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-í∫’®Ω’¢√®Ωç 9 - ÅéÓd-•®Ω’ 2008 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

K.SambasivaRao, Anantapuram
¶μº®Ωhçõ‰ Ç¢Á’ ¶μºßª’-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC. Åûª-úÕE áü¿’-®Ì\ØË ÉçTx≠ˇ™ ᙫ °æ©-
Q. Co-relative conjunctions Åçõ‰ üμÁj®Ωuç Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ™‰ü¿’. é¬L?
b) Frightened= Åéπ-≤ƒt-ûª’hí¬ ¶μºßª÷-EéÃ, Cví∫s¥-´’èπ◊ í∫’J- A. I don't utter a word
àN’öÀ? ¢√öÀE ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ
against others, nor
N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. é¬-´-úøç.
A. ïûª-©’í¬ ´îËa conjunctions, do I take a word.
She was frightened at the right of the robber
correlative conjunctions ÅN: with a gun= ûª’§ƒ-éÀûÓ Ö†o Ç -üÌçí∫-†’ îª÷úø-í¬ØË Q. '°œôd éÌçîÁç, èπÿûª
a) Both... and b) Either ... or c) Just as... so Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ¶μºßª’ç °æ¤öÀdçC. (Åéπ-≤ƒt-ûª’hí¬, Cví∫s¥-´’ûÓ) °∂æ’†ç— Å®√n-EoîËa
d) Neither ... nor e) Not only... but also c) Terrify = ¶μºßª’çûÓ ´ù’èπÿ, Bv´-¢Á’i† ¶«üμ¿ ÉçTx≠ˇ ñ«Bߪ’ç
f) Whether...or àüÁjØ√ Öçõ‰ îÁ°æpçúÕ? KSR, Marture.
éπ-L-Tç-îª-úøç.
ÉN Éûª®Ω conjunctions words
™«í¬ØË †’, The memory of the maoist gunning down the vil- A. Appearances are deceptive- Q. îªü¿’´¤ ÆæçüμΔu ®√E ¢√úÕéÀ ãô’-£æ«èπ◊\ ü˨»-EéÀ °†’-
phrases (groups of words without verbs) †’ lagers terrifies her even today = ´÷¢Ó-®·Ææ’d Ç (Ç鬮Ωç -´-©x Ææy¶μ«´ç ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿’) ´·°æ¤p.
clauses (groups of words with verbs) †’ éπ©’-°æ¤- ví¬´’-Ææ’n-©†’ é¬La îªç°œ† -ñ«c°æ-鬩’ ¶μºßª’çûÓ Ç¢Á’™ Q. ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  á©’xç-úÕE 'Day after day' Åçö«®√? îªü¿’´¤ ÆæçüμΔu ®√E¢√úÕéÀ -©-Gμç-îË °æü¿N ü˨»-EéÀ
û√®·. ´ù’èπÿ, ¶«üμ¿ °æ¤öÀd-Ææ’h-Ø√o®·. ™‰üΔ Tomorrow next day Åçö«®√? àC éπÈ®èπ◊d? éÌJN. Ñ ´÷ôLo ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL?
a) Both Rama and Krishna are the avatars of A. The day after tomorrow Åçö«ç. Day after day A. Voting right for the illiterate is a disaster to
Vishnu. A. Sudhakar, Biknur. the country.
= ®ÓV© ûª®Ω-•úÕ tomorrow next day ûª°æ¤p-.
(®√--´·-úø’, éπ%-≠æflg-úø’ Éü¿l®Ω÷ èπÿú≈ -N-≠æflg-´¤ - Q. Structural word, content word Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? An office for the illiterate is the nation's ruin.
Å-´-û√®Ω-¢Ë’) A. Content Words- Ææç¶μ«-≠æ-ù™ ®Ωîª-†™ ¶μ«¢√Eo Anil, ponnur. Q. Being lost his wife.
b) Either coming here or calling him makes no -Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives and
ûÁLÊ° ´÷ô©’ Ñ ´‚úø’ ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ îÁ°æp-í∫-©®Ω’. Having lost his wife.
difference = phone
Ééπ\-úÕéÀ ®√´--úøçé¬F, ¢√úÕéÀ adverbs. Q.
