product% acetoin is an intermediate in the path&ay and
may be detected by the 7oges2!ros,auer test.
(See "'", A2"'
Cal*in cycle The main path&ay for the fixation (or reduction and
incorporation of 4>* into organic material by
photoautotrophs during photosynthesis% it also is found in
(See *07, A2*0
cancer ('an_ser) A malignant tumor that expands locally by invasion of
surrounding tissues, and systemically by metastasis.
(See .""
candidal *aginitis 7aginitis caused by 4andida species.
(See 9-0
candidiasis ('an_d)!-
An infection caused by 4andida species of dimorphic
fungi, commonly involving the s,in.
(See 9.9
capsid ('ap_sid) The protein coat or shell that surrounds a virion9s nucleic
(See (#9
capsomer ('ap_so-mer) The ring2shaped morphological unit of &hich icosahedral
capsids are constructed.
(See (90
capsule A layer of &ell2organi$ed material, not easily &ashed off,
lying outside the bacterial cell &all.
(See #"
car&oxysomes !olyhedral inclusion bodies that contain the 4>* fixation
en$yme ribulose ",-2bisphosphate carboxylase% found in
cyanobacteria, nitrifying bacteria, and thiobacilli.
(See -", *07
caries ('ar_e-ez) Tooth decay.
(See 9(#
carotenoids ('ah-rot_e-
!igment molecules, usually yello&ish in color, that are
often used to aid chlorophyll in trapping light energy
during photosynthesis.
(See "9#
carrier An infected individual &ho is a potential source of
infection for others and plays an important role in the
epidemiology of a disease.
(See '-.
caseous lesion ('a_se-us) A lesion resembling cheese or curd% cheesy. ;ost
caseous lesions are caused by ;. tuberculosis.
(See 90'
casual carrier An individual &ho harbors an infectious organism for
only a short period.
(See '-.
cata&olism ('ah-ta&_o-
That part of metabolism in &hich larger, more complex
molecules are bro,en do&n into smaller, simpler
molecules &ith the release of energy.
(See "7(
cata&olite repression ('ah-
Inhibition of the synthesis of several catabolic en$ymes
by a metabolite such as glucose.
(See *'"
catalyst ('at_ah-list) A substance that accelerates a reaction &ithout being
permanently changed itself.
(See "#"
catalytic site 5ee active site.
(See "#*
catheter ('ath_ )e-ter) A tubular surgical instrument for &ithdra&ing fluids
from a cavity of the body, especially one for introduction
into the bladder through the urethra for the &ithdra&al of
(See '*7
cat-scratch disease (C%$) A loosely defined syndrome caused by either of the
follo&ing gram2negative bacilliC Bartonella
(+ochalimaea henselae or Afipia felis. The typical case
of 45) is self2limiting, &ith abatement of symptoms
over a period of days to &ee,s.
(See 9".
C$9- path1ay The 4)9- receptor is found on many nucleated
eucaryotic cells. @hen the receptor is bound to a specific
ligand (4)9-=, the 4)9-24)9-= complex activates
several cytoplasmic proteins that initiate a cellular
suicide cascade leading to apoptosis.
(See 7-0
cell cycle The se6uence of events in a cell9s gro&th2division cycle
bet&een the end of one division and the end of the next.
In eucaryotic cells, it is composed of the 3" period, the 5
period in &hich )8A and histones are synthesi$ed, the
3* period, and the ; period (mitosis.
(See '7, *'-
cell-mediated immunity The type of immunity that results from T cells coming
into close contact &ith foreign cells or infected cells to
destroy them% it can be transferred to a nonimmune
individual by the transfer of cells.
(See 7*9
cellular slime molds 5lime molds &ith a vegetative phase consisting of
amoeboid cells that aggregate to form a multicellular
pseudoplasmodium% they belong to the division
(See -#-
cellulitis (sel(u-li_tis) A diffuse spreading infection of subcutaneous s,in tissue
caused by streptococci, staphylococci, or other
organisms. The tissue is inflamed &ith edema, redness,
pain, and interference &ith function.
(See 90(
cell 1all The strong layer or structure that lies outside the plasma
membrane% it supports and protects the membrane and
gives the cell shape.
(See ''
cephalosporin (sef_ah-lo-
A group of b2lactam antibiotics derived from the fungus
4ephalosporium, &hich share the 72
aminocephalosporanic acid nucleus.
(See '".
chancre (shang_'er) The primary lesion of syphilis, occurring at the site of
entry of the infection.
(See 9*(
chancroid (shang_'roid) A sexually transmitted disease caused by the gram2
negative bacterium /aemophilus ducreyi. @orld&ide,
chancroid is an important cofactor in the transmission of
the AI)5 virus. Also ,no&n as genital ulcer disease due
to the painful circumscribed ulcers that form on the penis
or entrance to the vagina.
(See 9".
chemical oxygen demand
The amount of chemical oxidation re6uired to convert
organic matter in &ater and &aste&ater to 4>*.
(See #-7
chemiosmotic hypothesis
The hypothesis that a proton gradient and an
electrochemical gradient are generated by electron
transport and then used to drive AT! synthesis by
oxidative phosphorylation.
(See "'7
5ee chemoorganotrophic heterotrophs.
(See 9'
chemolithotroph ('e_mo-
5ee chemolithotrophic autotrophs.
(See 9', "9(
;icroorganisms that oxidi$e reduced inorganic
compounds to derive both energy and electrons% 4>* is
their carbon source. Also called chemolithoautotrophs.
(See 9'
>rganisms that use organic compounds as sources of
energy, hydrogen, electrons, and carbon for biosynthesis.
(See 9'
chemoreceptors 5pecial protein receptors in the plasma membrane or
periplasmic space that bind chemicals and trigger the
appropriate chemotaxic response.
(See #7
chemostat ('e_mo-stat) A continuous culture apparatus that feeds medium into
the culture vessel at the same rate as medium containing
microorganisms is removed% the medium in a chemostat
contains one essential nutrient in a limiting 6uantity.
(See "*0
chemotaxis ('e_mo-
The pattern of microbial behavior in &hich the
microorganism moves to&ard chemical attractants andDor
a&ay from repellents.
(See #7
chemotherapeutic agents
4ompounds used in the treatment of disease that destroy
pathogens or inhibit their gro&th at concentrations lo&
enough to avoid doing undesirable damage to the host.
(See '0#
chemotrophs ('e_mo-
>rganisms that obtain energy from the oxidation of
chemical compounds.
(See 97
chic'enpox (*aricella,
A highly contagious s,in disease, usually affecting *2 to
72year2old children% it is caused by the varicella2$oster
virus, &hich is ac6uired by droplet inhalation into the
respiratory system.
(See '7"
chimera ('i-me_rah) A recombinant plasmid containing foreign )8A, &hich
is used as a cloning vector in genetic engineering.
(See ((.
chiral ('i_ r/l) /aving handednessC consisting of one or another
stereochemical form.
(See "0"0
chitin ('i_tin) A tough, resistant, nitrogen2containing polysaccharide
forming the &alls of certain fungi, the exos,eleton of
arthropods, and the epidermal cuticle of other surface
structures of certain protists and animals.
(See --.
chlamydiae ('l/-mid_e-
;embers of the genus 4hlamydiaC gram2negative,
coccoid cells that reproduce only &ithin the cytoplasmic
vesicles of host cells using a life cycle that alternates
bet&een elementary bodies and reticulate bodies.
(See .77
chlamydial pneumonia
('l/-mid_e-/l noo-mo_
A pneumonia caused by 4hlamydia pneumoniae.
4linically, infections are mild and -0E of adults have
antibodies to the chlamydiae.
(See 9".
chlamydospore ('lam_)!-
An asexually produced, thic,2&alled resting spore
formed by some fungi.
(See --7
('lo_ram-fen_ !-'ol)
A broad2spectrum antibiotic that is produced by
5treptomyces vene$uelae or synthetically% it binds to the
large ribosomal subunit and inhibits the peptidyl
transferase reaction.
(See '"7
chlorophyll ('lor_o-fil) The green photosynthetic pigment that consists of a large
tetrapyrrole ring &ith a magnesium atom in the center.
(See "9#
chloroplast ('lo_ra-plast) A eucaryotic plastid that contains chlorophyll and is the
site of photosynthesis.
(See '-
cholera ('ol_er-ah) An acute infectious enteritis, endemic and epidemic in
Asia, &hich periodically spreading to the ;iddle ?ast,
Africa, 5outhern ?urope, and 5outh America% caused by
7ibrio cholerae.
(See 9(0
choleragen ('ol_er-ah-
The cholera toxin% an extremely potent protein molecule
elaborated by strains of 7ibrio cholerae in the small
intestine after ingestion of feces2contaminated &ater or
food. It acts on epithelial cells to cause hypersecretion of
chloride and bicarbonate and an outpouring of large
6uantities of fluid from the mucosal surface.
(See 9(0
chromatin ('ro_mah-tin) The )8A2containing portion of the eucaryotic nucleus%
the )8A is almost al&ays complexed &ith histones. It
can be very condensed (heterochromatin or more
loosely organi$ed and genetically active (euchromatin.
(See '#
A chronic fungal infection of the s,in, producing
&artli,e nodules that may ulcerate. It is caused by the
blac, molds !hialophora verrucosa or <onsecaea
(See 9.-
chromogen ('ro_me-+en) A colorless substrate that is acted on by an en$yme to
produce a colored end product.
(See 779
chromophore group
A chemical group &ith double bonds that absorbs visible
light and gives a dye its color.
(See *7
chromosomes ('ro_mo-
The bodies that have most or all of the cell9s )8A and
contain most of its genetic information (mitochondria
and chloroplasts also contain )8A and genes.
(See '#
chronic carrier An individual &ho harbors a pathogen for a long time.
(See '-.
chrysolaminarin The polysaccharide storage product of the chrysophytes
and diatoms.
(See -77
chytrids A group of chytridiomycetes, &hich are simple terrestrial
and a6uatic fungi that produce motile $oospores &ith
single, posterior, &hiplash flagella. Also considered
(See -#., #."
cilia (sil_e-ah) Threadli,e appendages extending from the surface of
some proto$oa that beat rhythmically to propel them%
cilia are membrane2bound cylinders &ith a complex
internal array of microtubules, usually in a 9 " * pattern.
(See '9
citric acid cycle 5ee tricarboxylic acid (T4A cycle.
(See "'(, A2"#
classical complement
The antibody2dependent path&ay of complement
activation% it leads to the lysis of pathogens and
stimulates phagocytosis and other host defenses.
(See 7-'
classification The arrangement of organisms into groups based on
mutual similarity or evolutionary relatedness.
(See .**
clone ('lon) A group of genetically identical cells or organisms
derived by asexual reproduction from a single parent.
(See **', 7."
clostridial myonecrosis
('lo-strid_e-al mi(o-ne-
)eath of individual muscle cells caused by clostridia.
Also called gas gangrene.
(See 9"-
cluster of differentiation
molecules (C$s)
<unctional cell surface proteins or receptors that can be
measured in situ from peripheral blood, biopsy samples,
or other body fluids. They can be used to identify
leu,ocyte subpopulations. 5ome examples include
interleu,in2* receptor (I=2*+, 4)., 4)', 4)*-, and
intercellular adhesion molecule2" (I4A;2".
(See 7((
coaggregation The collection of a variety of bacteria on a surface such
as a tooth surface because of cell2to2cell recognition of
genetically distinct bacterial types. ;any of these
interactions appear to be mediated by a lectin on one
bacterium that interacts &ith a complementary
carbohydrate receptor on another bacterium.
(See 9(.
coagulase ('o-ag_u-las) An en$yme that induces blood clotting% it is
characteristically produced by pathogenic staphylococci.
(See -*9
coccidioidomycosis ('o'-
A fungal disease caused by 4occidioides immitis that
exists in dry, highly al,aline soils. Also ,no&n as valley
fever, 5an Foa6uin fever, or desert rheumatism.
(See 9.#
coccus ('o'_us4 pl3 cocci4
A roughly spherical bacterial cell.
(See .*
code degeneracy The genetic code is organi$ed in such a &ay that often
there is more than one codon for each amino acid.
(See *.0
codon ('o_don) A se6uence of three nucleotides in m+8A that directs the
incorporation of an amino acid during protein synthesis
or signals the start or stop of translation.
(See *.0
coenocytic (se(no-sit_i') +efers to a multinucleate cell or hypha formed by
repeated nuclear divisions not accompanied by cell
(See ""(, --#
coenzyme ('o-en_z!m) A loosely bound cofactor that often dissociates from the
en$yme active site after product has been formed.
(See "#"
cofactor The nonprotein component of an en$yme% it is re6uired
for catalytic activity.
(See "#"
cold sore A lesion caused by the herpes simplex virus% usually
occurs on the border of the lips or nares. Also ,no&n as a
fever blister or herpes labialis.
(See ''.
colicin ('ol_)!-sin) A plasmid2encoded protein that is produced by enteric
bacteria and binds to specific receptors on the cell
envelope of sensitive target bacteria, &here it may cause
lysis or attac, specific intracellular sites such as
(See 7"*
coliform ('o_l)!-form) A gram2negative, nonsporing, facultative rod that
ferments lactose &ith gas formation &ithin .' hours at
(See #-.
colonization ('ol(/-n)!-
The establishment of a site of microbial reproduction on
an inanimate surface or organism &ithout necessarily
resulting in tissue invasion or damage.
(See 79*
colony A cluster or assemblage of microorganisms gro&ing on a
solid surface such as the surface of an agar culture
medium% the assemblage often is directly visible, but also
may be seen only microscopically.
(See "0#
colony forming units
The number of microorganisms that can form colonies
&hen cultured using spread plates or pour plates, an
indication of the number of viable microorganisms in a
(See ""'
Colorado tic' fe*er A disease that occurs in the mountainous regions of the
&estern Anited 5tates. It is caused by an +8A virus of
the genus 4oltivirus that is spread from ground s6uirrels,
rabbits, and deer to humans by the tic,, )ermacentor
andersoni. 4omplications are rare.
(See '7'
colorless sulfur &acteria A diverse group of nonphotosynthetic proteobacteria that
can oxidi$e reduced sulfur compounds such as hydrogen
sulfide. ;any are lithotrophs and derive energy from
sulfur oxidation. 5ome are unicellular, &hereas others are
filamentous gliding bacteria.
(See .9#
com&inatorial &iology Introduction of genes from one microorganism into
another microorganism to synthesi$e a ne& product or a
modified product, especially in relation to antibiotic
(See 99-
comedo ('om_)e-do, pl34
A plug of dried sebum in an excretory duct of the s,in.
(See 70"
cometa&olism The modification of a compound not used for gro&th by
a microorganism, &hich occurs in the presence of
another organic material that serves as a carbon and
energy source.
(See "0"(
commensal (')o-
=iving on or &ithin another organism &ithout in:uring or
benefiting the other organism.
(See #0#
commensalism (')o-
A type of symbiosis in &hich one individual gains from
the association and the other is neither harmed nor
(See #0#
common cold An acute, self2limiting, and highly contagious virus
infection of the upper respiratory tract that produces
inflammation, profuse discharge, and other symptoms.
(See ''.
common-source epidemic An epidemic that is characteri$ed by a sharp rise to a
pea, and then a rapid, but not as pronounced, decline in
the number of individuals infected% it usually involves a
single contaminated source from &hich individuals are
(See '-"
common *ehicle
The transmission of a pathogen to a host by means of an
inanimate medium or vehicle.
(See '-7
communica&le disease A disease associated &ith a pathogen that can be
transmitted from one host to another.
(See '-.
community An assemblage of different types of organisms or a
mixture of different microbial populations.
(See -9#
competent A bacterial cell that can ta,e up free )8A fragments and
incorporate them into its genome during transformation.
(See (0-
competition An interaction bet&een t&o organisms attempting to use
the same resource (nutrients, space, etc..
(See #09
competiti*e exclusion
T&o competing organisms overlap in resource use, &hich
leads to the exclusion of one of the organisms.
(See #09, 9'7
complementary $5A
A )8A copy of an +8A molecule (e.g., a )8A copy of
an m+8A.
(See (*"
complement system A group of plasma proteins that plays a ma:or role in an
animal9s defensive immune response.
(See 7"., 7-'
complex medium 4ulture medium that contains some ingredients of
un,no&n chemical composition.
(See "0-
complex *iruses 7iruses &ith capsids having a complex symmetry that is
neither icosahedral nor helical.
(See (#9
composting The microbial processing of fresh organic matter under
moist, aerobic conditions, resulting in the accumulation
of a stable humified product, &hich is suitable for soil
improvement and stimulation of plant gro&th.
(See #'#
compromised host A host &ith lo&ered resistance to infection and disease
for any of several reasons. The host may be seriously
debilitated (due to malnutrition, cancer, diabetes,
leu,emia, or another infectious disease, traumati$ed
(from surgery or in:ury, immunosuppressed, or have an
altered microbiota due to prolonged use of antibiotics.
(See 70., 9.'
concatemer A long )8A molecule consisting of several genomes
lin,ed together in a ro&.
(See ('7
conditional mutations ;utations that are expressed only under certain
environmental conditions.
(See *.-
confocal scanning laser
microscope (C%86)
A light microscope in &hich monochromatic laser2
derived light scans across the specimen at a specific level
and illuminates one spot at a time to form an image.
5tray light from other parts of the specimen is bloc,ed
out to give an image &ith excellent contrast and
(See (#
congenital (neonatal)
An infection of a ne&born caused by transmission of the
herpesvirus during vaginal delivery.
(See ''#
congenital ru&ella
A &ide array of congenital defects affecting the heart,
eyes, and ears of a fetus during the first trimester of
pregnancy, and caused by the rubella virus.
(See '7#
congenital syphilis 5yphilis that is ac6uired in utero from the mother.
(See 9*(
conidiospore ('o-nid_e-o-
An asexual, thin2&alled spore borne on hyphae and not
contained &ithin a sporangium% it may be produced
singly or in chains.
(See -(7, --7
conidium ('o-nid_e-um,
pl34 conidia)
5ee conidiospore.
(See -(7
con+ugants ('on_+oo-
4omplementary mating types that participate in a form of
proto$oan sexual reproduction called con:ugation.
(See -'#
con+ugation ('on(+u-
". The form of gene transfer and recombination in
bacteria that re6uires direct cell2to2cell contact. *. A
complex form of sexual reproduction commonly
employed by proto$oa.
(See (0*, -'#
con+ugati*e plasmid A plasmid that carries the genes for sex pili and can
transfer copies of itself to other bacteria during
(See *9.
con+uncti*itis of the 5ee ophthalmia neonatorum.
ne1&orn (See 9"#
conoid ('o_noid) A hollo& cone of spirally coiled filaments in the anterior
tip of certain apicomplexan proto$oa.
(See -9"
consortium A physical association of t&o different organisms,
usually beneficial to both organisms.
(See -9#
constant region (C8 and
The part of an antibody molecule that does not vary
greatly in amino acid se6uence among molecules of the
same class, subclass, or type.
(See 7(.
constituti*e mutant A strain that produces an inducible en$yme continually,
regardless of need, because of a mutation in either the
operator or regulator gene.
(See *7#
constructed 1etlands Intentional creation of marshland plant communities and
their associated microorganisms for environmental
restoration or to purify &ater by the removal of bacteria,
organic matter, and chemicals as the &ater passes
through the a6uatic plant communities.
(See ##*
consumer An organism that feeds directly on living or dead
animals, by ingestion or by phagocytosis.
(See #**
contact transmission Transmission of the pathogen by contact of the source or
reservoir of the pathogen &ith the host.
(See '-#
continuous culture
A culture system &ith constant environmental conditions
maintained through continual provision of nutrients and
removal of &astes.
(See "*0
contractile *acuole (*a'_u-
In protists and some animals, a clear fluid2filled cell
vacuole that ta,es up &ater from &ithin the cell and then
contracts, releasing it to the outside through a pore in a
cyclical manner. 4ontractile vacuoles function primarily
in osmoregulation and excretion.
(See -'-
con*alescent carrier
An individual &ho has recovered from an infectious
disease but continues to harbor large numbers of the
(See '-.
copiotrophic /aving a high nutrient level.
(See #('
corepressor ('o_re-
A small molecule that inhibits the synthesis of a
repressible en$yme.
(See *7#
cortex ('or_te's) The layer of a bacterial endospore that is thought to be
particularly important in conferring heat resistance on the
(See #9
coryza (')o-ri_zah) 5ee common cold.
(See ''.
cosmid ('oz_mid) A plasmid vector &ith lambda phage cos sites that can be
pac,aged in a phage capsid% it is useful for cloning large
)8A fragments.
(See ((-
cristae ('ris_te) Infoldings of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
(See '(
cross-feeding 5ee syntropism.
(See #0.
crossing-o*er A process in &hich segments of t&o ad:acent )8A
strands are exchanged% brea,s occur in both strands, and
the exposed ends of each strand :oin to those of the
opposite segment on the other strand.
(See *9*
cryptins !eptides produced by !aneth cells in the intestines.
4ryptins are toxic for some bacteria, although their mode
of action is not ,no&n.
(See 7""
cryptococcosis ('rip_to-
An infection caused by the basidiomycete, 4ryptococcus
neoformans, &hich may involve the s,in, lungs, brain, or
(See -#", 9.7
cryptosporidiosis ('rip_to-
Infection &ith proto$oa of the genus 4ryptosporidium.
The most common symptoms are prolonged diarrhea,
&eight loss, fever, and abdominal pain.
(See 9-*
crystalliza&le fragment
The stem of the H portion of an antibody molecule. 4ells
such as macrophages bind to the <c region, and it also is
involved in complement activation.
(See 7(.
cutaneous anthrax ('u-
ta_ne-us an_thra's)
A form of anthrax involving the s,in.
(See 9"(
cutaneous diphtheria ('u-
ta_ne-us dif-the_re-ah)
A s,in disease caused by 4orynebacterium diphtheriae
that infects &ound or s,in lesions, causing a slo&2
healing ulceration.
(See 90"
cyano&acteria (si_ah-no-
A large group of bacteria that carry out oxygenic
photosynthesis using a system li,e that present in
photosynthetic eucaryotes.
(See .7"
The formation of AT! &hen light energy is used to move
electrons cyclically through an electron transport chain
during photosynthesis% only photosystem I participates.
(See "9'
cyst (sist) A general term used for a speciali$ed microbial cell
enclosed in a &all. 4ysts are formed by proto$oa and a
fe& bacteria. They may be dormant, resistant structures
formed in response to adverse conditions or reproductive
cysts that are a normal stage in the life cycle.
(See -'#
cytochromes (si_to-
/eme proteins that carry electrons, usually as members
of electron transport chains.
(See "-9
cyto'ine (si_to-'!n) A general term for nonantibody proteins, released by a
cell in response to inducing stimuli, &hich are mediators
that influence other cells. Are produced by lymphocytes,
monocytes, macrophages, and other cells.
(See 7*0
cytomegalo*irus inclusion An infection caused by the cytomegalovirus and mar,ed
disease (si_to-meg_ah-lo-
by nuclear inclusion bodies in enlarged infected cells.
(See ''-
cytopathic effect (si_to-
The observable change that occurs in cells as a result of
viral replication. ?xamples include ballooning, binding
together, clustering, or even death of the cultured cells.
(See (#., '(*
cytoplasmic matrix (si_to-
The protoplasm of a cell that lies &ithin the plasma
membrane and outside any other organelles. In bacteria it
is the substance bet&een the cell membrane and the
(See .9, 7#
cytoproct (si_to-pro't) 5ite on a proto$oan &here undigestible matter is
(See -9*
cytosine (si_to-sen) A pyrimidine *2oxy2.2aminopyrimidine found in
nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids.
(See *"7
cytos'eleton (si_to-
A net&or, of microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate
filaments, and other components in the cytoplasm of
eucaryotic cells that helps give them shape.
(See 79
cytostome (si_to-stom) A permanent site in the proto$oan ciliate body through
&hich food is ingested.
(See -'#
cytotoxic . (.C) cell
A cell that is capable of recogni$ing virus2infected cells
through the ma:or histocompatability molecules and
developing into an activated cell that destroys the
infected cells.
(See 7.'
cytotoxic . lymphocyte
The activated T cell that can attac, and destroy virus2
infected cells, tumor cells, and foreign cells.
(See 7.'
cytotoxin (si_to-to'_sin) A toxin or antibody that has a specific toxic action upon
cells% cytotoxins are named according to the cell for
&hich they are specific (e.g., nephrotoxin.
(See 797
$ane particle A .* nm spherical particle that is one of three that are
seen in hepatitis B virus infections. The )ane particle is
the complete virion.
(See ''9
dar'-field microscopy ;icroscopy in &hich the specimen is brightly
illuminated &hile the bac,ground is dar,.
(See **
dar' reacti*ation The excision and replacement of thymine dimers in )8A
that occurs in the absence of light.
(See "(0
deamination (de-am_i-
The removal of amino groups from amino acids.
(See "9*
death phase The decrease in viable microorganisms that occurs after
the completion of gro&th in a batch culture.
(See ""-
decimal reduction time ($
or $ *alue)
The time re6uired to ,ill 90E of the microorganisms or
spores in a sample at a specified temperature.
(See ".0
decomposer An organism that brea,s do&n complex materials into
simpler ones, including the release of simple inorganic
products. >ften a decomposer such as an insect or
earth&orm physically reduces the si$e of substrate
(See #**
defensin (de-fens_sin) 5pecific peptides produced by neutrophils that
permeabili$e the outer and inner membranes of certain
microorganisms, thus ,illing them.