†’´¤y Ø√ •®˝húË §ƒKdéÀ -Ç£æ…y-Eç-îª-•-ú≈f´¤. Ñ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ Å®Ωnç äéπ-õ‰Ø√?
îËߪ’-úøç-é¬F È®çúø÷ äéπõ‰. ÉN ™‰éπ-§ÚûË sentences ¶μ«´ç -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ü¿’ éπüΔ? A. You have been invited to... A. Being lost his wife - ûª°æ¤p.
(ÅC-é¬F, ÉC-é¬F, Åûª-úø’-é¬F, Éûªúø’ é¬F) Structural Words: ¢√éπu E®√t-ù«-EéÀ (sentence Q. †’´¤y Ø√ •®˝húË §ƒKdéÀ Ç£æ…y-Eç-îª-•-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤. Having lost his wife. correct -
c) Just as you talk back when you are offended, structure èπ◊) Å´-Ææ-®Ω-´’ßË’u ´÷ô©’ - A. You are being invited to... ¶μ«®Ωu §Ú´--úøçûÓ/ §Ú´--úøç-´-©x
so will your son when he is offended = Articles (a/an and the), Prepositions (on, in, Q. Q.
Fèπ◊ †’´¤y Ø√ •®˝húË §ƒKdéÀ Ç£æ…y-Eç-îª-•-úø-û√´¤ Ñ úø•’s ´÷ Ø√-†o-èπ◊ -É-îËa≤ƒh.
éÓ°æç ´ÊÆh †’´¤y áü¿’®Ω’ îÁ°œp-†ô’x, F éÌúø’èπ◊ èπÿú≈ into, at, etc), conjunctions A. You will be invited to... A. I'll give the money to my father.
(and, but, etc,) determines
Q.Could I leave the school a lit-
¢√úÕéÀ éÓ°æç ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ -Fèπ◊ -á-ü¿’®Ω’ îÁ•’-û√úø’.
Q
(any, each, some, etc.)
d) Neither he nor his brother is honest =
°∂‘V éπöÀd ´≤ƒh?
Å- -ûª-úø÷ Eñ«--ߪ’-B-°æ-®Ω’úø’ é¬-úø’, Å-ûª-úÕ ûª´·túø÷ é¬úø’. Q. NüΔuJn prose/ poetry üΔy®√ -Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 506 tle early? A. I'll pay the fees and come
DEéÀ ûÁ©’í∫’ Å®Ωnç îÁ°æpçúÕ? Q. ´÷ Ø√†o†’ °œL-îÌ≤ƒh.
(È®çúÕç-öx àD ™‰ü¿’, Éü¿l-
A. I'll call my father and

Her eyes ar e as blue as flowers


J™ á´®Ω÷ ™‰®Ω’)
come
e) Not only but also = ÅüË-
é¬éπ, ÉC èπÿú≈. Not only Q. à ®ÓV îÁ°œp† §ƒ®∏Ωç
does he waste his Ç ®Óñ‰ îªü¿-´-´’E îÁ°æ¤h-
Ø√o†’. é¬F O’®Ω’ îªü¿-´úøç
time, but also troubles others = ¢√úÕ Æ洒ߪ’ç ví∫£œ«ç-îª-´-©-Æ œ† ´·êu-N-≠æ-ߪ÷©’ A. é¬Ææh ûªy®Ωí¬ (´÷´‚-©’-éπØ√o) ؈’ -¢Á-
™‰ü ¿’ . N’´’tLo àç îËß ª ÷™ îÁ°æpçúÕ?– DEo ÉçTx-≠ˇ™
´%ü∑Δ îËÆæ’-éÓ-´-úø¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈, Éûª-®Ω’-©†÷ É•sç-C-°-úø- àN’öÀ? ∞Ôxî√a school †’ç*? (´’®√u-ü¿í¬ per- ᙫ °æ© -鬙 îÁ°æpçúÕ ?
A. I tell you to learn a lesson the day it is taught,
mission Åúø-í∫-úøç)
û√úø’. Ö§ƒ-üμΔu-ߪ·úø’ §ƒ®∏Ωç ´·Tç-*† ûª®Ω’-
f) Whether... or = Å´¤Ø√ é¬üΔ. ¢√ûª NüΔu-®Ω’l¥-©ûÓ v§ƒéÃdÆˇ îË®·ç-î√-Lq† but you don't do it. What shall I do with you?
Q. At all, after all, by now í∫’Jç* N´-
I don't know whether he will come or not/ I °æü¿l¥-ûª’-©†’ ûÁ©-°æç-úÕ. Q. ؈’ -´-*a-†ç-ü¿’èπ◊ -Å-ûª-úø’ éÓ°æp-ú≈fúø’.
A. Prose üΔy®√ Vocabulary (meaning
Jç* äéπ ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ωù É´yçúÕ.
don't know whether or not he will come here. A. He was angry because I had come.
A. At all = ÅÆæ©’. He didn't like the
whether 'if' and use of words), sentence con- Q. Ç鬨¡ç ÉçûªvéÀûªç ´®Ωèπ◊ ûÁ©xí¬ ÖçC. äéπ\-≤ƒ-Jí¬
É™«çöÀ îÓôx •ü¿’©’ ¢√úø-´îª’a. M.SURESAN movie at all =
struction, expressing an idea in dif-
Åûª-úÕé¬ ÆœE´÷ ÅÆæ © ’
no/ not ûÓ ¢√-úø-û√ç) áv®Ω-•-úÕçC. é¬éÀ-™„-éπ\©’, Æœç£æ…-´-™-éπ†ç .. OöÀE
ferent ways, and writing skill (®ΩîªØ√ ØÁj°æ¤ùuç).
†îª a-™‰ü¿’. (áèπ ◊\-´í¬
After all = Éçûª-îËÆ ‘ After all the trouble I have
ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ îÁ§ƒh®Ω’?
Y.V. Srilakshmi, Bommanampadu. Poetry ´©x Ü£æ…-¨¡éÀh, ÅC ´uéπh-°æ-JîË Nüμ¿ç, A. Till a short while ago the sky has been white,
taken, I have got only one hundred rupees =
Q. Polite forms ™ suggestion èπ◊ Advise èπ◊ Ö†o Vocabulary ´®Ωg-Ø√-¨¡éÀh ™«çöÀN °ç§Òç-Cç--éÓ- and it has turned red suddenly.
ØËEçûª éπ≠d-°æ æú≈f Ø√éÌ-*açC ´çü¿ ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ÷™‰.
ûËú≈-©†’ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. È®çúÕçöÀ Å®Ωnç äéπõ‰ éπüΔ. ´îª’a.
After all, how much money you have is Guess/ Guess work / Unreliable figures,
Usage ™ à¢Á’iØ√ ´÷®Ω’p ÖçüΔ? Å™«Íí, fear, Q. -à-¢Áj-Ø√ éÌEo -´’ç-* Novels Ê°®Ω’x îÁ°æpçúÕ. Revision.
important, not how you got it àüË-¢Á’iØ√ Fü¿-í∫_-
frightened, terrified, afraid ©èπ◊ Ö†o ûËú≈-©†’ A. éÌEo Novels Åçõ‰ à ÖüËl-¨»-EéÀ? á´-JéÀ? NüΔu-®Ω’n-
N´-Jç-îªç-úÕ. ©é¬? ¶üμ¿-èπ◊-©é¬? General reading é¬? ÅØË È®çûª úø•’sç-ü¿-ØËC ´·êuç, †’¢Áy™« Ææ秃-Cç-î√-´-E- S. Narasimga Rao, Karimnagar.
é¬ü¿’.