(See 7*0
defined medium 4ulture medium made &ith components of ,no&n
(See "0-
$elta agent A defective +8A virus that is transmitted as an infectious
agent, but cannot cause disease unless the individual is
also infected &ith the hepatitis B virus. 5ee hepatitis ).
(See '9"
delta-proteo&acteria >ne of the five subgroups of proteobacteria, each &ith
distinctive "#5 r+8A se6uences. 4hemoorganotrophic
bacteria that usually are either predators on other bacteria
or anaerobes that generate sulfide from sulfate and
(See -07
denaturation (de-na_chur-
A change in the shape of an en$yme that destroys its
activity% the term is also applied to changes in nucleic2
acid shape.
(See "#(
dendritic cell (den-drit_
An antigen2presenting cell that has long membrane
extensions resembling the dendrites of neurons. These
cells are found in the lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus
(interdigitating dendritic cells% s,in (=angerhans cells%
and other tissues (interstitial dendritic cells. ?xpress
;/4 class II and B7 costimulatory molecules and thus
are efficient presenters of antigens to T2helper cells.
(See 70'
dendrogram A treeli,e diagram that is used to graphically summari$e
mutual similarities and relationships bet&een organisms.
(See .*7
denitrification (de-ni_tr)!-
The reduction of nitrate to gas products, primarily
nitrogen gas, during anaerobic respiration.
(See "90, #"#
dental pla"ue (pla') A thin film on the surface of teeth consisting of bacteria
embedded in a matrix of bacterial polysaccharides,
salivary glycoproteins, and other substances.
(See 9(.
deoxyri&onucleic acid
($5A, de-o'_se-ri_&o-nu-
The nucleic acid that constitutes the genetic material of
all cellular organisms. It is a polynucleotide composed of
deoxyribonucleotides connected by phosphodiester
(See -., *(0
dermatophyte (der_mah-
A fungus parasitic on the s,in.
(See 9.(
dermatomycosis (der_ma-
A fungal infection of the s,in% the term is a general term
that comprises the various forms of tinea, and it is
sometimes used to specifically refer to athlete9s foot
(tinea pedis.
(See 9.(
desensitization (de-sen_si-
To ma,e a sensiti$ed or hypersensitive individual
insensitive or nonreactive to a sensiti$ing agent.
(See 7#9
desert crust A crust formed by microbial binding of sand grains in the
surface $one of desert soil% crust formation primarily
involves cyanobacteria.
(See #7(
detergent (de-ter_+ent) An organic molecule, other than a soap, that serves as a
&etting agent and emulsifier% it is normally used as
cleanser, but some may be used as antimicrobial agents.
(See ".'
deuteromycetes (doo_t/r-
In some classification systems, the deuteromycetes or
<ungi Imperfecti are a class of fungi. These organisms
either lac, a sexual stage or it has not yet been
(See -#.
diatoms (di_ah-toms) Algal protists &ith siliceous cell &alls called frustules.
They constitute a substantial subfraction of the
(See -77
diauxic gro1th (di-
A biphasic gro&th pattern or response in &hich a
microorganism, &hen exposed to t&o nutrients, initially
uses one of them for gro&th and then alters its
metabolism to ma,e use of the second.
(See *'"
differential interference
contrast ($#C)
A light microscope that employs t&o beams of plane
polari$ed light. The beams are combined after passing
through the specimen and their intereference is used to
create the image.
(See *-
differential media (dif_er- 4ulture media that distinguish bet&een groups of
en_shal) microorganisms based on differences in their gro&th and
metabolic products.
(See "0#
differential staining
5taining procedures that divide bacteria into separate
groups based on staining properties.
(See *'
diffusely adhering <3 coli
)A?4 strains of ?. coli adhere over the entire surface of
epithelial cells and usually cause diarrheal disease in
immunologically naive and malnourished children.
(See 9(*
di'aryotic stage (di-'ar-e-
In fungi, having pairs of nuclei &ithin cells or
compartments. ?ach cell contains t&o separate haploid
nuclei, one from each parent.
(See --7
dinoflagellate (di_no-
An algal protist characteri$ed by t&o flagella used in
s&imming in a spinning pattern. ;any are
bioluminescent and an important part of marine
phytoplan,ton, some also are important marine
(See -79
diphtheria (dif-the_re-ah) An acute, highly contagious childhood disease that
generally affects the membranes of the throat and less
fre6uently the nose. It is caused by 4orynebacterium
(See 900
dipicolinic acid A substance present at high concentrations in the
bacterial endospore. It is thought to contribute to the
endospore9s heat resistance.
(See #9
diplococcus (dip_lo-
A pair of cocci.
(See .(
directed- or adapti*e
A mutation that seems to be chosen so the organism can
better adapt to its surroundings.
(See *.#
disease (di-zez) A deviation or interruption of the normal structure or
function of any part of the body that is manifested by a
characteristic set of symptoms and signs.
(See '.'
disease syndrome
A set of signs and symptoms that are characteristic of the
(See '-0
disinfectant (dis_in-
An agent, usually chemical, that disinfects% normally, it is
employed only &ith inanimate ob:ects.
(See "('
disinfection (dis_in-
The ,illing, inhibition, or removal of microorganisms
that may cause disease. It usually refers to the treatment
of inanimate ob:ects &ith chemicals.
(See "('
disinfection &y-products
4hlorinated organic compounds formed during chlorine
use for &ater disinfection. ;any are carcinogens.
(See #-(
dissimilatory nitrate
The process in &hich some bacteria use nitrate as the
electron acceptor at the end of their electron transport
chain to produce AT!. The nitrate is reduced to nitrite or
nitrogen gas.
(See "90
dissimilatory reduction The use of a substance as an electron acceptor in energy
generation. The acceptor (e.g., sulfate or nitrate is
reduced but not incorporated into organic matter during
biosynthetic processes.
(See #".
diurnal oxygen shifts (di-
The changes in oxygen levels that occur in &aters &hen
algae produce and use oxygen on a cyclic basis during
day and night.
(See #-0
$5A ligase An en$yme that :oins t&o )8A fragments together
through the formation of a ne& phosphodiester bond.
(See *(9
$5A microarrays ($5A
5olid supports that have )8A attached in highly
organi$ed arrays and are normally used to evaluate gene
(See (-., "0"'
$5A polymerase (pol-
An en$yme that synthesi$es ne& )8A using a parental
)8A strand as a template.
(See *(#
$5A *accine A vaccine that contains )8A &hich encodes antigenic
proteins. It is in:ected directly into the muscle% the )8A
is ta,en up by the muscle cells and encoded protein
antigens are synthesi$ed. This produces both humoral
and cell2mediated responses.
(See 7#7
domains (do-man_) ". 4ompact, self2folding, structurally independent
regions of proteins (usually around "002(00 amino acids
in length% large proteins may have t&o or more domains
connected by less structured stretches of polypeptide. In
the antibody molecule, they are the loops, along &ith
about *- amino acids on each side, that form compact,
globular sections. *. The primary taxonomic groups
above the ,ingdom level% all living organisms may be
placed in one of three domains.
(See *7., .*., 7(.
dou&le diffusion agar
assay (7uchterlony
An immunodiffusion reaction in &hich both antibody
and antigen diffuse through agar to form stable immune
complexes, &hich can be observed visually.
(See 7'0
dou&ling time 5ee generation time.
(See ""-
$P. (diphtheria-pertussis-
tetanus) *accine
A vaccine containing three antigens that is used to
immuni$e people against diphtheria, pertussis or
&hooping cough, and tetanus.
(See 90"
droplet nuclei 5mall particles (" to . mm in diameter that represent
&hat is left from the evaporation of larger particles ("0
mm or more in diameter called droplets.
(See '-#
$ *alue 5ee decimal reduction time.
(See ".0
early m05A ;essenger +8A produced early in a virus infection that
codes for proteins needed to ta,e over the host cell and
manufacture viral nucleic acids.
(See ('-
<&ola *irus hemorrhagic
fe*er (a_&o-l/)
An acute infection caused by a virus that produces
varying degrees of hemorrhage, shoc,, and sometimes
(See '77
eclipse period (e-'lips_) The initial part of the latent period in &hich infected host
bacteria do not contain any complete virions.
(See ('(
ecosystem (e'_o-sis_tem) A self2regulating biological community and its associated
physical and chemical environment.
(See -9#
ectomycorrhizal +eferring to a mutualistic association bet&een fungi and
plant roots in &hich the fungus surrounds the root tip
&ith a sheath.
(See #'"
ectoparasite (e'_to-
A parasite that lives on the surface of its host.
(See 7''
ectoplasm (e'_to-plazm) The outer stiffer portion or region of the cytoplasm in a
proto$oan, &hich may be differentiated in texture from
the inner portion or endoplasm.
(See -'-
ectosym&iosis A type of symbiosis in &hich one organism remains
outside of the other organism.
(See 70"
effacing lesion (le_zh/n) The type of lesion caused by enteropathogenic strains of
?. coli (?!?4 &hen the bacteria attach to and destroy
the brush border of intestinal epithelial cells. The term
A? (attaching2effacing ?. coli is no& used to designate
true ?!?4 strains that are an important cause of diarrhea
in children from developing countries and in traveler9s
(See 9(*
ehrlichiosis (ar-li'_e-
A tic,2borne ()ermacentor andersoni, Amblyomma
americanum ric,ettsial disease caused by ?hrlichia
chaffeensis. >nce inside leu,ocytes, a nonspecific illness
develops that resembles +oc,y ;ountain spotted fever.
(See 909
electron transport chain A series of electron carriers that operate together to
transfer electrons from donors such as 8A)/ and
<A)/* to acceptors such as oxygen.
(See "'.
electrophoresis (e-le'_tro-
A techni6ue that separates substances through differences
in their migration rate in an electrical field due to
variations in the number and ,inds of charged groups
they have.
(See (*7
electroporation (e-le'_tro-
The application of an electric field to create temporary
pores in the plasma membrane in order to insert )8A
into the cell and transform it.
(See ((-
elementary &ody A small, dormant body that serves as the agent of
transmission bet&een host cells in the chlamydial life
(See .77
elongation cycle The cycle in protein synthesis that results in the addition
of an amino acid to the gro&ing end of a peptide chain.
(See *70
path1ay (em_den mi_er-
A path&ay that degrades glucose to pyruvate% the six2
carbon stage converts glucose to fructose ",#2
bisphosphate, and the three2carbon stage produces AT!
&hile changing glyceraldehyde (2phosphate to pyruvate.
(See "7#, A2"(
encystation (en-sis-
The formation of a cyst.
(See -'#
endemic disease (en-
A disease that is commonly or constantly present in a
population, usually at a relatively steady lo& fre6uency.
(See '.9
endemic (murine) typhus
(mu_rin ti_fus)
A form of typhus fever caused by the ric,ettsia +ic,ettsia
typhi that occurs sporadically in individuals &ho come
into contact &ith rats and their fleas.
(See 909
endergonic reaction
A reaction that does not spontaneously go to completion
as &ritten% the standard free energy change is positive,
and the e6uilibrium constant is less than one.
(See "-#
endocytosis (en(do-si-
The process in &hich a cell ta,es up solutes or particles
by enclosing them in vesicles pinched off from its plasma
(See '0
endogenote (en(do-
The recipient bacterial cell9s o&n genetic material into
&hich the donor )8A can integrate.
(See *9.
endogenous infection (en-
do+_)e-nus in-fe'_shun)
An infection by a member of an individual9s o&n normal
body microbiota.
(See 90-
endogenous pyrogen (en-
do+_e-nus pi_ro-+en)
A substance such as the lympho,ine interleu,in2", &hich
is produced by host cells and induces a fever response in
the host. It also is called simply a pyrogen.
(See '0"
endomycorrhizal +eferring to a mutualistic association of fungi and plant
roots in &hich the fungus penetrates into the root cells
and arbuscules and vesicles are formed.
(See #'"
endoparasite (en(do-
A parasite that lives inside the body of its host.
(See 7'9
endophyte (en_do-f)!t) A microorganism living &ithin a plant, but not
necessarily parasitic on it.
(See #79
endoplasm (en_do-plazm) The central portion of the cytoplasm in a proto$oan.
(See -'-
endoplasmic reticulum
(en(do-plas_mi' r)e-ti'_u-
A system of membranous tubules and flattened sacs
(cisternae in the cytoplasmic matrix of eucaryotic cells.
+ough or granular endoplasmic reticulum (+?+ or 3?+
bears ribosomes on its surface% smooth or agranular
endoplasmic reticulum (5?+ or A?+ lac,s them.
(See 79
endosome (en_do-som) A membranous vesicle formed by endocytosis.
(See '0
endospore (en_do-spor) An extremely heat2 and chemical2resistant, dormant,
thic,2&alled spore that develops &ithin bacteria.
(See #'
endosym&iont (en(do-
An organism that lives &ithin the body of another
organism in a symbiotic association.
(See -9#
endosym&iosis (en_do-
A type of symbiosis in &hich one organism is found
&ithin another organism.
(See 70"
endosym&iotic theory or
The theory that eucaryotic organelles such as
mitochondria and chloroplasts arose &hen bacteria
established an endosymbiotic relationship &ith the
eucaryotic ancestor and then evolved into eucaryotic
(See '-, .*.
endotoxin (en(do-tox_sin) The heat2stable lipopolysaccharide in the outer
membrane of the cell &all of gram2negative bacteria that
is released &hen the bacterium lyses, or sometimes
during gro&th, and is toxic to the host.
(See 799
end product inhi&ition 5ee feedbac, inhibition.
(See "#9
energy The capacity to do &or, or cause particular changes.
(See "-.
enology The science of &ine ma,ing.
(See 9'*
enteric &acteria
(entero&acteria, en-
;embers of the family ?nterobacteriaceae (gram2
negative, peritrichous or nonmotile, facultatively
anaerobic, straight rods &ith simple nutritional
re6uirements% also used for bacteria that live in the
intestinal tract.
(See -0-
enterohemorrhagic <3 coli
(<;<C) (en_t/r-o-
?/?4 strains of ?. coli (0"-7C/7 produce several
cytotoxins that provo,e fluid secretion in traveler9s
hem(/-ra+_i') diarrhea% ho&ever, their mode of action is un,no&n.
(See 9(*
enteroin*asi*e <3 coli
(<#<C) (en_t/r-o-in-
?I?4 strains of ?. coli cause traveler9s diarrhea by
penetrating and binding to the intestinal epithelial cells.
?I?4 may also produce a cytotoxin and enterotoxin.
(See 9(*
enteropathogenic <3 coli
(<P<C) (en_t/r-o-path-o-
?!?4 strains of ?. coli attach to the brush border of
intestinal epithelial cells and cause a specific type of cell
damage called effacing lesions that lead to traveler9s
(See 9(*
enterotoxigenic <3 coli
(<.<C) (en_t/r-o-
?T?4 strains of ?. coli produce t&o plasmid2encoded
enterotoxins (&hich are responsible for traveler9s
diarrhea and are distinguished by their heat stabilityC
heat2stable enterotoxin (5T and heat2labile enterotoxin
(See 9(*
enterotoxin (en(ter-o-
A toxin specifically affecting the cells of the intestinal
mucosa, causing vomiting and diarrhea.
(See 797, 9*7
A path&ay that converts glucose to pyruvate and
glyceraldehyde (2phosphate by producing #2
phosphogluconate and then dehydrating it.
(See "79, A2"-
entropy (en_tro-pe) A measure of the randomness or disorder of a system% a
measure of that part of the total energy in a system that is
unavailable for useful &or,.
(See "-#
en*elope (en_*)e-lop) ". All the structures outside the plasma membrane in
bacterial cells. *. In virology it is an outer membranous
layer that surrounds the nucleocapsid in some viruses.
(See --, (#9
enzootic (en(zo-ot_i') The moderate prevalence of a disease in a given animal
(See '.9
enzyme (en_z!m) A protein catalyst &ith specificity for both the reaction
cataly$ed and its substrates.
(See "#"
immunosor&ent assay
A techni6ue used for detecting and 6uantifying specific
antibodies and antigens.
(See 77'
eosinophil (e( o-sin4_o-fil) A polymorphonuclear leu,ocyte that has a t&o2lobed
nucleus and cytoplasmic granules that stain yello&2red.
A mobile phagocyte that is highly antiparasitic.
(See 707
epidemic (ep()!-dem_i') A disease that suddenly increases in occurrence above
the normal level in a given population.
(See '.9
epidemic (louse-&orne)
typhus (ep(i-dem_i'
A disease caused by +ic,ettsia pro&a$e,ii that is
transmitted from person to person by the body louse.
(See 909
epidemiologist (ep()!-
A person &ho speciali$es in epidemiology.
(See '.9
epidemiology (epi(-de(me-
The study of the factors determining and influencing the
fre6uency and distribution of disease, in:ury, and other
health2related events and their causes in defined human
(See '.'
episome (ep_)!-som) A plasmid that can exist either independently of the host
cell9s chromosome or be integrated into it.
(See *9.
epitheca (ep()!-the_'ah) The larger of t&o halves of a diatom frustule (shell.
(See -77
epitope (ep_i-top) An area of the antigen molecule that stimulates the
production of, and combines &ith, specific antibodies%
also ,no&n as the antigenic determinant site.
(See 7("
epizootic (ep()!-zo-ot_i') A sudden outbrea, of a disease in an animal population.
(See '.9
epizootiology (ep(i-zo-ot(e-
The field of science that deals &ith factors determining
the fre6uency and distribution of a disease &ithin an
animal population.
(See '.9
epsilon-proteo&acteria >ne of the five subgroups of proteobacteria, each &ith
distinctive "#5 r+8A se6uences. 5lender gram2negative
rods, some of &hich are medically important
(4ampylobacter and /elicobacter.
(See -".
e"uili&rium (e('1)!-
The state of a system in &hich no net change is occurring
and free energy is at a minimum% in a chemical reaction
at e6uilibrium, the rates in the for&ard and reverse
directions exactly balance each other out.
(See "-#
ergot (er_got) The dried sclerotium of 4laviceps purpurea. Also, an
ascomycete that parasiti$es rye and other higher plants
causing the disease called ergotism.
(See -#"
ergotism (er_got-izm) The disease or toxic condition caused by eating grain
infected &ith ergot% it is often accompanied by gangrene,
psychotic delusions, nervous spasms, abortion, and
convulsions in humans and in animals.
(See -#", 9#7
erysipelas (er()!-sip_)e-
An acute inflammation of the dermal layer of the s,in,
occurring primarily in infants and persons over (0 years
of age &ith a history of streptococcal sore throat.
(See 90(
erythema infectiosum
A disease in children caused by the parvovirus B"9. This
disease is common in children bet&een . and "" years of
age and is sometimes called fifth disease, since it &as the
fifth of six erythematous rash diseases in children in an
older classification.
(See ''7
erythromycin ()e-rith(ro-
An intermediate spectrum macrolide antibiotic produced
by 5treptomyces erythreus.
(See '"7
eschar (es_'ar) A slough produced on the s,in by a thermal burn,
gangrene, or the anthrax bacillus.
(See 9".
<ucarya The domain that contains organisms composed of
eucaryotic cells &ith primarily glycerol fatty acyl
diesters in their membranes and eucaryotic r+8A.
(See .*.
eucaryotic cells (u('ar-e-
4ells that have a membrane2delimited nucleus and differ
in many other &ays from procaryotic cells% protists,
algae, fungi, plants, and animals are all eucaryotic.
(See "", 9"
euglenoids (u-gle_noids) A group of algae (the division ?uglenophyta or proto$oa
(order ?uglenida that normally have chloroplasts
containing chlorophyll a and b. They usually have a
stigma and one or t&o flagella emerging from an anterior
(See -7#
<umycota (u(mi-'o_t/) A division of fungi in some classification systems. These
are the true fungi consisting of the Iygomycetes,
Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and 4hytridiomycetes.
(See --(
eumycotic mycetoma
5ee maduromycosis.
(See 9.-
eutrophic (u-trof_i') A nutrient2enriched environment.
(See #.'
eutrophication (u(tro-f)!-
The enrichment of an a6uatic environment &ith nutrients.
(See #.'
e*olutionary distance A 6uantitative indication of the number of positions that
differ bet&een t&o aligned macromolecules, and
presumably a measure of evolutionary similarity bet&een
molecules and organisms.
(See .((
excystation (e'(sis-
The escape of one or more cells or organisms from a
(See -'#
exergonic reaction (e'(ser-
A reaction that spontaneously goes to completion as
&ritten% the standard free energy change is negative, and
the e6uilibrium constant is greater than one.
(See "-#
exfoliati*e toxin (e's-fo_le-
a(ti*) or exfoliatin (e's-
An exotoxin produced by 5taphylococcus aureus that
causes the separation of epidermal layers and the loss of
s,in surface layers. It produces the symptoms of the
scaled s,in syndrome.
(See 9**
exit site (< site) The location on a ribosome to &hich an empty t+8A
moves from the ! site before it finally leaves the
ribosome during protein synthesis.
(See *70
exoenzymes (e'(so-
?n$ymes that are secreted by cells.
(See --
exogenote (e's(o-+e_not) The piece of donor )8A that enters a bacterial cell
during gene exchange and recombination.
(See *9.
exon (e's_on) The region in a split or interrupted gene that codes for
+8A &hich ends up in the final product (e.g., m+8A.
(See *#(
exotoxin (e'(so-to'_sin) A heat2labile, toxic protein produced by a bacterium as a
result of its normal metabolism or because of the
ac6uisition of a plasmid or prophage that redirects its
metabolism. It is usually released into the bacterium9s
(See 79.
exponential phase (e's(po-
The phase of the gro&th curve during &hich the
microbial population is gro&ing at a constant and
maximum rate, dividing and doubling at regular
(See "".
expressed se"uence tag
A partial gene se6uence uni6ue to a gene that can be used
to identify and position the gene during genomic
(See (-.
expression *ector A special cloning vector used to express recombinant
genes in host cells% the recombinant gene is transcribed
and its protein synthesi$ed.
(See ((#
exteins !olypeptide se6uences of precursor self2splicing proteins
that are :oined together during formation of the final,
functional protein. They are separated from one another
by intein se6uences, &hich they flan,.
(See *7-
sporotrichosis (spo(ro-tri-
An infection by the fungus 5porothrix schenc,ii that
spreads throughout the body.
(See 9.-
extreme &arophilic
Bacteria that re6uire a high2pressure environment to
(See #*.
extreme en*ironment An environment in &hich physical factors such as
temperature, p/, salinity, and pressure are outside of the
normal range for gro&th of most microorganisms% these
conditions allo& uni6ue organisms to survive and
(See #*.
extremophiles ;icroorganisms that gro& under harsh or extreme
environmental conditions such as very high temperatures
or lo& p/s.
(See "*", #*.
extrinsic factor An environmental factor such as temperature that
influences microbial gro&th in food.
(See 9#.
facilitated diffusion )iffusion across the plasma membrane that is aided by a
(See "00
facultati*e anaero&es
(fa'_ul-ta(ti* an-a_er-
;icroorganisms that do not re6uire oxygen for gro&th,
but do gro& better in its presence.
(See "*7
facultati*e psychrophile
(fa'_ul-ta(ti* si_'ro-f!l)
5ee psychrotroph.
(See "*#
fas gene The gene that is active in target cells &hich are
susceptible to ,illing by cells expressing the <as ligand, a
member of the T8< family of cyto,ines and cell surface
(See 7-0
fatty acid synthetase
The multien$yme complex that ma,es fatty acids% the
product usually is palmitic acid.
(See *"'
fecal coliform (fe_'al
4oliforms &hose normal habitat is the intestinal tract and
that can gro& at ...-G4.
(See #-.
fecal enterococci (fe_'al
?nterococci found in the intestine of humans and other
&arm2blooded animals. They are used as indicators of
the fecal pollution of &ater.
(See #-#
feed&ac' inhi&ition A negative feedbac, mechanism in &hich a path&ay end
product inhibits the activity of an en$yme in the
se6uence leading to its formation% &hen the end product
accumulates in excess, it inhibits its o&n synthesis.
(See "#9
fermentation (fer(men-
An energy2yielding process in &hich an energy substrate
is oxidi$ed &ithout an exogenous electron acceptor.
Asually organic molecules serve as both electron donors
and acceptors.
(See "7(, "000
fe*er A complex physiological response to disease mediated
by pyrogenic cyto,ines and characteri$ed by a rise in
core body temperature and activation of the immune
(See 7**
fe*er &lister 5ee cold sore.
(See ''.
F factor The fertility factor, a plasmid that carries the genes for
bacterial con:ugation and ma,es its ?. coli host cell the
gene donor during con:ugation.
(See *9-
fim&ria (fim_&re-ah, pl34
A fine, hairli,e protein appendage on some gram2
negative bacteria that helps attach them to surfaces.
(See #*
final host The host onDin &hich a parasitic organism either attains
sexual maturity or reproduces.
(See 7'9
first la1 of
?nergy can be neither created nor destroyed (even
though it can be changed in form or redistributed.
(See "--
fixation (fi'-sa_shun) The process in &hich the internal and external structures
of cells and organisms are preserved and fixed in
(See *7
flagellin (fla+_)e-lin) The protein used to construct the filament of a bacterial
(See #.
flagellum (flah-+el_um, pl34
A thin, threadli,e appendage on many procaryotic and
eucaryotic cells that is responsible for their motility.
(See #(, '9
flat or plane 1arts 5mall, smooth, slightly raised &arts.
(See '9.
fla*in adenine dinucleotide
(FA$, fla_*in ad_)e-
An electron carrying cofactor often involved in energy
production (for example, in the tricarboxylic acid cycle
and the b2oxidation path&ay.
(See "-9
fluid mosaic model The currently accepted model of cell membranes in
&hich the membrane is a lipid bilayer &ith integral
proteins buried in the lipid, and peripheral proteins more
loosely attached to the membrane surface.
(See .7
fluorescence microscope A microscope that exposes a specimen to light of a
specific &avelength and then forms an image from the
fluorescent light produced. Asually the specimen is
stained &ith a fluorescent dye or fluorochrome.
(See *-
fluorescent light (floo(o-
The light emitted by a substance &hen it is irradiated
&ith light of a shorter &avelength.
(See *-
fomite (fo_m!t, pl34
An ob:ect that is not in itself harmful but is able to harbor
and transmit pathogenic organisms. Also called fomes.
(See 79*, '-7
food-&orne infection 3astrointestinal illness caused by ingestion of
microorganisms, follo&ed by their gro&th &ithin the
host. 5ymptoms arise from tissue invasion andDor toxin
(See 9*#, 97(
food chain The flo& of energy and matter in living organisms
through a producer2consumer se6uence (5ee also food
(See -'.
food intoxication <ood poisoning caused by microbial toxins produced in a
food prior to consumption. The presence of living
bacteria is not re6uired.
(See 9*7, 97-
food poisoning A general term usually referring to a gastrointestinal
disease caused by the ingestion of food contaminated by
pathogens or their toxins.
(See 9*#
food 1e& A net&or, of many interlin,ed food chains,
encompassing primary producers, consumers,
decomposers, and detritivores.
(See -'.
F= particle !article on the inner mitochondrial membrane, &hich is
the site of AT! synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation.
(See '(, "'7
F_ plasmid An < plasmid that carries some bacterial genes and
transmits them to recipient cells &hen the <J cell carries
out con:ugation% the transfer of bacterial genes in this
&ay is often called sexduction.
(See (0-
fragmentation (frag(men-
A type of asexual reproduction in &hich a thallus brea,s
into t&o or more parts, each of &hich forms a ne&
(See -7(
frameshift mutations ;utations arising from the loss or gain of a base or )8A
segment, leading to a change in the codon reading frame
and thus a change in the amino acids incorporated into
(See *-"
free energy change The total energy change in a system that is available to
do useful &or, as the system goes from its initial state to
its final state at constant temperature and pressure.
(See "-#
French polio 5ee 3uillain2BarrK syndrome.
(See '7.
fruiting &ody A speciali$ed structure that holds sexually or asexually
produced spores% found in fungi and in some bacteria.
(See -"*, -#-
frustule (frus_tul) A silicified cell &all in the diatoms.
(See -77
fungicide (fun_+)!-s!d) An agent that ,ills fungi.
(See "('
fungistatic (fun_+)!-
Inhibiting the gro&th and reproduction of fungi.
(See "('
fungus (fung_gus, pl34
Achlorophyllous, heterotrophic, spore2bearing
eucaryotes &ith absorptive nutrition% usually, they have a
&alled thallus.
(See --(
F *alue The time in minutes at a specific temperature (usually
*-0G< needed to ,ill a population of cells or spores.
(See ".0
Glossary G-8
gametangium (gam-)e-tan_+e-
um, pl34 gametangia)
A structure that contains gametes or in &hich
gametes are formed.
(See --7
gamma-proteo&acteria >ne of the five subgroups of proteobacteria, each
&ith distinctive "#5 r+8A se6uences. This is the
largest subgroup and is very diverse physiologically%
many important genera are facultatively anaerobic
(See .9'
gas gangrene (gang_gren) A type of gangrene that arises from dirty, lacerated
&ounds infected by anaerobic bacteria, especially
species of 4lostridium. As the bacteria gro&, they
release toxins and ferment carbohydrates to produce
carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas.
(See 9"-
gastritis (gas-tri_tis) Inflammation of the stomach.
(See 9"'
gastroenteritis (gas_tro-en-ter-
An acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach
and intestines, characteri$ed by anorexia, nausea,
diarrhea, abdominal pain, and &ea,ness. It has
various causes including food poisoning due to such
organisms as ?. coli, 5. aureus, 4ampylobacter
(campylobacteriosis, and 5almonella species%
consumption of irritating food or drin,% or
psychological factors such as anger, stress, and fear.
Also called enterogastritis.
(See 9*9
gas *acuole A gas2filled vacuole found in cyanobacteria and
some other a6uatic bacteria that provides flotation.
It is composed of gas vesicles, &hich are made of
(See -"
gene (+en) A )8A segment or se6uence that codes for a
polypeptide, r+8A, or t+8A.
(See *."
gene gun A device that uses high2pressure gas or another
propellant to shoot a spray of )8A2coated
micropro:ectiles into cells and transform them.
5ometimes it is called a biolistic device.
(See ((-
generalized transduction The transfer of any part of a bacterial genome &hen
the )8A fragment is pac,aged &ithin a phage
capsid by mista,e.
(See (0'
general recom&ination +ecombination involving a reciprocal exchange of a
pair of homologous )8A se6uences% it can occur
any place on the chromosome.
(See *9*
generation time The time re6uired for a microbial population to
double in number.
(See ""-
genetic engineering The deliberate modification of an organism9s genetic
information by directly changing its nucleic acid
(See (*0
genital herpes (her_pez) A sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes
simplex virus type *.
(See ''-
genital ulcer disease 5ee chancroid.
(See 9".
genome (+e_nom) The full set of genes present in a cell or virus% all the
genetic material in an organism% a haploid set of
genes in a cell.
(See **'
genomics The study of the molecular organi$ation of
genomes, their information content, and the gene
products they encode.
(See (.-
genus (+e_n/s) A &ell2defined group of one or more species that is
clearly separate from other genera.
(See .*#
geographic information system
A data management system that organi$es and
displays digital map data from remote sensing and
aids in the analysis of relationships bet&een mapped
(See '-0
German measles 5ee rubella.
(See '7-
germicide (+er_m)!-s!d) An agent that ,ills pathogens and many
nonpathogens but not necessarily bacterial
(See "('
germination (+er(m)!-
The stage follo&ing bacterial endospore activation
in &hich the endospore brea,s its dormant state.
3ermination is follo&ed by outgro&th.
(See 7"
Ghon complex (gon) The initial focus of parenchymal infection in
primary pulmonary tuberculosis.
(See 90'
giardiasis (+e(ar-di_ah-sis) A common intestinal disease caused by the parasitic
proto$oan 3iardia lamblia.
(See 9-(
gingi*itis (+in-+)!-*i_tis) Inflammation of the gingival tissue.
(See 9(#
gingi*ostomatitis (+in(+)!-*o-
Inflammation of the gingiva and other oral mucous
(See ''.
gliding motility A type of motility in &hich a microbial cell glides
along &hen in contact &ith a solid surface.
(See ##, .'*
glo&al regulatory systems +egulatory systems that simultaneously affect many
genes and path&ays.
(See *'"
glomerulonephritis (glo-mer(u-
An inflammatory disease of the renal glomeruli.
(See 90-
glucans !olysaccharides composed of glucose units held
together by glycosidic lin,ages. 5ome types of
glucans have a("J( and a("J# lin,ages and bind
bacterial cells together on teeth forming a pla6ue
(See 9(#
gluconeogenesis (gloo_'o-ne_o-
The synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate
precursors such as lactate and amino acids.
(See *09
glycocalyx (gli_'o-'al_i's) A net&or, of polysaccharides extending from the
surface of bacteria and other cells.
(See #"
glycogen (gli_'o-+en) A highly branched polysaccharide containing
glucose, &hich is used to store carbon and energy.
(See .9, A2#
glycolysis (gli-'ol_)!-sis) The anaerobic conversion of glucose to lactic acid
by use of the ?mbden2;eyerhof path&ay.
(See "7#
glycolytic path1ay (gli_'o-
5ee ?mbden2;eyerhof path&ay.
(See "7#, A2"(
glyoxylate cycle (gli-o'_s)!-
A modified tricarboxylic acid cycle in &hich the
decarboxylation reactions are bypassed by the
en$ymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase% it is
used to convert acetyl24oA to succinate and other
(See *"#
gnoto&iotic (no_to-&i-ot_i') Animals that are germfree (microorganism free or
live in association &ith one or more ,no&n
(See #9'
Golgi apparatus (gol_+e) A membranous eucaryotic organelle composed of
stac,s of flattened sacs (cisternae, &hich is
involved in pac,aging and modifying materials for
secretion and many other processes.
(See '0
gonococci (gon_o-'o'_si) Bacteria of the species 8eisseria gonorrhoeae2the
organism causing gonorrhea.
(See 9"-
gonorrhea (gon_o-re_ah) An acute infectious sexually transmitted disease of
the mucous membranes of the genitourinary tract,
eye, rectum, and throat. It is caused by 8eisseria
(See 9"-
graft-*ersus-host disease A disease that results &hen mature post2thymic T
cells in donor grafts (e.g., bone marro& recogni$e
the host as foreign and attac, it.
(See 77(
Gram stain A differential staining procedure that divides
bacteria into gram2positive and gram2negative
groups based on their ability to retain crystal violet
&hen decolori$ed &ith an organic solvent such as
(See *'
grana (gra_nah) A stac, of thyla,oids in the chloroplast stroma.
(See '-
granuloma (gran(u-lo_m/) Term applied to nodular inflammatory lesions
containing phagocytic cells.
(See 7".
greenhouse gases 3ases released from the earth9s surface through
chemical and biological processes that interact &ith
the chemicals in the stratosphere to decrease the
release of radiation from the earth. It is believed that
this leads to global &arming.
(See #'9
griseoful*in (gris(e-o-ful_*in) An antibiotic from !enicillium griseofulvum given
orally to treat chronic dermatophytic infections of
s,in and nails.
(See '*0
group translocation A transport process in &hich a molecule is moved
across a membrane by carrier proteins &hile being
chemically altered at the same time.
(See "0(
gro1th An increase in cellular constituents.
(See ""(
gro1th factors >rganic compounds that must be supplied in the diet
for gro&th because they are essential cell
components or precursors of such components and
cannot be synthesi$ed by the organism.
(See 99
guanine (g1an_in) A purine derivative, *2amino2#2oxypurine, found in
nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids.
(See *"7
Guillain-Barr syndrome (ge-
A relatively rare disease affecting the peripheral
nervous system, especially the spinal nerves, but
also the cranial nerves. The cause is un,no&n, but it
most often occurs after an influen$a infection or flu
vaccination. Also called <rench !olio.
(See '7.
gumma (gum_ah) A soft, gummy tumor occurring in tertiary syphilis.
(See 9*.
gut-associated lymphoid tissue
The defensive lymphoid tissue present in the
intestines. 5ee !eyer9s patches.
(See 7"0
;-> complex Term for the ;/4 in the mouse.
(See 7.-
halo&acteria or extreme
A group of archaea that have an absolute
dependence on high 8a4l concentrations for gro&th
and &ill not survive at a concentration belo& about
".- ; 8a4l.
(See .#"
halophile (hal_o-f!l) A microorganism that re6uires high levels of sodium
chloride for gro&th.
(See "*(
;ansen2s disease 5ee leprosy.
(See 9"#
hanta*irus pulmonary
The disease in humans caused by the pulmonary
syndrome hantavirus. )eer mice shed the virus in
their feces, humans inhale the virus and first
develop ordinary fluli,e aches and pains. @ithin a
fe& days the hantavirus causes lung damage and
capillary lea,age. After about a &ee, the infected
person enters a crisis phase and may die.
(See '77
hapten (hap_ten) A molecule not immunogenic by itself but that,
&hen coupled to a macromolecular carrier, can elicit
antibodies directed against itself.
(See 7("
har&orage transmission The mode of transmission in &hich an infectious
organism does not undergo morphological or
physiological changes &ithin the vector.
(See '-'
hay fe*er Allergic rhinitis% a type of atopic allergy involving
the upper respiratory tract.
(See 7#'
health (helth) A state of optimal physical, mental, and social &ell2
being, and not merely the absence of disease and
(See '.'
healthy carrier An individual &ho harbors a pathogen, but is not ill.
(See '-.
heat-shoc' proteins !roteins produced &hen cells are exposed to high
temperatures or other stressful conditions. They
protect the cells from damage and often aid in the
proper folding of proteins.
(See *7(
helical (hel_)!-'al) In virology this refers to a virus &ith a helical capsid
surrounding its nucleic acid.
(See (#9
helicases ?n$ymes that use AT! energy to un&ind )8A ahead
of the replication for,.
(See *(#
hemadsorption (hem(ad-
The adherence of red blood cells to the surface of
something, such as another cell or a virus.
(See '(*
hemagglutination (hem(ah-
The agglutination of red blood cells by antibodies.
(See 7-#
hemagglutinin (hem(ah-
The antibody responsible for a hemagglutination
(See 7-#
hemoflagellate (he(mo-fla+_)e-
A flagellated proto$oan parasite that is found in the
(See 9-#
hemolysin (he-mol_)!-sin) A substance that causes hemolysis (the lysis of red
blood cells. At least some hemolysins are en$ymes
that destroy the phospholipids in erythrocyte plasma
(See 797
hemolysis (he-mol_)!-sis) The disruption of red blood cells and release of their
hemoglobin. There are several types of hemolysis
&hen bacteria such as streptococci and
staphylococci gro& on blood agar. In a2hemolysis, a
narro& greenish $one of incomplete hemolysis
forms around the colony. A clear $one of complete
hemolysis &ithout any obvious color change is
formed during b2hemolysis.
(See -(", 797
hemolytic uremic syndrome A ,idney disease characteri$ed by blood in the urine
and often by ,idney failure. It is caused by
enterohemorrhagic strains of ?scherichia coli
>"-7C/7 that produce a 5higa2li,e toxin, &hich
attac,s the ,idneys.
(See 9(*
hemorrhagic fe*er A fever usually caused by a specific virus that may
lead to hemorrhage, shoc,, and sometimes death.
(See '77
hepatitis (hep(ah-ti_tis) Any infection that results in inflammation of the
liver. Also refers to liver inflammation as such.
(See ''9
hepatitis A (formerly infectious
hepatitis, hep(ah-ti_tis)
A type of hepatitis that is transmitted by fecal2oral
contamination% it primarily affects children and
young adults, especially in environments &here
there is poor sanitation and overcro&ding. It is
caused by the hepatitis A virus, a single2stranded
+8A virus.
(See '9*
hepatitis B (formerly serum
hepatitis, hep(ah-ti_tis)
This form of hepatitis is caused by a double2
stranded )8A virus (/B7 formerly called the
1)ane particle.1 The virus is transmitted by body
(See ''9
hepatitis C About 90E of all cases of viral hepatitis can be
traced to either /A7 or /B7. The remaining "0E is
believed to be caused by one and possibly several
other types of viruses. At least one of these is
hepatitis 4 (formerly non2A, non2B.
(See '90
hepatitis $ (formerly delta
The liver diseases caused by the hepatitis ) virus in
those individuals already infected &ith the hepatitis
B virus.
(See '9"
hepatitis < (formerly enteric-
transmitted 5A5B hepatitis)
The liver disease caused by the hepatitis ? virus.
Asually, a subclinical, acute infection results%
ho&ever, there is a high mortality in &omen in their
last trimester of pregnancy.
(See '9*
herd immunity The resistance of a population to infection and
spread of an infectious organism due to the
immunity of a high percentage of the population.
(See '-"
herpes la&ialis 5ee cold sore.
(See ''.
herpetic 'eratitis (her-pet_i'
An inflammation of the cornea and con:unctiva of
the eye resulting from a herpes simplex virus
(See ''.
heterocysts 5peciali$ed cells produced by cyanobacteria that are
the sites of nitrogen fixation.
(See .7(
heteroduplex $5A A double2stranded stretch of )8A formed by t&o
slightly different strands that are not completely
(See *9*
heterogeneous nuclear 05A
The +8A transcript of )8A made by +8A
polymerase II% it is then processed to form m+8A.
(See *#(
heterolactic fermenters (het_er-
;icroorganisms that ferment sugars to form lactate,
and also other products such as ethanol and 4>*.
(See "'"
heterotroph (het_er-o-trof_) An organism that uses reduced, preformed organic
molecules as its principal carbon source.
(See 9#
heterotrophic nitrification 8itrification carried out by chemoheterotrophic
(See #"-
hexon or hexamer A capsomer composed of six protomers.
(See (70
hexose monophosphate
path1ay (he'_sos mon_o-
5ee pentose phosphate path&ay.
(See "77
;fr strain A bacterial strain that donates its genes &ith high
fre6uency to a recipient cell during con:ugation
because the < factor is integrated into the bacterial
(See (0(
high-energy molecule A molecule &hose hydrolysis under standard
conditions ma,es available a large amount of free
energy (the standard free energy change is more
negative than about *7 ,calDmole% a high2energy
molecule readily decomposes and transfers groups
such as phosphate to acceptors.
(See "-7
high oxygen diffusion
A microbial environment in close contact &ith air
and through &hich oxygen can move at a rapid rate
(in comparison &ith the slo& diffusion rate of
oxygen through &ater.
(See #(-
histone (his_ton) A small basic protein &ith large amounts of lysine
and arginine that is associated &ith eucaryotic )8A
in chromatin.
(See *(.
histoplasmosis (his_to-plaz-
A systemic fungal infection caused by /istoplasma
capsulatum var capsulatum.
(See 9.7
hi*es (h)!*z) An eruption of the s,in.
(See 7#9
holdfast A structure produced by some bacteria and algae
that attaches the cell to a solid ob:ect.
(See .9"
holoenzyme A complete en$yme consisting of the apoen$yme
plus a cofactor.
(See "#"
holozoic nutrition (hol_o-
In this type of nutrition, nutrients (such as bacteria
are ac6uired by phagocytosis and the subse6uent
formation of a food vacuole or phagosome.
(See -'#
homolactic fermenters (ho_mo-
>rganisms that ferment sugars almost completely to
lactic acid.
(See "'"
horizontal gene transfer The process in &hich genes are transferred from one
mature, independent organism to another.
(See *9*
hormogonia 5mall motile fragments produced by fragmentation
of filamentous cyanobacteria% used for asexual
reproduction and dispersal.
(See .7(
host (host) The body of an organism that harbors another
organism. It can be vie&ed as a microenvironment
that shelters and supports the gro&th and
multiplication of a parasitic organism.
(See 7''
host restriction The degradation of foreign genetic material by
nucleases after the genetic material enters a host
(See *9.
human herpes*irus ? (;;@-?4
type A and B) (h/r_pez)
//72# &as discovered in "9'# and &as initially
called the human B2lymphotropic virus. The virus
&as later sho&n to have a mar,ed tropism for 4)."
T cells and &as renamed //72#. //72# is
genetically similar to cytomegalovirus. //72#
causes exanthem subitum (roseola infantum or sixth
disease in infants and has been suspected of
involvement in many conditions, including
opportunistic infections in immunocompromised
patients, hepatitis, lymphoproliferative diseases,
synergistic interactions &ith /I7, lymphadenitis,
and chronic fatigue syndrome.
(See ''7
human immunodeficiency *irus
A lentivirus of the family +etroviridae that is
associated &ith the onset of AI)5.
(See '7'
human leu'ocyte antigen
complex (;8A)
An antigen on the surface of cells of human tissues
and organs that is recogni$ed by the immune system
cells and therefore is important in graft re:ection and
regulation of the immune response. This is the same
as ;/4 class II.
(See 7.-
humoral (anti&ody-mediated)
immunity (hu_mor-al)
The type of immunity that results from the presence
of soluble antibodies in blood and lymph% also
,no&n as antibody2mediated immunity.
(See 7*9
hy&ridoma (hi_&r)!-do_mah) A fast2gro&ing cell line produced by fusing a cancer
cell (myeloma to another cell, such as an antibody2
producing cell.
(See 7.(
hydrogenosome (hi-dro-
A microbodyli,e organelle that contains a uni6ue
electron transfer path&ay in &hich hydrogenase
transfers electrons to protons (&hich act as the
terminal electron acceptors and molecular
hydrogen is formed.
(See -'-
hydrophilic (hi_dro-fil_i') A polar substance that has a strong affinity for &ater
(or is readily soluble in &ater.
(See .#
hydropho&ic (hi(dro-fo_&i') A nonpolar substance lac,ing affinity for &ater (or
&hich is not readily soluble in &ater.
(See .#
hyperendemic disease (hi(per-
A disease that has a gradual increase in occurrence
beyond the endemic level, but not at the epidemic
level, in a given population% also may refer to a
disease that is e6ually endemic in all age groups.
(See '.9
hypermutation A rapid production of multiple mutations in a gene
or genes through the activation of special mutator
genes. The process may be deliberately used to
maximi$e the possibility of creating desirable
(See *.#
hypersensiti*ity (hi(per-sen_si-
A condition of increased immune sensitivity in
&hich the body reacts to an antigen &ith an
exaggerated immune response that usually harms
the individual. Also termed an allergy.
(See 7#'
hyperthermophile (hi(per-
A bacterium that has its gro&th optimum bet&een
'0 degrees 4 and about ""( degrees 4.
/yperthermophiles usually do not gro& &ell belo&
-- degrees 4.
(See "*#, #*#
hypha (hi_fah, pl34 hyphae) The unit of structure of most fungi and some
bacteria% a tubular filament.
(See --#
hypoferremia (hi(po-f)e-
)eficiency of iron in the blood.
(See 7*(
hypotheca (hi-po-theca) The smaller half of a diatom frustule.
(See -77
hypothesis A tentative assumption or educated guess developed
to explain a set of observations.
(See '
hypoxic (hi po'_si') /aving a lo& oxygen level.
(See #(-
icosahedral In virology this term refers to a virus &ith an
icosahedral capsid, &hich has the shape of a regular
polyhedron having *0 e6uilateral triangular faces
and "* corners.
(See (#9
identification (i-den_t)!-f)!- The process of determining that a particular isolate
'a_shun) or organism belongs to a recogni$ed taxon.
(See .**
idiotype (id_e-o-t!p_) A set of one or more uni6ue epitopes in the variable
region of an immunoglobulin that distinguishes it
from immunoglobulins produced by different
plasma cells.
(See 7(.
#gA Immunoglobulin A% the class of immunoglobulins
that is present in dimeric form in many body
secretions (e.g., saliva, tears, and bronchial and
intestinal secretions and protects body surfaces.
IgA also is present in serum.
(See 7(#
#g$ Immunoglobulin )% the class of immunoglobulins
found on the surface of many B lymphocytes%
thought to serve as an antigen receptor in the
stimulation of antibody synthesis.
(See 7('
#g< Immunoglobulin ?% the immunoglobulin class that
binds to mast cells and basophils, and is responsible
for type I or anaphylactic hypersensitivity reactions
such as hay fever and asthma. Ig? is also involved
in resistance to helminth parasites.
(See 7('
#gG Immunoglobulin 3% the predominant
immunoglobulin class in serum. /as functions such
as neutrali$ing toxins, opsoni$ing bacteria,
activating complement, and crossing the placenta to
protect the fetus and neonate.
(See 7(#
#g6 Immunoglobulin ;% the class of serum antibody
first produced during an infection. It is a large,
pentameric molecule that is active in agglutinating
pathogens and activating complement. The
monomeric form is present on the surface of some B
(See 7(#
immo&ilization (im-mo_&il-i-
The incorporation of a simple, soluble substance
into the body of an organism, ma,ing it unavailable
for use by other organisms.
(See #"(
immune complex ()!-
The product of an antigen2antibody reaction, &hich
may also contain components of the complement
(See 7-#
immune sur*eillance ()!-
The still some&hat hypothetical process in &hich
lymphocytes such as natural ,iller (8B cells
recogni$e and destroy tumor cells% other cells &ith
abnormal surface antigens (e.g., virus2infected cells
also may be destroyed.
(See 7#0
immune system The defensive system in a host consisting of the
nonspecific and specific immune responses. It is
composed of &idely distributed cells, tissues, and
organs that recogni$e foreign substances and
microorganisms and acts to neutrali$e or destroy
(See 70-
immunity ()!-mu_n)!-te) +efers to the overall general ability of a host to
resist a particular disease% the condition of being
(See 70-
immuno&lotting The electrophoretic transfer of proteins from
polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets to
demonstrate the presence of specific proteins
through reaction &ith labeled antibodies.
(See 779
immunodeficiency (im(u-no-
d)e-fish_en-se, pl34
The inability to produce a normal complement of
antibodies or immunologically sensiti$ed T cells in
response to specific antigens.
(See 77.
immunodiffusion A techni6ue involving the diffusion of antigen
andDor antibody &ithin a semisolid gel to produce a
precipitin reaction &here they meet in proper
proportions. >ften both the antibody and antigen
diffuse through the gel% sometimes an antigen
diffuses through a gel containing antibody.
(See 779
immunoelectrophoresis ()!-
mu_no-e-le'_tro-fo-re_sis, pl34
The electrophoretic separation of protein antigens
follo&ed by diffusion and precipitation in gels using
antibodies against the separated proteins.
(See 7'"
immunofluorescence (im_u-no-
A techni6ue used to identify particular antigens
microscopically in cells or tissues by the binding of
a fluorescent antibody con:ugate.
(See 7'"
immunoglo&ulin (#g, im_u-no-
5ee antibody.
(See 7(.
immunology (im_u-nol_o-+e) The branch of science that deals &ith the immune
system and attempts to understand the many
phenomena that are responsible for both ac6uired
and innate immunity. It also includes the use of
antibody2antigen reactions in other laboratory &or,
(serology and immunochemistry.
(See 70-
immunopathology (im_u-no-
The study of diseases or conditions resulting from
immune reactions.
(See 790
immunoprecipitation (im_u-no-
A reaction involving soluble antigens reacting &ith
antibodies to form a large aggregate that precipitates
out of solution.
(See 7'"
immunotoxin (im_u-no-
A monoclonal antibody that has been attached to a
specific toxin or toxic agent (antibody " toxin -
immunotoxin and can ,ill specific target cells.
(See 7..
impetigo (im_p/-ti_go) This superficial cutaneous disease, most commonly
seen in children, is characteri$ed by crusty lesions,
usually located on the face% the lesions typically
have vesicles surrounded by a red border. It is the
most fre6uently diagnosed s,in infection caused by
5. pyogenes (impetigo can also be caused by 5.
(See 90(
inclusion &odies 3ranules of organic or inorganic material lying in
the cytoplasmic matrix of bacteria.
(See .9, ."0
inclusion con+uncti*itis (in-
'lu_zhun 'on-+un'_t)!-
An acute infectious disease that occurs throughout
the &orld. It is caused by 4hlamydia trachomatis
that infects the eye and causes inflammation and the
occurrence of large inclusion bodies.
(See 9"#
incu&ation period The period after pathogen entry into a host and
before signs and symptoms appear.
(See '-0
incu&atory carrier An individual &ho is incubating a pathogen in large
numbers but is not yet ill.
(See '-.
index case The first disease case in an epidemic &ithin a given
(See '.9
indicator organism An organism &hose presence indicates the condition
of a substance or environment, for example, the
potential presence of pathogens. 4oliforms are used
as indicators of fecal pollution.
(See #-.
inducer (in-dus_er) A small molecule that stimulates the synthesis of an
inducible en$yme.
(See *7-
induci&le enzyme An en$yme &hose level rises in the presence of a
small molecule that stimulates its synthesis.
(See *7-
industrial ecology The study of the ecology of industrial societies &ith
a ma:or focus on material cycling, energy flo&, and
the ecological impacts of such societies.
(See "0**
infantile paralysis (in_fan-til
5ee poliomyelitis.
(See '9*
infection (in-fe'_shun) The invasion of a host by a microorganism &ith
subse6uent establishment and multiplication of the
agent. An infection may or may not lead to overt
(See 7'9
infection thread A tubular structure formed during the infection of a
root by nitrogen2fixing bacteria. The bacteria enter
the root by &ay of the infection thread and stimulate
the formation of the root nodule.
(See #7#
infectious disease Any change from a state of health in &hich part or
all of the host9s body cannot carry on its normal
functions because of the presence of an infectious
agent or its products.
(See 7'9
infectious disease cycle (chain
of infection)
The chain or cycle of events that describes ho& an
infectious organism gro&s, reproduces, and is
(See '-*
infectious dose -A (#$-A) +efers to the dose or number of organisms that &ill
infect -0E of an experimental group of hosts &ithin
a specified time period.
(See (#', 790
infectious mononucleosis
(mono, mon_o-nu_'le-o_sis)
An acute, self2limited infectious disease of the
lymphatic system caused by the ?pstein2Barr virus
and characteri$ed by fever, sore throat, lymph node
and spleen s&elling, and the proliferation of
monocytes and abnormal lymphocytes.
(See '''
infecti*ity (in_fe'-ti*_i-te) Infectiousness% the state or 6uality of being
infectious or communicable.
(See 790
inflammation (in_flah-
A locali$ed protective response to tissue in:ury or
destruction. Acute inflammation is characteri$ed by
pain, heat, s&elling, and redness in the in:ured area.
(See 7"*
influenza or flu (in_flu-
An acute viral infection of the respiratory tract,
occurring in isolated cases, epidemics, and
pandemics. Influen$a is caused by three strains of
influen$a virus, labeled types A, B, and 4, based on
the antigens of their protein coats.
(See '7*
ingoldian fungi A6uatic hyphomycetes that often have a
characteristic tetraradiate hyphal development form
and &hich sporulate under &ater. )iscovered by the
British mycologist, 4. T. Ingold, in the "9.0s.
(See #."
initial &ody 5ee reticulate body (+B.
(See .77
innate or natural immunity 5ee nonspecific resistance.
(See 70-
insertion se"uence (in-ser_shun
A simple transposon that contains genes only for
those en$ymes, such as the transposase, that are
re6uired for transposition.
(See *9'
integration The incorporation of one )8A segment into a
second )8A molecule to form a ne& hybrid )8A.
Integration occurs during such processes as genetic
recombination, episome incorporation into host
)8A, and prophage insertion into the bacterial
(See (9.
integrins (in_t/-grin) A large and broadly distributed family of aDb
heterodimers. Integrins are cellular adhesion
receptors that mediate cell2cell and cell2substratum
interactions. Integrins usually recogni$e linear
amino acid se6uences on protein ligands.
(See 7"*
inteins Internal intervening se6uences of precursor self2
splicing proteins that separate exteins and are
removed during formation of the final protein.
(See *7-
intercalating agents ;olecules that can be inserted bet&een the stac,ed
bases of a )8A double helix, thereby distorting the
)8A and inducing insertion and deletion mutations.
(See *.'
interdigitating dendritic cell 5pecial dendritic cells in the lymph nodes that
function as potent antigen2presenting cells and
develop from =angerhans cells.
(See 7"0
interferon (#F5, in(t/r-
A glycoprotein that has nonspecific antiviral activity
by stimulating cells to produce antiviral proteins,
&hich inhibit the synthesis of viral +8A and
proteins. Interferons also regulate the gro&th,
differentiation, andDor function of a variety of
immune system cells. Their production may be
stimulated by virus infections, intracellular
pathogens (chlamydiae and ric,ettsias, proto$oan
parasites, endotoxins, and other agents.
(See 7*", '**
interleu'in (in(t/r-loo_'in) A glycoprotein produced by macrophages and T
cells that regulates gro&th and differentiation,
particularly of lymphocytes. Interleu,ins promote
cellular and humoral immune responses.
(See 7*0
intermediate filaments (in(ter-
me_de-it fil_ah-ments)
5mall protein filaments, about ' to "0 nm in
diameter, in the cytoplasmic matrix of eucaryotic
cells that are important in cell structure.
(See 79
intermediate host (in(ter-
me_de-it host)
The host that serves as a temporary but essential
environment for development of a parasite and
completion of its life cycle.
(See 7'9
interspecies hydrogen transfer The lin,age of hydrogen production from organic
matter by anaerobic heterotrophic microorganisms
to the use of hydrogen by other anaerobes in the
reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. This avoids
possible hydrogen toxicity.
(See #0.
intertriginous candidiasis A s,in infection caused by 4andida species.
Involves those areas of the body, usually opposed
s,in surfaces, that are &arm and moist (axillae,
groin, s,in folds.
(See 9-0
intoxication (in-to'(si-
A disease that results from the entrance of a specific
toxin into the body of a host. The toxin can induce
the disease in the absence of the toxin2producing
(See 79.
intraepidermal lymphocytes T cells found in the epidermis of the s,in that
express the gd T2cell receptor.
(See 7"0
intranuclear inclusion &ody
A structure found &ithin cells infected &ith the
(See ''-
intrinsic factors <ood2related factors such as moisture, p/, and
available nutrients that influence microbial gro&th.
(See 9#.
intron (in_tron) A noncoding intervening se6uence in a split or
interrupted gene, &hich codes for +8A that is
missing from the final +8A product.
(See *#(
in*asi*eness (in-*a_si*-nes) The ability of a microorganism to enter a host, gro&
and reproduce &ithin the host, and spread
throughout its body.
(See 790
ionizing radiation +adiation of very short &avelength or high energy
that causes atoms to lose electrons or ioni$e.
(See "(0, "..
isotype (i_so-t!p) A variant form of an immunoglobulin (e.g., an
immunoglobulin class, subclass, or type that occurs
in every normal individual of a particular species.
Asually the characteristic antigenic determinant is in
the constant region of / and = chains.
(See 7(.
Baccard coefficient (%B) An association coefficient used in numerical
taxonomy% it is the proportion of characters that
match, excluding those that both organisms lac,.
(See .*7
B chain A polypeptide present in polymeric Ig; and IgA
that lin,s the subunits together.
(See 7(#
+oc' itch 5ee tinea cruris.
(See 9..
'elp ('elp) A common name for any of the larger members of
the order =aminariales of the bro&n algae.
(See -7'
'eratinocyte 4ell found in s,in2associated lymphoid tissue%
secretes cyto,ines that may induce an inflammatory
(See 709
'eratitis ('er_ah-ti_tis) Inflammation of the cornea of the eye.
(See 9-(
'inetoplast ('i-ne_to-plast) A special structure in the mitochondrion of
,inetoplastid proto$oa. It contains the mitochondrial
(See -''
Cir&y-Bauer method A dis, diffusion test to determine the susceptibility
of a microorganism to chemotherapeutic agents.
(See '09
Coch2s postulates ('o's pos_tu-
A set of rules for proving that a microorganism
causes a particular disease.
(See 7
Copli'2s spots ('op_li's) =esions of the oral cavity caused by the measles
(rubeola virus that are characteri$ed by a bluish
&hite spec, in the center of each.
(See '7.
Corean hemorrhagic fe*er An acute infection caused by a virus that produces
varying degrees of hemorrhage, shoc,, and
sometimes death. Brebs cycle 5ee tricarboxylic acid
(See "'(, '77
lactic acid fermentation
A fermentation that produces lactic acid as the sole
or primary product.
(See "79, A2"9
lager !ertaining to the process of aging beers to allo&
flavor development.
(See 9'(
lag phase A period follo&ing the introduction of
microorganisms into fresh culture medium &hen
there is no increase in cell numbers or mass during
batch culture.
(See ""(
laminarin (lam_i-na_rin) >ne of the principal storage products of the golden2
bro&n algae% a polymer of glucose.
(See -7'
8ancefield system (group,
>ne of the serologically distinguishable groups (as
group A, group B into &hich streptococci can be
(See -(*, 7'.
land farming The addition of &aste material, such as a
hydrocarbon &aste, to the soil surface so that it &ill
be degraded. The soil may be moistened or mixed to
stimulate the desired degradation process.
(See "0""
8angerhans cell 4ell found in the s,in that internali$es antigen and
moves in the lymph to lymph nodes &here it
differentiates into a dendritic cell.
(See 709
late m05A ;essenger +8A produced later in a virus infection,
&hich codes for proteins needed in capsid
construction and virus release.
(See ('7
latent period (la_tent) The initial phase in the one2step gro&th experiment
in &hich no phages are released.
(See ('(
latent *irus infections 7irus infections in &hich the virus 6uits reproducing
and remains dormant for a period before becoming
active again.
(See ."0
leader se"uence A nontranslated se6uence at the -J end of m+8A
that lies bet&een the operator and the initiation
codon% it aids in the initiation and regulation of
(See *.., *#"
lectin complement path1ay
The lectin path&ay for complement activation is
triggered by the binding of a serum lectin (mannan2
binding lectin% ;B= to mannose2containing
proteins or to carbohydrates on viruses or bacteria.
(See 7"#
legionellosis (le_+/-nel-o_sis) 5ee =egionnaires9 disease.
(See 90"
8egionnaires2 disease
A pulmonary form of legionellosis, resulting from
infection &ith =egionella pneumophila.
(See 90"
leishmanias (lesh_ma_ne-
Iooflagellates, members of the genus =eishmania,
that cause the disease leishmaniasis.
(See 9-#
leishmaniasis (lesh_mah-
The disease caused by the proto$oa called
(See 9-#
lepromatous (progressi*e)
leprosy (lep-ro_mah-tus lep_ro-
A relentless, progressive form of leprosy in &hich
large numbers of ;ycobacterium leprae develop in
s,in cells, ,illing the s,in cells and resulting in the
loss of features. )isfiguring nodules form all over
the body.
(See 9"#
leprosy (lep_ro-se) or ;ansen2s
A severe disfiguring s,in disease caused by
;ycobacterium leprae.
(See 9"#
lethal dose -A (8$-A) +efers to the dose or number of organisms that &ill
,ill -0E of an experimental group of hosts &ithin a
specified time period.
(See (#', 790
leu'emia (loo-'e_me-ah) A progressive, malignant disease of blood2forming
organs, mar,ed by distorted proliferation and
development of leu,ocytes and their precursors in
the blood and bone marro&. 4ertain leu,emias are
caused by viruses (/T=72", /T=72*.
(See ''7
leu'ocidin (loo_'o-si_din) A microbial toxin that can damage or ,ill
(See 797
leu'ocyte (loo_'o-s!t) Any colorless &hite blood cell. 4an be classified
into granular and agranular lymphocytes.
(See 70-
lichen (li_'en) An organism composed of a fungus and either green
algae or cyanobacteria in a symbiotic association.
(See -9'
8ie&ig2s la1 of the minimum
=iving organisms and populations &ill gro& until
lac, of a resource begins to limit further gro&th.
(See "("
lipopolysaccharide (lip_o-
A molecule containing both lipid and
polysaccharide, &hich is important in the outer
membrane of the gram2negative cell &all.
(See -'
liposome (lip_o-som) A spherical particle formed by a lipid bilayer
enclosing an a6ueous solution. It may be used to
administer chemotherapeutic agents or in diagnostic
(See 7'*
listeriosis (lis-ter_e-o_sis) A sporadic disease of animals and humans,
particularly those &ho are immunocompromised or
pregnant, caused by the bacterium =isteria
(See 9("
lithotroph (lith_o-trof) An organism that uses reduced inorganic
compounds as its electron source.
(See 97
log phase 5ee exponential phase.
(See "".
lophotrichous (lo-fot_r)!-'us) A cell &ith a cluster of flagella at one or both ends.
(See #(
lo1 oxygen diffusion
An a6uatic environment in &hich microorganisms
are surrounded by deep &ater layers that limit
oxygen diffusion to the cell surface. In contrast,
microorganisms in thin &ater films have good
oxygen transfer from air to the cell surface.
(See #(-
8P%-&inding protein A special plasma protein that binds bacterial
lipopolysaccharides and then attaches to receptors
on monocytes, macrophages, and other cells. This
triggers the release of I=2" and other cyto,ines that
stimulate the development of fever and additional
endotoxin effects.
(See '0"
8yme disease (8$4 8yme
&orreliosis, l!m)
A tic,2borne disease caused by the spirochete
Borrella burgdorferi.
(See 9"0
lymph node A small secondary lymphoid organ that contains
lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It
serves as a site for (" filtration and removal of
foreign antigens and (* the activation and
proliferation of lymphocytes.
(See 709
lymphocyte (lim_fo-s!t) A nonphagocytic, mononuclear leu,ocyte (&hite
blood cell that is an immunologically competent
cell, or its precursor. =ymphocytes are present in the
blood, lymph, and lymphoid tissues. 5ee B cell and
T cell.
(See 70-
lymphogranuloma *enereum
(8G@, lim_fo-gran_u-lo_mah)
A sexually transmitted disease caused by 4hlamydia
trachomatis serotypes ="2=(, &hich affect the
lymph organs in the genital area.
(See 9"7
lympho'ine (lim_fo-'in) A biologically active glycoprotein (e.g., I=2"
secreted by activated lymphocytes, especially
sensiti$ed T cells. It acts as an intercellular mediator
of the immune response and transmits gro&th,
differentiation, and behavioral signals.
(See 7*0
lysis (li_sis) The rupture or physical disintegration of a cell.
(See #"
lysogenic (li-so-+en_i') 5ee lysogens.
(See (0', (90
lysogens (li_so-+ens) Bacteria that are carrying a viral prophage and have
the potential of producing bacteriophages under the
proper conditions.
(See (0', (90
lysogeny (li-so+_e-ne) The state in &hich a phage genome remains &ithin
the bacterial host cell after infection and reproduces
along &ith it rather than ta,ing control of the host
and destroying it.
(See (07, (90
lysosome (li_so-som) A spherical membranous eucaryotic organelle that
contains hydrolytic en$ymes and is responsible for
the intracellular digestion of substances.
(See '0
lysozyme (li_so-z!m) An en$yme that degrades peptidoglycan by
hydroly$ing the b(" J . bond that :oins 82
acetylmuramic acid and 82acetylglucosamine.
(See #", 7"0
lytic cycle (lit_i') A virus life cycle that results in the lysis of the host
(See ('(
Glossary 6-0
6 cell 5peciali$ed cell of the intestinal mucosa and other
sites, such as the urogenital tract, that delivers the
antigen from the apical face of the cell to
lymphocytes clustered &ithin the poc,et in its
basolateral face.
(See 7"0
macrolide anti&iotic (ma'_ro-
An antibiotic containing a macrolide ring, a large
lactone ring &ith multiple ,eto and hydroxyl groups,
lin,ed to one or more sugars.
(See '"7
macromolecule (ma'(ro-
A large molecule that is a polymer of smaller units
:oined together.
(See *0-
macromolecule *accine A vaccine made of specific, purified macromolecules
derived from pathogenic microorganisms.
(See 7#7
macronucleus (ma'(ro-
The larger of the t&o nuclei in ciliate proto$oa. It is
normally polyploid and directs the routine activities
of the cell.
(See -'-
macrophage (ma'_ro-fa+) The name for a large mononuclear phagocytic cell,
present in blood, lymph, and other tissues.
;acrophages are derived from monocytes. They
phagocytose and destroy pathogens% some
macrophages also activate B cells and T cells.
(See 70-
maduromycosis (mah-du_ro-
A subcutaneous fungal infection caused by ;adurella
mycetoma% also termed an eumycotic mycetoma.
(See 9.-
madurose The sugar derivative (2>2methyl2)2galactose, &hich
is characteristic of several actinomycete genera that
are collectively called maduromycetes.
(See -.'
magnetosomes ;agnetite particles in magnetotactic bacteria that are
tiny magnets and allo& the bacteria to orient
themselves in magnetic fields.
(See -*
maintenance energy The energy a cell re6uires simply to maintain itself or
remain alive and functioning properly. It does not
include the energy needed for either gro&th or
(See "*"
ma+or histocompati&ility
complex (6;C)
A large set of cell surface molecules in each
individual, encoded by a family of genes, that serves
as a uni6ue biochemical mar,er of individual identity.
It can trigger T2cell responses that may lead to
re:ection of transplanted tissues and organs. ;/4
molecules are also involved in the regulation of the
immune response and the interactions bet&een
immune cells.
(See 7.-
malaria (mah-la_re-ah) A serious infectious illness caused by the parasitic
proto$oan !lasmodium. ;alaria is characteri$ed by
bouts of high chills and fever that occur at regular
(See 9-.
malt (ma1lt) 3rain soa,ed in &ater to soften it, induce
germination, and activate its en$ymes. The malt is
then used in bre&ing and distilling.
(See 9'(
6ar&urg *iral hemorrhagic
An acute infection caused by a virus that produces
varying degrees of hemorrhage, shoc,, and
sometimes death.
(See '77
mash The soluble materials released from germinated
grains and prepared as a microbial gro&th medium.
(See 9'(
mashing The process in &hich cereals are mixed &ith &ater
and incubated in order to degrade their complex
carbohydrates (e.g., starch to more readily usable
forms such as simple sugars.
(See 9'*
mast cell A bone marro&2derived cell present in a variety of
tissues that resembles peripheral blood2borne
basophils and contains an <c receptor for Ig?. It
undergoes Ig?2mediated degranulation.
(See 707
mean gro1th rate constant
The rate of microbial population gro&th expressed in
terms of the number of generations per unit time.
(See ""#
measles (ru&eola, me_zelz) A highly contagious s,in disease that is endemic
throughout the &orld. It is caused by a morbilli virus
in the family !aramyxoviridae, &hich enters the body
through the respiratory tract or through the
(See '7(
medical mycology (mi-'ol_o-
The discipline that deals &ith the fungi that cause
human disease.
(See 9.*
meiosis (mi-o_sis) The sexual process in &hich a diploid cell divides
and forms t&o haploid cells.
(See ''
melting temperature (.m) The temperature at &hich double2stranded )8A
separates into individual strands% it is dependent on
the 3 " 4 content of the )8A and is used to compare
genetic material in microbial taxonomy.
(See .(0
mem&rane attac' complex
The complex complement components (4-b249 that
create a pore in the plasma membrane of a target cell
and leads to cell lysis. 49 probably forms most of the
actual pore.
(See 7"#, 7-'
A type of exotoxin that lyses host cells by disrupting
the integrity of the plasma membrane.
(See 797
mem&rane filter techni"ue The use of a thin porous filter made from cellulose
acetate or some other polymer to collect
microorganisms from &ater, air, and food.
(See ""', #-.
memory B cell A lymphocyte capable of initiating the antibody2
mediated immune response upon detection of a
specific antigen molecule for &hich it is genetically
programmed. It circulates freely in the blood and
lymph and may live for years.
(See 7."
meningitis (men_in-+i_tis) A condition that refers to inflammation of the brain or
spinal cord meninges (membranes. The disease can
be divided into bacterial (septic meningitis (caused
by bacteria and aseptic meningitis syndrome (caused
by nonbacterial sources.
(See 90*
mesophile (mes_o-f!l) A microorganism &ith a gro&th optimum around *0
to .-G4, a minimum of "- to *0G4, and a maximum
about .-G4 or lo&er.
(See "*#
messenger 05A (m05A) 5ingle2stranded +8A synthesi$ed from a )8A
template during transcription that binds to ribosomes
and directs the synthesis of protein.
(See *(0
meta&olic channeling
The locali$ation of metabolites and en$ymes in
different parts of a cell.
(See "#-
meta&olic control
;odification of the controls for biosynthetic
path&ays &ithout altering the path&ays themselves
in order to improve process efficiency.
(See 997
meta&olic path1ay
engineering (6P<)
The use of molecular techni6ues to improve the
efficiency of path&ays that synthesi$e specific
(See 997
meta&olism (me-ta&_o-lizm) The total of all chemical reactions in the cell% almost
all are en$yme cataly$ed.
(See "7(
metachromatic granules
3ranules of polyphosphate in the cytoplasm of some
bacteria that appear a different color &hen stained
&ith a blue basic dye. They are storage reservoirs for
phosphate. 5ometimes called volutin granules.
(See -*
metastasis (m)e-tas_tah-sis) The transfer of a disease li,e cancer from one organ
to another not directly connected &ith it.
(See .""
methanogens (meth_/-no-
5trictly anaerobic archaeons that derive energy by
converting 4>*, /*, formate, acetate, and other
compounds to either methane or methane and 4>*.
(See .-'
methylotroph A bacterium that uses reduced one2carbon
compounds such as methane and methanol as its sole
source of carbon and energy.
(See .9", -0*
6ichaelis constant (Cm, m)!-
A ,inetic constant for an en$yme reaction that e6uals
the substrate concentration re6uired for the en$yme to
operate at half maximal velocity.
(See "#(
microaerophile (mi_'ro-a_er-
A microorganism that re6uires lo& levels of oxygen
for gro&th, around * to "0E, but is damaged by
normal atmospheric oxygen levels.
(See "*7
microarray technology !rofiling of gene expression by measuring binding of
+8A from gro&ing cells to an array of function2
specific oligonucleotides attached to an inert surface.
(See (-., "0"'
micro&ial dietary ad+u*ant A substance added to the diet to stimulate specific
microbial processes and populations.
(See 9'#
micro&ial ecology The study of microorganisms in their natural
environments, &ith a ma:or emphasis on physical
conditions, processes, and interactions that occur on
the scale of individual microbial cells.
(See -9#
micro&ial transformation (mi-
5ee bioconversion.
(See "009
micro&ial loop The minerali$ation of organic matter synthesi$ed by
photosynthetic phytoplan,ton through the activity of
microorganisms such as bacteria and proto$oa. This
process 1loops1 minerals and carbon dioxide bac, for
reuse by the primary producers and ma,es the
organic matter unavailable to higher consumers.
(See #0', #('
micro&ial mat A firm structure of layered microorganisms &ith
complementary physiological activities that can
develop on surfaces in a6uatic environments.
(See #*"
micro&iology (mi_'ro-&i-ol_o-
The study of organisms that are usually too small to
be seen &ith the na,ed eye. 5pecial techni6ues are
re6uired to isolate and gro& them.
(See *
micro&i*ory The use of microorganisms as a food source by
organisms that can ingest or phagocytose them.
(See #7*
microen*ironment (mi_'ro-
The immediate environment surrounding a microbial
cell or other structure, such as a root.
(See #"9
microfilaments (mi_'ro-
!rotein filaments, about . to 7 nm in diameter, that
are present in the cytoplasmic matrix of eucaryotic
cells and play a role in cell structure and motion.
(See 77
micronucleus (mi_'ro-nu_'le-
The smaller of the t&o nuclei in ciliate proto$oa.
;icronuclei are diploid and involved only in genetic
recombination and the regeneration of macronuclei.
(See -'-
micronutrients 8utrients such as $inc, manganese, and copper that
are re6uired in very small 6uantities for gro&th and
reproduction. Also called trace elements.
(See 9#
microorganism (mi('ro-
An organism that is too small to be seen clearly &ith
the na,ed eye.
(See *
microtu&ules (mi('ro-
5mall cylinders, about *- nm in diameter, made of
tubulin proteins and present in the cytoplasmic matrix
and flagella of eucaryotic cells% they are involved in
cell structure and movement.
(See 7'
miliary tu&erculosis (mil_e-a-
An acute form of tuberculosis in &hich small
tubercles are formed in a number of organs of the
body because of dissemination of ;. tuberculosis
throughout the body by the bloodstream. Also ,no&n
as reactivation tuberculosis.
(See 90'
mineralization The release of inorganic nutrients from organic
matter during microbial gro&th and metabolism.
(See -0., #"(
minimal inhi&itory
concentration (6#C)
The lo&est concentration of a drug that &ill prevent
the gro&th of a particular microorganism.
(See '09
minimal lethal concentration
The lo&est concentration of a drug that &ill ,ill a
particular microorganism.
(See '09
minus4 or negati*e4 strand The virus nucleic acid strand that is complementary
in base se6uence to the viral m+8A.
(See (7.
missense mutation A single base substitution in )8A that changes a
codon for one amino acid into a codon for another.
(See *-0
mitochondrion (mi_to-
The eucaryotic organelle that is the site of electron
transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and path&ays
such as the Brebs cycle% it provides most of a
nonphotosynthetic cell9s energy under aerobic
conditions. It is constructed of an outer membrane
and an inner membrane, &hich contains the electron
transport chain.
(See '(
mitosis (mi-to_sis) A process that ta,es place in the nucleus of a
eucaryotic cell and results in the formation of t&o
ne& nuclei, each &ith the same number of
chromosomes as the parent.
(See '7
mixed acid fermentation A type of fermentation carried out by members of the
family ?nterobacteriaceae in &hich ethanol and a
complex mixture of organic acids are produced.
(See "'", A2"7
mixotrophic (mi'_so-trof_i') +efers to microorganisms that combine autotrophic
and heterotrophic metabolic processes (they use
inorganic electron sources and organic carbon
(See 9'
modified atmosphere
pac'aging (6AP)
Addition of gases such as nitrogen and carbon
dioxide to pac,aged foods in order to inhibit the
gro&th of spoilage organisms.
(See 9##
mold Any of a large group of fungi that cause mold or
moldiness and that exist as multicellular filamentous
colonies% also the deposit or gro&th caused by such
fungi. ;olds typically do not produce macroscopic
fruiting bodies.
(See --#
molecular chaperones !roteins that aid in the proper folding of unfolded
polypeptides or partly denatured proteins and often
also help transport proteins across membranes.
(See *7*
molecular chronometers 8ucleic acid and protein se6uences that gradually
change over time in a random fashion and at a steady
rate, and &hich therefore can be used to determine
phylogenetic relationships.
(See .(*
monoclonal anti&ody (6A&,
An antibody of a single type that is produced by a
population of genetically identical plasma cells (a
clone% a monoclonal antibody is typically produced
from a cell culture derived from the fusion product of
a cancer cell and an antibody2producing cell (a
(See 7.(
monocyte (mon_ o-s!t) A mononuclear phagocytic leu,ocyte that circulates
briefly in the bloodstream before migrating to the
tissues &here it becomes a macrophage.
(See 70-
The collection of fixed phagocytic cells (including
macrophages, monocytes, and speciali$ed endothelial
cells located in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and
bone marro&. This system is an important component
of the host9s general nonspecific defense against
(See 70-
mono'ine (mon_o-'!n) A generic term for a cyto,ine produced by
mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages or
(See 7*0
monotrichous (mon-ot_r)!-
/aving a single flagellum.
(See #(
mor&idity rate (mor-&id_i-te) ;easures the number of individuals &ho become ill
as a result of a particular disease &ithin a susceptible
population during a specific time period.
(See '.9
mordant (mor_dant) A substance that helps fix dye on or in a cell.
(See *'
mortality rate (mor-tal_i-te) The ratio of the number of deaths from a given
disease to the total number of cases of the disease.
(See '.9
most pro&a&le num&er
The statistical estimation of the probable population
in a li6uid by diluting and determining end points for
microbial gro&th.
(See #-.
mucociliary &lan'et The layer of cilia and mucus that lines certain
portions of the respiratory system% it traps
microorganisms up to "0 mm in diameter and then
transports them by ciliary action a&ay from the
(See 7""
mucosal-associated lymphoid
tissue (6A8.)
The defensive immune lymphoid tissue located in the
intestinal mucosa.
(See 7"0
multi-drug-resistant strains of
tu&erculosis (6$0-.B)
A multi2drug2resistant strain is defined as
;ycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isonia$id and
rifampin, &ith or &ithout resistance to other drugs.
(See 90'
mumps An acute generali$ed disease that occurs primarily in
school2age children and is caused by a
paramyxovirus that is transmitted in saliva and
respiratory droplets. The principal manifestation is
s&elling of the parotid salivary glands.
(See '7-
murein 5ee peptidoglycan.
(See --
must The :uices of fruits, including grapes, that can be
fermented for the production of alcohol.
(See 9'*
mutagen (mu_tah-+en) A chemical or physical agent that causes mutations.
(See *.#
mutation (mu-ta_shun) A permanent, heritable change in the genetic
(See *..
mutualism (mu_tu-al-izm_) A type of symbiosis in &hich both partners gain from
the association and are unable to survive &ithout it.
The mutualist and the host are metabolically
dependent on each other.
(See -9'
mutualist (mu_tu-al-ist) An organism associated &ith another in a relationship
that is beneficial to both (and often obligatory.
(See -9'
mycelium (mi-se_le-um) A mass of branching hyphae found in fungi and some
(See .(, --#
myco&iont The fungal partner in a lichen.
(See -9'
mycolic acids 4omplex #0 to 90 carbon fatty acids &ith a hydroxyl
on the b2carbon and an aliphatic chain on the a2
carbon% found in the cell &alls of mycobacteria.
(See -.(
mycologist (mi-'ol_o-+ist) A person speciali$ing in mycology% a student of
(See --(
mycology (mi-'ol_o-+e) The science and study of fungi.
(See --(
mycoplasma (mi('o- Bacteria that are members of the class ;ollicutes and
plaz_mah) order ;ycoplasmatales% they lac, cell &alls and
cannot synthesi$e peptidoglycan precursors% most
re6uire sterols for gro&th% they are the smallest
organisms capable of independent reproduction.
(See -*0
mycoplasmal pneumonia
(mi('o-plaz_mal nu-mo_ne-
A type of pneumonia caused by ;ycoplasma
pneumoniae. 5pread involves airborne droplets and
close contact.
(See 9"7
mycorrhizosphere The region around a mycorrhi$al fungus in &hich
nutrients released from the fungus increase the
microbial population and its activities.
(See #'"
mycosis (mi-'o_sis, pl34
Any disease caused by a fungus.
(See --(, 9.*
mycotoxicology (mi-'o_to'(si-
The study of fungal toxins and their effects on
various organisms.
(See --(
myeloma cell (mi(e-lo_mah) A tumor cell that is similar to the cell type found in
bone marro&. Also, a malignant, neoplastic plasma
cell that produces large 6uantities of antibodies and
can be readily cultivated.
(See 7.(
myositis (mi(o-si_tis) Inflammation of a striated or voluntary muscle.
(See 90.
myxamoe&a (mi'-sah-
me_&ah, pl34 myxamoe&ae)
A free2living amoeboid cell that can aggregate &ith
other myxamoeba to form a plasmodium or
pseudoplasmodium. <ound in cellular slime molds
and the myxomycetes.
(See -#-
myxo&acteria A group of gram2negative, aerobic soil bacteria
characteri$ed by gliding motility, a complex life cycle
&ith the production of fruiting bodies, and the
formation of myxospores.
(See -"*
myxospores (mi'_so-spors) 5pecial dormant spores formed by the myxobacteria.
(See -"*
nap'in (diaper) candidiasis Typically found in infants &hose diapers are not
changed fre6uently and are therefore not ,ept dry.
4aused by 4andida species of fungi.
(See 9-0
narro1-spectrum drugs 4hemotherapeutic agents that are effective only
against a limited variety of microorganisms.
(See '0'
natural attenuation The decrease in the level of an enviromental
contaminant that results from natural chemical,
physical, and biological processes.
(See "0"#
natural classification A classification system that arranges organisms into
groups &hose members share many characteristics
and reflect as much as possible the biological nature
of organisms.
(See .*#
natural 'iller (5C) cell A non2T, non2B lymphocyte present in
nonimmuni$ed individuals that exhibits ;/42
independent cytolytic activity against tumor cells.
(See 7*(, 7#0
naturally ac"uired acti*e
The type of active immunity that develops &hen an
individual9s immunologic system comes into contact
&ith an appropriate antigenic stimulus during the
course of normal activities% it usually arises as the
result of recovering from an infection and lasts a long
(See 7*9
naturally ac"uired passi*e
The type of temporary immunity that involves the
transfer of antibodies from one individual to another.
(See 7*9
necrotizing fasciitis (ne'_ro-
t!z(ing fas(e-i_tis)
A disease that results from a severe invasive group A
streptococcus infection. 8ecroti$ing fasciitis is an
infection of the subcutaneous soft tissues, particularly
of fibrous tissue, and is most common on the
extremities. It begins &ith s,in reddening, s&elling,
pain, and cellulitis, and proceeds to s,in brea,do&n
and gangrene after ( to - days.
(See 90.
negati*e staining A staining procedure in &hich a dye is used to ma,e
the bac,ground dar, &hile the specimen is unstained.
(See *'
5egri &odies (na_gre) ;asses of viruses or unassembled viral subunits
found &ithin the brain neurons of rabies2infected
(See '''
neurotoxin (nu(ro-to'_sin) A toxin that is poisonous to or destroys nerve tissue%
especially the toxins secreted by 4. tetani,
4orynebacterium diphtheriae, and 5higella
(See 797
neustonic (nu_ston(i') The microorganisms that live at the atmospheric
interface of a &ater body.
(See -7"
neutrophil (noo_tro-fil) A mature &hite blood cell in the granulocyte lineage
formed in bone marro&. It has a nucleus &ith three to
five lobes and is very phagocytic.
(See "*(, 707
neutrophile (nu_tro-f!l() ;icroorganisms that gro& best at a neutral p/ range
bet&een p/ -.- and '.0.
(See "*(
niche (nich) The function of an organism in a complex system,
including place of the organism, the resources used in
a given location, and the time of use.
(See #"9
nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide (5A$=, ni'(o-
An electron2carrying coen$yme% it is particularly
important in catabolic processes and usually donates
its electrons to the electron transport chain under
aerobic conditions.
(See "-7
nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide phosphate
(5A$P=, ni'(o-tin_ah-m!d)
An electron2carrying coen$yme that most often
participates as an electron carrier in biosynthetic
(See "-'
nitrification (ni(tr)!-f)!-
The oxidation of ammonia to nitrate.
(See "9(, .9-, #"-
nitrifying &acteria (ni_tr)!-
4hemolithotrophic, gram2negative bacteria that are
members of the family 8itrobacteriaceae and convert
ammonia to nitrate and nitrite to nitrate.
(See "9(, .9(
nitrogenase (ni_tro-+en-as) The en$yme that cataly$es biological nitrogen
(See *"(
nitrogen fixation The metabolic process in &hich atmospheric
molecular nitrogen is reduced to ammonia% carried
out by cyanobacteria, +hi$obium, and other nitrogen2
fixing bacteria.
(See *"*, #"#, #7#
nitrogen oxygen demand
The demand for oxygen in se&age treatment, caused
by nitrifying microorganisms.
(See #-7
nitrogen saturation point The point at &hich mineral nitrogen, &hen added to
an ecosystem, can no longer be incorporated into
organic matter through biological processes.
(See #'#
nocardioforms Bacteria that resemble members of the genus
8ocardia% they develop a substrate mycelium that
readily brea,s up into rods and coccoid elements (a
6uality sometimes called fugacity.
(See -..
nomenclature (no_men-
The branch of taxonomy concerned &ith the
assignment of names to taxonomic groups in
agreement &ith published rules.
(See .**
photophosphorylation (fo(to-
The process in &hich light energy is used to ma,e
AT! &hen electrons are moved from &ater to
8A)!" during photosynthesis% both photosystem I
and photosystem II are involved.
(See "9'
nongonococcal urethritis
(5G:) (u(r/-thri_tis)
Any inflammation of the urethra not caused by
8eisseria gonorrhoeae.
(See 9"'
nonsense codon A codon that does not code for an amino acid but is a
signal to terminate protein synthesis.
(See *.", *70
nonsense mutation A mutation that converts a sense codon to a nonsense
or stop codon.
(See *-"
nonspecific immune response
(innate or natural immunity)
5ee nonspecific resistance.
(See 70-
nonspecific resistance +efers to those general defense mechanisms that are
inherited as part of the innate structure and function
of each animal% also ,no&n as nonspecific, innate or
natural immunity.
(See 70-
normal micro&iota (also
indigenous micro&ial
population4 microflora4
micro&ial flora, mi('ro-&i-
The microorganisms normally associated &ith a
particular tissue or structure.
(See #99
nosocomial infection (nos(o-
An infection that develops &ithin a hospital (or other
type of clinical care facility and is produced by an
infectious organism ac6uired during the stay of the
(See '##
nuclear en*elope (nu_'le-ar) The complex double2membrane structure forming the
outer boundary of the eucaryotic nucleus. It is
covered by pores through &hich substances enter and
leave the nucleus.
(See '#
nucleic acid hy&ridization
The process of forming a hybrid double2stranded
)8A molecule using a heated mixture of single2
stranded )8As from t&o different sources% if the
se6uences are fairly complementary, stable hybrids
&ill form.
(See .("
nucleocapsid (nu('le-o-
The nucleic acid and its surrounding protein coat or
capsid% the basic unit of virion structure.
(See (#9
nucleoid (nu_'le-oid) An irregularly shaped region in the procaryotic cell
that contains its genetic material.
(See -.
nucleolus (nu-'le_o-lus) The organelle, located &ithin the eucaryotic nucleus
and not bounded by a membrane, that is the location
of ribosomal +8A synthesis and the assembly of
ribosomal subunits.
(See '7
nucleoside (nu_'le-o-s!d() A combination of ribose or deoxyribose &ith a purine
or pyrimidine base.
(See *"7
nucleosome (nu_'le-o-som() A complex of histones and )8A found in eucaryotic
chromatin% the )8A is &rapped around the surface of
the beadli,e histone complex.
(See *(-
nucleotide (nu_'le-o-t!d) A combination of ribose or deoxyribose &ith
phosphate and a purine or pyrimidine base% a
nucleoside plus one or more phosphates.
(See *"7
nucleus (nu_'le-us) The eucaryotic organelle enclosed by a double2
membrane envelope that contains the cell9s
(See '#
numerical aperture The property of a microscope lens that determines
ho& much light can enter and ho& great a resolution
the lens can provide.
(See *0
numerical taxonomy The grouping by numerical methods of taxonomic
units into taxa based on their character states.
(See .*#
nutrient (nu_tre-ent) A substance that supports gro&th and reproduction.
(See 9#
nystatin (nis_tah-tin) A polyene antibiotic from 5treptomyces noursei that
is used in the treatment of 4andida infections of the
s,in, vagina, and alimentary tract.
(See '*0
7 antigen A polysaccharide antigen extending from the outer
membrane of some gram2negative bacterial cell
&alls% it is part of the lipopolysaccharide.
(See -'
o&ligate aero&es >rganisms that gro& only in the presence of oxygen.
(See "*7
o&ligate anaero&es ;icroorganisms that cannot tolerate the presence of
oxygen and die &hen exposed to it.
(See "*7
odontopathogens )ental pathogens.
(See 9((
7'aza'i fragments 5hort stretches of polynucleotides produced during
discontinuous )8A replication.
(See *(9
oligotrophic en*ironment
An environment containing lo& levels of nutrients,
particularly nutrients that support microbial gro&th.
(See "(", #.'
oncogene (ong_'o-+en) A gene &hose activity is associated &ith the
conversion of normal cells to cancer cells.
(See .""
one-step gro1th experiment An experiment used to study the reproduction of lytic
phages in &hich one round of phage reproduction
occurs and ends &ith the lysis of the host bacterial
(See ('(
onychomycosis (on_i-'o-mi-
A fungal infection of the nail plate producing nails
that are opa6ue, &hite, thic,ened, friable, and brittle.
Also called ring&orm of the nails and tinea unguium.
4aused by Trichophyton and other fungi such as 4.
(See 9-0
oocyst (o_o-sist) 4yst formed around a $ygote of malaria and related
(See -9"
oogonia (o_o-go_ne-a) ;itotically dividing female structures that produce
primary oocytes and gametes.
(See -7.
oomycetes (o_o-mi-se_tez) A collective name for members of the division
>omycota% also ,no&n as the &ater molds.
(See -#-
open reading frame (70F) A reading frame se6uence not interrupted by a stop
codon% it is usually determined by nucleic acid
se6uencing studies.
(See (.7
operator The segment of )8A to &hich the repressor protein
binds% it controls the expression of the genes ad:acent
to it.
(See *7#
operon (op_er-on) The se6uence of bases in )8A that contains one or
more structural genes together &ith the operator
controlling their expression.
(See *77
ophthalmia neonatorum (of-
thal_me-ah ne_o-nat-or-um)
A gonorrheal eye infection in a ne&born, &hich may
lead to blindness. Also called con:unctivitis of the
(See 9"#
opportunistic microorganism
or pathogen
A microorganism that is usually free2living or a part
of the host9s normal microbiota, but &hich may
become pathogenic under certain circumstances, such
as &hen the immune system is compromised.
(See 70., 7'9, 9.'
opsonization (op_so-ni-
The action of opsonins in ma,ing bacteria and other
cells more readily phagocytosed. Antibodies,
complement (especially 4(b, and fibronectin are
potent opsonins.
(See 7"', 7-#
optical t1eezer The use of a focused laser beam to drag and isolate a
specific microorganism from a complex microbial
(See #*7
oral candidiasis 5ee thrush.
(See 9.9
orchitis (or-'i_tis) Inflammation of the testes.
(See '7-
organelle (or_gah-nel_) A structure &ithin or on a cell that performs specific
functions and is related to the cell in a &ay similar to
that of an organ to the body.
(See 7#
organotrophs >rganisms that use reduced organic compounds as
their electron source.
(See 97
ornithosis 5ee psittacosis.
(See 9"9
osmophilic microorganisms
;icroorganisms that gro& best in or on media of
high solute concentration.
(See 9#-
osmosis (oz-mo_sis) The movement of &ater across a selectively
permeable membrane from a dilute solution (higher
&ater concentration to a more concentrated solution.
(See #"
osmotolerant 7rganisms that
gro1 o*er a
fairly &ide range of &ater activity or solute
(See "**
7uchterlony techni"ue 5ee double diffusion agar assay.
(See 7'0
out&rea' The sudden, unexpected occurrence of a disease in a
given population.
(See '.9
outer mem&rane A special membrane located outside the
peptidoglycan layer in the cell &alls of gram2negative
(See --
oxidation-reduction (redox)
+eactions involving electron transfers% the reductant
donates electrons to an oxidant.
(See "-7
oxidati*e phosphorylation
The synthesis of AT! from A)! using energy made
available during electron transport.
(See "'.
oxidizing agent or oxidant
The electron acceptor in an oxidation2reduction
(See "-7
oxygenic photosynthesis !hotosynthesis that oxidi$es &ater to form oxygen%
the form of photosynthesis characteristic of
eucaryotic algae and cyanobacteria.
(See "99, .#'
pacema'er enzyme The en$yme in a metabolic path&ay that cataly$es
the slo&est or rate2limiting reaction% if its rate
changes, the path&ay9s activity changes.
(See "#9
pandemic (pan-dem_i') An increase in the occurrence of a disease &ithin a
large and geographically &idespread population
(often refers to a &orld&ide epidemic.
(See '.9
Paneth cell (pah_ net) The granular cell located at the base of glands in the
small intestine% it produces the en$yme lyso$yme.
(See 7""
pannus (pan_us) A superficial vasculari$ation of the cornea &ith
infiltration of granulation tissue.
(See 9*#
panzootic (pan_zo-ot_i') The &ide dissemination of a disease in an animal
(See '.9
paralytic shellfish poisoning
)inoflagellates (3onyaulax spp. produce a po&erful
neurotoxin called saxitoxin. 5hellfish accumulate
saxitoxin and are poisonous &hen consumed by
animals and humans. 5axitoxin paraly$es the striated
respiratory muscles by inhibiting sodium transport.
!aralytic shellfish poisoning is characteri$ed by
numbness of the mouth, lips, face, and extremities.
(See -'0
parasite (par_ah-s!t) An organism that lives on or &ithin another organism
(the host and benefits from the association &hile
harming its host. >ften the parasite obtains nutrients
from the host.
(See 7''
parasitism (par_ah-si_tizm) A type of symbiosis in &hich one organism adversely
affects the other (the host, but cannot live &ithout it.
(See #09, 7''
parenteral route (pah-ren_ter-
A route of drug administration that is nonoral (e.g.,
by in:ection.
(See '"*
parfocal (par-fo_'al) A microscope that retains proper focus &hen the
ob:ectives are changed.
(See *0
paronychia (par_o-ni'_e-ah) Inflammation involving the folds of tissue
surrounding the nail% usually caused by 4andida
(See 9-0
passi*e diffusion The process in &hich molecules move from a region
of higher concentration to one of lo&er concentration
as a result of random thermal agitation.
(See "00
passi*e immunization The induction of temporary immunity by the transfer
of immune products, such as antibodies or sensiti$ed
T cells, from an immune vertebrate to a nonimmune
(See 7#-
Pasteur effect (pas-tur_) The decrease in the rate of sugar catabolism and
change to aerobic respiration that occurs &hen
microorganisms are s&itched from anaerobic to
aerobic conditions.
(See "'9
pasteurization (pas_ter-)!-
The process of heating mil, and other li6uids to
destroy microorganisms that can cause spoilage or
(See ".*, 970
pathogen (path_o-+/n) Any virus, bacterium, or other agent that causes
(See #9', 7'9
pathogenicity (path_o-+e-
The condition or 6uality of being pathogenic, or the
ability to cause disease.
(See #9', 7'9
pathogenicity island A large segment of )8A in some pathogens that
contains the genes responsible for virulence% often it
codes for the type III secretion system that allo&s the
pathogen to secrete virulence proteins and damage
host cells. A pathogen may have more than one
pathogenicity island.
(See 79.
pathogenic potential The degree that a pathogen causes morbid signs and
(See 790
path1ay architecture The analysis, design, and modification of
biochemical path&ays to increase process efficiency.
(See 997
pD&rine (pa-&ren_) An infectious disease of sil,&orms caused by the
proto$oan 8osema bombycis.
(See -9"
ped A natural soil aggregate, formed partly through
bacterial and fungal gro&th in the soil.
(See #70
pellicle (pel_)!-'_l) A relatively rigid layer of proteinaceous elements :ust
beneath the plasma membrane in many proto$oa and
algae. The plasma membrane is sometimes
considered part of the pellicle.
(See '9, -7#, -'-
pel*ic inflammatory disease
A severe infection of the female reproductive organs.
The disease that results &hen gonococci and
chlamydiae infect the uterine tubes and surrounding
(See 9"-, 9"'
penicillins (pen_)!-sil-ins) A group of antibiotics containing a b2lactam ring,
&hich are active against gram2positive bacteria.
(See #", '".
penton or pentamer A capsomer composed of five protomers.
(See (70
pentose phosphate path1ay
The path&ay that oxidi$es glucose #2phosphate to
ribulose -2phosphate and then converts it to a variety
of three to seven carbon sugars% it forms several
important products (8A)!/ for biosynthesis,
pentoses, and other sugars and also can be used to
degrade glucose to 4>*.
(See "77, A2".
peplomer or spi'e (pep_lo-
A protein or protein complex that extends from the
virus envelope and often is important in virion
attachment to the host cell surface.
(See (7.
peptic ulcer disease A gastritis caused by /elicobacter pylori.
(See 9"'
peptide inter&ridge
A short peptide chain that connects the tetrapeptide
chains in some peptidoglycans.
(See -#
peptidoglycan (pep_t)!-do-
A large polymer composed of long chains of
alternating 82acetylglucosamine and 82
acetylmuramic acid residues. The polysaccharide
chains are lin,ed to each other through connections
bet&een tetrapeptide chains attached to the 82
acetylmuramic acids. It provides much of the strength
and rigidity possessed by bacterial cell &alls.
(See --, -*"
peptidyl or donor site (P site) The site on the ribosome that contains the peptidyl2
t+8A at the beginning of the elongation cycle during
protein synthesis.
(See *70
peptidyl transferase The en$yme that cataly$es the transpeptidation
reaction in protein synthesis% in this reaction, an
amino acid is added to the gro&ing peptide chain.
(See *70
peptones (pep_tons) @ater2soluble digests or hydrolysates of proteins that
are used in the preparation of culture media.
(See "0-
perforin path1ay The cytotoxic path&ay that uses perforin protein,
&hich polymeri$es to form membrane pores that help
destroy cells during cell2mediated cytotoxicity.
!erforin is produced by cytotoxic T cells and 8B
cells and stored in granules that are released &hen a
target cell is contacted.
(See 7-0
period of infecti*ity +efers to the time during &hich the source of an
infectious disease is infectious or is disseminating the
(See '-.
periodontal disease (per_e-o-
A disease located around the teeth or in the
periodontium2the tissue investing and supporting the
teeth, including the cementum, periodontal ligament,
alveolar bone, and gingiva.
(See 9(#
periodontitis (per_e-o-don-
An inflammation of the periodontium.
(See 9(#
periodontium (per(e-o-
5ee periodontal disease.
(See 9(#
periodontosis (per(e-o-don-
A degenerative, noninflammatory condition of the
periodontium, &hich is characteri$ed by destruction
of tissue.
(See 9(#
periplasm (per_)!-plaz-/m) The substance that fills the periplasmic space.
(See --
periplasmic flagella The flagella that lie under the outer sheath and extend
from both ends of the spirochete cell to overlap in the
middle and form the axial filament. Also called axial
fibrils and endoflagella.
(See .79
periplasmic space (per(i- The space bet&een the plasma membrane and the
plas_mi') or periplasm
outer membrane in gram2negative bacteria, and
bet&een the plasma membrane and the cell &all in
gram2positive bacteria.
(See --
peritrichous (p)e-rit_r)!-
A cell &ith flagella evenly distributed over its
(See #(
permease (per_me-as) A membrane2bound carrier protein or a system of t&o
or more proteins that transports a substance across
the membrane.
(See "00
pertussis (p/r-tus_is) An acute, highly contagious infection of the
respiratory tract, most fre6uently affecting young
children, usually caused by Bordetella pertussis or B.
parapertussis. 4onsists of peculiar paroxysms of
coughing, ending in a prolonged cro&ing or
&hooping respiration% hence the name &hooping
(See 90(
petri dish (pe_tre) A shallo& dish consisting of t&o round, overlapping
halves that is used to gro& microorganisms on solid
culture medium% the top is larger than the bottom of
the dish to prevent contamination of the culture.
(See "0'
phage (fa+) 5ee bacteriophage.
(See (#.
phagocytic *acuole (fag(o-
sit_i' *a'_u-ol)
A membrane2delimited vacuole produced by cells
carrying out phagocytosis. It is formed by the
invagination of the plasma membrane and contains
solid material.
(See -'-
phagocytosis (fag(o-si-to_sis) The endocytotic process in &hich a cell encloses
large particles in a membrane2delimited phagocytic
vacuole or phagosome and engulfs them.
(See '0, 7"'
phagolysosome (fag(o-li_so-
The vacuole that results from the fusion of a
phagosome &ith a lysosome.
(See 7"'
phago*ar (fag_o-*ar) A specific phage type.
(See '.*
pharyngitis (far(in-+i_tis) Inflammation of the pharynx, often due to a 5.
pyogenes infection.
(See 90-
phase-contrast microscope A microscope that converts slight differences in
refractive index and cell density into easily observed
differences in light intensity.
(See **
phenetic system A classification system that groups organisms
together based on the similarity of their observable
(See .*#
phenol coefficient test A test to measure the effectiveness of disinfectants by
comparing their activity against test bacteria &ith that
of phenol.
(See ".9
phosphatase (fos_fah-tas_) An en$yme that cataly$es the hydrolytic removal of
phosphate from molecules.
(See *"0
phosphate group transfer
A measure of the ability of a phosphorylated
molecule such as AT! to transfer its phosphate to
&ater and other acceptors. It is the negative of the
)3oJ for the hydrolytic removal of phosphate.
(See "-7
photoautotroph (fo_to-a1_to-
5ee photolithotrophic autotrophs.
(See 97
photolithotrophic autotrophs >rganisms that use light energy, an inorganic electron
source (e.g., /*>, /*, /*5, and 4>* as a carbon
(See 97
;icroorganisms that use light energy and organic
electron donors, and also employ simple organic
molecules rather than 4>* as their carbon source.
(See 9'
photoreacti*ation (fo_to-re-
The process in &hich blue light is used by a
photoreactivating en$yme to repair thymine dimers in
)8A by splitting them apart.
(See "(0, *-.
photosynthesis (fo_to-
The trapping of light energy and its conversion to
chemical energy, &hich is then used to reduce 4>*
and incorporate it into organic form.
(See "-., "9-, *07
photosystem # The photosystem in eucaryotic cells that absorbs
longer &avelength light, usually greater than about
#'0 nm, and transfers the energy to chlorophyll !700
during photosynthesis% it is involved in both cyclic
photophosphorylation and noncyclic
(See "9#
photosystem ## The photosystem in eucaryotic cells that absorbs
shorter &avelength light, usually less than #'0 nm,
and transfers the energy to chlorophyll !#'0 during
photosynthesis% it participates in noncyclic
(See "9#
phototrophs >rganisms that use light as their energy source.
(See 97
phyco&iliproteins !hotosynthetic pigments that are composed of
proteins &ith attached tetrapyrroles% they are often
found in cyanobacteria and red algae.
(See "9#
phyco&ilisomes 5pecial particles on the membranes of cyanobacteria
that contain photosynthetic pigments and electron
transport chains.
(See .7"
phyco&iont (fi_'o-&i_ont) The algal or cyanobacterial partner in a lichen.
(See -99
phycocyanin (fi_'o-si_an-in) A blue phycobiliprotein pigment used to trap light
energy during photosynthesis.
(See "9#
phycoerythrin (fi_'o-er_i-
A red photosynthetic phycobiliprotein pigment used
to trap light energy.
(See "9#
phycology (fi-'ol_o-+e) The study of algae% algology.
(See -7"
phyllosphere The surface of plant leaves.
(See #7.
phylogenetic or phyletic
classification system (fi_lo-
+)e-net_i'4 fi-let_i')
A classification system based on evolutionary
relationships rather than the general similarity of
contemporary characteristics.
(See .*'
phylogenetic tree A graph made of nodes and branches, much li,e a
tree in shape, that sho&s phylogenetic relationships
bet&een groups of organisms and sometimes also
indicates the evolutionary development of groups.
(See .((
phytoplan'ton (fi(to-
A community of floating photosynthetic organisms,
largely composed of algae and cyanobacteria.
(See -7", #('
phytoremediation The use of plants and their associated
microorganisms to remove, contain, or degrade
environmental contaminants.
(See "0".
piedra (pe-a_drah) A fungal disease of the hair in &hich &hite or blac,
nodules of fungi form on the shafts.
(See 9.(
pinocytosis (pi(no-si-to_sis) The endocytotic process in &hich a cell encloses a
small amount of the surrounding li6uid and its solutes
in tiny pinocytotic vesicles or pinosomes.
(See '0
pitched !ertaining to inoculation of a nutrient medium &ith
yeast, for example, in beer bre&ing.
(See 9'(
plague (plag) An acute febrile, infectious disease, caused by the
bacillus Hersinia pestis, &hich has a high mortality
rate% the t&o ma:or types are bubonic plague and
pneumonic plague.
(See 9""
plan'ton (plan'_ton) <ree2floating, mostly microscopic microorganisms
that can be found in almost all &aters% a collective
(See -7", -'.
plan'tonic (ad+3) 5ee plan,ton.
(See -7"
pla"ue (pla') ". A clear area in a la&n of bacteria or a locali$ed
area of cell destruction in a layer of animal cells that
results from the lysis of the bacteria by
bacteriophages or the destruction of the animal cells
by animal viruses. *. The term also refers to dental
pla6ue, a film of food debris, polysaccharides, and
dead cells that cover the teeth. It provides a medium
for the gro&th of bacteria (&hich may be considered
a part of the pla6ue, leading to a microbial pla6ue
ecosystem that can produce dental decay.
(See (#., 9(.
plasma cell A mature, differentiated B lymphocyte chiefly
occupied &ith antibody synthesis and secretion% a
plasma cell lives for only - to 7 days.
(See 709
plasma mem&rane The selectively permeable membrane surrounding the
cell9s cytoplasm% also called the cell membrane,
plasmalemma, or cytoplasmic membrane.
(See .#
plasmid (plaz_mid) A double2stranded )8A molecule that can exist and
replicate independently of the chromosome or may be
integrated &ith it. A plasmid is stably inherited, but is
not re6uired for the host cell9s gro&th and
(See -., *9., '"9
plasmid fingerprinting A techni6ue used to identify microbial isolates as
belonging to the same strain because they contain the
same number of plasmids &ith the identical
molecular &eights and similar phenotypes.
(See '.(
plasmodial (acellular) slime
mold (plaz-mo_de-al)
A member of the division ;yxomycota that exists as
a thin, streaming, multinucleate mass of protoplasm,
&hich creeps along in an amoeboid fashion.
(See -#.
plasmodium (plaz-mo_de-um,
pl34 plasmodia)
A stage in the life cycle of myxomycetes (plasmodial
slime molds% a multinucleate mass of protoplasm
surrounded by a membrane. Also, a parasite of the
genus !lasmodium.
(See -#-
plasmolysis (plaz-mol_)!-sis) The process in &hich &ater osmotically leaves a cell,
&hich causes the cytoplasm to shrivel up and pull the
plasma membrane a&ay from the cell &all.
(See #"
plastid (plas_tid) A cytoplasmic organelle of algae and higher plants
that contains pigments such as chlorophyll, stores
food reserves, and often carries out processes such as
(See '-
pleomorphic (ple_o-mor_fi') +efers to bacteria that are variable in shape and lac,
a single, characteristic form.
(See ..
plus strand or positi*e strand The virus nucleic2acid strand that is e6uivalent in
base se6uence to the viral m+8A.
(See (7.
pneumocystis pneumonia4
Pneumocystis carinii
pneumonia (PCP), (noo_mo-
A type of pneumonia caused by the protist
!neumocystis carinii.
(See 9-0
pneumonic plague 5ee plague.
(See 9""
point mutation A mutation that affects only a single base pair in a
specific location.
(See *.9
polar flagellum A flagellum located at one end of an elongated cell.
(See #(
poliomyelitis (po_le-o-mi_e-
An acute, contagious viral disease that attac,s the
central nervous system, in:uring or destroying the
nerve cells that control the muscles and sometimes
causing paralysis% also called polio or infantile
(See '9*
poly-&-hydroxy&utyrate (hi-
A linear polymer of b2hydroxybutyrate used as a
reserve of carbon and energy by many bacteria.
(See .9
polymerase chain reaction
An in vitro techni6ue used to synthesi$e large
6uantities of specific nucleotide se6uences from
small amounts of )8A. It employs oligonucleotide
primers complementary to specific se6uences in the
target gene and special heat2stable )8A polymerases.
(See (*#
polymorphonuclear leu'ocyte
(P65) (pol_e-mor_fo-
A leu,ocyte that has a variety of nuclear forms.
(See 707
polyphasic taxonomy An approach in &hich taxonomic schemes are
developed using a &ide range of phenotypic and
genotypic information.
(See .(-
polyri&osome (pol_e-ri_&o-
A complex of several ribosomes &ith a messenger
+8A% each ribosome is translating the same message.
(See '(, *##
Pontiac fe*er A bacterial disease caused by =egionella
pneumophila that resembles an allergic disease more
than an infection. <irst described from !ontiac,
;ichigan. 5ee =egionnaires9 disease.
(See 90*
population An assemblage of organisms of the same type.
(See -9#
porin proteins !roteins that form channels across the outer
membrane of gram2negative bacterial cell &alls.
5mall molecules are transported through these
(See #0
postherpetic neuralgia The severe pain after a herpes infection.
(See '7*
The processing of the initial +8A transcript,
heterogeneous nuclear +8A, to form m+8A.
(See *#(
pota&le (po_tah-&_l) +efers to &ater suitable for drin,ing.
(See #-.
pour plate A petri dish of solid culture medium &ith isolated
microbial colonies gro&ing both on its surface and
&ithin the medium, &hich has been prepared by
mixing microorganisms &ith cooled, still li6uid
medium and then allo&ing the medium to harden.
(See "07
precipitation (or precipitin)
reaction (pre-sip_)!-
The reaction of an antibody &ith a soluble antigen to
form an insoluble precipitate.
(See 7-#
precipitin (pre-sip_)!-tin) The antibody responsible for a precipitation reaction.
(See 7-#
pre*alence rate +efers to the total number of individuals infected at
any one time in a given population regardless of
&hen the disease began.
(See '.9
Pri&no1 &ox A special base se6uence in the promoter that is
recogni$ed by the +8A polymerase and is the site of
initial polymerase binding.
(See *.., *#*
primary ame&ic
An infection of the meninges of the brain by the free2
living amoebae 8aegleria or Acanthamoeba.
(See 9-(
primary (fran') pathogen Any organism that causes a disease in the host by
direct interaction &ith or infection of the host.
(See 7'9
primary meta&olites ;icrobial metabolites produced during the gro&th
phase of an organism.
(See "00*
primary producer !hotoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic organisms
that incorporate carbon dioxide into organic carbon
and thus provide ne& biomass for the ecosystem.
(See #**
primary production The incorporation of carbon dioxide into organic
matter by photosynthetic organisms and
chemoautotrophic bacteria.
(See #**
primary treatment The first step of se&age treatment, in &hich physical
settling and screening are used to remove particulate
(See #-'
prion (pri_on) An infectious particle that is the cause of slo&
diseases li,e scrapie in sheep and goats% it has a
protein component, but no nucleic acid has yet been
(See ."#
pro&e (pro&) A short, labeled nucleic acid segment complementary
in base se6uence to part of another nucleic acid,
&hich is used to identify or isolate the particular
nucleic acid from a mixture through its ability to bind
specifically &ith the target nucleic acid.
(See (**, 97#
pro&iotic (" The oral administration of either living
microorganisms or substances to promote the health
and gro&th of an animal or human. (* A living
organism that may provide health benefits beyond its
nutritional value &hen it is ingested.
(See 70(, 9'#
procaryotic cells (pro_'ar-e-
4ells that lac, a true, membrane2enclosed nucleus%
bacteria are procaryotic and have their genetic
material located in a nucleoid.
(See "", 9"
procaryotic species A collection of strains that share many stable
properties and differ significantly from other groups
of strains.
(See .*-
prodromal stage (pro-
The period during the course of a disease in &hich
there is the appearance of signs and symptoms, but
they are not yet distinctive and characteristic enough
to ma,e an accurate diagnosis.
(See '-0
progametangium (pro-gam-
)e(tan_+e-um, pl34
The cell that gives rise to a gametangium and a
proximal suspensor during the early stages of sexual
reproduction in $ygomycetous fungi.
(See -#0
proliferati*e 'idney disease
A proto$oan disease caused by an unclassified
myxo$oan in salmonids throughout the &orld.
(See -9"
promoter The region on )8A at the start of a gene that the
+8A polymerase binds to before beginning
(See *.*, *#*
propagated epidemic An epidemic that is characteri$ed by a relatively slo&
and prolonged rise and then a gradual decline in the
number of individuals infected. It usually results
from the introduction of an infected individual into a
susceptible population, and the pathogen is
transmitted from person to person.
(See '-"
prophage (pro_fa+) The latent form of a temperate phage that remains
&ithin the lysogen, usually integrated into the host
(See (0', (90
prostheca (pros-the_'ah) An extension of a bacterial cell, including the plasma
membrane and cell &all, that is narro&er than the
mature cell.
(See .90
prosthetic group (pros-
A tightly bound cofactor that remains at the active
site of an en$yme during its catalytic activity.
(See "#"
protease (pro_te-as) An en$yme that hydroly$es proteins to their
constituent amino acids. Also called a proteinase.
(See "9*
proteasome A large, cylindrical protein complex that degrades
ubi6uitin2labeled proteins to peptides in an AT!2
dependent process.
(See '*
protein engineering
The rational design of proteins by constructing
specific amino acid se6uences through molecular
techni6ues, &ith the ob:ective of modifying protein
(See 99.
protein splicing The post2translational process in &hich part of a
precursor polypeptide is removed before the mature
polypeptide folds into its final shape% it is carried out
by self2splicing proteins that remove inteins and :oin
the remaining exteins.
(See *7-
proteo&acteria (pro_te-o-&a'-
A large group of bacteria, primarily gram2negative,
that "#5 r+8A se6uence comparisons sho& to be
phylogenetically related% proteobacteria contain the
purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives and
are composed of the a, b, g, d, and e subgroups.
(See .'7
proteome The complete collection of proteins that an organism
(See (-#
protists (pro_tist) ?ucaryotes &ith unicellular organi$ation, either in the
form of solitary cells or colonies of cells lac,ing true
(See .('
protocooperation A positive, but not obligatory, interaction bet&een
t&o different organisms in &hich both parties benefit.
(See #0.
protomer An individual subunit of a viral capsid% a capsomer is
made of protomers.
(See (#9
proton moti*e force (P6F) The force arising from a gradient of protons and a
membrane potential that is thought to po&er AT!
synthesis and other processes.
(See "'7
protoplast (pro_to-plast) A bacterial or fungal cell &ith its cell &all completely
removed. It is spherical in shape and osmotically
(See .9, #"
protoplast fusion The :oining of cells that have had their &alls
&ea,ened or completely removed.
(See 99.
protothecosis (pro_to-the-
'o_sis, pl34 protothecoses)
A disease of humans and animals produced by the
green alga !rototheca moriformis.
(See -7-
prototroph (pro_to-trof) A microorganism that re6uires the same nutrients as
the ma:ority of naturally occurring members of its
(See *.-
protozoan or protozoon
(pro_to-zo_an4 pl3 protozoa)
A microorganism belonging to the !roto$oa
sub,ingdom. A unicellular or acellular eucaryotic
protist &hose organelles have the functional role of
organs and tissues in more complex forms. !roto$oa
vary greatly in si$e, morphology, nutrition, and life
(See -'.
protozoology (pro_to-zo-ol_o-
The study of proto$oa.
(See -'.
pro*iral $5A 7iral )8A that has been integrated into host cell
)8A. In retroviruses it is the double2stranded )8A
copy of the +8A genome.
(See .07
pseudomurein A modified peptidoglycan lac,ing )2amino acids and
containing 82acetyltalosaminuronic acid instead of
82acetylmuramic acid% found in methanogenic
(See .-*
pseudoplasmodium (soo_do-
plaz-mo_de-um, pl34
A sausage2shaped amoeboid structure consisting of
many myxamoebae and behaving as a unit% the result
of myxamoebal aggregation in the cellular slime
molds% also called a slug.
(See -#-
pseudopodium or pseudopod
A nonpermanent cytoplasmic extension of the cell
body by &hich amoebae and amoeboid organisms
move and feed.
(See -'#
psittacosis (ornithosis, sit_ah-
A disease due to a strain of 4hlamydia psittaci, first
seen in parrots and later found in other birds and
domestic fo&l (in &hich it is called ornithosis. It is
transmissible to humans.
(See 9"9
psychrophile (si_'ro-f!l) A microorganism that gro&s &ell at 0G4 and has an
optimum gro&th temperature of "-G4 or lo&er and a
temperature maximum around *0G4.
(See "*#
psychrotroph A microorganism that gro&s at 0G4, but has a gro&th
optimum bet&een *0 and (0G4, and a maximum of
about (-G4.
(See "*#
puerperal fe*er (pu-er_per-
An acute, febrile condition follo&ing childbirth% it is
characteri$ed by infection of the uterus andDor
ad:acent regions and is caused by streptococci.
(See '-7
pulmonary anthrax (pul_mo-
A form of anthrax involving the lungs. Also ,no&n as
&oolsorter9s disease.
(See 9"(
pulmonary syndrome
5ee hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.
(See '77
pure culture A population of cells that are identical because they
arise from a single cell.
(See "0#
purine (pu_rin) A basic, heterocyclic, nitrogen2containing molecule
&ith t&o :oined rings that occurs in nucleic acids and
other cell constituents% most purines are oxy or amino
derivatives of the purine s,eleton. The most
important purines are adenine and guanine.
(See *"#
purple mem&rane An area of the plasma membrane of /alobacterium
that contains bacteriorhodopsin and is active in
photosynthetic light energy trapping.
(See .#"
putrefaction (pu_tr)e-
The microbial decomposition of organic matter,
especially the anaerobic brea,do&n of proteins, &ith
the production of foul2smelling compounds such as
hydrogen sulfide and amines.
(See 9#-
pyrenoid (pi_r)e-noid) The differentiated region of the chloroplast that is a
center of starch formation in green algae and
(See '-, -7(
pyrimidine (pi-rim_i-den) A basic, heterocyclic, nitrogen2containing molecule
&ith one ring that occurs in nucleic acids and other
cell constituents% pyrimidines are oxy or amino
derivatives of the pyrimidine s,eleton. The most
important pyrimidines are cytosine, thymine, and
(See *"#
E fe*er An acute $oonotic disease caused by the ric,ettsia
4oxiella burnetii.
(See 9"*
Euellung reaction The increase in visibility or the s&elling of the
capsule of a microorganism in the presence of
antibodies against capsular antigens.
(See 7'.
"uorum sensing The process in &hich bacteria monitor their o&n
population density by sensing the levels of signal
molecules that are released by the microorganisms.
@hen these signal molecules reach a threshold
concentration, the population density has attained a
critical level or 6uorum, and 6uorum2dependent
genes are expressed.
(See "(*
ra&ies (ra_&ez) An acute infectious disease of the central nervous
system, &hich affects all &arm2blooded animals
(including humans. It is caused by an ss+8A virus
belonging to the genus =yssavirus in the family
(See '''
rac'ing The removal of sediments from &ine bottles.
(See 9'*
radappertization The use of gamma rays from a cobalt source for
control of microorganisms in foods.
(See 97*
radioimmunoassay (0#A,
A very sensitive assay techni6ue that uses a purified
radioisotope2labeled antigen or antibody to compete
for antibody or antigen &ith unlabeled standard and
samples to determine the concentration of a substance
in the samples.
(See 7'(
reacti*ation tu&erculosis 5ee miliary tuberculosis.
(See 90'
reading frame The &ay in &hich nucleotides in )8A and m+8A
are grouped into codons or groups of three for
reading the message contained in the nucleotide
(See *."
reagin (re_ah-+in) Antibody that mediates immediate hypersensitivity
reactions. Ig? is the ma:or reagin in humans.
(See 7#'
recom&inant $5A
The techni6ues used in carrying out genetic
engineering% they involve the identification and
isolation of a specific gene, the insertion of the gene
into a vector such as a plasmid to form a recombinant
molecule, and the production of large 6uantities of
the gene and its products.
(See (*0
recom&inant-*ector *accine The type of vaccine that is produced by the
introduction of one or more of a pathogen9s genes
into attenuated viruses or bacteria. The attenuated
virus or bacterium serves as a vector, replicating
&ithin the vertebrate host and expressing the gene(s
of the pathogen. The pathogen9s antigens induce an
immune response.
(See 7#7
recom&ination (re_'om-&)!-
The process in &hich a ne& recombinant
chromosome is formed by combining genetic
material from t&o organisms.
(See *9*
recom&ination repair A )8A repair process that repairs damaged )8A
&hen there is no remaining template% a piece of )8A
from a sister molecule is used.
(See *--
0edfield ratio The carbon2nitrogen2phosphorus ratio of a6uatic
microorganisms. This ratio is important for predicting
limiting factors for microbial gro&th.
(See #('
red tides +ed tides occur fre6uently in coastal areas and often
are associated &ith population blooms of
dinoflagellates. )inoflagellate pigments are
responsible for the red color of the &ater. Ander these
conditions, the dinoflagellates often produce
saxitoxin, &hich can lead to paralytic shellfish
(See -'0
reducing agent or reductant
The electron donor in an oxidation2reduction
(See "-7
reducti*e dehalogenation The cleavage of carbon2halogen bonds by anaerobic
bacteria that creates a strong electron2donating
(See "0"0
refraction (re-fra'_shun) The deflection of a light ray from a straight path as it
passes from one medium (e.g., glass to another (e.g.,
(See "'
refracti*e index (re-fra'_ti*) The ratio of the velocity of light in the first of t&o
media to that in the second as it passes from the first
to the second.
(See "'
regulator . cell +egulator T cells control the development of effector
T cells. T&o types existC T2helper cells (4)." cells
and T2suppressor cells. There are three subsets of T2
helper cellsC T/", T/*, and T/0. T/" cells produce
I=2*, I<82g, and T8<2b. They effect cell2mediated
immunity and are responsible for delayed2type
hypersensitivity reactions and macrophage activation.
T/* cells produce I=2., I=2-, I=2#, I=2"0, I=2"(.
They are helpers for B2cell antibody responses and
humoral immunity% they also support Ig? responses
and eosinophilia. T/0 cells exhibit an unrestricted
cyto,ine profile.
(See 7-"
regulatory mutants ;utant organisms that have lost the ability to limit
synthesis of a product, &hich normally occurs by
regulation of activity of an earlier step in the
biosynthetic path&ay.
(See "00-
regulon A collection of genes or operons that is controlled by
a common regulatory protein.
(See *'"
replica plating A techni6ue for isolating mutants from a population
by plating cells from each colony gro&ing on a
nonselective agar medium onto plates &ith selective
media or environmental conditions, such as the lac,
of a nutrient or the presence of an antibiotic or a
phage% the location of mutants on the original plate
can be determined from gro&th patterns on the
replica plates.
(See *-*
replication (rep_l)!-
The process in &hich an exact copy of parental )8A
or +8A is made &ith the parental molecule serving
as a template.
(See *(0
replication for' The H2shaped structure &here )8A is replicated. The
arms of the H contain template strand and a ne&ly
synthesi$ed )8A copy.
(See *(-
replicati*e form A double2stranded form of nucleic acid that is formed
from a single2stranded virus genome and used to
synthesi$e ne& copies of the genome.
(See ('', .0#
replicon (rep_l)!-'on) A unit of the genome that contains an origin for the
initiation of replication and in &hich )8A is
(See *(-, *9.
repressi&le enzyme An en$yme &hose level drops in the presence of a
small molecule, usually an end product of its
metabolic path&ay.
(See *7#
repressor protein (re-
A protein coded for by a regulator gene that can bind
to the operator and inhibit transcription% it may be
active by itself or only &hen the corepressor is bound
to it.
(See *7#
reser*oir (rez_er-*1ar) A site, alternate host, or carrier that normally harbors
pathogenic organisms and serves as a source from
&hich other individuals can be infected.
(See 79", '-.
reser*oir host An organism other than a human that is infected &ith
a pathogen that can also infect humans.
(See 7'9
residuesphere The region surrounding organic matter such as a seed
or plant part in &hich microbial gro&th is stimulated
by increased organic matter availability.
(See #90
resolution (rez_o-lu_shun) The ability of a microscope to separate or distinguish
bet&een small ob:ects that are close together.
(See *0
respiration (res_ p)!-ra_
An energy2yielding process in &hich the energy
substrate is oxidi$ed using an exogenous or
externally derived electron acceptor.
(See "7(
respiratory &urst The respiratory burst occurs &hen an activated
phagocytic cell increases its oxygen consumption to
support the increased metabolic activity of
phagocytosis. The burst generates highly toxic
oxygen products such as singlet oxygen, superoxide
radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and
(See 7*0
respiratory syncytial *irus
(0%@, sin-sish_al)
A member of the family !aramyxoviridae and genus
!neumovirus% it is a negative2sense ss+8A virus that
causes respiratory infections in children.
(See '7-
restricted transduction A transduction process in &hich only a specific set of
bacterial genes are carried to another bacterium by a
temperate phage% the bacterial genes are ac6uired
because of a mista,e in the excision of a prophage
during the lysogenic life cycle.
(See (09
restriction enzymes ?n$ymes produced by host cells that cleave virus
)8A at specific points and thus protect the cell from
virus infection% they are used in carrying out genetic
(See (*0, ('#
reticulate &ody (0B) The form in the chlamydial life cycle &hose role is
gro&th and reproduction &ithin the host cell.
(See .77
retro*iruses (re_tro-*i_rus-
A group of viruses &ith +8A genomes that carry the
en$yme reverse transcriptase and form a )8A copy
of their genome during their reproductive cycle.
(See .07
re*erse transcriptase (0.) An +8A2dependent )8A polymerase that uses a
viral +8A genome as a template to form a )8A
copy% this is a reverse of the normal flo& of genetic
information, &hich proceeds from )8A to +8A.
(See .07, '79
re*ersi&le co*alent
A mechanism of en$yme regulation in &hich the
en$yme9s activity is either increased or decreased by
the reversible covalent addition of a group such as
phosphate or A;! to the protein.
(See "#7
0eye2s syndrome An acute, potentially fatal disease of childhood that is
characteri$ed by severe edema of the brain and
increased intracranial pressure, vomiting,
hypoglycemia, and liver dysfunction. The cause is
un,no&n but is almost al&ays associated &ith a
previous viral infection (e.g., influen$a or varicella2
$oster virus infections.
(See '7.
0 factors or 0 plasmids !lasmids bearing one or more drug resistant genes.
(See *97, '"9
rheumatic fe*er (roo-mat_i') An autoimmune disease characteri$ed by
inflammatory lesions involving the heart valves,
:oints, subcutaneous tissues, and central nervous
system. The disease is associated &ith hemolytic
streptococci in the body. It is called rheumatic fever
because t&o common symptoms are fever and pain in
the :oints similar to that of rheumatism.
(See 90-
rhizosphere A region around the plant root &here materials
released from the root increase the microbial
population and its activities.
(See #7-
rho factor (ro) The protein that helps +8A polymerase dissociate
from the terminator after it has stopped transcription.
(See *#(
rhoptry 5acli,e, electron dense structure in the anterior
portion of a $oite of a member of the phylum
Apicomplexa% perhaps involved in the penetration of
host cells.
(See -9"
ri&onucleic acid (05A, ri(&o-
A polynucleotide composed of ribonucleotides :oined
by phosphodiester bridges.
(See *(0
ri&osomal 05A (r05A) The +8A present in ribosomes% ribosomes contain
several si$es of single2stranded r+8A that contribute
to ribosome structure and are also directly involved
in the mechanism of protein synthesis.
(See *#"
ri&osome (ri_&o-som) The organelle &here protein synthesis occurs% the
message encoded in m+8A is translated here.
(See -*, *#7
ri&otyping +ibotyping is the use of ?. coli r+8A to probe
chromosomal )8A in 5outhern blots for typing
bacterial strains. This method is based on the fact that
r+8A genes are scattered throughout the
chromosome of most bacteria and therefore
polymorphic restriction endonuclease patterns result
&hen chromosomes are digested and probed &ith
(See '.(
car&oxylase (ri_&u-los)
The en$yme that cataly$es the incorporation of 4>*
in the 4alvin cycle.
(See *0'
ring1orm (ring_1erm) The common name for a fungal infection of the s,in,
even though it is not caused by a &orm and is not
al&ays ring2shaped in appearance.
(See 9.(
rise period or &urst The period during the one2step gro&th experiment
&hen host cells lyse and release phage particles.
(See ('(
05A polymerase The en$yme that cataly$es the synthesis of m+8A
under the direction of a )8A template.
(See *#"
0oc'y 6ountain spotted
A disease caused by +ic,ettsia ric,ettsii.
(See 9"(
rolling-circle mechanism A mode of )8A replication in &hich the replication
for, moves around a circular )8A molecule,
displacing a strand to give a tail that is also copied to
produce a ne& double2stranded )8A.
(See *(#
root nodule 3all2li,e structures on roots that contain
endosymbiotic nitrogen2fixing bacteria (e.g.,
+hi$obium or Bradyrhi$obium is present in legume
(See #7#
roseola infantum (ro-ze_o-
A s,in eruption that produces a rose2colored rash in
infants. 4aused by the human herpesvirus #. The
disease is short2lived and characteri$ed by a high
fever of ( to . days9 duration.
(See ''7
ru&ella A moderately contagious s,in disease that occurs
primarily in children - to 9 years of age that is caused
by the rubella virus, &hich is ac6uired by droplet
inhalation into the respiratory system% 3erman
(See '7-
ru&eola 5ee measles.
(See '7(
rumen (roo-men) The expanded upper portion or first compartment of
the stomach of ruminants.
(See #0*
ruminant (roo_m)!-nant) An herbivorous animal that has a stomach divided
into four compartments and che&s a cud consisting
of regurgitated, partially digested food.
(See #0*
run The straight line movement of a bacterium.
(See #7
Glossary %-F
salmonellosis (sal(mo-nel-
An infection &ith certain species of the genus 5almonella,
usually caused by ingestion of food containing
salmonellae or their products. Also ,no&n as 5almonella
gastroenteritis or 5almonella food poisoning.
(See 9("
sanitization (san()!-ti-
+eduction of the microbial population on an inanimate
ob:ect to levels :udged safe by public health standards%
usually, the ob:ect is cleaned.
(See "('
saprophyte (sap_ro-fit) An organism that ta,es up nonliving organic nutrients in
dissolved form and usually gro&s on decomposing
organic matter.
(See --7
saprozoic nutrition
/aving the type of nutrition in &hich organic nutrients are
ta,en up in dissolved form% normally refers to animals or
animal2li,e organisms.
(See -'#
satellite phenomenon 5ee syntrophism.
(See #0.
scaffolding proteins 5pecial proteins that are used to aid procapsid
construction during the assembly of a bacteriophage
capsid and are removed after the completion of the
(See (''
scale (s'al) A plateli,e organic structure found on the surface of some
cells (chrysophytes.
(See -77
scanning electron
microscope (%<6)
An electron microscope that scans a beam of electrons
over the surface of a specimen and forms an image of the
surface from the electrons that are emitted by it.
(See (.
scanning pro&e
A microscope used to study surface features by moving a
sharp probe over the ob:ect9s surface (e.g., the scanning
tunneling microscope.
(See ('
scanning tunneling
A type of scanning probe microscope used to image a
surface by moving a fine probe over it at a constant
height, &hich is maintained by ,eeping a constant electron
flo& (tunneling current bet&een the tip and surface.
(See ('
scarlatina (s'ahr(la-
5ee scarlet fever.
(See 90-
scarlet fe*er (scarlatina,
A disease that results from infection &ith a strain of
5treptococcus pyogenes that carries a lysogenic phage
&ith the gene for erythrogenic (rash2inducing toxin. The
toxin causes shedding of the s,in. This is a communicable
disease spread by respiratory droplets.
(See 90-
schizogony (s')!-zog_o-
;ultiple asexual fission.
(See -9"
secondary meta&olites !roducts of metabolism that are synthesi$ed after gro&th
has been completed.
(See "00*
secondary treatment The biological degradation of dissolved organic matter in
the process of se&age treatment% the organic material is
either minerali$ed or changed to settleable solids.
(See #-9
second la1 of
!hysical and chemical processes proceed in such a &ay
that the entropy of the universe (the system and its
surroundings increases to the maximum possible.
(See "-#
secretory #gA (s#gA) The primary immunoglobulin of the secretory immune
system. 5ee IgA.
(See 7('
secretory *acuole In protists and some animals, these organelles usually
contain specific en$ymes that perform various functions
such as excystation. Their contents are released to the cell
exterior during exocytosis.
(See -'-
segmented genome A virus genome that is divided into several parts or
fragments, each probably coding for the synthesis of a
single polypeptide% segmented genomes are very common
among the +8A viruses.
(See (7.
selectins (s/-le'_tins) A family of cell adhesion molecules that are displayed on
activated endothelial cells% examples include !2selectin
and ?2selectin. 5electins mediate leu,ocyte binding to the
vascular endothelium.
(See 7"*
selecti*e media 4ulture media that favor the gro&th of specific
microorganisms% this may be accomplished by inhibiting
the gro&th of undesired microorganisms.
(See "0-
selecti*e toxicity The ability of a chemotherapeutic agent to ,ill or inhibit a
microbial pathogen &hile damaging the host as little as
(See '07
self-assem&ly The spontaneous formation of a complex structure from
its component molecules &ithout the aid of special
en$ymes or factors.
(See #-, *07
sepsis (sep_sis) 5ystemic response to infection. This systemic response is
manifested by t&o or more of the follo&ing conditions as
a result of infectionC temperature .(' or ,(#G4% heart rate .
90 beats per min% respiratory rate .*0 breaths per min, or
p4>* ,(* mm /g% leu,ocyte count ."*,000 cells per ml(
or ."0E immature (band forms. 5epsis also has been
defined as the presence of pathogens or their toxins in
blood and other tissues.
(See 9((
septate (sep_tat) )ivided by a septum or cross &all% also &ith more or less
regular occurring cross &alls.
(See --#
septic shoc' (sep_ti') 5epsis associated &ith severe hypotension despite
ade6uate fluid resuscitation, along &ith the presence of
perfusion abnormalities that may include, but are not
limited to, lactic acidosis, oliguria, or an acute alteration
in mental status. 3ram2positive bacteria, fungi, and
endotoxin2containing gram2negative bacteria can initiate
the pathogenic cascade of sepsis leading to septic shoc,.
(See 9((
septicemia (sep(t)!-
A disease associated &ith the presence in the blood of
pathogens or bacterial toxins.
(See -"., 79(
septic tan' (sep_ti') A tan, used to process small 6uantities of domestic
se&age. 5olid material settles out and is partially degraded
by anaerobic bacteria as se&age slo&ly flo&s through the
tan,. The outflo& is further treated or dispersed in aerobic
(See ##(
septum (sep_tum, pl34
A partition or cross2&all that occurs bet&een t&o cells in a
bacterial (e.g., actinomycete or fungal filament, or &hich
partitions off fungal structures such as spores. 5epta also
divide parent cells into t&o daughter cells during bacterial
binary fission.
(See *'#, --#
serology (se-rol_o-+e) The branch of immunology that is concerned &ith in vitro
reactions involving one or more serum constituents (e.g.,
antibodies and complement.
(See 77.
serotyping A techni6ue or serological procedure that is used to
differentiate bet&een strains (serovars or serotypes of
microorganisms that have differences in the antigenic
composition of a structure or product.
(See 7'.
serum (se_rum, pl34
serums or sera)
The clear, fluid portion of blood lac,ing both blood cells
and fibrinogen. It is the fluid remaining after coagulation
of plasma, the noncellular li6uid faction of blood.
(See 7.*
serum resistance The type of resistance that occurs &ith bacteria such as
8eisseria gonorrhoeae because the pathogen interferes
&ith membrane attac, complex formation during the
complement cascade.
(See '0"
settling &asin A basin used during &ater purification to chemically
precipitate out fine particles, microorganisms, and organic
material by coagulation or flocculation.
(See #-*
sex pilus (pi_lus) A thin protein appendage re6uired for bacterial mating or
con:ugation. The cell &ith sex pili donates )8A to
recipient cells.
(See #(, (0(
sheath (sheth) A hollo& tubeli,e structure surrounding a chain of cells
and present in several genera of bacteria.
(See .9#
shigellosis (sh)!_g/l-
The diarrheal disease that arises from an infection &ith a
member of the genus 5higella. >ften called bacillary
(See 9("
%;#6< system
(simulated human
intestinal micro&ial
A set of connected chemostat2li,e reactors that provide a
se6uence of environments similar to the human digestive
(See 9'7
A segment in the leader of procaryotic m+8A that binds
to a special se6uence on the "#5 r+8A of the small
ribosomal subunit. This helps properly orient the m+8A
on the ribosome.
(See *..
shingles (zoster,
A reactivated form of chic,enpox caused by the varicella2
$oster virus.
(See '7*
siderophore (sid_er-o-
A small molecule that complexes &ith ferric iron and
supplies it to a cell by aiding in its transport across the
plasma membrane.
(See "0.
sigma factor A protein that helps the +8A polymerase core en$yme
recogni$e the promoter at the start of a gene.
(See *#*
sign An ob:ective change in a diseased body that can be
directly observed (e.g., a fever or rash.
(See '-0
silage <ermented plant material &ith increased palatability and
nutritional value for animals, &hich can be stored for
extended periods.
(See 9'#
silent mutation A mutation that does not result in a change in the
organism9s proteins or phenotype even though the )8A
base se6uence has been changed.
(See *.9
simple matching
coefficient (%%6)
An association coefficient used in numerical taxonomy%
the proportion of characters that match regardless of
&hether or not the attribute is present.
(See .*#
single radial
immunodiffusion (0#$)
An immunodiffusion techni6ue that 6uantitates antigens
by follo&ing their diffusion through a gel containing
antibodies directed against the test antigens.
(See 779
+ecombination of nonhomologous genetic material &ith a
chromosome at a specific site.
(See *9*
s'in-associated lymphoid
tissue (%A8.)
The lymphoid tissue in the s,in that forms a first2line
defense as a part of nonspecific immunity.
(See 709
The cutting do&n and burning of tropical vegetation to
ma,e mineral nutrients available for use by introduced
agricultural crops.
(See #7*
%-layer A regularly structured layer composed of protein or
glycoprotein that lies on the surface of many bacteria. It
may protect the bacterium and help give it shape and
(See #*
slime The viscous extracellular glycoproteins or glycolipids
produced by staphylococci and !seudomonas aeruginosa
bacteria that allo&s them to adhere to smooth surfaces
such as prosthetic medical devices and catheters. ;ore
generally, the term often refers to an easily removed,
diffuse, unorgani$ed layer of extracellular material that
surrounds a bacterial cell.
(See #", 9"9
slime layer A layer of diffuse, unorgani$ed, easily removed material
lying outside the bacterial cell &all.
(See #"
slime mold A common term for members of the divisions
Acrasiomycota and ;yxomycota.
(See -#.
slo1 sand filter A bed of sand through &hich &ater slo&ly flo&s% the
gelatinous microbial layer on the sand grain surface
removes &aterborne microorganisms, particularly 3iardia,
by adhesion to the gel. This type of filter is used in some
&ater purification plants.
(See #-(
slo1 *irus disease A progressive, pathological process caused by a
transmissible agent (virus or prion that remains clinically
silent during a prolonged incubation period of months to
years after &hich progressive clinical disease becomes
(See ."0, '9(
sludge (slu+) A general term for the precipitated solid matter produced
during &ater and se&age treatment% solid particles
composed of organic matter and microorganisms that are
involved in aerobic se&age treatment (activated sludge.
(See #-'
smallpox (*ariola,
>nce a highly contagious, often fatal disease caused by a
poxvirus. Its most noticeable symptom &as the
appearance of blisters and pustules on the s,in.
7accination has eradicated smallpox throughout the &orld.
(See '7#
snapping di*ision A distinctive type of binary fission resulting in an angular
or a palisade arrangement of cells, &hich is characteristic
of the genera Arthrobacter and 4orynebacterium.
(See -.*
sorocarp The fruiting structure of the Acrasiomycetes.
(See -#-
sorus A type of fruiting structure composed of a mass of spores
or sporangia.
(See -#-
%7% repair A complex, inducible repair process that is used to repair
)8A &hen extensive damage has occurred.
(See *--
source The location or ob:ect from &hich a pathogen is
immediately transmitted to the host, either directly or
through an intermediate agent.
(See '-.
%outhern &lotting
The procedure used to isolate and identify )8A fragments
from a complex mixture. The isolated, denatured
fragments are transferred from an agarose electrophoretic
gel to a nitrocellulose filter and identified by hybridi$ation
&ith probes.
(See (**
specialized transduction 5ee restricted transduction.
(See (09
species (spe_shez) 5pecies of higher organisms are groups of interbreeding or
potentially interbreeding natural populations that are
reproductively isolated. Bacterial species are collections
of strains that have many stable properties in common and
differ significantly from other groups of strains.
(See .*-
specific immune response
(ac"uired or specific
5ee ac6uired immunity.
(See 70-
spermosphere The region surrounding a germinating seed &here released
organic matter stimulates microbial gro&th.
(See 97.
spheroplast (sfer_o-
A relatively spherical cell formed by the &ea,ening or
partial removal of the rigid cell &all component (e.g., by
penicillin treatment of gram2negative bacteria.
5pheroplasts are usually osmotically sensitive.
(See #"
spi'e 5ee peplomer.
(See (7.
spirillum (spi-ril_um) A rigid, spiral2shaped bacterium.
(See ..
spirochete (spi_ro-'et) A flexible, spiral2shaped bacterium &ith periplasmic
(See .., .79
spleen (splen) A secondary lymphoid organ &here old erythrocytes are
destroyed and blood2borne antigens are trapped and
presented to lymphocytes.
(See 70'
split or interrupted gene A structural gene &ith )8A se6uences that code for the
final +8A product (expressed se6uences or exons
separated by regions coding for +8A absent from the
mature +8A (intervening se6uences or introns.
(See *#(
)egenerative central nervous system diseases in &hich the
brain has a spongy appearance% they appear due to prions.
(See '9(
spontaneous generation
The hypothesis that living organisms can arise from
nonliving matter.
(See *
sporadic disease (spo-
A disease that occurs occasionally and at random intervals
in a population.
(See '.9
sporangiospore (spo- A spore born &ithin a sporangium.
ran_+e-o-spor) (See -(9, --7
sporangium (spo-ran_+e-
um, pl34 sporangia)
A sacli,e structure or cell, the contents of &hich are
converted into an indefinite number of spores. It is borne
on a special hypha called a sporangiophore.
(See #', --7
spore (spor) A differentiated, speciali$ed form that can be used for
dissemination, for survival of adverse conditions because
of its heat and dessication resistance, andDor for
reproduction. 5pores are usually unicellular and may
develop into vegetative organisms or gametes. They may
be produced asexually or sexually and are of many types.
(See -7(
sporogenesis (spor_o-
5ee sporulation.
(See #9
sporotrichosis (spo(ro-tri-
A subcutaneous fungal infection caused by the dimorphic
fungus 5porothrix schenc,ii.
(See 9.-
sporulation (spor(u-
The process of spore formation.
(See #9
spread plate A petri dish of solid culture medium &ith isolated
microbial colonies gro&ing on its surface, &hich has been
prepared by spreading a dilute microbial suspension
evenly over the agar surface.
(See "0#
sputum (spu_tum) The mucous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea
that is e:ected (expectorated through the mouth.
(See '*9
stal' (sta1') A nonliving bacterial appendage produced by the cell and
extending from it.
(See .90
standard free energy
The free energy change of a reaction at " atmosphere
pressure &hen all reactants and products are present in
their standard states% usually the temperature is *-G4.
(See "-#
standard reduction
A measure of the tendency of a reductant to lose electrons
in an oxidation2reduction (redox reaction. The more
negative the reduction potential of a compound, the better
electron donor it is.
(See "-7
staphylococcal food
poisoning (staf(i-lo-
A type of food poisoning caused by ingestion of
improperly stored or coo,ed food in &hich
5taphylococcus aureus has gro&n. The bacteria produce
exotoxins that accumulate in the food.
(See 9(*
staphylococcal scalded
s'in syndrome (%%%%)
A disease caused by staphylococci that produce an
exfoliative toxin. The s,in becomes red (erythema and
sheets of epidermis may separate from the underlying
(See 9**
starter culture An inoculum, consisting of a mixture of carefully selected
microorganisms, used to start a commercial fermentation.
(See 97'
stationary phase
(sta_shun-er(e) .he
of microbial gro&th in a batch culture &hen population
gro&th ceases and the gro&th curve levels off.
(See "".
statistics (stah-tis_ti's) The mathematics of the collection, organi$ation, and
interpretation of numerical data.
(See '.9
+hi$obia (members of the genera +hi$obium,
Bradyrhi$obium, and A$orhi$obium that produce
nitrogen2fixing structures above the soil surface on plant
stems. These most often are observed in tropical plants
and produced by A$orhi$obium.
(See #'*
sterilization (ster()!-l)!-
The process by &hich all living cells, viable spores,
viruses, and viroids are either destroyed or removed from
an ob:ect or habitat.
(See "(7
stigma (stig_mah) A light2sensitive eyespot, &hich is found in some algae
and photosynthetic proto$oa% it is believed to be involved
in phototaxis, at least in some cases.
(See -7-
stone1orts A group of approximately *-0 species of algae that have a
complex gro&th pattern, &ith nodal regions from &hich
&horls of branches arise% they are abundant in fresh to
brac,ish &aters.
(See -7#
strain A population of organisms that descends from a single
organism or pure culture isolate.
(See .*-
strea' plate A petri dish of solid culture medium &ith isolated
microbial colonies gro&ing on its surface, &hich has been
prepared by spreading a microbial mixture over the agar
surface, using an inoculating loop.
(See "07
An endogenous infection of the lungs caused by
5treptococcus pneumoniae that occurs in predisposed
(See 90-
streptococcal sore throat
>ne of the most common bacterial infections of humans.
It is commonly referred to as 1strep throat.1 The disease is
spread by droplets of saliva or nasal secretions and is
caused by 5treptococcus spp. (particularly group A
(See 90-
streptolysin-7 (%87)
A specific hemolysin produced by 5treptococcus
pyogenes that is inactivated by oxygen (hence the 1>1 in
its name. 5=> causes beta2hemolysis of blood cells on
agar plates incubated anaerobically.
(See 797
streptolysin-% (%8%) A product produced by 5treptococcus pyogenes that is
bound to the bacterial cell but may sometimes be released.
5=5 causes beta hemolysis on aerobically incubated
blood2agar plates and can act as a leu,ocidin by ,illing
leu,ocytes that phagocytose the bacterial cell to &hich it
is bound.
(See 797
streptomycin (strep_to-
A bactericidal aminoglycoside antibiotic produced by
5treptomyces griseus.
(See '"#
strict anaero&es 5ee obligate anaerobes.
(See "*7
stroma (stro_mah) The chloroplast matrix that is the location of the
photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation reactions.
(See '-
stromatolite (stro(mah-
)ome2li,e microbial mat communities consisting of
filamentous photosynthetic bacteria and occluded
sediments (often calcareous or siliceous. They usually
have a laminar structure. ;any are fossili$ed, but some
modern forms occur.
(See .*(
structural gene A gene that codes for the synthesis of a polypeptide or
polynucleotide &ith a nonregulatory function.
(See *77
su&acute sclerosing
)iffuse inflammation of the brain resulting from virus and
prion infections.
(See '7.
su&gingi*al pla"ue (su&-
The pla6ue that forms at the dentogingival margin and
extends do&n into the gingival tissue.
(See 9(#
The synthesis of AT! from A)! by phosphorylation
coupled &ith the exergonic brea,do&n of a high2energy
organic substrate molecule.
(See "77
su&surface &iosphere The region belo& the plant root $one &here microbial
populations can gro& and function.
(See #9"
sulfate reduction
The process of sulfate use as an oxidi$ing agent, &hich
results in the accumulation of reduced forms of sulfur
such as sulfide, or incorporation of sulfur into organic
molecules, usually as sulfhydryl groups.
(See #".
sulfonamide (sul-fon_ah-
A chemotherapeutic agent that has the 5>*28/* group
and is a derivative of sulfanilamide.
(See '"*
superantigen 5uperantigens are bacterial proteins that stimulate the
immune system much more extensively than do normal
antigens. They stimulate T cells to proliferate
nonspecifically through simultaneous interaction &ith
class II ;/4 proteins on antigen2presenting cells and
variable regions on the b chain of the T2cell receptor
complex. ?xamples include streptococcal scarlet fever
toxins, staphylococcal toxic shoc, syndrome toxin2", and
streptococcal ; protein.
(See 7(*
superinfection (soo(per-
A ne& bacterial or fungal infection of a patient that is
resistant to the drug(s being used for treatment.
(See '"9
superoxide dismutase
(%7$, soo(per-o'_s!d
An en$yme that protects many microorganisms by
cataly$ing the destruction of the toxic superoxide radical.
(See "*'
suppressor mutation A mutation that overcomes the effect of another mutation
and produces the normal phenotype.
(See *.'
%*ed&erg unit
The unit used in expressing the sedimentation coefficient%
the greater a particle9s 5vedberg value, the faster it travels
in a centrifuge.
(See -*
s1a& (s1ah&) A &ad of absorbent material usually &ound around one
end of a small stic, and used for applying medication or
for removing material from an area% also, a dacron2tipped
polystyrene applicator.
(See '*7
s1arm cell A flagellated cell% the term is usually applied to the motile
cells of the ;yxomycota.
(See -#-
sym&iosis (sim_&i-o_sis) The living together or close association of t&o dissimilar
organisms, each of these organisms being ,no&n as a
(See -9#
sym&iosome The final nitrogen2fixing form of +hi$obium that is active
&ithin root nodule cells.
(See #7#
symptom (simp_t/m) A change during a disease that a person sub:ectively
experiences (e.g., pain, bodily discomfort, fatigue, or loss
of appetite. 5ometimes the term symptom is used more
broadly to include any observed signs.
(See '-0
syndrome 5ee disease syndrome.
(See '-0
synthetic medium 5ee defined medium.
(See "0-
syntrophism (sin_trof-
The association in &hich the gro&th of one organism
either depends on, or is improved by, the provision of one
or more gro&th factors or nutrients by a neighboring
organism. 5ometimes both organisms benefit. This type of
mutualism is also ,no&n as cross2feeding or the satellite
(See #0.
syphilis (sif_)!-lis) 5ee venereal syphilis.
(See 9*(
systematic epidemiology The field of epidemiology that focuses on the ecological
and social factors that influence the development of
emerging and reemerging infectious diseases.
(See '-9
systematics (sis_te-
The scientific study of organisms &ith the ultimate
ob:ective being to characteri$e and arrange them in an
orderly manner% often considered synonymous &ith
(See .**
systemic lupus
erythematosus (loo_pus
An autoimmune, inflammatory disease that may affect
every tissue of the body.
(See 770
taxon (ta'_son) A group into &hich related organisms are classified.
(See .**
taxonomy (ta'-son_o-
The science of biological classification% it consists of three
partsC classification, nomenclature, and identification.
(See .**
.B s'in test Tuberculin hypersensitivity test for a previous or current
infection &ith ;ycobacterium tuberculosis.
(See 77"
. cell or . lymphocyte A type of lymphocyte derived from bone marro& stem
cells that matures into an immunologically competent cell
under the influence of the thymus. T cells are involved in
a variety of cell2mediated immune reactions.
(See 70-, 7.-
.-cell antigen receptor
The receptor on the T cell surface consisting of t&o
antigen2binding peptide chains% it is associated &ith a
large number of other glycoproteins. Binding of antigen to
the T4+, usually in association &ith ;/4, activates the T
(See 7.-
.-dependent antigen An antigen that effectively stimulates B2cell response only
&ith the aid of T2helper cells that produce interleu,in2*
and B2cell gro&th factor.
(See 7-(
teichoic acids (ti-'o_i') !olymers of glycerol or ribitol :oined by phosphates% they
are found in the cell &alls of gram2positive bacteria.
(See -#
temperate phages Bacteriophages that can infect bacteria and establish a
lysogenic relationship rather than immediately lysing their
(See (0', (90
template strand
A strand of )8A or +8A that specifies the base se6uence
of a ne&ly synthesi$ed complementary strand of )8A or
(See *.*
terminator A se6uence that mar,s the end of a gene and stops
(See *.., *#(
tertiary treatment
The removal from se&age of inorganic nutrients, heavy
metals, viruses, etc., by chemical and biological means
after microorganisms have degraded dissolved organic
material during secondary se&age treatment.
(See ##"
test A loose2fitting shell of an amoeba.
(See -90
tetanolysin (tet_ah-
A hemolysin that aids in tissue destruction and is produced
by 4lostridium tetani.
(See 9*-
tetanospasmin (tet_ah-
The neurotoxic component of the tetanus toxin, &hich
causes the muscle spasms of tetanus. Tetanospasmin
production is under the control of a plasmid gene.
(See 9*.
tetanus (tet_ah-nus) An often fatal disease caused by the anaerobic, spore2
forming bacillus 4lostridium tetani, and characteri$ed by
muscle spasms and convulsions.
(See 9*.
tetracyclines (tet_rah-
A family of antibiotics &ith a common four2ring structure,
&hich are isolated from the genus 5treptomyces or
produced semisynthetically% all are related to
chlortetracycline or oxytetracycline.
(See '"-
tetrapartite associations
A mutualistic association of the same plant &ith three
different types of microorganisms.
(See #'-
.;= cell 5ee regulator T cell.
(See 7-"
.;> cell 5ee regulator T cell.
(See 7-"
.;A cell 5ee regulator T cell.
(See 7-"
thallus (thal_us) A type of body that is devoid of root, stem, or leaf%
characteristic of some algae, many fungi, and lichens.
(See -(7, --., -7(
.-helper (.;) cell A cell that is needed for T2cell2dependent antigens to be
effectively presented to B cells. It also promotes cell2
mediated immune responses.
(See 7-"
theory A set of principles and concepts that have survived
rigorous testing and that provide a systematic account of
some aspect of nature.
(See '
thermal death time
The shortest period of time needed to ,ill all the
organisms in a microbial population at a specified
temperature and under defined conditions.
(See ".0
thymus (thi_m/s) A primary lymphoid organ in the chest that is necessary in
early life for the development of immunological functions.
T2cell maturation ta,es place here.
(See 70'
thermoacidophiles A group of bacteria that gro& best at acid p/s and high
temperatures% they are members of the Archaea.
(See .-7
thermophile (ther_mo-
A microorganism that can gro& at temperatures of --G4 or
higher% the minimum is usually around .-G4.
(See "*#
thrush (thrush) Infection of the oral mucous membrane by the fungus
4andida albicans% also ,no&n as oral candidiasis.
(See 9.9
thyla'oid (thi_lah-'oid) A flattened sac in the chloroplast stroma that contains
photosynthetic pigments and the photosynthetic electron
transport chain% light energy is trapped and used to form
AT! and 8A)(!/ in the thyla,oid membrane.
(See '-
thymine (thi_min) The pyrimidine -2methyluracil that is found in
nucleosides, nucleotides, and )8A.
(See *"7
.-independent antigen An antigen that triggers a B cell into immunoglobulin
production &ithout T2cell cooperation.
(See 7-.
.i or 0i plasmid A plasmid obtained from Agrobacterium tumefaciens that
is used to insert genes into plant cells.
(See ((9, #'.
tinea (tin_e-ah) A name applied to many different ,inds of superficial
fungal infections of the s,in, nails, and hair, the specific
type (depending on characteristic appearance, etiologic
agent, and site usually designated by a modifying term.
(See 9.(
tinea capitis A fungal infection of scalp hair caused by species of
Trichophyton or ;icrosporum.
(See 9.(
tinea corporis A fungal infection of the smooth parts of the s,in caused
by either Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, or
;icrosporum canis.
(See 9.(
tinea cruris A fungal infection of the groin caused by either
?pidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton
mentagrophytes, or T. rubrum% also ,no&n as :oc, itch.
(See 9..
tinea manuum A fungal infection of the hand caused by Trichophyton
rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, or ?. floccosum.
(See 9..
tinea pedis A fungal infection of the foot caused by Trichophyton
rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, or ?. floccosum% also ,no&n
as athlete9s foot.
(See 9..
tinea unguium A fungal infection of the nail bed caused by either
Trichophyton rubrum or T. mentagrophytes.
(See 9..
tinea *ersicolor A fungal infection caused by the yeast, ;alasse$ia furfur,
that forms bro&nish2red scales on the s,in of the trun,,
nec,, face, and arms.
(See 9.(
titer (ti_ter) +eciprocal of the highest dilution of an antiserum that
gives a positive reaction in the test being used.
(See 7.*
. lymphocyte 5ee T cell.
(See 70-
tonsillitis (ton_si-li_tis) Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the palatine tonsils
often due to 5. pyogenes infection.
(See 90-
toxemia (to'-se_me-ah) The condition caused by toxins in the blood of the host.
(See 79.
toxic shoc'-li'e syndrome
A disease caused by an invasive group A streptococcus
infection that is characteri$ed by a rapid drop in blood
pressure, failure of many organs, and a very high fever. It
probably results from the release of one or more
streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins.
(See 90.
toxic shoc' syndrome
A staphylococcal disease that most commonly affects
females &ho use certain types of tampons during
menstruation. It is associated &ith the production of toxic
shoc, syndrome toxin by certain strains of 5taphylococcus
(See 9**
toxigenicity (to'_s)!-+)e-
The capacity of an organism to produce a toxin.
(See 790
toxin (to'_sin) A microbial product or component that can in:ure another
cell or organism at lo& concentrations. >ften the term
refers to a poisonous protein, but toxins may be lipids and
other substances.
(See 79.
toxin neutralization The inactivation of toxins by specific antibodies, called
antitoxins, that react &ith them.
(See 7-#
toxoid (to'_soid) A bacterial exotoxin that has been modified so that it is no
longer toxic but &ill still stimulate antitoxin formation
&hen in:ected into a person or animal.
(See 7#7, 79#
toxoplasmosis (to'_so-
A disease of animals and humans caused by the parasitic
proto$oan, Toxoplasma gondii.
(See 9-7
trachoma (trah-
A chronic infectious disease of the con:unctiva and
cornea, producing pain, inflammation and sometimes
blindness. It is caused by 4hlamydia trachomatis
serotypes A24.
(See 9*-
The removal of amino acid9s amino group by transferring
it to an a2,eto acid acceptor.
(See "9*
transcriptase (trans-
An en$yme that cataly$es transcription% in viruses &ith
+8A genomes, this en$yme is an +8A2dependent +8A
polymerase that is used to ma,e +8A copies of the +8A
(See .0#
transcription (trans-
The process in &hich single2stranded +8A &ith a base
se6uence complementary to the template strand of )8A
or +8A is synthesi$ed.
(See *(0
transduction (trans-
The transfer of genes bet&een bacteria by bacteriophages.
(See (0'
transfer host (trans_fer) A host that is not necessary for the completion of a
parasite9s life cycle, but is used as a vehicle for reaching a
final host.
(See 7'9
transfer 05A (t05A) A small +8A that binds an amino acid and delivers it to
the ribosome for incorporation into a polypeptide chain
during protein synthesis.
(See *#"
A mode of gene transfer in bacteria in &hich a piece of
free )8A is ta,en up by a bacterial cell and integrated
into the recipient genome.
(See **', (0-
transgenic animal or
An animal or plant that has gained ne& genetic
information from the insertion of foreign )8A. It may be
produced by such techni6ues as in:ecting )8A into
animal eggs, electroporation of mammalian cells and plant
cell protoplasts, or shooting )8A into plant cells &ith a
gene gun.
(See ((-
transient carrier 5ee casual carrier.
(See '-.
transition mutations
;utations that involve the substitution of a different
purine base for the purine present at the site of the
mutation or the substitution of a different pyrimidine for
the normal pyrimidine.
(See *.#
translation (trans-
!rotein synthesis% the process by &hich the genetic
message carried by m+8A directs the synthesis of
polypeptides &ith the aid of ribosomes and other cell
(See *(0
transmission electron
microscope (trans-
A microscope in &hich an image is formed by passing an
electron beam through a specimen and focusing the
scattered electrons &ith magnetic lenses.
(See (0
transo*arian passage
The passage of a microorganism such as a ric,ettsia from
generation to generation of hosts through tic, eggs. (8o
humans or other mammals are needed as reservoirs for
continued propagation of the ric,ettsias.
(See 9"(
transpeptidation ". The reaction that forms the peptide cross2lin,s during
peptidoglycan synthesis. *. The reaction that forms a
peptide bond during the elongation cycle of protein
(See **(, *70
transposa&le elements 5ee transposon.
(See *9'
transposition (trans(po-
The movement of a piece of )8A around the
(See *9'
transposon (tranz-
po_zon) A $5A segment
that carries the genes re6uired for transposition and moves
about the chromosome% if it contains genes other than
those re6uired for transposition, it may be called a
composite transposon. >ften the name is reserved only for
transposable elements that also contain genes unrelated to
(See *9'
trans*ersion mutations
;utations that result from the substitution of a purine base
for the normal pyrimidine or a pyrimidine for the normal
(See *.#
tra*eler2s diarrhea A type of diarrhea resulting from ingestion of certain
viruses, bacteria, or proto$oa normally absent from the
traveler9s environment. >ne of the ma:or pathogens is
enterotoxigenic ?scherichia coli.
(See 9(*
tricar&oxylic acid cycle
The cycle that oxidi$es acetyl coen$yme A to 4>* and
generates 8A)/ and <A)/* for oxidation in the electron
transport chain% the cycle also supplies carbon s,eletons
for biosynthesis.
(See "'(, A2"#
trichome (tri_'om) A ro& or filament of bacterial cells that are in close
contact &ith one another over a large area.
(See .7*
trichomoniasis (tri'(o-
A sexually transmitted disease caused by the parasitic
proto$oan Trichomonas vaginalis.
(See 9-'
tric'ling filter A bed of roc,s covered &ith a microbial film that
aerobically degrades organic &aste during secondary
se&age treatment.
(See #-9
/alogenated one2carbon compounds formed during &ater
disinfection% many of these compounds are potential
(See #-(
tripartite associations
A mutualistic association of the same plant &ith t&o types
of microorganisms.
(See #'-
trophozoite (trof( o-
The active, motile feeding stage of a proto$oan organism%
in the malarial parasite, the stage of schi$ogony bet&een
the ring stage and the schi$ont.
(See -'#
tropism (tro_piz-/m) The movement of living organisms to&ard or a&ay from a
focus of heat, light, or other stimulus.
(See 79"
trypanosome (tri-pan_o-
A proto$oan of the genus Trypanosoma. Trypanosomes
are parasitic flagellate proto$oa that often live in the blood
of humans and other vertebrates and are transmitted by
insect bites.
(See -'9, 9-7
trypanosomiasis (tri-
An infection &ith trypanosomes that live in the blood and
lymph of the infected host.
(See 9-7
tu&ercle (too_&er-'_l) A small, rounded nodular lesion produced by
;ycobacterium tuberculosis.
(See 90'
tu&erculoid (neural)
leprosy (too-&er_'u-
A mild, nonprogressive form of leprosy that is associated
&ith delayed2type hypersensitivity to antigens on the
surface of ;ycobacterium leprae. It is characteri$ed by
early nerve damage and regions of the s,in that have lost
sensation and are surrounded by a border of nodules.
(See 9"#
tu&erculosis (too-&er('u-
An infectious disease of humans and other animals
resulting from an infection by a species of ;ycobacterium
and characteri$ed by the formation of tubercles and tissue
necrosis, primarily as a result of host hypersensitivity and
inflammation. Infection is usually by inhalation, and the
disease commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary
tuberculosis, although it may occur in any part of the
(See 90#
tu&erculous ca*ity (too-
An air2filled cavity that results from a tubercle lesion
caused by ;. tuberculosis.
(See 90'
tularemia (too(lah-re_me-
A plagueli,e disease of animals caused by the bacterium
<rancisella tularensis subsp. tularensis (Fellison type A,
&hich may be transmitted to humans.
(See 9*#
tum&le +andom turning or tumbling movements made by bacteria
&hen they stop moving in a straight line.
(See #7
tumor (too_mor) A gro&th of tissue resulting from abnormal ne& cell
gro&th and reproduction (neoplasia.
(See .""
tur&idostat A continuous culture system e6uipped &ith a photocell
that ad:usts the flo& of medium through the culture vessel
so as to maintain a constant cell density or turbidity.
(See "*"
t1iddle 5ee tumble.
(See #7
phosphorelay system
A signal transduction regulatory system that uses the
transfer of phosphoryl groups to control gene transcription
and protein activity. It has t&o ma:or componentsC a
sensor ,inase and a response regulator.
(See *'(
type # hypersensiti*ity A form of immediate hypersensitivity arising from the
binding of antigen to Ig? attached to mast cells, &hich
then release anaphylaxis mediators such as histamine.
?xamplesC hay fever, asthma, and food allergies.
(See 7#'
type ## hypersensiti*ity A form of immediate hypersensitivity involving the
binding of antibodies to antigens on cell surfaces follo&ed
by destruction of the target cells (e.g., through
complement attac,, phagocytosis, or agglutination.
(See 7#9
type ### hypersensiti*ity A form of immediate hypersensitivity resulting from the
exposure to excessive amounts of antigens in &hich
antibodies bind to the antigens and produce antibody2
antigen complexes. These activate complement and trigger
an acute inflammatory response &ith subse6uent tissue
damage. ?xamplesC poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis,
serum sic,ness, and farmer9s lung disease.
(See 770
type #@ hypersensiti*ity A delayed hypersensitivity response (it appears *. to .'
hours after antigen exposure. It results from the binding
of antigen to activated T lymphocytes, &hich then release
cyto,ines and trigger inflammation and macrophage
attac,s that damage tissue. Type I7 hypersensitivity is
seen in contact dermititis from poison ivy, leprosy, and
tertiary syphilis.
(See 77"
type ### secretion system 5ee pathogenicity island.
(See 79.
typhoid fe*er (ti-foid) A bacterial infection transmitted by contaminated food,
&ater, mil,, or shellfish. The causative organism is
5almonella typhi, &hich is present in human feces.
(See 9((
ultramicro&acteria Bacteria that can exist normally in a miniaturi$ed form or
&hich are capable of miniaturi$ation under lo&2nutrient
conditions. They may be 0.* mm or smaller in diameter.
(See #.0
ultra*iolet (:@) radiation+adiation of fairly short &avelength, about "0 to .00 nm,
(ul(trah-*i_o-let) and high energy.
(See "(0, "..
uracil (u_rah-sil) The pyrimidine *,.2dioxypyrimidine, &hich is found in
nucleosides, nucleotides, and +8A.
(See *"7
*accine (*a'_sen) A preparation of either ,illed microorganisms% living,
&ea,ened (attenuated microorganisms% or inactivated
bacterial toxins (toxoids. It is administered to induce
development of the immune response and protect the
individual against a pathogen or a toxin.
(See 7#.
*accinomics The application of genomics and bioinformatics to vaccine
(See 7##
*alence (*a_lens) The number of antigenic determinant sites on the surface
of an antigen or the number of antigen2binding sites
possessed by an antibody molecule.
(See 7("
*aria&le region (@8 and
The region at the 82terminal end of immunoglobulin
heavy and light chains &hose amino acid se6uence varies
bet&een antibodies of different specificity. 7ariable
regions form the antigen binding site.
(See 7(.
*asculitis (*as('u-li_tis) Inflammation of a blood vessel.
(See 909
*ector (*e'_tor) ". In genetic engineering, another name for a cloning
vector. A )8A molecule that can replicate (a replicon and
is used to transport a piece of inserted foreign )8A, such
as a gene, into a recipient cell. It may be a plasmid, phage,
cosmid or artificial chromosome. *. In epidemiology, it is
a living organism, usually an arthropod or other animal,
that transfers an infective agent from one host to another.
(See (**, 79", '-.
The transmission of an infectious pathogen bet&een hosts
by means of a vector.
(See '-7
*ehicle (*e_)!-'_l) An inanimate substance or medium involved in the
transmission of a pathogen.
(See '-7
*enereal syphilis (*e-
ne_re-al sif_)!-lis)
A contagious, sexually transmitted disease caused by the
spirochete Treponema pallidum.
(See 9*(
*enereal 1arts 5ee anogenital condylomata.
(See '9.
*errucae *ulgaris (*_)e-
roo_se *ul-ga_ris, s3
*erruca *ulgaris)
The common &art% a raised, epidermal lesion &ith horny
surface caused by an infection &ith a human
(See '9.
*i&rio (*i&_re-o) A rod2shaped bacterial cell that is curved to form a comma
or an incomplete spiral.
(See .(
*iral hemagglutination
(*i_ral hem(ah-gloo(t)!-
The clumping or agglutination of red blood cells caused
by some viruses.
(See 77#
*iral neutralization An antibody2mediated process in &hich IgA, Ig;, and
IgA antibodies bind to some viruses during their
extracellular phase and inactivate or neutrali$e them.
(See 7-#
*iremia (*i-re_me-/) The presence of viruses in the blood stream.
(See 79"
*iricide (*ir_i-s!d) An agent that inactivates viruses so that they cannot
reproduce &ithin host cells.
(See "('
*irion (*i_re-on) A complete virus particle that represents the extracellular
phase of the virus life cycle% at the simplest, it consists of
a protein capsid surrounding a single nucleic acid
(See (#(
*irioplan'ton 7iruses that occur in &aters% high levels are found in
marine and fresh&ater environments.
(See #.(
*iroid (*i_roid) An infectious agent of plants that is a single2stranded
+8A not associated &ith any protein% the +8A does not
code for any proteins and is not translated.
(See ."#
*irology (*i-rol_o-+e) The branch of microbiology that is concerned &ith viruses
and viral diseases.
(See (#*
*irulence (*ir_u-lens) The degree or intensity of pathogenicity of an organism as
indicated by case fatality rates andDor ability to invade
host tissues and cause disease.
(See 790
*irulence factor A bacterial product, usually a protein or carbohydrate, that
contributes to virulence or pathogenicity.
(See 79*
*irulent &acteriophages
(*ir_u-lent &a'-te_re-o-
Bacteriophages that lyse their host cells during the
reproductive cycle.
(See (90
*irus (*i_rus) An infectious agent having a simple acellular organi$ation
&ith a protein coat and a single type of nucleic acid,
lac,ing independent metabolism, and reproducing only
&ithin living host cells.
(See (#(
*itamin (*i_tah-min) An organic compound re6uired by organisms in minute
6uantities for gro&th and reproduction because it cannot
be synthesi$ed by the organism% vitamins often serve as
en$yme cofactors or parts of cofactors.
(See 99
*olutin granules (*o-
5ee metachromatic granules.
(See -*
1art (1ort) An epidermal
tumor of *iral
(See '9.
1aste1ater treatment The use of physical and biological processes to remove
particulate and dissolved material from se&age and to
control pathogens.
(See #-'
1ater acti*ity (a1) A 6uantitative measure of &ater availability in the habitat%
the &ater activity of a solution is one2hundredth its
relative humidity.
(See "**
1ater mold A common term for a member of the division >omycota.
(See -#.
Geil-Felix reaction A test for the diagnosis of typhus and certain other
ric,ettsial diseases. In this test, the blood serum of a
patient &ith suspected ric,ettsial disease is tested against
certain strains of !roteus vulgaris (>L2*, >L2"9, >L2B.
The agglutination reactions, based on antigens common to
both organisms, determine the presence and type of
ric,ettsial infection.
(See 9"0
1hite piedra A fungal infection caused by the yeast Trichosporon
beigelii that forms light2colored nodules on the beard and
(See 9.(
1hole-genome shotgun
An approach to genome se6uencing in &hich the complete
genome is bro,en into random fragments, &hich are then
individually se6uenced. <inally the fragments are placed
in the proper order using sophisticated computer
(See (.#
1hole-organism *accine A vaccine made from complete pathogens, &hich can be
of four typesC inactivated viruses% attenuated viruses%
,illed microorganisms% and live, attenuated
(See 7##
Gidal test (*e-dahl_) A test involving agglutination of typhoid bacilli &hen they
are mixed &ith serum containing typhoid antibodies from
an individual having typhoid fever% used to detect the
presence of 5almonella typhi and 5. paratyphi.
(See 77-
Ginograds'y column A glass column &ith an anaerobic lo&er $one and an
aerobic upper $one, &hich allo&s gro&th of
microorganisms under conditions similar to those found in
a nutrient2rich la,e.
(See #(7
1oolsorter2s disease 5ee anthrax.
(See 9"(
1ort The filtrate of malted grains used as the substrate for the
production of beer and ale by fermentation.
(See 9'*
xenograft (zen_o-graft) A tissue graft bet&een animals of different species.
(See 77(
microorganisms (ze(ro-
;icroorganisms that gro& best under lo& a& conditions,
and may not be able to gro& at high a& values.
(See 9#-
yeast (yest) A unicellular fungus that has a single nucleus and
reproduces either asexually by budding or fission, or
sexually through spore formation.
(See --.
yeast artificial
chromosome (HAC)
A stretch of )8A that contains all the elements re6uired to
propagate a chromosome in yeast and &hich is used to
clone foreign )8A fragments in yeast cells.
(See ((-
yello1 fe*er An acute infectious disease caused by a flavivirus, &hich
is transmitted to humans by mos6uitoes. The liver is
affected and the s,in turns yello& in this disease.
(See '7'
H6 shift The change in shape by dimorphic fungi &hen they shift
from the yeast (H form in the animal body to the mold or
mycelial form (; in the environment.
(See --#
zooflagellates (zo(o-
<lagellate proto$oa that do not have chlorophyll and are
either holo$oic, sapro$oic, or symbiotic.
(See -''
zoonosis (zo(o-no_sis, pl3
A disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans.
(See '.9
zooplan'ton (zo(o-
A community of floating, a6uatic, minute animals and
nonphotosynthetic protists.
(See -7"
zoospore (zo_o-spor) A motile, flagellated spore.
(See -7(
zooxanthella (zo(o-zan-
A dinoflagellate found living symbiotically &ithin
cnidarians and other invertebrates.
(See -79, -99
zoster 5ee shingles.
(See '7*
z *alue The increase in temperature re6uired to reduce the
decimal reduction time to one2tenth of its initial value.
(See ".0
zygomycetes (zi(go-mi-
A division of fungi that usually has a coenocytic
mycelium &ith chitinous cell &alls. 5exual reproduction
normally involves the formation of $ygospores. The group
lac,s motile spores.
(See -#0
zygospore (zi_go-spor) A thic,2&alled, sexual, resting spore characteristic of the
$ygomycetous fungi.
(See --'
zygote (zi_got) The diploid (*n cell resulting from the fusion of male and
female gametes.
(See -7.