A. 1) Polite forms Åçõ‰ ´’®√u-ü¿†’ ûÁLÊ° words, Q. í∫ûªç™ Having í∫’Jç* ®√¨»®Ω’. àüÁjØ√ 鬮Ω-ù«-EéÀ
By now = Ñ §ƒöÀéÀ
üΔE-E -•öÀd Öçô’çC.-
model verbs. would, could ûÓ question *†o-°œ-©x-©èπÿ, É°æ¤p-úÕ-°æ¤púË english™ v§ƒOùuç èπÿú≈ Having ´Jh-Ææ’hçC éπüΔ?
By now the programme should have started
forms ™ ´îËa sentences/ expressions Ææ秃-Cç--éÌç-ô’†o ¢√JéÀ, Short stories ûÓ ÖüΔ: having met my friend I went away. äéπ
= Ñ §ƒöÀ-éÀ/Ñ Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ 鬮Ωu-véπ´’ç v§ƒ®Ωç¶μºç
a) Could you explain this again? v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμç-îª-úøç ´’ç*C. OöÀéÀ RK Narayan, ví¬´’- ®˝èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*† °æ¤Ææh-éπç™ °j Nüμ¿çí¬
Tagore, Raja Rao, Ruskin Bond, Mulkraj
Åߪ·uç-ú≈-LqçC (Å´-™‰ü¿’).
b) Would you wait for a minute? îª÷¨»†’. N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. -Ééπ\-úø ÉçTx≠ˇ ¢√é¬u-EéÀ
Q. That's what my family won't see.
É™«ç-öÀN. Oô-Eoç-öÀE èπÿú≈ î√™« N´-®Ωçí¬ §ƒûª Anand, Anitha Das ™«çöÀ ¶μ«®Ω-Bߪ’ ®Ωîª-®·-ûª© ûªT-†-ô’xí¬ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®Ωnç ®√´-úøç-™‰ü¿’.
lessons ™ Éî√aç îª÷úøçúÕ. Ççí∫x ®Ωîª-†-©ûÓ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμç-îªúøç ´’ç*C. English DEéÀ ûÁ©’í∫’ Å®Ωnç îÁ°æpç-úÕ. - ûÁ-©°æç-úÕ.
A. ÅüË ´÷ èπ◊ô’ç•ç îª÷úø-EC/ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-EC.
2) Advise Åçõ‰ Ææ©£æ… É´yúøç. îªçü¿-´÷´’ ¶«í¬ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC. A. Å´¤†’. Having lost his wife, he felt lonely =
Q. She is a good girl. D-EéÀ simple sentence ÆæJ-§Ú- Q. Her eyes are as blue as flowers.
I advise you to buy the book and read it. ¶μ«®Ωu §Ú´--úøç-´©x Åûª-úø’ äçô-J-ûª†ç ņ’-¶μº-N-Ææ’h-
ûª’çC éπüΔ. D-Eo- She is a girl and is good A. Ç¢Á’ -éπ∞¡Ÿx °æ‹©çûª F©çí¬ Öçö«®·. (English Ø√oúø’.
(Ç °æ¤Ææhéπç éÌE îªü¿-´-´’E ؈’ Ææ©£æ… ÉÆæ’h-Ø√o†’.)
(compound), She is a girl who is good (com- ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ blue eyes É≠ædç) Having walked all the distance, I feel tired =
Suggestion - Åçõ‰ Ææ÷. suggest Åçõ‰ Ææ÷*ç-
plex) ™éÀ ´÷®√a-Lq† 鬮Ω-ù«Eo ûÁ©-°æçúÕ. ÅEo Q. Some words in the story that you may not
îªúøç– ÉC advise Åçûª •©çí¬ îÁ°æp-úøç é¬ü¿’. Ç °æE- ¢√é¬u© meaning, context äéπ\õ‰ éπüΔ? know. Ééπ\úø that Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ?
Åçûª-ü¿÷®Ωç †úø-´-úøç-´©x Ø√èπ◊ Å©-Ææ-ôí¬ ÖçC.
îËÊÆh ¶«í∫’ç-ô’ç-üË¢Á÷?– ÉC suggest îËߪ’-úøç. Ç °æE ÉC practice (talking practice) ´©x- ´-Ææ’hçC.
A. Å™« ´÷®√a-Lq† Å´-Ææ®Ωç ™‰ü¿’. ´’†ç áçûª Ææ’©- A. That you may not know = Ééπ\úø that èπ◊
îË®· †’´¤y, Fèπ◊ ´’ç*C– ÉN advising. Å®Ωnç, which ÅE (à ´÷ô-™„jûË Féπ®Ωnç é¬-¢Ó
I advise you to stop smoking.
¶μºçí¬ Å®Ωl¥-´’-ßË’ô’x ´÷ö«x-ú≈L, ®√ߪ÷L ÅØËC ´’†- Ch. Raghukiran, Nagavaram.
Ææ’™ Öç-èπ◊çõ‰ ´’†èπ◊ áô’-´çöÀ sentence ÅE) OöÀE ûÁ©’-í∫’-™éÀ ņ’-´-Cç-îªçúÕ.
(Æœí∫-È®ö¸ ´÷†’éÓ.) ¢√ú≈™ ÅüË ûÁ©’-Ææ’hçC. O’J-*a† example, Q. This exercise can be done as many times
Q. DE°j Ææçûªéπç îËߪ’úøç ´©x ûª´’èπ◊ †≠æd-¢Ë’O’ ™‰ü¿’.
I suggest that you stop smoking. Grammar for the sake of grammar (¢√uéπ-®Ωùç as you like in a day. Ééπ\úø can be done
(†’´¤y Æœí∫-È®ö¸ ´÷†-úøç ´’ç*C.) A. You don't lose anything by signing here/
éÓÆæç ¢√uéπ-®Ωùç) Ŷμºu-Æ œç-îª-ö«-EéÀ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ?
You do it/ you had better do it/ you've nothing to lose if you sign here.
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç. A. Can be done = îËߪ’-•-úø-í∫-©´¤ (´÷´‚©’
why don't you do it? Q. Ééπ\úø ¢√£æ«-Ø√©’ EL-°œûË O’Íé †≠ædç.
A. Lakshmi Narayana, Yellandu.
ûÁ©’í∫’ – îËߪ’-í∫-©´¤)
advise. A. If you park your vehicle here you will have
É´Fo Q. '؈’ èπÿú≈ îª÷úø-™‰ü¿’— ÅØË ¢√é¬uEo
Q. '°æ¤vÈ®éÓ •’Cl¥ >£æ«yéÓ ®Ω’*— ÅØË ¢√é¬u-EéÀ Ææ´÷† trouble.
How about/ what about doing it? If I were I also didn't see it. ÅØ√™«?
you, I would/ wouldn't do it- sugges- Å®√n-EoîËa ÉçTx≠ˇ ñ«Bߪ’ç àüÁjØ√ ÖçüΔ? Q. Çߪ’† °æü¿-´¤© éÓÆæç úø•’s©’ ¢Áü¿-x ´uéÀh.
É´Fo I didn't also see it ÅØ√™«?
tions. A. Tastes differ as rivers differ (äéÓ\- †C äéÓ\ A. Money doesn't matter to him if only he can get
I too didn't see it ÅØ√™«?
3) Fear = -®Ω-éπçí¬ Ö†oô’d, äéÌ\-éπ\J ÅGμ-®Ω’* äéÓ\-®Ω-éπçí¬ an office.
¶μºßª’-°æ-úøôç – I didn't see it too. ÅØ√™«? îÁ°æpçúÕ.
Öçô’çC/ ™éÓ-Gμ†o ®Ω’*”) Q. Ééπ\úø Ææçûªéπç °ô’d.
Q. '؈’ Éûª-®Ω’-©†’ äéπ ´÷ô ņ†’. ´÷ô °æúø†’— A.I didn't see it too/ I didn't see it either.
´·êuçí¬ üμÁj®√uEo éÓ™p-´-úøç
a) She fears her husband = A. Sign here

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm