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US Egypt science and Technology Institute

Dr. Mostafa A. El-Sayed


Julius Brown Chair and Regents Professor
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
"Nanomaterials and Nanocatalysis
for Energy, Petrochemicals
and Environmental Applications"
National Research Centre
Cairo, March 27 April 5
under the auspices of
Prof . Dr. Ashraf Shaalan
President, National Research Centre
Organized by
Prof. Dr. Mohamed S. El-Shall
Prof. of Chemistry
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, Virginia, USA
Prof. Dr. Ali Ali Shabaka
Professor of Spectroscopy,
Physics Division, National Research Centre,
Cairo, Egypt
US Egypt ASI


Egyptian scientific and organizing committee
(Alphabetical order)



Ali Ali Shabaka
ProIessor oI Spectroscopy, Physics Division, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

Ayman Mohamady
Head oI Special Application, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Cairo, Egypt

Hassan Talaat
ProIessor oI Physics, Faculty oI Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Mahmoud Zawra
Head oI Center oI Excellence Ior Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

Mona Bakr
ProIessor in National Institute oI Laser Enhanced Science (NILES) Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Yassir Mostafa
Vice Director oI Central Analytical oI Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Cairo, Egypt

















1

First Day
Sunday, March 28, 2010

National Research Centre, Cairo

9:00 - 10:00 Registration

10:00 - 11:00 Opening Session

10:00 - 10:15 Prof. Dr. Samy EI-ShaII
ASI Chairman & US Organizer
Virginia CommonweaIth University, USA
10:15 - 10:30 Prof. Dr. Mostafa EI-Sayed
US Co-Organizer
Georgia Institute of TechnoIogy, USA
10:30 - 10:40 Margaret Scobey
Her ExceIIency USA Ambassador to Egypt
10:40 - 10:50 Prof. Dr. Ashraf ShaaIan
President, NationaI Research Centre

11:00 - 11:30

Coffee Break




11:30 - 13:30

PLENARY SESSION-1
NANOMATERIALS & CATALYSIS

Chairpersons: Lotfia El Nadi (Egypt) &
Samy El-Shall (USA)

11:30 - 12:30 The Use of the Nanoscale Confinement Properties of
Nanoparticles in Some Applications to Environmental,
Catalytic and Energy Research

Mostafa EI-Sayed
Georgia Institute of TechnoIogy
AtIanta, GA 30332-0245, USA

2

12:30 - 13:30 Catalysis from Single Crystals to Nanoparticles &
Energy Applications

D. Wayne Goodman
Texas A&M University
CoIIege Station, TX 77842-3012, USA


13:30 - 14:45

Lunch


14:45 - 16:45

PLENARY SESSION-2
NANOMATERIALS & SOLAR CELLS

Chairpersons: Mostafa El-Sayed (USA) &
Ahmed Galal (Egypt)

14:45 - 15:45 Nanostructure Nanoassemblies for Next Generation
Solar Cells

Prashant V. Kamat
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556-0579, USA

15:45 - 16:45






The Rise of Graphene:
Catalysis & Nanocomposite Applications

M. Samy EI-ShaII
Virginia CommonweaIth University
Richmond, VA 23284-2006, USA

17:00

19:30 - 21:30

21:30
Bus to OId Cairo & Khan AI KhaIiIi

Dinner at Naguib Mahfouz Restaurant

Bus to Swiss Inn Pyramids Resort












3

Day 2
Monday, March 29, 2010

Hilton Pyramids Golf Resort
Dreamland, El Wahat Road, 6th oI October City, Egypt 2500

9:00 - 11:00 SESSION-3
FUNDAMENTALS OF NANOCATALYSIS-1

Chairpersons: Wayne Goodman (USA) &
Mohammed Ibrahim Zaki (Egypt)

9:00 - 10:00 Fundamentals of Surface Reactions & Mechanisms

Francisco Zaera
University of CaIifornia at Riverside
Riverside, CA 92521, USA

10:00 - 11:00 Tutorial for Characterizing Catalysts using Probe
Molecules

Mark G. White
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State, MS 39762-9595, USA


11:00 - 11:30

Coffee Break

11:30 - 13:30


SESSION-4
FUNDAMENTALS OF NANOCATALYSIS-2

Chairpersons: Francisco Zaera (USA) &
Hassan Talaat (Egypt)

11:30 - 12:30 Supported Metal Clusters: Spectroscopic and
Microscopic Evidence of Synthesis, Structure,
Reactivity, and Catalysis

Bruce Gates
University of CaIifornia at Davis
Davis, CA 95616, USA




4

12:30 - 13:30 Nanostructured Surfaces for Sensing and
Catalysis Applications

Ahmed GaIaI
FacuIty of Science, University of Cairo
Giza 12613, Egypt


13:30 - 15:00

Lunch


16:00 - 18:00 SESSION-5
FUNDAMENTALS OF NANOCATALYSIS-3

Chairpersons: Mark White (USA) &
Abd El-Aziz M. Saeed (Egypt)


16:00 - 17:00

Observation of Chemical Reactions on Surfaces using
STM. Watching Individual Molecules do their Molecular
Dances

John T Yates, Jr.
University of Virginia
CharIottesviIIe, VA 22904, USA

17:00 - 18:00


Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy as
Nanoscience

Hassan TaIaat
FacuIty of Science, Ain Shams University
Cairo, Egypt


18:30 - 20:00



Dinner



20:00 - 22:00


Poster Session I






5

Day 3
Tuesday, March 30, 2010

Hilton Pyramids Golf Resort


9:00 - 11:00 SESSION-6
SUPPORTED METAL OXIDES

Chairpersons: Mohamed Eddaoudi (USA) &
Ahmed Abd El-Menniem (Egypt)

9:00 - 10:00 Synthesis and Characterization of Highly-Dispersed,
Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts

Mark G. White
Mississippi State University
Mississippi State, MS 39762-9595, USA

10:00 - 11:00 Selective Oxidation of Methanol to Formaldehyde over
Molybdenum Oxide Supported on Nano-
Hydroxyapatite Catalysts

Abd EI-Aziz Mohamed Said
FacuIty of Science, Assiut University
Assiut, Egypt


11:00 - 11:30

Coffee Break

11:30 - 13:30


SESSION-7
NATURAL GAS & WATER-GAS SHIFT

Chairpersons: Mohammed Ibrahim Zaki (Egypt)
Mark White (USA) &

11:30 - 12:30 Oxidative Coupling of Natural Gas using
Nano-Membrane Technology

Magdy M. NasraIIah
Department of PetroIeum and Energy Engineering
The American University in Cairo
Cairo, Egypt
12:30 - 13:30 Recent Developments in the Application of
6

Nanoparticles of Differently Prepared Modified Metal
Gold / Supported Catalysts for the Water Gas Shift
Activity

Rabee Gabr
FacuIty of Science, Assiut University
Assiut, Egypt


13:30 - 15:00

Lunch

16:00 - 18:00 SESSION-8
PETROCHEMICAL CATALYSIS

Chairpersons: Samy El-Shall (USA) &
Magdi M. Nasralla (Egypt)

16:00 - 17:00

Petrochemicals Processing: Past Experience and
Future Prospects

Mohammed EIsokkary
Egyptian PetroIeum Research Institute (EPRI)
Cairo, Egypt

17:00 - 18:00


A View on Catalysis in the Process Development
Department in EPRI

Kadri Abu EI-Gheit
Egyptian PetroIeum Research Institute (EPRI)
Cairo, Egypt


18:30 - 20:00

Dinner

20:00 - 21:00

Ethics of Scientific Publication:
How to Write an Effective Scientific Paper

Prashant V. Kamat
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556-0579, USA


21:00 - 22:00


Round TabIe Discussion

7

Day 4
Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Hilton Pyramids Golf Resort


9:00 - 11:00 SESSION-9
NANOMATERIALS FOR ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT-1

Chairpersons: Puru Jena (USA) &
Mona M. Bakr (Egypt)

9:00 - 10:00 Carbon Nanostructures for Energy Conversion

Prashant V. Kamat
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556-0579, USA

10:00 -11:00 Effect of Preparation Parameters on the Properties of
TiO
2
Nanoparticles for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Abd EI-Hady Besheir Kashyout
Mubarak City for Scientific Research &
TechnoIogy AppIications
Burg EI-Arab, AIexandria, Egypt


11:00 - 11:30

Coffee Break




SESSION-10
NANOMATERIALS FOR ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT-2

Chairpersons: Bruce Gates (USA) &
Kadri Abu El-Gheit (Egypt)

11:30 - 12:30 Nanomaterials in Environmental Processes

Vicki Grassian
University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52242-1294, USA



12:30 - 13:30 Fundamental Aspects of Photochemistry on TiO
2

8

Surfaces-Using Sunlight for Environmental
Remediation

John T Yates, Jr.
University of Virginia
CharIottesviIIe, VA 22904, USA


13:30 - 15:00

Lunch


16:00 - 18:00 SESSION-11
NANOMATERIALS FOR ENERGY APPLICATIONS

Chairpersons: John Yates (USA) &
Abd El-Hady B. Kashyout (Egypt)

16:00 - 17:00

Plasmonic-Semiconductor Hybrid Nanostructures for
Photo-Electronic Device Fabrication

Mona Bakr Mohamed
NationaI Institute of Laser Enhanced Science
Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

17:00 - 18:00


Design and In-situ Measurements of Catalytic
Conversion and Electrochemical-Energy-Storage
Materials: A Bright Future for Synchrotron-based
Energy Science

FaisaI M. AIamgir
Georgia Institute of TechnoIogy
AtIanta, GA 30332-0245, USA


18:30 - 20:00

Dinner


20:00 - 22:00


Poster Session II









9

Day 5
Thursday, ApriI 1, 2010

Hilton Pyramids Golf Resort


9:00 - 11:00 SESSION-12
GOLD-BASED NANOCATALYSTS

Chairpersons: Samy El-Shall (USA) &
Mona Bakr (Egypt)

9:00 - 10:00 Confining Resonant Photons to the Nano-Gold Length
Scale: The New Properties and Applications in
Material Science, Nanobiology and Cancer Nano-
Medicine

Mostafa EI-Sayed
Georgia Institute of TechnoIogy
AtIanta, GA 30332-0245, USA

10:00 - 11:00 Catalysis by Nanosized Gold: The Nature of the Active
Site

D. Wayne Goodman
Texas A&M University
CoIIege Station, TX 77842-3012, USA

11:00 - 11:30 ASI FormaI Group Photo
Coffee Break




SESSION-13
IR CATALYSIS STUDIES

Chairpersons: Vicki Grassian (USA) &
Mahmoud Khedr (Egypt)






11:30 - 12:30 Infrared Studies of Interest to Catalysis and
Microelectronics
10


Francisco Zaera
University of CaIifornia at Riverside
Riverside, CA 92521, USA

12:30 - 13:30 IR Observation of Adsorptive and Catalytic
Interactions on Metal and Metal Oxide Surfaces

Mohammed Ibrahim Zaki
FacuIty of Science, EI Menia University
EI Menia, Egypt


13:30 - 15:00

Lunch

16:00 - 18:00 SESSION-14
PLASMONIC & HYBRID NANOSTRUCTURED MATERILAS

Chairpersons: Francisco Zaera (USA) &
Hassan Talaat (Egypt)

16:00 - 17:00



Laser Vaporization Controlled Condensation for the
Synthesis of Supported Nanoparticle Catalysts,
Nanoalloys & Up-Converting Nanoparticles

M. Samy EI-ShaII
Virginia CommonweaIth University
Richmond, VA 23284-2006, USA

17:00 - 18:00

An Integrated Approach using Spectroscopy,
Microscopy and Particle Sizing Methods to Investigate
Chemistry on the Nanoscale

Vicki Grassian
University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52242-1294, USA


19:00 - 21:00


21:00 - 22:00

Sound & Light Show by the Pyramids


Dinner



11

Day 6
Friday, ApriI 2, 2010

Full Day Excursion



9:00 Bus to Sakkara




11:00

Pyramids



12:00

Lunch at the Pyramids



13:00



Egyptian Museum

17:30

Gizyra & NiIe Area


19:00

Dinner in AI Saraya Boat


21:00

Bus to Swiss Inn Pyramids Resort











12

Day 7
Saturday, ApriI 3, 2010

Hilton Pyramids Golf Resort




9:00 - 11:00 SESSION-15
DESIGN & SYNTHESIS OF NANOMATERIALS FOR ENERGY
APPLICATIONS

Chairpersons: Lotfia El Nadi (Egypt) &
Joseph Francisco (USA)


9:00 - 10:15 Design of Nanomaterials for Energy Applications

Puru Jena
Virginia CommonweaIth University
Richmond, VA 23284, USA

10:15 - 11:00 Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of New
Materials for Hydrogen Storage

NahIa IsamiI
NationaI Research Centre
Cairo, Egypt


11:00 - 11:30

Coffee Break

11:30 - 13:15


SESSION-16
HIGH SURFACE AREA MATERIALS

Chairpersons: Prashant Kamat (USA) &
Nahla Isamil (Egypt)

11:30 - 12:30 Metal-Organic Materials:
Strategies toward Functional Porous Materials

Mohamed Eddaoudi
The University of South FIorida
Tampa, FIorida, 33620, USA

13

12:30 - 13:15 Acid Catalyzed Organic Transformations by Heteropoly
Tungstophosphoric Acid Supported on MCM-41 and
MIL-101

Abd EIrahman Khedr
EI- Mansoura University
EI-Mansoura, Egypt

13:15 - 14:45

Lunch

15:30 - 18:00 SESSION-17
ATMOSPHERIC & ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYSIS

Chairpersons: Puru Jena (USA) &
Ahmed Galal (Egypt)

15:30 - 16:30

Atmospheric Processes on Aerosol and Cloud Surface


Joseph S. Francisco
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

16:30 - 17:15


Nanocatalysts for CO Oxidation on Different Supports:
Mesopourous MCM-41, MIL-101 & Mixed Metal Oxides

Hassan M. Ahmed Hassan
Suez CanaI University
Suez, Egypt

17:15 - 18:00


New Nano-Crystalline Electrode Materials for Green
Hydrogen Fuel Production from Seawater Electrolysis

Ahmed Abd EI-Menniem
German University in Cairo
Cairo, Egypt

18:30 - 20:00 Dinner

20:00 - 21:30

Round Table Discussion
Samy El-Shall & Mostafa El-Sayed

ASI EvaIuation


14

Day 8
Sunday, ApriI 4, 2010

Hilton Pyramids Golf Resort




9:00 - 10:45 SESSION-18
CARBON NANOTUBES

Chairpersons: Osama Fouad (Egypt) &
Faisal Alamgir (USA)

9:00 - 10:00



Metallic and Bimetallic Nanocatalysts for the Economic
Synthesis of Decorated Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) for
Environmental Applications

Mahmoud H. Khedr
FacuIty of Science, Benisuef university
Benisuef, Egypt

10:00 - 10:45




Heating and Cooling Dynamics of Carbon Nanotubes
Observed by Temperature-Jump Spectroscopy and
Electron Microscopy

Omar F. Mohammed
Arthur Amos Noyes Laboratory of ChemicaI
Physics CaIifornia Institute of TechnoIogy
Pasadena
CA 91125, USA


11:30



Bus to NRC

Boxed Lunch on the Bus



15


Day 8
Sunday, ApriI 4, 2010

InternationaI CoIIaboration &
ASI ConcIusions

NationaI Research Centre, Cairo

13:00 - 15:00 SESSION-19
INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION

Chairperson: Samy El-Shall

13:00 - 14:00 Funding Opportunities in International Collaborations
for Materials Research and Education

Zakya Kafafi
Director, Division of MateriaIs Research (DMR)
NationaI Science Foundation (NSF)
ArIington, VA 22230, USA

14:00 - 15:00 Overview of the American Chemical Society and U.S.
efforts to celebrate the International Year of Chemistry
2011

Joseph S. Francisco
President
American ChemicaI Society


15:00 - 15:30

Coffee Break

15:30 - 16:30

SESSION-20
CONCLUSIONS & OUTLOOK

Chairperson: Mostafa EI-Sayed

15:30 - 16:00 ASI Conclusions

Samy EI-ShaII



16


16:00 - 16:30

Closing Remarks

Professor Ashraf ShaaIan
President
NationaI Research Centre



17:00

Bus to NiIe Cruise



18:00

NiIe Cruise FareweII Dinner





























17


ABSTRACTS





First Day
Sunday, March 28, 2010





PLENARY SESSION-1
NANOMATERIALS & CATALYSIS
11:30 13:30

Lecture 1
The Use of the Nanoscale Confinement Properties of Nanoparticles in
Some Applications to Environmental, Catalytic and Energy Research
Mostafa EI-Sayed

Lecture 2
Catalysis from Single Crystals to Nanoparticles & Energy Applications
D. Wayne Goodman
PLENARY SESSION-2
NANOMATERIALS & SOLAR CELLS
14:45 16:45

Lecture 1
Nanostructure Nanoassemblies for Next Generation Solar Cells
Prashant V. Kamat

Lecture 2
The Rise of Graphene: Catalysis & Nanocomposite Applications
M. Samy EI-ShaII

18

Sunday March 28, 2010; 11:30


The Use of the Nanoscale Confinement Properties of Nanoparticles in
Some Applications to Environmental, Catalytic and Energy Research

Mostafa A. El-Sayed
Laser Dynamics Laboratory, Georgia Institute oI Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0245, USA
E-mail: mostaIa.el-sayedchemistry.gatech.edu


Reducing the size oI material to the nanometer scale conIines the motion oI its
electrons (as in quantum dots used in Bio-labeling) ,the reactants in a chemical
reaction which enhances reaction rates (as in nano-reactors), the phonons which heats
up and speeds up reaction rates and photons which enhances the electro-magnetic
Iields oI plasmonic gold and silver nano-particles The potential use oI these new
nano-properties are discussed in the catalytic destruction oI some pollutants, in
reducing the activation energy in catalysis and in the plasmonic enhancements oI the
radiative properties oI bio-intermediates useIul in solar energy conversion by the
bacterio-rhodopsin photo-synthetic system.






















19

Sunday March 28, 2010; 12:30


Catalysis from Single Crystals to Nanoparticles & Energy
Applications

D. W. Goodman
Department oI Chemistry, Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77842-3012, USA
E-mail: goodmanmail.chem.tamu.edu

The electronic, structural, and chemical properties oI unsupported mixed-metal
surIaces prepared either as single crystals or thin Iilms have been detailed and
contrasted with the corresponding properties oI supported mixed-metal nanoclusters.
The latter vary in size Irom a Iew atoms to many and have been prepared on ultrathin
single crystalline oxide supports oI TiO
2
, Al
2
O
3
, and SiO
2.
An array oI surIace
techniques including reaction kinetics oI vinyl acetate synthesis have been used to
correlate catalytic Iunction oI these surIaces with their physical and electronic
properties. Recent studies oI mixed-metal catalysts prepared by alloying Pd with Au
will be highlighted |1-7|.

Thin Iilm Pt-Co alloy electrocatalysts have been characterized using low energy ion
scattering spectroscopy (LEISS), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low
energy electron diIIraction (LEED), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and
electrochemical measurements. This combined approach is used to correlate the
electrocatalytic activity oI Pt-Co toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with
the surIace properties oI the catalyst beIore and aIter the electrochemical
measurements. LEISS shows that Pt-Co Iilms Iorm a stable and well-ordered alloy at
the outmost layer when annealed to suIIiciently high temperatures. The surIace phase
diagram oI co-deposited Pt-Co Iilms shows preIerential Pt segregation to the surIace.
Based on the open-circuit cell potential (OCP) in an O
2
-saturated sulIuric acid
electrolyte, Pt
3
Co thin Iilms exhibit the highest OCP compared to other Pt-Co bulk
compositions. A limited amount oI Co was dissolved immediately upon exposure to
an electrochemical environment and the Iraction stripped was Iound to be dependent
oI the applied potential.


References

1. M. S. Chen and D. W. Goodman, Science, 306, 252 (2004).
2. M. S. Chen and D. W. Goodman, Accts Chem. Res, 39, 739 (2006).
3. M. S. Chen, D. Kumar, C.-W. Yi and D. W. Goodman, Science, 310, 291 (2005).
4. M. S. Chen, Y. Cai, Z. Yan and D. W. Goodman, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 128, 6341(2006).
5. C. W. Yi, K. Luo, T. Wei and D. W. Goodman, J. Phys. Chem. B, 109, 18535 (2005).
6. P. Han, S. Axnanda, I. Lyubinetsky, and D. W. Goodman, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 129, 14355
(2007).
7. F. Gao, Y. Wang, and D. W. Goodman, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131, 5734 (2009).

20

Sunday March 28, 2010; 14:45


Nanostructure Nanoassemblies for Next Generation Solar Cells

Prashant V. Kamat
Department oI Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department oI Chemical and
Biomolecular Engineering, and Radiation Laboratory, University oI Notre Dame,
Notre Dame, IN 46556
E-mail: pkamatnd.edu


Environmentally Iriendly energy resources are needed to meet our clean energy
demand. Semiconductor nanoparticle and nanotube assemblies provide new ways to
develop next generation solar cells.|1-4|. OI particular interest is the
nanowire/nanotube architecture which can signiIicantly improve the eIIiciency oI
nanostructure based solar cells. We have now developed quantum dot solar cells by
assembling diIIerent size CdSe quantum dots on TiO
2
Iilms composed oI particle and
nanotube morphologies (Scheme 1). Upon bandgap excitation, CdSe quantum dots
inject electrons into TiO
2
nanoparticles and nanotubes, thus enabling the generation oI
photocurrent in a photoelectrochemical solar cell. These composite semiconductor
nanostructures can be tailored to tune the photoelectrochemical response via size
control oI CdSe quantum dots and improve the photoconversion eIIiciency by
Iacilitating the charge transport through TiO
2
nanotube architecture. Ways to improve
power conversion eIIiciency and maximize the light harvesting capability through the
construction oI a rainbow solar cell and carbon nanotube-semiconductor hybrid
assemblies will be presented. The salient Ieatures oI carbon nanotube and graphene
scaIIolds |5, 6| Ior Iacilitating charge collection and charge transport will also be
discussed.


Scheme1. CdSe quantum dots linked to (a) TiO
2
nanoparticle and (b) TiO
2
nanotube
Iilms. (c) Energy level diagram depicting electron injection Irom CdSe quantum dots
into TiO
2
.


References

1. Kamat, P. V., Quantum Dot Solar Cells. Semiconductor Nanocrvstals as Light
Harvesters. J. Phys. Chem. C, 2008, 112, 18737-18753.
21

2. Kongkanand, A.; Tvrdy, K.; Takechi, K.; Kuno, M. K.; Kamat, P. V., Quantum Dot Solar
Cells. Tuning Photoresponse through Si:e and Shape Control of CdSe-TiO
2
Architecture.
J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 4007-4015.
3. Farrow, B.; Kamat, P. V., CdSe Quantum Dot Sensiti:ed Solar Cells. Shuttling Electrons
through Stacked Carbon Nanocups J. Am. Chem. Soc, 2009, 131, 11124-11131.
4. Brown, P.; Kamat, P. V., Quantum Dot Solar Cells. Electrophoretic Deposition of CdSe-
C
60
Composite Films and Capture of Photogenerated Electrons with nC
60
Cluster Shell. J.
Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 88908891.
5. Kongkanand, A.; Kamat, P. V., Electron Storage in Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes.
Fermi Level Equilibration in SemiconductorSWCNT Suspensions. ACS Nano, 2007, 1,
13-21.
6. Williams, G.; Seger, B.; Kamat, P. V., TiO
2
-Graphene Nanocomposites. UJ-Assisted
Photocatalvtic Reduction of Graphene Oxide. ACS Nano, 2008, 2, 1487-1491.




































22

Sunday March 28, 2010; 15:45


The Rise of Graphene: Catalysis and Nanocomposite Applications

M. Samy El-Shall
Department oI Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, Virginia 23284, USA
E-mail: mselshalvcu.edu


Graphene has attracted great interest both Ior a Iundamental understanding oI its
unique structural and electronic properties and Ior important potential applications in
nanoelectronics and devices. The combination oI highest mobility, thermal, chemical
and mechanical stability with the high surIace area oIIers many interesting
applications in a wide range oI Iields including heterogeneous catalysis where
metallic and bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts can be eIIiciently dispersed on the
graphene sheets.

We have developed a Iacile and scalable chemical reduction method assisted by
microwave irradiation
1
Ior the synthesis oI chemically converted graphene sheets and
metal nanoparticles dispersed on the graphene sheets.
2
In this talk we will present
another novel method Ior the synthesis oI graphene Irom graphite oxide by a Iast laser
irradiation process that does not involve the use chemical reducing agents and allows
the production oI high quality graphene Ior many applications in electronics, devices
and catalyst support.

We will also present several examples oI nanocatalysis involving metallic and
bimetallic supported nanoparticle catalysts.
2,3
However, the most interesting study
involves the use oI a palladium/graphene (Pd/G) nanocatalyst Ior the synthesis oI
complex organic molecules using the Suzuki, Heck and Sonogashira coupling
reactions. These reactions have typically been perIormed under homogeneous
conditions to enhance the catalytic activity and selectivity Ior speciIic reactions.
However, the issues associated with homogeneous catalysis remain a challenge to the
broader application oI these synthetic tools due to the lack oI recyclability and
potential contamination Irom residual metal in the reaction product.

Our results demonstrate, Ior the Iirst time, that the Pd/G is a high active catalyst Ior
the Suzuki, Heck and Sonogashira C-C coupling reactions. This highly catalytic
activity is accompanied by an unusual recyclability oI the catalyst, over seven times,
with essentially no drop in activity and a reaction that achieves 100 yield. Reasons
Ior the exceptional activity and stability oI the Pd/G catalyst will be discussed.


References

1. V. Abdelsayed, A. Aljarash, and M. S. El-Shall, Chem. Mater. 2009, 21, 2825-2834.
2. M. S. El-Shall, V. Abdelsayed, A. S. Khder, H. M. A. Hassan, H. M. El-Kaderi, and T.
Reich, J. Mater. Chem. 2009, 19, 7625-7631.
3. H. M. A. Hassan, V. Abdelsayed, A. S. Khder, K. M. AbouZeid, J. Terner and M. S. El-
Shall, J. Mater. Chem., 2009, 19, 3832-3837.
23



ABSTRACTS



Second Day
Monday, March 29, 2010



SESSION-3
FUNDAMENTALS OF NANOCATALYSIS-1
9:00 11:00

Lecture 1
Fundamentals of Surface Reactions & Mechanisms
Francisco Zaera
Lecture 2
Tutorial for Characterizing Catalysts using Probe Molecules
Mark G. White

SESSION-4
FUNDAMENTALS OF NANOCATALYSIS-2
11:30 13:30

Lecture 1
Supported Metal Clusters: Spectroscopic and Microscopic Evidence of Synthesis,
Structure, Reactivity, and Catalysis
Bruce Gates
Lecture 2
Nanostructured Surfaces for Sensing and Catalysis Applications
Ahmed Galal
SESSION-5
FUNDAMENTALS OF NANOCATALYSIS-3
16:00 18:00

Lecture 1
Observation of Chemical Reactions on Surfaces using STM. Watching Individual
Molecules do their Molecular Dances
John T Yates, Jr.
Lecture 2
Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy as Nanoscience
Hassan Talaat

24


Monday March 29, 2010; 9:00


Fundamentals of Surface Reactions and Mechanisms

Francisco Zaera
Department oI Chemistry
University oI CaliIornia, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
E-mail: zaeraucr.edu


Achieving high selectivities is arguably the main challenge in heterogeneous catalysis
in the 21st century: more selective catalysis may not only be cheaper because it does
not waste reactants or require expensive separation procedures, but also greener,
avoiding the generation oI polluting byproducts. Control oI selectivity in
heterogeneous catalysis has traditionally been hampered by both a lack oI
understanding oI the molecular details that deIine such selectivity and the limited
range oI synthetic tools available to make catalysts with the speciIic properties
required. However, progress in surIace science as well as in nanotechnology and selI-
assembly synthesis is changing that. Here we report on studies Irom our laboratory
using model systems to pinpoint the mechanistic Iactors that deIine selectivity in a
number oI increasingly subtle hydrocarbon hydrogenation and dehydrogenation
reactions. The Iirst examples show how the regioselectivity oI hydrogen elimination
Irom alkyl species adsorbed on metals is aIIected by the electronic properties oI the
surIace: while nickel promotes the extraction oI hydrogen atoms Irom the carbon
directly bonded to the surIace, a step that leads to undesirable cracking reactions,
platinum allows Ior dehydrogenation Iurther down the hydrocarbon chain and
thereIore Iacilitate more desirable isomerization processes. In a second set oI
examples, the issue oI selectivity in alkene isomerizations involving either double-
bond migrations or cis-trans interconversions is addressed. In those cases the key
mechanistic steps require hydrogen abstraction Irom a ! carbon in the hydrocarbon
chain (the second Irom the surIace), and selectivity is deIined by steric considerations
around the diIIerent hydrogens available at those positions. A particular exciting
observation Irom our work in this area is the unique ability that close-packed surIaces
oI platinum have in promoting the thermodynamically unIavorable but highly
desirable conversion oI trans alkenes to their cis counterparts; new shape-controlled
catalysts were prepared to take advantage oI that behavior. Finally, the more subtle
issue oI enantioselectivity is discussed. Chiral compounds can be produced via
hydrogenation oI so called prochiral reactants such as asymmetric ketones, but regular
metal catalysts are achiral and thereIore lead to the production oI racemic mixtures.
However, chirality can be bestowed on catalytic surIaces by the adsorption oI chiral
modiIiers. Individual molecules oI these modiIiers may be able, by themselves, to
provide the required chiral environment on the surIace Ior such enantioselectivity, as
is the case with cinchona alkaloids, but simpler molecules may also assemble into
chiral supramolecular structures held together by the surIace; in both cases, a speciIic
surIace chiral site is produced with the help oI molecular adsorbates. The examples to
be discussed in this presentation not only highlight the need to design and prepare
heterogeneous catalysts with sophisticated surIace sites in order to promote reactions
selectively, but also hint at some oI the tools available to accomplish that task.
25


Monday March 29, 2010; 10:00


Tutorial for Characterizing Catalysts using Probe Molecules

Mark G. White
Dave C. Swalm School oI Chemical Engineering
Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762-9595
E-mail: whiteche.msstate.edu


I. Description oI heterogeneous catalysts
II. Characterizing total surIace area oI materials
a. Non-porous
b. Porous
i. Pores characterized by two-dimension (cylindrical pores)
ii. Pores characterized by thee-dimensions (slit-shaped pores)
iii. Plug-gauge total adsorption experiments in zeolites
III. Characterizing the active surIace area oI supported metal catalysts
a. Supported Pt
i. H
2
titration
ii. CO titration
b. Supported Cu
i. N
2
O titration
ii. H
2
/O
2
redox
iii. H
2
S poisoning experiments
IV. Characterizing the active surIace area oI supported metal oxide catalysts
a. Acid catalysts
i. Lewis acidity
1. Perylene titration
2. Pyridine IR
3. NO titration oI Cu(II) oxide
ii. Bronsted acidity
1. Pyridine IR
2. Hexamethyldisilazane reaction with surIace protons
iii. Titrating strength oI acid sites
1.
13
C-NMR-MAS oI labeled acetone to determine acid
strengths.
2. Temperature programmed desorption oI a base
molecule
3. Microcalorimetry -TGA oI a base molecule desorption
b. Base catalysts
i. Titration with carbon dioxide--hydrotalcite
ii. Titration with benzoic acidtitania
iii. Titration with sulIur dioxidesupported MgO/alumina
c. Zeolite catalysts
i. Titrating the internal, reactive surIace area and total reactive
surIace areas with reactive probe molecules oI diIIering sizes.
26

ii. HoIImann elimination reaction in zeolites to determine the
Iramework SiO
2
/Al
2
O
3
ratio.

Monday March 29, 2010; 11:30


Supported Metal Clusters: Spectroscopic and Microscopic Evidence
of Synthesis, Structure, Reactivity, and Catalysis

Bruce C. Gates
Department oI Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
University oI CaliIornia at Davis, CA 95616 USA
E-mail: bcgatesucdavis.edu


Metal clusters on supports are an important class oI industrial catalyst, but
understanding oI their structures is hindered by the smallness and nonuniIormity oI
the clusters and by the heterogeneity oI the supports and the nonuniIormity oI the
metalsupport interactions. In attempts to gain Iundamental understanding oI this
class oI catalyst, we have strived to prepare uniIorm and well-deIined metal clusters
on supports that are themselves uniIorm or Iacilitate the structural characterization.
The supported metal clusters were prepared Irom organometallic precursors (e.g.,
Ir(C
2
H
4
)
2
(acac), Rh(C
2
H
4
)
2
(acac), Ru
3
(CO)
12
, and Os
3
(CO)
12
), imaged with atomic
resolution by use oI aberration-corrected STEM, and characterized with methods
including extended X-ray absorption Iine structure (EXAFS), X-ray absorption near
edge structure (XANES), and inIrared (IR) spectroscopies. The quantitative structural
characterizations provide the strongest evidence available demonstrating how EXAFS
and TEM agree and reinIorce each other in the determination oI cluster sizes (Fig. 1).
Transient spectra demonstrate the steps in bimetallic cluster Iormation on MgO Irom
Ru
3
(CO)
12
and Os
3
(CO)
12
in the presence oI H
2
(Fig. 2) and provide more
Iundamental inIormation about cluster synthesis than has been obtained Ior solution
reactions, which are complicated by solvent eIIects. The reversible Iormation and
breakup oI tetrairidium clusters on a zeolite support was Iollowed in real time with
EXAFS, XANES, and IR spectroscopies, and the data show how it is possible to tune
the structures oI catalytically active species by choice oI the reactive atmosphere.
Results such as these place the chemistry oI supported metal clusters on an essentially
molecular Ioundation and provide links to the chemistry oI supported metals more
generally.

27



Figure 1. Cluster sizes determined by EXAFS spectroscopy and TEM.


First Steps of Bimetallic Cluster Formation
1. Decarbonylation and aggregation of Ru clusters
2. Decarbonylation of Os clusters
3. Bimetallic cluster formation



Figure. 2. Schematic representation oI steps in bimetallic cluster Iormation Irom
Ru
3
(CO)
12
and Os
3
(CO)
12
on MgO in the presence oI H
2
.








28


Monday March 29, 2010; 12:30


Nano-Structured Surfaces for Sensing and Catalysis Applications

Nada F. Atta, Soher A. Darwish, Shimaa M. Ali, Maher F. El-Kady,
Ali M. Abdel Mageed, Hatem M. Amin, Rasha A. Ahmed, Ikram Hamdy,
Eman F. Mohamed, Yasser M. Abdel Rahman, Ahmed Abdel Fatah, Ahmed Galal*
Department oI Chemistry, Faculty oI Science
University oI Cairo, Postal Code 12613, Giza-Egypt
Email: galalah1yahoo.com


Most oI chemical transIormations take place at the interIace between two phases. The
chemical and physical structure oI the surIace oI a solid substrate can be tailor
designed Ior speciIic and selective reactions. Several applications beneIits Irom this
approach, Ior instance electrochemical sensor is an example Ior the determination oI
biological and organic molecules. Molecular recognition that is the speciIic
interaction between two or more entities, generally molecules through non-covalent
interactions such as hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic Iorces, van der Waals Iorces,
electro-static interactions, coordination or pi-pi-interactions is another example. In
some cases, the interaction is deIined as host-guest where molecular recognition
exhibit molecular complementary resulting structures. Some models Ior the
applications oI polymer surIaces modiIied with nano-structured metals Ior the
determination oI neurotransmitters will be presented.

The smallest molecule could be considered as diatomic hydrogen with a length close
to 150 picometer (that is equivalent to 1.50 A). Small organic molecules, on the other
hand, used as precursors Ior synthetic reactions have dimensions ranging Irom Iew A
to some 100 A. Industrial catalysis generally takes place at the nanoscale (or sub-
nanoscale). Most oI the catalysts are made oI metal particles oI a Iew nanometers in
size and in particular all the elementary reaction steps occur at the atomic (or
molecular) scale. Thus, catalysis seems to be intrinsically a nanoscale phenomenon.
ThereIore, the word nanocatalysis, should not apply to the catalytic phenomenon itselI
but to the intrinsic properties oI the catalysts, that may change in the nanoscale. The
most important property which inIluences catalysis is the electronic structure. The
evolution oI binding energy oI valence electrons aIIects the change in catalytic
properties. In Iact, it depends on the exact number oI atoms in the cluster. When the
clusters, however, reach a size oI about 3050 atoms, the electronic structure evolves
smoothly towards the bulk limit.

We will present our recent Iindings Ior a new class oI perovskites that is synthesized
using microwave technique. The prepared perovskites were used in the catalytic
production oI hydrogen gas. Other, surIaces were also prepared Irom nano-deposited
metal particles Ior selective determination oI neurotransmitters. Several advantages
were realized using the newly prepared surIaces; these include high eIIiciency in
production oI hydrogen and high selectivity oI given chemical species in complex
matrices.

29


References

1- Electrodeposited metals at conducting polymer electrodes. I- EIIect oI particle size
and Iilm thickness on electrochemical response, Nada F. Atta, A. Galal, F. KhaliIa,
Appl. SurI. Sci., 253, 42734282, (2007).
2- Electrodeposited metals at conducting polymer electrodes. II- Study oI the oxidation
oI methanol at poly(3-methylthiophene) modiIied with Pt-Pd co-catalyst, Ahmed
Galal, Nada F. Atta, Soher A. Darwish, Shimaa M. Ali, Topics in Catalysis, 47, 73-
83, (2008).
3- Palladium nanoclusters-coated poly(Iuran) as a novel sensor Ior catecholamine
neurotransmitters and paracetamol, Nada F. Atta, Maher F. El-Kady, A. Galal, Sens.
Actuators, B, 141, 566-574, (2009).
4- Smart electrochemical sensor Ior some neurotransmitters using imprinted solgel
Iilms, Nada F. Atta, Ali M. Abdel-Mageed, Talanta, 80, 511-518, (2009).
5- Electrocatalytic evolution oI hydrogen on a novel SrPdO3 perovskite electrode, A.
Galal, Nada F. Atta, Soher A. Darwish, Ahmed Abdel Fatah, Shimaa M. Ali, J. Power
Sources, 195, 3806-3809, (2010).
6- Synthesis, structure and catalytic activity oI nano-structured Sr-Ru-O type perovskite
Ior hydrogen production, A. Galal, Shimaa M. Ali, Soher A. Darwish, Ahmed A. Abd
El Fatah, Nada F. Atta, in press, Appl. Catal.A:General,
doi:10.1016/j.apcata.2010.02.015 (2010).
7- Determination oI catecholamines and other compounds using pd nanoclusters poly
(N-methylpyrrole) electrode in pharmaceuticals and biological Iluids, Nada F. Atta,
Maher F. El-Kady and Ahmed Galal, in press, Anal. Biochem.,
doi:10.1016/j.ab.2010.01.001, (2010)






















30


Monday March 29, 2010; 16:00


Observation of Chemical Reactions on Surfaces using STM-
Watching Individual Molecules do their Molecular Dances

John T. Yates, Jr.
Department oI Chemistry
University oI Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904
E-mail: johntvirginia.edu


The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) has revolutionized the investigation oI
surIace chemistry. In this talk I will show how the microscope was developed
historically and some recent applications to the study oI chemical reactivity on the
Au(111) surIace. The microscope has been used to study the adsorption oI the
simplest alkane thiol- CH3SH, observing the breaking oI the S-H bond in this
molecule, yielding a CH3S species. Remarkably, a Au adatom Irom the interior oI the
solid Au is involved in the surIace bonding to produce CH
3
-S-Au-CH
3
surIace
species. Also the disulIide, CH
3
SSCH
3
can be used to make surIace thiolate layers by
scission oI the S-S bond, and it will be shown how a Iree radical chain reaction occurs
amongst selI-assembled disulIide molecules on Au(111) and Au(001) surIaces. These
observations oI a chain reaction provide the Iirst molecular details oI this well-known
reaction type since its discovery in the gas phase in the 1920's.


31

Monday March 29, 2010; 17:00


Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy as Nanoscience

Hassan Talaat
Faculty oI Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: hassantalaathotmail.com


The discovery oI surIace enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) more than 30 years ago,
oI adsorbed molecules on rough Ag electrodes|1|, has opened a new Iield that can be
truly scribed as the Iirst nanoscience |2|. In SERS the Raman spectra oI molecules on
specially prepared metal surIaces (nanoparticles) is observed to have intensity that
exceeds by 5 to 14 orders oI magnitude|3,4| what is excepted in the absence oI these
nanoparticles. Since the inception oI SERS, the origin oI such enhancement has been
reasoned to electromagnetic ( EM )eIIect and to chemical ( charge transIer ) eIIect.
The Iirst, has been demonstrated to give the major part (up to 11 orders oI magnitude
) oI the enhancement , and is the result oI highly concentrated EM Iields associated
with strong localized surIace plasmon resonances (LSPR) at interstitial sites oI the
metal nanostructure surIaces with closely spaced Ieatures. The second eIIect generally
results in a 2 or 3 order oI magnitude |2| enhancement is not discussed in this
presentation. Theoretical and computational studies have shown that LSPR
enhancement depends critically on the size and speciIic geometry oI the
nanostructured metal particles as well as the separation between these particles. . In
this work, gold nanoparticles oI diIIerent shapes (spheres, nanorods, etched prisms,
and sharp prisms)have been prepared using the seed mediated growth method to act as
substrates Ior Raman measurements. Also array oI regularly oriented gold nanoprisms
were prepared using the nanosphere lithography (NSL), as well as electron beam
lithography (EBL), have been used to study the eIIect oI the interparticle distance on
SERS. Our results demonstrate that the sharp prisms give the highest SERS
enhancements, and that the variation oI the enhancement is exponentially decreasing
with increasing the interstitial distance between the nanoprisms.


References

|1| Fleischman,M.P.;Hendra,J.;McQuillan,A.Chem.Phys.Lett. 1974,26,163 66;
Jeanmaire,D.L.;Van ,Duyne ,R.P.J. Electroanal.Chem.1977,84,120;
Albrecht,M.G.;Creighton,J.A.J.Am.Chem. Soc.1977,99, 5215-5217.
|2| Moskovits,M.J.RamanSpectrosc.2005,36,485.
|3| Nie,S.;Emory,S.R.Science1997,275,1102-1106.
|4| Kneipp,K.;Wang,Y.;Kneipp,H.;Itzkan,I.;Dasari,R.R.;Feld,
M.S.Phys.Rev.Lett.1996,76,2444-2447.
32



ABSTRACTS

Third Day
Tuesday, March 30, 2010





SESSION-6
SUPPORTED METAL OXIDES
9:00 11:00

Lecture 1
Synthesis and Characterization of Highly-Dispersed, Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts
Mark G. White

Lecture 2
Selective Oxidation of Methanol to Formaldehyde over Molybdenum Oxide Supported on
Nano-Hydroxyapatite Catalysts
Abd El-Aziz Mohamed Said

SESSION-7
NATURAL GAS & WATER-GAS SHIFT
11:30 13:30

Lecture 1
Oxidative Coupling of Natural Gas using Nano-Membrane Technology
Magdy M. Nasrallah

Lecture 2
Recent Developments in the Application of Nanoparticles of Differently Prepared Modified
Metal Gold / Supported Catalysts for the Water Gas Shift Activity
Rabee Gabr

SESSION-8
PETROCHEMICAL CATALYSIS
16:00 18:00

Lecture 1
Petrochemicals Processing: Past Experience and Future Prospects
Mohammed Elsokkary

Lecture 2
A View on Catalysis in the Process Development Department in EPRI
Kadri Abu El-Gheit
33

Tuesday March 30, 2010; 9:00


Synthesis and Characterization of Highly-Dispersed,
Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts

Mark G. White
Dave C. Swalm School oI Chemical Engineering
Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762-9595
E-mail: whiteche.msstate.edu


I. Description oI the approach using polynuclear metal complexes as catalyst
precursors
a. Mechanisms Ior attaching metal complexes to oxide surIaces
b. InIluence oI support surIace chemistry upon the attachment
mechanisms
II. Types oI metal complexes used
a. Cationic metal complexes
b. Neutral metal complexes
III. Modeling the attachment oI metal complexes to oxide supports
a. Semi-empirical MO methods to predict equilibrium geometries
b. Semi-empirical MO methods to predict IR oI supported metal
complexes
IV. Characterizing the supported metal complexes
a. Powder XRD
b. FTIR oI supported metal complexes, eIIect oI loading
c. Thermal decomposition oI supported metal complexes
d. Gravimetric adsorption oI probe molecules
e. Magnetic methods to characterize selected metal complexes on
supports
I. UV-Vis methods to characterize selected metal complexes on supports
g. Characterization oI supported metal complexes by EXAFS
V. Use oI decomposed metal complexes on support as adsorbents and catalysts
a. Copper-based systems
b. Vanadium-based systems
c. Titanium-based systems
d. Gold-based systems
e. Mixed metal oxides as weak acids
I. Supported MgO as a selective adsorbent Ior SO
2

34

Tuesday March 30, 2010; 10:00

Selective Oxidation of Methanol to Formaldehyde Over
Molybdenum Oxide Supported on Nano-Hydroxyapatite Catalysts

Abd EL-Aziz A Said*, Mohamed M M Abd El-Wahab and Alian M. Alian
Chemistry Department, Faculty oI Science
Assiut, University, Assiut, Egypt
E-mail: a.a.saidaun.ed.eg


Nano-hydroxyapatite -supported diIIerent ratios oI molybdenum oxide (1 to 50
w/w) were prepared by the impregnation method and calcinated at 400, 500, 600 and
700
o
C in a static air atmosphere. The catalysts were characterized by
thermogravimetry (TG), diIIerential thermogravimetry (DTA), FT-IR spectroscopy,
X-ray diIIraction (XRD), and nitrogen sorption measurements. The surIace acidity
and basicity oI the catalyst was investigated by the dehydration-dehydrogenation oI
isopropanol pyridine and 2,6-dimethyl pyridine. The gasphase oxidation oI methanol
to Iormaldehyde was carried out in a conventional Iixed Ilow bed reactor. The
obtained results clearly showed that hydroxyapatiteMoO
3
systems were active and
selective towards the Iormation oI Iormaldehyde.




























35

Tuesday March 30, 2010; 11:30


Oxidative Coupling of Natural Gas using Nano-Membrane
Technology

Magdy M. Nasrallah
Department oI Petroleum and Energy Engineering
The American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt
Email: magdinasaucegypt.edu

&

Jasmine Abdel RaouI
Department oI Chemical Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt


Natural gas, containing primarily (~95) methane, is a resource that rivals liquid
petroleum in abundance. With inevitable depletion oI liquid petroleum and a
concomitant increase in natural gas reserves, it is expected that methane will
eventually become a major resource Ior chemicals and liquid Iuels. Both direct and
indirect routes have been studied Ior Methane convertion. The indirect route relies on
production oI synthesis gas (H
2
and CO mixture) by steam reIorming or partial
oxidative reaction oI methane, Iollowed by conversion oI the synthesis gas to higher
hydrocarbons by Fischer Tropsch process. The representative method in the direct
route is oxidative coupling oI methane (OCM) to ethane and ethylene, a Ieedstock Ior
synthesis oI liquid Iuels or a large number oI synthetic materials. In OCM, CH
4
and
O
2
react over a catalyst, mostly oxides, at elevated temperatures to Iorm C
2
products
(ethane and ethylene). However, the reaction oIten leads to the Iormation oI the
thermodynamically more Iavored CO
2
. It is generally agreed that OCM on an oxide
catalyst Iollows a unique heterogeneous-homogeneous reaction mechanism: methyl
radicals are generated on the solid surIace and coupled to Iorm C
2
in the gas phase.
The CO
2
is Iormed by oxidizing carbon containing species mostly in the gas phase,
and possibly also on the catalyst surIace. The inherent problem is that oxygen
required Ior OCM can react with CH
4
and C
2
products to Iorm CO
2
and a higher
selectivity is always compromised with a lower C
2
yield on all catalysts to about 25
which is lower than the economically attractive C
2
yield threshold (30).
Nanotechnology has been proposed Ior membrane development with the objective oI
optimizing charge transport and enhancing OCM Ior optimum transIormation to
higher hydrocarbons and liqueIaction. Among numerous perovskitetype oxides
studied, La
1-x
Sr
x
Co
1-y
Fe
y
O
3-d
(LSCF) series, have attracted increasing attentions. The
principal investigator published numerous papers related to the LSCF-type perovskite
applications. This work exploits nano membrane materials oI the LSCF type oxides
with particle size ranging Irom 15 to 20 nm. These Ieatures resulted in the attractive
improvement oI perIormance. Nano scale structures have received signiIicant
attention, the properties can change by the size because oI quantum eIIect when the
size is reduced to nanometer level. The decrease oI the size is also expected to
enhance the catalytic activity, due to the resulting increase oI the total surIace area
and active sites with unsaturated bonding. A parametric study is carried out in an
attempt to investigate the eIIect oI the nano structure on the deIect concentration,
36

oxygen vacancies, and the Ilux oI oxygen through the membrane. Also, its aIIect on
the kinetics, the rate, the selectivity, and the yield oI the OCM reactions will be
addressed.


37

Tuesday March 30, 2010; 12:30


Recent Developments in the Application of the Nanoparticles of
Differently Prepared Modified Metal Gold /Supported Catalysts for
the Water Gas Shift Activity

Rabei M. Gabr
Chemistry Department, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
E-mail: madmodie1982yahoo.com,
mohammed.accountonlinegmail.com


The Water gas ShiIt (WGS) reaction (H
2
OCO!H
2
CO) is an important step in a
number oI chemical processes Ior the production oI H
2
.Athough the WGS technology
is well established and widely used in large scale steady-state operation, such as
hydrogen or ammonia plants, the interest Ior the WGS reaction has been growing
signiIicantly in the last years, as a result oI the important advance in Iuel cell
technology.

In addition, the (WGS) reaction is a historic reaction system. It plays a pivotal role in
various industrial Iields such as steam reIorming oI methanol, ammonia synthesis and
conversion oI syngas into a variety oI important chemicals.

Moreover; the promotion oI WGS activity are oI the main roles played by diIIerent
metal/support catalyst in the automobile three-way catalysts, due to its ability to
enlarge Iast reduction/oxidation cycles.

The main actor in a catalytic process is the catalyst which oIten consists oI small
metal particles dispersed on an inert support. The metal particles are the key
components oI the catalyst. The activity oI the catalyst will generally depend on the
size oI metal particles, where a catalyst with small particles will give high activity due
to the large number oI atoms available on the metal particles surIaces.

The water gas shiIt (WGS) activity oI diIIerent metals/support catalysts has been
studied. Two diIIerent techniques were used Ior the preparation oI the catalyst-
deposition-precipitation and modiIied version oI deposition- precipitation.

The aIIect oI diIIerent synthesis procedures on the WGS activity has been Iollowed
using HRTEM combined with EDS, X-ray diIIraction and FT-IR In order to examine
the molecules involved in the Iorward as well as the reverse WGS reactions.

The elucidation oI reaction mechanism is a challenge to develop highly active and
stable low-temperature shiIt catalysts.
38

Tuesday March 30, 2010; 16:00


Petrochemicals Processing: Past Experience and Future Prospects

M. Elsokkary
Petrochemicals Division,
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI)
Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: elsukkaryhotmail.com


The presentation deals with historical background oI the petrochemical industry and
its present situation. The petrochemicals Feedstock and Products will be discussed.
Petrochemical Processes including Basic Processes, such as Steam Cracking and
reIorming are illustrated. Production Costs, (Capital costs, Operating Costs) and
Added Value are other objectives Ior the presentation. Growth in Petrochemicals
Past Experience; Future Prospects will be present with details. Illustrative
Petrochemical Technology Roadmap (2000-2025) is presented in diIIerent stages.
Stage1: Renewal, Stage2: Alternate Ieed stocks and Stage3: New chemistries. Egypt's
Petrochemical Master Plan (2002-2022) Objectives and outlines will be elaborated.





39

Tuesday March 30, 2010; 17:00


A View on Catalysis in the Process Development Department in
EPRI

Ahmed Kadry Aboul-Gheit
Catalysis Division, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI)
Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: aboulgheithotmail.com


Nominally, a catalyst is any substance which participates in a chemical reaction and
causes its rate acceleration, but which can (in principle) be recovered in its original
Iorm aIter the reaction, to be reused. Catalysts are traditionally classiIied into two
categories: homogeneous and heterogeneous, depending on whether or not they are
soluble. However, practical catalysts are solid, e.g, metals, metal oxides (supported or
unsupported), etc. Heterogeneous catalysis cannot yet be described as a truly
predictive science. Hence, more Iundamental knowledge about the intrinsic nature oI
active sites is critical to the rational development oI better catalysts. There is Iirst a
need to deIine and then control the atomic structure oI the active sites, which involves
the preparation oI materials with well-deIined architectures on length scales
somewhat longer than the molecular. In addition, a materials science revolution is in
progress and methods Ior the preparation and characterization oI macroscopic
materials and prediction oI their properties have now been realized.

Recently, we started work on the preparation and characterization oI thin Iilm nano-
catalysts in the Iorm oI coatings on glass sheets to be used as catalysts Ior the
photodegradation oI chlorophenols, or polyaromatic hydrocarbons in water. Three
papers were published; one in 2008 and two in 2009. I supervised 3 thesis in this Iield
(2006-2008). Furthermore, we prepared a nano-platinum supported on Zeolites to be
used as catalysts Ior the hydroisomerization oI n-paraIIins in petroleum light naphtha
to produce high octane gasoline. Also, we published two papers (2008, 2009) on
natural gas direct conversion to petrochemicals using metal oxides on zeolite support.















40

Tuesday March 30, 2010; 20:00

After Dinner Talk


Ethics of Scientific Publication:
How to Write an Effective Scientific Paper

Prashant V. Kamat
Department oI Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department oI Chemical and
Biomolecular Engineering, and Radiation Laboratory, University oI Notre Dame,
Notre Dame, IN 46556
E-mail: pkamatnd.edu


Sharing scientiIic knowledge through publications is an integral part oI research
career. Since more and more organizations evaluate scientiIic productivity by
scholarly publication rates, the concern regarding research ethics becomes an
important issue. The lecture will address Iollowing questions. What are common
practices oI publishing scientiIic work? What is scientiIic misconduct? What are
common misconceptions? How to make your next paper an eIIective publication?

Please download a copv of the paper 'On Being a Scientist` available free (One copv of
for each person) from U.S. National Academv Press.
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12192.html























41



ABSTRACTS

Forth Day
Wednesday, March 31, 2010




SESSION-9
NANOMATERIALS FOR ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT-1
9:00 11:00

Lecture 1
Carbon Nanostructures for Energy Conversion
Prashant V. Kamat
Lecture 2
Effect of Preparation Parameters on the Properties of TiO
2
Nanoparticles for Dye Sensitized
Solar Cells
Abd El-Hady Besheir Kashyout

SESSION-10
NANOMATERIALS FOR ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT-2
11:30 13:30

Lecture 1
Nanomaterials in Environmental Processes
Vicki Grassian

Lecture 2
Fundamental Aspects of Photochemistry on TiO
2
Surfaces-Using Sunlight for Environmental
Remediation
John T Yates, Jr.

SESSION-11
NANOMATERIALS FOR ENERGY APPLICATIONS
16:00 18:00

Lecture 1
Plasmonic-Semiconductor Hybrid Nanostructures for Photo-Electronic Device Fabrication
Mona Bakr Mohamed

Lecture 2
Design and In-situ Measurements of Catalytic Conversion and Electrochemical-Energy-
Storage Materials: A Bright Future for Synchrotron-based Energy Science
Faisal M. Alamgir
42

Wednesday March 31, 2010; 9:00


Carbon Nanostructures for Energy Conversion

Prashant V. Kamat
Department oI Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department oI Chemical and
Biomolecular Engineering, and Radiation Laboratory, University oI Notre Dame,
Notre Dame, IN 46556
E-mail: pkamatnd.edu


Carbon nanostructures (single wall carbon nanotubes and graphene) are well suited as
scaIIolds to collect electrons Irom excited semiconductor nanocrystals (CdSe
quantum dots) and transport them to the conducting electrode surIace. 1-D
architectures provide the directionality Ior electron transport and reduce charge
recombination pathways at the grain boundaries (Scheme 1). The charge separation
between excited CdSe semiconductor quantum dots and stacked-cup carbon
nanotubes (SCCNT) has been successIully tapped to generate photocurrent in a
quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSC). The ability oI carbon nanotubes and
grahene oxide to collect and transport electrons Irom excited semiconductor
anoparticles has been established Irom photocurrent and spectroscopy measurements.
Composites oI semiconductor nanoparticles carbon nanostructures have the potential
to develop eIIective light energy harvesting strategies.


Scheme 1.
43

Wednesday March 31, 2010; 10:00


Effect of Preparation Parameters on the Properties of TiO
2
Nanoparticles for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

A. B. Kashyout*, M. Soliman
1
and M. Fathy
Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute
Mubarak City Ior ScientiIic Research and Technology Applications (MuCSAT)
New Borg El-Arab City, P.O. Box 21934, Alexandria, Egypt
E-mail: akashyoutmucsat.sci.eg

1
Institute oI Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University
163 Horrya Avenue, P.O. Box 832, Shatby, 21526 Alexandria, Egypt


Nano-sized TiO
2
powders have been prepared by sol-gel method. InIluence oI the
diIIerent preparation parameters on the TiO
2
nano-powder properties was
investigated. Thermal gravemetric analysis (TGA) was used to examine the thermal
properties oI the produced TiO
2
nanoparticles. Yield eIIiciency oI the resulted
nanoparticles was calculated and the reaction eIIciencey was estimated. Maximun
eIIciency oI 98.9 was achieved at autoclaving temperature oI 245 C Ior time
duration oI 12 hrs. X-ray diIIraction analyses show the presence oI anatase structure
at low and high autoclaving temperatures. Fraction oI rutile phase appeared with
increasing the calcination temperature and reach 40 at 850 C. High resolution
transmission electron micsoscopy (HRTEM) showed spherical nanoparticles oI 8-9
nm at autoclaving temperature oI 130 C, while elongated nanoparticles oI 14-18 nm
in length and 9 nm in width were observed at autoclaving temperature oI 245 C. The
solar cell perIormance was measured Ior various TiO
2
dye sensitized solar cells. The
sample oI high autoclaving temperature gave an improvement in eIIiciency to be 8.5
while those oI lower autoclaving temperature had an eIIieiency oI 7.29 . An
enhancement in both open circuit voltage (V
oc
) and Iill Iactor (FF) is obviously
detected, where elongated nanoparticles are measured by HRTEM, which could
improve the electrnonic conductivity and consequently FF and V
oc
.

44

Wednesday March 31, 2010; 11:30


Nanomaterials in Environmental Processes

Vicki H. Grassian
Departments oI Chemistry & Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
University oI Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1294
E-mail: vicki-grassianuiowa.edu


Both natural and engineered oxide nanomaterials play important roles in
environmental processes. In the case oI engineered nanomaterials, e.g.
nanocyrstalline zeolites which have high external and internal surIace areas, the
properties can be tailored Ior a number oI diIIerent environmental applications
including deNOx catalysis and carbon dioxide removal and conversion. For naturally
occurring oxide nanomaterials, e.g. iron oxides, the size dependent properties and
surIace chemistry will impact biogeochemical cycles. In this talk, some speciIic
examples oI the size-dependent properties and surIace chemistry oI both natural and
engineered oxide nanomaterials in environmental processes will be discussed.































45

Wednesday March 31, 2010; 12:30


Fundamental Aspects of Photochemistry on TiO2 Surfaces- Using
Sunlight for Environmental Remediation

John T. Yates, Jr.
Department oI Chemistry
University oI Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904
E-mail: johntvirginia.edu


Titanium dioxide is widely used Ior the solar-driven photooxidation oI environmental
contaminants. This occurs by the excitation oI electron-hole pairs in the TiO2 and by
redox processes that then occur on the surIaces the charge carriers move to the
surIace. We have used the measurement oI simple photochemical processes on a
TiO2(110) single crystal surIace to monitor the kinetics oI electron-hole pair
recombination inside the solid. In addition, deIective Ti3 interstitial ions in the TiO2
bulk have been monitored as they diIIuse through the solid to the surIace to react with
adsorbed oxygen, and the kinetics oI this diIIusion process to grow TiOx layers on top
oI the surIace has been studied. Such TiOx layers are important in controlling the
activity oI metal catalysts supported by TiO2.


46

Wednesday March 31, 2010; 16:00


Plasmonic-Semicondcutor Hybrid Nanostructures for Photo-
Electronic Device Fabrications

Mona B. Mohamed
National Institute oI Laser Enhanced Science (NILES)
Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
E-mail: mohamedmonahotmail.com


Localized surIace plasmons have been shown to provide substantial eIIiciency
enhancement in photoelectric eIIects with a range oI semiconducting materials and
devices due to the scattering Irom metal nanoparticles near their localized plasmon
resonance. This would enhance the light absorption and the photocurrent obtained in
any PV and LED conIiguration. This talk will summarize the collective optical and
electrical properties oI Core-shell metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructure and how
these properties depend on the size, shape oI the metallic core and semiconductor
shell thickness. DiIIerent methods to Iabricate metal-semiconductor hybrid structures
will be discussed in details. This talk will also highlight the possibility oI using these
nanocomposites to Iabricate quantum dot solar cell devices, LED and Lasers.































47

Wednesday March 31, 2010; 17:00


Design and In-situ Measurements of Catalytic Conversion and
Electrochemical-Energy-Storage Materials: A Bright Future for
Synchrotron-based Energy Science

Faisal M. Alamgir
Materials Science and Engineering
Georgia Institute oI Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245
E-mail: Iaisalmse.gatech.edu


Two Iundamental concerns in the development oI novel materials are, Iirst, the design
oI structure with atomic-scale precision in order to aIIect Iunctionality, and second,
the direct, realtime, measurement oI that designed structure under operating
conditions. Only a concerted eIIort along both oI these Ironts can reveal the
Iundamental aspects oI the role oI design on Iunctionality. This is particularly true Ior
the new generation oI materials Ior energy harnessing and conversion where the size,
shape and internal compositional architecture oI Iunctional materials are being
manipulated in order to produce breakthroughs in energy science.

On the design Iront, robust core-shell architectures are predicted to have signiIicant
eIIects in the catalysis, (electro/photo)catalysis, Li-battery electrochemistry and
photovoltaics.
We will look at the layer by layer growth oI compositional architectures and discuss
the eIIects oI 'core-shell architectures on catalytic activity on the Iuture oI energy
science.

On the real-time measurement Iront we will look at the latest developments on
synchrotron-based techniques. Due to the tunability oI synchrotron X-rays species-
speciIic inIormation can be obtained using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS)
Irom nearly every known constituent element oI energy-related materials. Using XAS,
the chemical state and the local atomic structure Irom a material can be obtained Irom
a single experiment. In addition, the high brightness, high coherence and short pulse
trains allow synchrotron light to be used Ior species-speciIic, in-situ studies at high
temporal and energy resolutions. We will look at examples oI in-situ (and ex-situ)
XAS measurements in the area oI energy storage (Li-ion battery intercalation
reactions), energy conversion (surIace reactions on Iuel-cell catalysts) and energy
harvesting (catalytic H2 production Irom ethanol).


48



ABSTRACTS

Fifth Day
Thursday, April 1, 2010


SESSION-12
GOLD-BASED NANOCATALYSTS
9:00 11:00

Lecture 1
Confining Resonant Photons to the Nano-Gold Length Scale: The New Properties and
Applications in Material Science, Nanobiology and Cancer Nano-Medicine
Mostafa El-Sayed

Lecture 2
Catalysis by Nanosized Gold: The Nature of the Active Site
D. Wayne Goodman

SESSION-13
IR CATALYSIS STUDIES
11:30 13:30

Lecture 1
Infrared Studies of Interest to Catalysis and Microelectronics
Francisco Zaera

Lecture 2
IR Observation of Adsorptive and Catalytic Interactions on Metal and Metal Oxide Surfaces
Mohammed Ibrahim Zaki

SESSION-14
PLASMONIC & HYBRID NANOSTRUCTURED MATERILAS
16:00 18:00

Lecture 1
Laser Vaporization Controlled Condensation for the Synthesis of Supported Nanoparticle
Catalysts, Nanoalloys & Up-Converting Nanoparticles
M. Samy El-Shall

Lecture 2
An Integrated Approach using Spectroscopy, Microscopy and Particle Sizing Methods to
Investigate Chemistry on the Nanoscale
Vicki Grassian


49

Thursday April 1, 2010; 9:00


Confining Resonant Photons to the Nano-Gold Length Scale:
The New Properties and Applications in Material Science,
Nanobiology and Cancer Nano-Medicine

Mostafa A. El-Sayed
Laser Dynamics Laboratory, Georgia Institute oI Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0245, USA
E-mail: mostaIa.el-sayedchemistry.gatech.edu


New Iields such as optoelectronics, sensors, nanocatalysis, nanomotors and nano-
medicine use the new exciting properties
1-3
oI gold and silver nanoparticles. Some oI
the most exciting properties arise when resonant photons are captured by these
nanoparticles oI the right size and shape. This excites the localized surIace plasmon
oscillation resulting Irom the coherent excitation oI the Iree electrons in the
conduction band. This greatly enhances the electromagnetic Iields oI the captured
photon on the surIace oI the nanoparticle which strongly enhances their Radiative
properties as well as that oI any electronic system that Ialls within the range oI this
Iield. The eIIect oI the coupling between close nanoparticles change their color (used
as nano-ruler)
4
, increase or decrease the Raman scattering intensity oI adsorbed
molecules
5
, enhance the nonradiative properties oI near electronic systems like the
relaxation oI hot electrons in semiconductors
6
, the rate oI exciton annihilation in
conducting polymers
7
or the rate oI retinal photo-isomerization and proton pump in
Bacterio-Rhodopsin photosynthesis
8
. The strong Radiative properties oI gold nano-
particles are used in imaging and the sensitive detection oI cancer cells in vitro
9
and
in-vivo
11
. The strongly absorbed photon energy is rapidly converted into heat. This
localized heating oI the gold nanoparticles can heat and destroy attached cancer (or
sick) cells and is thus used in Vitro and in-Vivo cancer therapy
10,11
. Very recently,
non-photo-thermal techniques oI using gold nano-particles in Cancer Therapy have
been developed.
12



References

1. Burda, C.; Chen, X.; Narayanan, R.; El-Sayed, M.A., 'The Chemistry and Properties oI
Nanocrystals oI DiIIerent Shapes, Chem. Rev. 105 (4), 1025-1102, (2005) (Invited Review
Article).
2. Huang, X.l Neretina, S.; El-Sayed, M.A., Gold Nanorods: From Synthesis and Properties to
Biological and Biomedical Applications. Advanced Materials, 21(48),48804910 (2009).
(Invited review article)
3. Stephan Link, MostaIa A. El-Sayed, 'Optical Properties and UltraIast Dynamics oI
Metallic Nanocrystals, Annual Review Phys. Chem., 54:331-66, (2003) Invited.
4. Prashant K. Jain, W.Huang, and M.A. El-Sayed, "On the universal scaling Nano Letters,
7, 2080, (2007).
5. Mahmoud, M. A., El-Sayed, M.A., Aggregation oI gold NanoIrames reduces, rather than
enhances SERS eIIiciency due to the tradeoII oI the inter- and intra particle plasmonic Iields.
Nano Letters, 9(8), 3025-3031(2009).
50

6. Svetlana Neretina, Wei Qian, Erik C. Dreaden, Robert A. Hughes, John S., Peter Mascher,
MostaIa A. El-Sayed, "Plasmon Field EIIects on the Nonradiative Relaxation oI Hot
Electrons in an Electronically Quantized System: CdTe-Au Core-Shell Nanowires," Nano
Letters 8(8), 2410-2418 (2008)
7. Mahmoud, M. A, and Adam Poncheri, J. Am. Chem Soc., In press.
8. Arianna Biesso, Wei Qian, MostaIa A. El-Sayed, "Gold nanoparticle plasmonic eIIect on
the retinal photoisomerisation and the proton pump in the photocycle oI the other
photosynthetic system in nature,
bacteriorhodopsin," Journal oI the American Chemical Society, 130(11), 3258-, (2008);
131,2442, 2009
9. El-Sayed, Ivan; Huang, Xiaohua; El-Sayed, MostaIa A., 'SurIace Plasmon Resonance
Scattering and
Absorption oI anti-EGFR Antibody Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles in Cancer Diagnostics;
Applications in Oral Cancer, Nano Letters 4(5), 829-834, (2005). (ISI hot paper)
10. Xiaohua Huang; Ivan H. El-Sayed; Wei Qian and MostaIa A. El-Sayed, 'Cancer Cell
Imaging and Photothermal Therapy in Near-InIrared Region by Using Gold Nanorods,
Journal oI American Chem Soc., 128, 2115-2120, (2006). (the most cited paper in the Iield oI
chemistry, ISI, Oct-Dec 2007).
11. Erin B. Dickerson , Erik C. Dreaden , Xiaohua Huang , Ivan H. El-Sayed et al,
Goldnanorod assisted nearinIrared plasmonic photothermal therapy oI squamous cell
carcinoma in mice , Cancer Letters 269, 57-66 (2008).
12. Bin Kang, Meg Mackay and M. A. El-Sayed, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 2010, 132 (5), pp 1517
1519.
51

Thursday April 1, 2010; 10:00


Catalysis by Nanosized Au: The Nature of the Active Site

D. W. Goodman
Department oI Chemistry, Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77842-3012, USA
E-mail: goodmanmail.chem.tamu.edu


The special electronic, structural, and chemical properties oI gold clusters supported
on single crystalline titania surIaces have been detailed and contrasted with the
corresponding properties oI bulk gold. The gold clusters investigated vary in size
Irom a Iew atoms to many. An array oI surIace techniques including reaction kinetics
oI carbon monoxide oxidation has been used to correlate catalytic Iunction oI these
surIaces with their physical and electronic properties. OI special interest are the
special physical and chemical properties that develop with metal cluster size reduction
and/or metal-support interaction.

































52


Thursday April 1, 2010; 11:30


Infrared Studies of Surfaces of Interest to Catalysis and
Microelectronics

Francisco Zaera
Department oI Chemistry
University oI CaliIornia, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
E-mail: zaeraucr.edu


Examples Irom our laboratory on applications oI inIrared spectroscopy to the
characterization oI surIaces oI relevance to catalysis and microelectronics Iabrication
will be presented.

Transmission IR absorption spectroscopy has been used to identiIy key intermediates
on high-surIace area solids relevant to catalysis as well as in Iilm deposition
processes, and also to characterize the oxidation state oI supported metals via
chemical titrations. Attenuated total reIlection (ATR) setups have been used to
investigate the anchoring oI porphyrins on solid substrates Ior applications in the
development oI molecular memories, and also to establish the reaction mechanism oI
atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes.

ReIlection- Absorption IR spectroscopy (RAIRS) is employed to characterize key
adsorbates, to determine adsorption geometries, and to titrate surIace chemical sites.
The RAIRS approach is oIten used to look at well-characterized single-crystal
surIaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, but additional setups have been
developed to also be able to interrogate gas-solid and liquid-solid interIaces in-situ.
Our ability to investigate the liquid-solid interIace has been particularly useIul to
probe the chiral modiIication oI catalytic systems.

53

Thursday April 1, 2010; 12:30


IR Observation of Adsorptive and Catalytic Interactions on Metal
and Metal Oxide Surfaces

Mohamed I. Zaki
Chemistry Department, Faculty oI Science,
Minia University, El-Minia 61519, Egypt
E-mail: mizakilink.net


Catalysis is in large measure brought about by chemical perturbation oI a reactant or
reactants through interaction with the catalyst surIace. At gas/solid interIaces the gas
molecules colloid with the solid surIace mostly inelastically. II the loss in energy is
signiIicant, the molecules may stick to the surIace. On the surIace the molecules may
get physically adsorbed (weakly bound) and, thus, can still be able to wander about,
or may become restricted to certain sites by chemical adsorption (strongly bound)
and, consequently, get energetically perturbed and activated Ior a chemical change.
The chemical change may be conIined to a molecular dissociation into smaller
species, or may be brought about by the involvement in a surIace catalytic reaction oI
unimolecular or bimolecular kinetics.

The talk should help presenting techniques and potential oI in-situ Fourier-transIorm
inIrared spectroscopy in observing adsorptive and catalytic events at molecular level.
Results obtained Ior interactions established at the interIaces oI a number oI reactive
and irreactive probe molecules (including CO, pyridine, 2-propanol and
methybutynol) with supported and unsupported metal (e.g., Rh and Ni) and metal
oxide (MoOx, AlOx, CrOx, CeOx, ZrOx ..etc) catalysts will be used to reveal nature
oI adsorbed species, as well as various characteristics oI adsorption sites (e.g., acid-
base properties, coordination and oxidation states, and dispersion). Moreover,
mathematical apparatus adopted in reIining and analyzing the spectral data will be
brought into prominence.


















54

Thursday April 1, 2010; 16:00


Laser Vaporization Controlled Condensation for the Synthesis of
Supported Catalysts, Nanoalloys & Up-Converting Nanoparticles

M. Samy El-Shall
Department oI Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, Virginia 23284, USA
E-mail: mselshalvcu.edu


In this lecture, I will review the vapor phase synthesis oI nanoparticles with a Iocus on
the LVCC method.
1-3
This method uniquely combines the Ieatures oI pulsed laser
vaporization with the controlled condensation process Irom the vapor phase under
well-deIined conditions oI temperature and pressure. It allows the synthesis oI
nanoalloys with controlled compositions as well as the incorporation oI dopant ions
within the lattice oI the desired nanocrystals.

The LVCC method produces highly
crystalline nanoparticles and thereIore, eliminates the long post-annealing process
typically required by other synthesis methods. Furthermore, the method does not
involve the use oI any chemical precursors or solvents and thereIore, it provides a
simple and yet eIIective synthetic route Ior contamination-Iree, highly crystalline, and
controlled doping oI nanoparticles. The coupling oI the LVCC technique with a
diIIerential mobility analyzer (DMA) allows the synthesis oI size-selected
semiconductor, metal and intermetallic nanoparticles Irom the vapor phase. Finally,
the application oI an electric Iield during the LVCC process leads to the assembly oI
nanoparticles into Iilaments and Iibers. Enormous electrostatic interaction due to
dipole Iorces is observed between nanoparticles to Iorm chain Iilaments and between
the chains to Iorm tree-like assemblies.


Three examples oI the synthesis oI nanoparticles by the LVCC method will be
discussed. First, is the synthesis oI intermetallic (FeAl, NiAl, TiAl) and alloy (Au-Ag,
Au-Pd, Au-Pt) nanoparticles. The Iormation oI nanoalloys is concluded Irom the
observation oI one plasmon absorption band at a wavelength that varies with the
composition oI the nanoalloy. Also, the XRD data and HRTEM-EDX data can be
used to conIirm the Iormation oI nanoparticle alloys and not simply mixtures oI the
individual nanoparticles.
1


In the second example, the synthesis oI nanoparticle catalysts (Ior CO oxidation)
characterized by large surIace area, high dispersion and strong metal-support
interaction will be presented. The use oI the bimetallic nanoparticles as catalysts
provides an opportunity Ior tuning the catalytic activity to the desired perIormance
depending on the composition oI the nanoalloy, the nature oI the oxide support, and
the size and shape oI the nanoparticle alloys.
2


Finally, the application oI the LVCC method Ior the synthesis oI up-converting (UC)
phosphors nanoparticles will be presented. These particles covert near-inIrared (NIR)
photons to higher energy visible or UV light via multiple absorptions or energy
transIer. The incorporation oI several dopants such as Yb
3
, Er
3
, Ho
3
, and Tm
3
with
controlled concentrations within the lattice oI host nanocrystals such as Y
2
O
3
will be
55

discussed.
3
UC nanoparticles are used to convert NIR photons into red, green, blue
and white light Ior a variety oI applications that include display devices, back light
sources, sensors, biolabeling and photodynamic therapy.


References

1. Laser Svnthesis of Bimetallic Nanoallovs in the Japor and Liquid Phases and the Magnetic
Properties of PdM and PtM Nanoparticles (M Fe, Co and Ni)
V. Abdelsayed, G. Glaspell, M. Nguyen, J. Howe and M. S. El-Shall, Faradav Discussion
2008, 138, 163-180.
2. Nanocatalvsis on Supported Oxides for CO Oxidation
G. Glaspell, H. M. A. Hassan, A. Elzatahry, V. Abdelsayed and M. S. El-Shall,
Topics in Catalvsis, 2008, 47, 22-31.

3. Japor Phase Svnthesis of Upconverting Y
2
O
3
Nanocrvstals Doped with Yb
3
, Er
3
, Ho
3
and Tm
3
to Generate Red, Green, Blue and White Light
G. Glaspell, J. Anderson, J. Wilkins and M. S. El-Shall, J. Phvs. Chem. C. 2008, 112, 11527-
11531.



























56

Thursday April 1, 2010; 17:00


An Integrated Approach Using Spectroscopy, Microscopy and
Particle Sizing Methods to Investigate Chemistry on the Nanoscale

Vicki H. Grassian
Departments oI Chemistry & Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
University oI Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1294
E-mail: vicki-grassianuiowa.edu


In the studies discussed here, an integrated approach which utilizes methods Irom
surIace science, surIace chemistry, solid state chemistry, colloid science and aerosol
science, to investigate the chemical activity and physicochemial properties oI metal
and metal oxide particles on the nanoscale will be discussed. The approach combines
state-oI-the-art characterization oI the bulk and surIace properties oI nanoparticles by
using spectroscopy, microscopy and particle sizing instruments along with studies oI
the physicochemical properties oI nanoparticles to better understand size-dependent
processes oI nanoparticles. Examples to be discussed include surIace adsorption,
surIace chemistry, nanoparticle dissolution and nanoparticle aggregation oI nanoscale
titanium dioxide, iron oxyhydroxide, copper and silver nanoparticles.


























57


ABSTRACTS

Seventh Day
Saturday , April 3, 2010


SESSION-15
DESIGN & SYNTHESIS OF NANOMATERIALS FOR ENERGY
APPLICATIONS
9:00 11:00

Lecture 1
Design of Nanomaterials for Energy Applications
Puru Jena
Lecture 2
Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of New Materials for Hydrogen Storage
Nahla Isamil

SESSION-16
HIGH SURFACE AREA MATERIALS
11:30 13:15

Lecture 1
Metal-Organic Materials:Strategies toward Functional Porous Materials
Mohamed Eddaoudi

Lecture 2
Acid Catalyzed Organic Transformations by Heteropoly Tungstophosphoric Acid Supported
on MCM-41 and MIL-101
Abd Elrahman Khedr
SESSION-17
ATMOSPHERIC & ENVIRONMENTAL CATALYSIS
15:30 18:00
Lecture 1
Atmospheric Processes on Aerosol and Cloud Surface
Joseph S. Francisco

Lecture 2
Nanocatalysts for CO Oxidation on Different Supports: Mesopourous MCM-41, MIL-101 &
Mixed Metal Oxides
Hassan M. Ahmed Hassan

Lecture 3
New Nano-Crystalline Electrode Materials for Green Hydrogen Fuel Production from
Seawater Electrolysis
Ahmed Abd El-Menniem
58

Saturday April 3, 2010; 9:00


Design of Nanomaterials for Energy Applications

Puru Jena
Department oI Physics
Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA
E-mail: pjenavcu.edu


Nanomaterials, due to their reduced size and dimension, possess unusual properties
not seen in their bulk Iorm. This has opened the door to the design and synthesis oI
novel materials with tailored properties. My presentation will involve three
components. First I will describe state-oI-the-art theoretical techniques that are used
to study the structure property relationships oI nanomaterials with particular emphasis
on energetic materials. Examples will include nanomaterials Ior hydrogen storage
and Ior high energy density applications.

For the hydrogen economy to succeed, materials capable oI storing hydrogen with
gravimetric density oI about 10 wt is needed. To meet this target, host materials
have to consist oI elements lighter than Aluminum. UnIortunately, the bonding oI
hydrogen in these materials is either too strong or too weak and ways must be Iound
to tune the hydrogen bond strength so that these materials can be used Ior mobile
applications. I will discuss how the novel properties oI materials at the nanoscale can
improve the thermodynamics and kinetics oI hydrogen. In particular, I will discuss
how carbon based nanostructures such as nanotubes and Iullerenes can not only be
used as catalysts to improve hydrogen uptake and release in complex light metal
hydrides such as alanates, borohydrides, and imides but also how they can be
Iunctionalized with metal atoms atoms to adsorb hydrogen in a novel quasi-molecular
Iorm. I will also discuss the role oI electric Iields in hydrogen storage. These results,
based upon density Iunctional theory and quantum molecular dynamics, provide a
Iundamental understanding oI the interaction oI molecular hydrogen with hosts
consisting oI light elements. It is hoped that the understanding gained here can be
useIul in designing better materials Ior hydrogen storage. Results will be compared
with available experimental data.

The second application involves the design oI molecular species where inner core
electrons can participate in bonding and hence can bind to a larger number oI halogen
and oxygen atoms than traditionally known. In particular I will concentrate on a class
oI molecules called superhalogens. These are multi-atom chemical species with
electron aIIinities that are much larger than those oI the halogen atoms and typically
consist oI a central atom and several peripheral halogen or oxygen atoms. Because oI
their high electron aIIinities, superhalogens almost always exist as negative ions,
usually as the anionic portions oI salts. While numerous superhalogen anions, such as
permanganates (MnO4-) and perchlorates (ClO4-) are known, many more are waiting
to be discovered. I will describe a new class oI superhalogens consisting oI coinage
metal atoms (Cu, Ag, and Au) interacting with Iluorine. Not only these atoms can
bind up to seven F atoms, Iar exceeding the values expected Irom their nominal
valence, but also the electron aIIinity oI these superhalogen molecules can be as high
59

as 8 eV, more than a Iactor two larger than that oI Cl, the element with the highest
electron aIIinity in the periodic table. These superhalogens have the potential to serve
as building blocks oI new high energy-density materials capable oI combating
biological agents.


















































60

Saturday April 3, 2010; 10:15


Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of New Materials for
Hydrogen Storage

Nahla Ismail
National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: nahlaismail24yahoo.com


Research on new materials to be tested to store hydrogen is oI great interest.
Microporous and layered materials and polymeric materials are synthesized and its
hydrogen adsorption properties are examined. Titanosilicates oI diIIerent types ETS-
4, natisite and sitinakite are synthesized hydrothermally at 200!C. Natisite and
sitinakite has been also synthesized Irom natural Egyptian silica oI high purity. The
use oI natural silica has increased the porosity oI the natisite and sitinakite which by
its turn has enhanced the hydrogen storage capacity. Lay ered transition metal
phosphorous trisulphides are synthesized by solid state reaction in evacuated silica
ampoules. The hydrogen capacity adsorbed in interlayer gap reached 2.2 wt up to
20 bar and at 77 K.

DiIIerent hyperbranched polymer systems beside a nanocomposite are employed as
hydrogen storing materials. The polymers used are aliphatic hyperbranched poly urea,
polyamide amine (PAMAM) and polyamide amine/ vanandium pentoxide (PAMAM/
V
2
O
5
) nanocomposite. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms showed linear relationship
with increasing pressure. The materials showed hydrogen storing ability up to 2.2
wt.

New results Ior the hydrogen storage capacity oI graphene and Metal-Organic
Frameworks (MOFs) will be presented. Graphene has been prepared by the reduction
oI graphite oxide prepared by the Hammer method. The graphene sheets produced are
able to adsorb 0.28 wt. hydrogen at 273 K and 20 bar. At 77 K and the same applied
pressure (20 bar), the sample adsorbs 3.4 wt. hydrogen. On the other hand, MIL-101
sample displays hydrogen storage capacity oI 4.4wt. at 77K and 20 bar.
















61

Saturday April 3, 2010; 11:30


Metal-Organic Materials: Strategies toward Functional Porous
Materials

Mohamed Eddaoudi
Department oI Chemistry, The University oI South Florida
4202 E. Fowler Avenue, CHE205, Tampa, Florida, 33620, USA
E-mail: eddaoudicas.usI.edu


The quest Ior Iunctional materials targeted Ior speciIic applications is ever increasing
as societal needs and demands mount with advancing technology. One class oI
inorganic-organic hybrid materials, metal-organic materials (MOMs), has burgeoned
in recent years due, in part, to eIIective design strategies (i.e. reticular chemistry) Ior
their synthesis and their inherent |and readily interchangeable| hybrid, highly
Iunctional character. The molecular building block (MBB) approach introduces the
ability to generate rigid and directional building blocks, mostly in situ, Ior the
construction oI MOMs having speciIic underlying networks and/or targeted
Iunctions/properties. Here we will discuss three basic strategies based on the MBB
approach. Three classes oI MBBs can be targeted and utilized in the assembly oI
Iunctional MOMs: 1) single-metal-ion-based MBBs, which promote the rational
construction, by Iorcing rigidity and directionality through control oI the metal
coordination sphere and judicious selection oI suitable hetero-Iunctional (N-, O-
coordination) organic ligands, oI porous MOMs with extra-large cavities, including
zeolite-like metal-organic Irameworks (ZMOFs);
1
2) multi-nuclear metal cluster-
based MBBs, where, Ior example, simple metal-carboxylate clusters possess multiple
metal-oxygen coordination bonds that result in the generation oI rigid nodes with
Iixed geometry that, when combined with organic ligands oI speciIic geometry, lead
to the construction oI desired MOMs (e.g. soc-MOFs);
2
and 3) supermolecular
building blocks (SBBs), which involve enhanced built-in directional and structural
inIormation (e.g. high degree oI symmetry and connectivity) compared to simple
MBBs and allow the construction oI high-connectivity nets (e.g. rht-MOFs).
3
The
MBB approach and associated strategies, as well as physical properties oI some
corresponding MOMs (i.e. porosity, hydrogen sorption, catalysis, inclusion and
sensing) will be discussed.


! ! !






62




References

|1|. (a) Liu, Y.; Kravtsov, V. Ch.; Larsen, R. W.; Eddaoudi M. Chem. Commun. 1488-1490,
2006;
(b) Liu, Y.; Kravtsov, V. Ch.; Eddaoudi, M. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 8446-8449, 2008;
(c) Alkordi, M. H.; Liu, Y.; Larsen, R. W.; Eubank, J. F.; Eddaoudi, M. J. Am. Chem.
Soc. 130, 12639-12641, 2008.
|2|. Liu, Y.; Eubank, J. F.; Cairns, A. J.; Eckert, J.; Kravtsov, V. Ch.; Luebke, R.; Eddaoudi,
M.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 3278-3283, 2007.
|3| Nouar, F.; Eubank, J. F.; Bousquet, T.; Wojtas, L.; Zaworotko, M. J.; Eddaoudi, M.
J. Am. Chem. Soc., 130, 1833-1835, 2008.







































63

Saturday April 3, 2010; 12:30


Acid Catalyzed Organic Transformations by Heteropoly
Tungstophosphoric Acid Supported on MCM-41

Abd El Rahman S. Khder
Department oI Chemistry, Faculty oI Science
El-Mansoura University, El-Mansoure, Egypt
E-mail: askhder2244yahoo.com


Solid acid catalysts oI the catalytically active Keggin-type 12-tungstophosphoric acid
(H
3
PW
12
O
40
, HPW) incorporated within MCM-41 and the highly porous metal-
organic Iramework MIL-101 is prepared through a simple and eIIective impregnation
method. Characterization oI the catalysts using X-ray diIIraction, TEM, FT-IR and
Raman spectroscopy, TGA, surIace area and porosity measurements and acid-base
titration demonstrates the control oI the catalyst properties by the percent loading oI
HPW within MCM-41 or MIL-101 support.

The results show that the surIace saturation coverage oI MCM-41 is reached by 60 wt.
HPW. In the case oI MIL-101, no evidence Ior aggregation oI the HPW
nanocrystals on the surIace oI MIL crystals is Iound with HPW loading up to 70 wt.
N
2
sorption-desorption measurements reveal that samples with HPW loading up to 70
wt retain their mesoporosity, thus allowing the HPW accessibility through the MIL
substrate.

The catalytic activities oI these catalysts in promoting Pechmann reaction,
esteriIication reaction and Friedel-CraIts acylation oI anisole have been investigated.
The results show that, both oI the surIace acidity and the catalytic activity sharply
increase with the incorporation oI HPW within the MCM-41 or the MIL-101
supports. For the HPW/MCM-41 and HPW/MIL-101 catalysts, the highest acidity and
catalytic activity are obtained with 60wt and 70 wt HPW loading, respectively.

The unique attributes oI the high surIace areas oI MCM-41 and MIL-101 and the high
dispersion oI the HPW nanocrystals prohibit the conglomeration and deactivation oI
HPW, which leads to the enhancement oI the catalytic properties. The HPW-MCM
and HPW/MIL catalysts are potentially promising heterogeneous catalysts Ior acid-
catalyzed organic transIormations in environmentally Iriendly processes, to supersede
the use oI conventional homogeneous HPW catalysts.
64

Saturday April 3, 2010; 15:30


Atmospheric Processes on Aerosol and Cloud Surfaces

Joseph S. Francisco
Department oI Chemistry and Department oI Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Purdue University, West LaIayette, Indiana 47907-2084
Email: Iranciscpurdue.edu


How gas-phase materials become incorporated with cloud droplets has been an
intriguing subject Ior decades, and considerable work has been done to understand the
interactions between closed-shell molecules and liquid water. The interactions
between open-shell radical species and liquid-phase cloud droplets, however, are not
well understood. To probe these interactions we used quantum chemistry calculations
to predict the energetics oI the hydroperoxy radical (HO2) in the presence oI a model
cloud droplet surIace. Our calculations show that it is energetically Iavorable Ior the
radical to bind to the outside oI the cage. This conIiguration and orientation oI the
radical binding will be discussed as well as the implication Ior chemistry. Free-energy
calculations and molecular dynamics simulations provide some intriguing insight into
the partitioning between radicals that are surIace-bound and radicals that dissolve into
the bulk. This may have important ramiIications Ior our understanding oI radical
chemistry and may lend insight into the role that clouds and aerosols play in
atmospheric chemical processes.


























65

Saturday April 3, 2010; 16:30


Nanocatalysts for CO Oxidation on Different Supports:
Mesoporous MCM-41, MIL-101 & Mixed Metal Oxides

Hassan M. A. Hassan
Chemistry Department, Faculty oI Science
Suez Canal University, Suez, Egypt
E-mail: hmohamed73yahoo.com


The catalytic activity oI supported nanocatalysts depends on the shape oI the support
and the extent oI interaction with the catalyst. Several examples oI supported
nanocatalysts Ior the low temperature oxidation oI CO will be discussed. In the Iirst
example, the synthesis oI transition metal (TM) catalysts supported on MCM-41 will
be presented. The surIace area measurements reveal that MCM-41 has a total surIace
area oI 982m
2
/g with an average pore radius size oI 35A. These results are conIirmed
by the XRD and TEM measurements. The catalytic activity oI Pd/TM Oxide/MCM-
41 towards CO oxidation has been studied as a Iunction oI the Pd loading and the type
oI the transition metal oxide used. The Pd/Co
3
O
4
/MCM-41 catalyst shows the highest
catalytic activity where 100 CO oxidation is achieved at 130
o
C with the 6 wt Pd
loading.

In the second example, a Iacile, general and eIIective approach, based on microwave
irradiation (MWI), has been developed Ior the incorporation oI a variety oI metallic
and bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts within the highly porous coordination polymer
MIL-101. Small Pd, Cu and Pd-Cu nanoparticles oI 2-3 nm are incorporated within
the pores and larger particles oI 4-6 nm are supported on the surIace oI the MIL-101
crystals. The observed catalytic activities towards CO oxidation oI the Pd
nanocatalysts supported on the highly porous MIL-101 polymer are signiIicantly
higher than any other reported metal clusters supported on metal-organic Irameworks.
The Pd/MIL with 2.9 wt Pd loading shows the highest catalytic activity with a Iull
conversion oI CO into CO
2
achieved at 107 C. The observed high activity is
attributed to the small metal nanoparticles imbedded within the pores oI the MIL
crystals.

Finally, the MWI has been used Ior the synthesis oI Au and Pd nanocatalysts
supported on cerium-haInium nanocrystalline solid solution (Ce
x
HI
1-x
O
2
,

x 0.6-0.8).
The incorporation oI HI
4
ion into the CeO
2
lattice enhances the redox ability oI these
supported catalysts. The catalyst 4Au/0.8CeO
2
-0.2HIO
2
shows the highest catalytic
activity with a Iull conversion oI CO into CO
2
achieved at 73 C. This high activity is
remarkable and implies that a variety oI eIIicient catalysts can be designed and tested
using this approach.






66

Saturday April 3, 2010; 17:15


New Nano-Crystalline Electrode Materials for Green Hydrogen Fuel
Production from Seawater Electrolysis

Ahmed A. El-Moneim
1,2,
*, N.Diab
2
, E. El-Sherbiny
2
, K. Ebrahim
2
, N. A. El-Ghany
2

1-Egyptian-Japanese University oI Science and Technology, Borg El Arab,
Alexandria, Egypt
2-National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
E-mail: ahmed.abdelmoneimejust.org


For prevention oI global warming and prevention oI exhaustion oI Iossil Iuels and
uranium, renewable energy Iuels should supplied to meet the demand oI the whole
world. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling as well as hydrogen Iuel
production, with the help oI Tohoku Institute oI technology, Sendai, Japan, Ior the use
oI renewable energy. Intermittent electricity generated by solar cell on deserts or wind
turbine in on and/or oIIshore regions will converted to hydrogen by seawater
electrolysis nearby sea or desert coasts, and hydrogen with no inIrastructures oI
transportation will be used directly in internal combustion engine or converted to
methane by reaction with carbon dioxide. Key materials necessary Ior this process
are the anode and cathode Ior seawater electrolysis and the catalyst Ior conversion
carbon dioxide into methane. We have been creating these key materials. For
industrialization oI green hydrogen technology based on seawater electrolysis,
enormous evolution oI toxic chlorine, which generally occurs on the anode, is not
allowed. In addition, cheap cathode and anode with very low overpotentials during
long term electrolysis are requested. Finally, optimum electrolyzer design with very
low energetic loss is needed. The technical objective oI the work in this presentation
is to tailor anode and cathode materials meet selectivity, durability, reliability and cost
eIIectiveness Ior environmentally and energetically eIIicient seawater electrolysis
process.

We succeed in tailoring the best ever know durable oxygen evolving anode, without
Iormation oI environmentally harmIul chlorine, during electrolysis oI acidic seawater.
The best anode was continuously deposited Irom 0.2M Mn
2
-0.003M Mo
6
-xM N (N
is either transition or rare earth metal cations) solutions oI pH -0.1 at 600 A.m
-2
Ior 1h
on electroconductive IrO
2
/Ti substrate. It showed 100 and 97 oxygen evolution
eIIiciency, with no loss in weight, aIter about 3000 and 6000h oI electrolysis,
respectively, at 1000A.m
-2


We also succeed in developing durable electrodeposited NiMoC alloy electrodes Ior
hydrogen evolution reaction on both expanded iron and nickel substrates. The NiMoC
alloy electrodes show several order oI magnitudes higher activity Ior HER than
commercial carbon steel, expanded Ni and platinized electrodes. The durability
(corrosion resistance) oI NiMoC alloy electrodes is not signiIicantly aIIected by the
shutdown period oI electrolysis process.
Electrodes perIormance was explained in terms oI structure, composition,
conductivity and other physico-chemcial parameters.

67

The overall system eIIiciency based on PEM technology was about 84 which is
comparable to the value suggested by US Department oI Energy (DOE) Ior producing
hydrogen with reasonable price Irom Iorecourt sized electrolyzer.







































68


ABSTRACTS


Eighth Day
Sunday , April 4, 2010




SESSION-18
CARBON NANOTUBES
9:00 10:45

Lecture 1
Metallic and Bimetallic Nanocatalysts for the Economic Synthesis of
Decorated Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) for Environmental Applications
Mahmoud H. Khedr

Lecture 2
Heating and Cooling Dynamics of Carbon Nanotubes Observed by
Temperature-Jump Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy
Omar F. Mohammed

SESSION-19
INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION
13:00 15:00

Lecture 1
Funding Opportunities in International Collaborations for Materials Research
and Education
Zakya Kafafi

Lecture 2
Overview of the American Chemical Society and U.S. efforts to celebrate the
International Year of Chemistry 2011
Joseph S. Francisco






69

Sunday April 4, 2010; 9:00


Metallic and Bimetallic Nanocatalysts for the Economic Synthesis of
Decorated Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) for Environmental
Applications

Mahmoud H. Khedr
Nanomaterials Unit, Faculty oI Science, BenisueI University
BenisueI, Egypt
E-mail: dkhedryahoo.com


An overview oI the synthesis methods and the properties oI carbon nanotubes (CNTs)
will be presented. EIIective, simple and economically attractive methods Ior synthesis
oI CNTs and the modiIication oI their surIace structures will be presented. These
modiIications are expected to improve the catalytic, electrical, magnetic and
mechanical properties oI CNTs Ior a variety oI important applications. One oI these
applications is the use oI modiIied CNTs Ior the adsorption oI heavy metals Irom sea
water and river water to decrease the toxicity in Iish Iarms. Other possible
applications will be discussed.





























70

Sunday April 4, 2010; 10:00

Heating and Cooling Dynamics of Carbon Nanotubes Observed by
Temperature- Jump Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy

Omar F. Mohammed*, Peter C. Samartzis and Ahmed H. Zewail
Physical Biology Center Ior UltraIast Science and Technology, Arthur Amos Noyes
Laboratory oI Chemical Physics, CaliIornia Institute oI Technology, Pasadena, CA
91125, USA
E-mail: omar3070caltech.edu

Although the thermal eIIects oI suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in organic and
aqueous solutions have been extensively studied1-2, by studying bubble Iormation
due to heat transIer Irom the hot nanotubes to the solvent and subsequent evaporation,
the dynamics oI the CNTs heating and how long the CNTs stay hot aIter electronic
excitation (cooling rate to the surrounding medium) are still essentially opaque. Here,
we report real time observation oI the dynamics oI CNTs Iollowing inIrared (IR)
ultraIast excitation. Two techniques are invoked. The Iirst is the ultraIast T-jump
probing, which provides the time scales involved in CNTs heating and cooling. For
this approach, carboxyl-Iunctionalized CNTs were utilized in order to map heat
rise/decay by monitoring the spectral change with time. The high solubility oI the
Iunctionalized CNTs is essential Ior the investigation reported here, as it enables
studies in diIIerent polar solvents. The second approach is direct imaging in our
ultraIast electron microscope3, with an in situ inIrared irradiation. The images provide
the evidence Ior the heat transIer Irom the CNTs to the environment and the spatial
extent oI the heat wave Iollowing the irradiation.

In conclusion, microscopy imaging indicates that the in situ CNTs irradiation with
relatively low dosages oI inIrared radiation results in signiIicant heating oI the tubes,
which in turn can melt nanoparticles at temperatures above 1300 K4. The ultraIast T-
jump experiments, on the other hand, have revealed, Ior the Iirst time, that the time
scales oI CNTs heating and cooling are on the tens and hundreds oI picoseconds,
respectively. Given the reported transient behavior, these observations suggest novel
ways Ior a T-jump methodology, unhindered by the requirement Ior excitation oI
water in the study oI biological structures5. They also provide the rates inIormation
needed Ior optimization oI photothermal therapy that invokes inIrared irradiation to
selectively heat and annihilate cancer cells6.

References

(1) Izard, N.; Billaud, P.; Riehl, D.; Anglaret, E. Opt. Lett. 2005, 30, 1509.
(2) Vivien, L.; Lancon, P.; Riehl, D.; Hache, F.; Anglaret, E. Carbon 2002, 40, 1789.
(3) Lobastov, V. A.; Srinivasan, R.; Zewail, A. H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.
2005, 102, 7069.
(4) Mohammed, O. F.; Samartzis, P. C; Zewail, A. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131,
16010.
(5) Mohammed, O. F.; Jas, G. S.; Lin, M. M.; Zewail, A. H. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
2009, 48, 5628.
(6) Jain, P. K.; Huang, X. H.; El-Sayed, I. H.; El-Sayed, M. A. Acc. Chem. Res. 2008,
41, 1578.
71

Sunday April 4, 2010; 13:00


Funding Opportunities in International Collaborations for Materials
Research and Education

Zakya Kafafi
Director, Division oI Materials Research (DMR)
National Science Foundation (NSF)
Arlington, VA 22230, USA
E-mail: zkaIaIinsI.gov


During the signing ceremony oI the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act,
President Obama said that "this investment will ignite our imagination once more,
spurring new discoveries and breakthroughs that will make our economy stronger, our
nation more secure and our planet saIer Ior our children." With the beginning oI this
new golden era Ior science, the community oI materials research and education is well
positioned to take upon this challenge and, demonstrate to the world how its various
and diversiIied activities will impact our quality oI liIe. An overview oI the Division
oI Materials Research (DMR) plans Ior Iunding in FY 2010 and beyond will be
presented. Educational and outreach programs that emphasize how the innovations
resulting Irom materials research could revolutionize scientiIic disciplines, and lead to
radically new technologies, better quality oI liIe and improved world economy will be
discussed.

As science knows no boundaries, DMR is committed to prepare the Iuture workIorce
to be agile thinkers in this universal environment and, in Iorging collaborations and
cooperation among scientists and engineers around the world. This is consistent with
President Obama`s vision Ior science and technology. In his historic speech at Cairo
University, President Obama said that the U.S. will "launch a new Iund to support
technological development in Muslim-majority countries, and to help transIer ideas to
the marketplace so they can create more jobs. We'll open centers oI scientiIic
excellence in AIrica, the Middle East and Southeast Asia, and appoint new science
envoys to collaborate on programs that develop new sources oI energy, create green
jobs, digitize records, clean water, grow new crops.















72

Sunday April 4, 2010; 14:00


Overview of the American Chemical Society and U.S. efforts to
celebrate the International Year of Chemistry 2011

Joseph S. Francisco
President, American Chemical Society

Department oI Chemistry and Department oI Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Purdue University, West LaIayette, Indiana 47907-2084
Email: Iranciscpurdue.edu


The aims and mission oI the Egyptian Chemical Society (ECS) are to create a
scientiIic environment and strengthen links between chemists in the country and
improve teaching and learning skills and proIessional practice in the Iield oI
chemistry. This is a mission that corresponds very closely to the vision and mission
oI the American Chemical Society (ACS). The ACS vision is 'Improving people`s
lives through the transIorming power oI chemistry, and its mission is 'To advance
the broader chemistry enterprise and its practitioners Ior the beneIit oI Earth and its
people. As chemistry is a central science that cuts across all disciplines, the ACS and
ECS share many potential avenues to explore collaboration.

The observance oI the International Year oI Chemistry in 2011 presents challenges
and opportunities Ior our shared discipline and the chemical enterprise. How might
the ECS and ACS work together to serve chemistry practitionerswho increasingly
need to Iunction globally and to best address global issues, will be discussed.






















73





















Poster Session I
And
Poster Session I I





























74

Poster Session I
Monday, March 29, 2010

8:00 PM 10:00 PM

1
Nanoparticle Chemistrv from the Particle Perspective. Insights from Aerosol
Particle Si:ing Measurements

Sherrie R. Elzey
Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering
University of Iowa, Iowa City

2
Preparation and Characteri:ation of Polvvinvl Alcohol-CdTe Nanocomposites

Magdah Dawy and Asma Al-Turki
National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

3
Shape Controlled Anisotropic Gold, and Gold/Zinc Oxide Core/Shell
Nanocrvstals via Microwave Svnthesis

Natalie Herring, Khaled M. AbouZeid, Mona B. Mohamed and M. Samy
El-Shall*
Department of Chemistry
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, VA, 23284-2006

4
Svnthesis, Characteri:ation and Spectroscopic Studies of CdS/polvaniline
Core/Shell Nanocomposite

R. Seoudi, M. Kamalb, A.A. Shabaka, E.M. Abdelrazek,W. Eisaa
National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

5
Rational Svnthesis of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

Christopher M. Evans and Todd D. Krauss
Department of Chemistry
University of Rochester, Rochester, NY

6
Photothermal and Photoacoustic Characteri:ation of Optical and Thermal
Properties of Nanomaterials

S. Negm
Department of Physics and Mathematics
Faculty of Engineering, (Shoubra), Benha Univwersity Egypt

7
Electron transfer between colloidal ZnO nanoparticles

Hayoun, Rebecca; Whitaker, Kelly M.; Gamelin, Daniel R.; Mayer,
James M.
Department of Chemistry
University of Washington, Seattle, WA

8
Preparation and Characteri:ation of Nano-Biocatalvst for Industrial
Applications
75


A.A. Elzatahry and M.S. Mohyeldin
Institute of Advanced technology and New materials, Mubarak City for
Scientific Research and technology applications, New Borg Alarab,
Alexandria, Egypt.

9
Plasmon-Exciton Coupling in Jerticallv Aligned Core-Shell CdTe-Au
Nanorod Arravs

Erik C. Dreaden, Svetlana Neretina, Wei Qian, Robert A. Hughes, John
S. Preston, Peter Mascher, and Mostafa A. El-Sayed
Laser Dynamics Laboratory
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400,

10
Structure Characteri:ation of Nanocrvstalline Zn
1-x
Mn
x
Se Thin Films
Svnthesi:ed bv Inert Gas Condensation

I. K. El Zawawi, K. Sedeek, A. Adam, Manal A. Mahdy
Solid State Physics Department
National Research Center, 12622 Dokki, Cairo, Egypt


76


11

Growth Kinetics of Nanoparticles. Investigating the Effect of Sacrificial
Nanoparticles to Produce Si:e Focusing (Quanti:ed Ostwald Ripening)

Pinar Dagtepe and Viktor Chikan
Department of Chemistry
Kansas State University , Manhattan, Kansas

12
Phase and conductivitv dvnamics of strontium hexaferrite nanocrvstals in a
hvdrogen gas flow

A. A. Fargali, M. K. Zayed, M. H. Khedr* and A. F. Moustafa
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Sueif University, Beni-
Sueif-62111, Egypt.

13
Electrodic Behavior of Pt Nanoparticles Coupled With CdSe Quantum Dots In
Confined Media

Clifton Harris
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN

14
Kinetics of acetvlene decomposition over reduced strontium hexaferrites
catalvst for the production of carbon nanotubes

M.H. Khedr*, A.A. Farghali, M.K. Zayed and A.F. Moustafa
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Sueif University, Beni-
Sueif-62111, Egypt.

15
Plasmonic Field Enhancement of the Exciton-Exciton Annihilation Process in
a Polv(paraphenvleneethvnvlene) Fluorescent Polvmer bv Ag Nanocubes

Adam J. Poncheri, Mahmoud A. Mahmoud, Ronnie L. Phillips, and
Mostafa A. El-Sayed
Laser Dynamics Laboratory
School of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400

16
Formation of Copper Nanoparticles bv Nanosecond Laser Ablation

W. A. Ghaly, H. T. Mohsen, Y. A. Badr

and A. I. Helal

Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority

National Institute for Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, Cairo,
Egypt

77

78



17
Influence of Water on Radical-Molecular Reactions at Surfaces. Perspective
from a Studv of Water Atmosphere Surface Reaction Models

R. J. Buszek and J.S. Francisco
Department of Chemistry and Department of Earth and Atmospheric
Sciences
Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana

18
Svnthesis and Characteri:ation of pH-Sensitive PAMPS/PJP Nanogels in
Aqueous Media

Ayman M. Atta
*
, Rasha A. M. El-Ghazawy, Reem K. Farag and Shymaa
M. Elsaeed
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute
Nasr City 11727, Cairo, Egypt

19
Svnthesis and Evaluation of Some Hvdrophobicallv Modified Polvacrvlamide
(HMPAM) Nanolatexes Using Polvmeri:able Surfactants for Enhanced Oil
Recoverv Applications

E. A. Elsharaky, M. R. Noor El-din, R. A. Elghazawy, N. Kandile and A.
M. Alsabagh
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute
Cairo, Egypt

20
Characteri:ation of electrophoreticallv deposited nanocrvstalline
hvdroxvapatite on 316L stainless steel for biomedical applications

A. M. Elbasiony, N.A. Abdel Ghany and Y. A. Elewady


Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Lab
Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences
National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

21
EPRI researching works in the field of natural gas processing

Tamer Zaki
Department of Catalysis, Petroleum Refining Division
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute
Cairo, Egypt


Nanoparticle Chemistry from the Particle Perspective: Insights from
Aerosol Particle Sizing Measurements

Sherrie R. Elzey
Department oI Chemical & Biochemical Engineering
University oI Iowa, Iowa City
E-mail: sherrie-elzeyuiowa.edu


The recent explosion in applications oI nanomaterials requires proper methods Ior characterization and
analysis to Iacilitate advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Because nanoparticles exhibit
unique, size-dependent behavior, particle size eIIects cannot be ignored and must be explicitly monitored
so that a Iundamental understanding oI the underlying size-dependent processes on the nanoscale can be
discerned. This work uses an electrospray coupled to a scanning mobility particle sizer (ES-SMPS) to
study particle size distributions (PSDs) oI metal and metal oxide nanoparticles under varying chemical
environments. A nanoparticle aerosol is generated Irom suspensions in aqueous and/or acidic solutions, and
PSDs are monitored to observe shiIts in particle size. Results oIIer insights into size-dependent nanoparticle
properties.



















79

Preparation and Characterization of Polyvinyl Alcohol-CdTe
Nanocomposites

Magdah Dawy and Asma Al-Turki
National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: mdawy9yahoo.com


Nano-sized TiO
2
powders have been prepared by sol-gel method. InIluence oI the diIIerent preparation
parameters on the TiO
2
nano-powder properties were investigated. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)
was used to examine the thermal properties oI the produced TiO
2
nanoparticles. Yield eIIiciency oI the
resulted nanoparticles was calculated and the reaction eIIiciency was estimated. Maximum eIIiciency oI
98.9 was achieved at autoclaving temperature oI 245 C Ior time duration oI 12 hrs. X-ray diIIraction
analyses show the presence oI anatase structure at low and high autoclaving temperatures. Fraction oI rutile
phase appeared with increasing the calcination temperature and reach 40 at 850 C. High resolution
transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) showed spherical nanoparticles oI 8-9 nm at autoclaving
temperature oI 130 C, while elongated nanoparticles oI 14-18 nm in length and 9 nm in width were
observed at autoclaving temperature oI 245 C. The solar cell perIormance was measured Ior various TiO
2

dye sensitized solar cells. The sample oI high autoclaving temperature gave an improvement in eIIiciency
to be 8.5 while those oI lower autoclaving temperature had an eIIiciency oI 7.29 . An enhancement in
both open circuit voltage (V
oc
) and Iill Iactor (FF) is obviously detected, where elongated nanoparticles are
measured by HRTEM, which could improve the electronic conductivity and consequently FF and V
oc
.






























80

Shape Controlled Anisotropic Gold, and Gold/Zinc Oxide Core/Shell
Nanocrystals via Microwave Synthesis

Natalie Herring, Khaled M. AbouZeid, Mona B. Mohamed and M. Samy El-Shall*
Department oI Chemistry
Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 23284-2006


Great recent interest has been Iocused on the anisotropic Au nanocrystals because oI their appealing optical
properties.

The most interesting Ieature oI the anisotropic shaped gold nanoparticles is that they have
multiple absorption bands due to SurIace Plasmon Resonances (SPR) along their multiple axes.

These
unique optical properties oI anisotropic gold nanocrystals enable one to tune the SPR to any wavelength
speciIic to a particular application Irom the visible to the near IR spectral regions. Using these
nanomaterials in biomedical imaging, cancer therapy and diagnosis, catalysis, sensors

and photonic devices

is becoming a practical reality.

A Iacile and Iast one-pot microwave irradiation method has been developed to prepare diIIerent shapes oI
Au, and Au/ZnO core/shell nanocrystals capped with a mixture oI oleyl amine and oleic acid. The size,
shape and morphology oI the nanocrystals could be tailored by varying the ratio oI oleylamine to oleic acid,
the microwave time, and the concentration oI the precursor ions. These eIIects are directly reIlected in the
surIace plasmon resonance properties oI the resulting nanocrystals in the visible and near-inIrared regions.
The Au/ZnO Core/Shell nanocrystals were Iully characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),
X-ray diIIraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This method may lend itselI to the
synthesis oI more complex core/shell composites.















81

Synthesis, Characterization and Spectroscopic Studies of
CdS/polyaniline Core/Shell Nanocomposite

R. Seoudi, M. Kamalb, A.A. Shabaka, E.M. Abdelrazek,W. Eisaa
National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt


In this work, CdS/polyaniline (PANI) nanocomposite was synthesized by a novel method. Transmission
electron microscope (TEM) images showed that the CdS/PANI nanocomposite had a core/shell structure.
The crystal structure was studied using X-ray diIIraction (XRD) and the obtained results showed that CdS
had cubic structure. Fourier transIorm inIrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements conIirmed the
Iormation oI PANI at the surIace oI CdS nanoparticle. The prepared samples were Iurther characterized
using UVvisible (UVvis) and Iluorescence spectroscopy

82

Rational Synthesis of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

Christopher M. Evans and Todd D. Krauss
Department oI Chemistry
University oI Rochester, Rochester, NY
E-mail: cevans6mail.rochester.edu


Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals represent an important class oI nanostructures that serve as model
systems Ior Iundamental investigations oI quantum conIinement and that also have potential Ior signiIicant
breakthroughs to advance applications over a broad range oI Iields Irom optoelectronics to biology. Over
the past two decades, signiIicant advances have been made regarding the synthesis oI high quality
nanoparticles with a controllable size, shape and composition. However, these syntheses are notoriously
dependent on ill-deIined details oI the starting materials, reaction yields are poor, and exact reproducibility
is extremely diIIicult to achieve, primarily because the Iundamental reaction mechanism responsible Ior the
initial stages oI nanocrystal growth is largely undetermined. We will present studies oI the chemical
reaction mechanism describing the general synthesis oI metal chalcogenide semiconductor quantum dots
using a combination oI optical spectroscopy, electron microscopy, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic
resonance spectroscopy. In particular, we have identiIied speciIic chemical reactants critical Ior mediating
the synthesis oI semiconductor nanoparticles. These highly reactive species are typically Iound as
impurities in the starting reagents, but are completely responsible Ior driving the kinetics oI the nanocrystal
Iormation. These Iindings have allowed us to determine a reaction pathway general to all phosphine based
chalcogenide nanocrystal syntheses. Further, we also propose a complete reaction mechanism that provides
a complete picture oI how simple organometallic molecules can be transIormed into nanoscale
semiconductors comprising thousands oI atoms. We have utilized these Iindings to improve reaction yields
Ior CdSe and PbSe nanocrystals by over an order oI magnitude, while producing nanocrystals oI
exceptional quality with respect to control over size, size distribution, and Iluorescence eIIiciency. These
results should allow Ior Iuture identiIication oI cheaper, saIer, and greener precursors Ior large-scale
preparations oI high-quality nanocrystals.






83

Photothermal and Photoacoustic Characterization of Optical and
Thermal Properties of Nanomaterials

S. Negm
Department oI Physics and Mathematics,
Faculty oI Engineering, (Shoubra), Benha University Egypt


Photothermal (PT)spectroscopy proves to be a powerIul technique to study the optical, electronic and
thermal properties oI nanomaterials in nondestructive manner without particular sample preparations. The
presentation gives the results Ior metallic (gold) nano dots and rods and semiconductor (CdSe ) nanodots
and rods, as well as core/shell (Ag/CdSe)nanoparticles.. . The gold nanoparticles have been prepared using
the seed mediated growth method. Photoacoustic (PA) measurements show the surIace plasmon resonance
(SPR) splitting into two modes (transverse and longitudinal) in case oI gold nanorods and that the increase
in the aspect ratio oI the nanorods leads to red-shiIts oI the longitudinal SPR. CdSe QDs and QRods were
Iabricated by the chemical solution deposition (CD) technique.. The average diameters oI the CdSe QDs
and QRods are estimated Irom the PA spectra using the eIIective mass approximation model giving values
that are comparable to those obtained by scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The exciton energy oI the
CdSe QRs were also determined using second derivative oI the PA spectra leading to estimates oI the
dimensions very close to the direct measurement by Thus, PA spectroscopy is useIul in obtaining the QDs
sizes as grown and with no Iurther preparation. In addition, PA measurements provide also the thermal
diIIusivity and thermal conductivity which show decrease by at least an order oI magnitude than the bulk
value.





























84

Electron transfer between colloidal ZnO nanoparticles

Hayoun, Rebecca; Whitaker, Kelly M.; Gamelin, Daniel R.; Mayer, James M.
Department oI Chemistry
University oI Washington, Seattle, WA
rhayounu.washington.edu


Many nanoscale materials catalyze and undergo various redox processes. Most oI these processes,
particularly in the areas oI energy and petrochemicals, involve protons as well as electrons. It has been
shown that the redox potential (band edge energy) Ior most semiconducting nanomaterials (e.g. TiO2)
depends strongly on proton activity, suggesting that these materials undergo proton-coupled electron
transIer (PCET) reactions. We are exploring the Iundamentals oI how protons moderate redox reactions at
nanoparticle surIaces, which is a critical part oI understanding their catalytic properties. We are advancing
a small moleculebased approach as a way to provide new insights into the role oI protons in nanoparticle
redox reactions. Here, we will present studies oI charge transIer reactions involving colloidal 3-7 nm
dodecylamine-capped ZnO nanoparticles using EPR and electronic absorption spectroscopies. Stable
charged colloidal nanoparticles with electrons in their conduction bands have been prepared
photochemically. Mixing suspensions oI small charged ZnO nanoparticles with suspensions oI larger
uncharged ZnO particles rapidly results in stoichiometric transIer oI reducing equivalents. No reaction was
observed in the opposite direction, when large charged particles were mixed with smaller uncharged
particles. This reactivity is consistent with expectations Irom consideration oI quantum conIinement
eIIects on the conduction band edge potentials oI these nanocrystals. Optical monitoring oI these reactions
supports these conclusions, as does EPR monitoring using Mn2 dopants as secondary EPR probes. Kinetic
and mechanistic aspects oI this chemistry will be discussed. These studies oI charge transIer reactions in
nanoparticles, with a small moleculetype approach, are providing new insights into reaction chemistry
such as PCET at nanoscale materials.

















85

Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Biocatalyst for Industrial
Applications

A.A. Elzatahry and M.S. Mohyeldin
Institute oI Advanced technology and New materials, Mubarak City Ior ScientiIic Research and technology
applications, New Borg Alarab, Alexandria, Egypt.


Poly(AN-MMA) nano-copolymers beads were prepared using precipitation polymerization technique and
used as supports Ior enzyme immobilization to act as a biocatalyst. Factors aIIecting the polymerization
yield such as Co-monomer ratio, Polymerization Time, Polymerization Temperatures, Initiator
Concentration and Solvent Compassion were studied. The co-polymerization process was proved through
FT-IR, TGA and Nitrogen content analysis. !-Galactosidase enzyme was covalently immobilized onto the
nanobeads using glutaraldehyde as activating agent. The immobilization process was optimized by
examining immobilized time, cross-linking time, enzyme concentration, glutaraldehyde concentration, the
initial pH values oI glutaraldehyde and the enzyme solution. As a result, the immobilized enzyme presented
a higher storage, pH and thermal stability than the soluble enzyme. Immobilized enzyme has reusability oI
over 10 batchwise uses. The easy accessibility oI the substrate to immobilized enzyme, ease oI its
immobilization on the prepared nano beads, enhanced stability oI the immobilized enzyme, and comparable
lactose hydrolysis in milk whey described in this work, make it a suitable product Ior Iuture applications at
laboratory and industrial scale.






























86

Plasmon-Exciton Coupling in Vertically Aligned Core-Shell CdTe-Au
Nanorod Arrays

Erik C. Dreaden,
f
Svetlana Neretina,
f,"
Wei Qian,
f
Robert A. Hughes,

John S. Preston,
,
Peter
Mascher

, and MostaIa A. El-Sayed


*,f
.
Laser Dynamics Laboratory, School oI Chemistry and Biochemistry
Georgia Institute oI Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400, USA
edreadenyahoo.com

f
Laser Dynamics Laboratory, School oI Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute oI Technology,
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400, USA.
"
Department oI Mechanical Engineering, Temple University, 1947 N. 12th St., Philadelphia, PA 19122,
USA.

Brockhouse Institute Ior Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario,
L8S 4M1, Canada.

Department oI Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7, Canada.


Gold nanoparticles possess unique optical properties associated with the resonant oscillation oI conduction
electrons at their surIaces surIace plasmons. The highly intense local electric Iields generated by resonant
excitation oI surIace plasmons is well known to enhance radiative relaxation (Iluorescence), molecular
vibrations (SERS, SEIRA), and energy transIer processes (FRET, photoisomerization). Plasmonic Iield
eIIects on non-radiative processes is however, less understood. Our Iundamental understanding oI
plasmonic interactions with semiconductors and their tunability will provide opportunities Ior Iuture
applications in solar energy harvesting and electronic device architecture. The studies presented here
demonstrate the eIIects oI plasmonic coupling on the mechanisms oI non-radiative relaxation in a
compound semiconductor. Vertically aligned core-shell CdTe-Au nanorods arrays were Iabricated and the
kinetics oI non-radiative excitonic relaxation were examined as a Iunction oI surIace plasmon cross section,
Iield direction, and polarization mode. We show i) that relaxation rates can be enhanced by resonant
excitation oI surIace plasmon modes, ii) that orientational anisotropy oI the surIace plasmon Iield direction
can be used to tune such rates, and iii) that the mechanisms oI this relaxation can be can be varied as a
Iunction oI the mode oI the plasmon Iield`s polarization.

The intense electromagnetic Iields oI plasmonic nanoparticles, resulting Irom the excitation oI their
localized surIace plasmon oscillations, are known to enhance radiative processes. Their eIIect on the
nonradiative electronic processes, however, is not as well-documented. Here, we report on the enhancement
oI the nonradiative electronic relaxation rates in CdTe nanowires upon the addition oI a thin gold nanoshell,
especially at excitation energies overlapping with those oI the surIace plasmon oscillations. Some possible
mechanisms by which localized surIace plasmon Iields can enhance nonradiative relaxation processes oI
any quantized electronic excitations are proposed.

We studied the anisotropy oI the inIluence oI plasmonic Iields, arising Irom the optical excitation oI a gold
nanoshell plasmon absorption at 770 nm, on the liIetime oI the bandgap state oI the CdTe core in vertically
aligned CdTe-Au core-shell nanorods. The previously observed decrease in the liIetime was studied as a
Iunction oI the tilt angle between the long axis oI the nanorod and the electric Iield polarization direction oI
the plasmon inducing exciting light. It is observed that the strongest enhancement to the exciton relaxation
rate occurs when the two axes are parallel to one another. These results are discussed in terms oI the
coupling between the exciton transition moment oI the CdTe rod and the electric Iield polarization direction
oI the gold nanoshell plasmon at 770 nm, which was determined Irom theoretical modeling based on the
discrete dipole approximation.

The dependence oI the plasmon Iield enhancement oI the nonradiative relaxation rate oI the band gap
electrons in vertically aligned CdTe-Au core-shell nanorods on the plasmonic gold nanoshell thickness is
examined. Increasing the thickness oI the gold nanoshell Irom 15 to 26 nm is Iound to change the decay
curve Irom being nonexponential and anisotropic to one that is Iully exponential and isotropic (i.e.,
87

independent oI the nanorod orientation with respect to the exciting light polarization direction). Analysis oI
the kinetics oI the possible electronic relaxation enhancement mechanisms is carried out, and DDA
simulated properties oI the induced plasmonic Iield oI the thin and thick gold nanoshells are determined.
On the basis oI the conclusions oI these treatments and the experimental results, it is concluded that by
increasing the nanoshell thickness the relaxation processes evolve Irom multiple enhancement mechanisms,
dominated by highly anisotropic Auger processes, to mechanism(s) involving Iirst-order excited electron
ejection process(es). The Iormer is shown to give rise to nonexponential anisotropic decays in the dipolar
plasmon Iield oI the thin nanoshell, while the latter exhibits an exponential isotropic decay in the
unpolarized plasmonic Iield oI the thick nanoshell.
88

Structure Characterization of Nanocrystalline Zn
1-x
Mn
x
Se Thin Films
Synthesized by Inert Gas Condensation

I. K. El Zawawi
1
, K. Sedeek
2
, A. Adam
2
, Manal A. Mahdy
1

1
Solid State Physics Department, National Research Center, 12622 Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
2
Physics Department, Faculty oI science (Girls), El-Azhar University,Cairo, Egypt.
E-mail: enaselza1yahoo.com


Undoped and Mn doped ZnSe nanostructure thin Iilms oI thickness 20, 50, 80, 100 and 120nm have been
successIully synthesized. The thin Iilms were deposited Irom ingot polycrystalline powder by inert gas
condensation (IGC) technique with constant Argon Ilow oI 2x10
-3
Torr at 300 K. The energy dispersive X-
ray analysis (EDX) Ior prepared Zn
1-x
Mn
x
Se thin Iilms were carried out and showed that Mn contents (x)
are 0.0, 0.05, 0.16 and 0.25. The as-prepared thin Iilms oI diIIerent thickness were examined by
transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity and the particle size ranging Irom 4-7nm was
determined Irom diIIraction patterns and microgragh images respectively. The grazing incident in-plane X-
ray diIIraction (GIIXD) patterns oI 80nm thick Ior Zn
1-x
Mn
x
Se thin Iilms showed that all examined Iilms
exhibit nanocrystalline single phase zinc blende structure. The diIIraction peaks shows a broadening
attributed to the small particle size in comparison to XRD patterns oI poly crystalline ingot powders.
















89

Growth Kinetics of Nanoparticles: Investigating the Effect of Sacrificial
Nanoparticles to Produce Size Focusing (Quantized Ostwald Ripening)

Pinar Dagtepe and Viktor Chikan
Department oI Chemistry
Kansas State University , Manhattan, Kansas
E-mail: pinardksu.edu.


Manipulating the growth oI semiconductor nanoparticles (NP) is important Ior both technology and
Iundamental science. This work aims to investigate the growth oI colloidal semiconductor NPs in the
bimodal growth regime, when multiple distinct-sized NPs are present in a growth solution. In systematic
experiments, CdSe NPs with diIIerent sizes are synthesized and mixed together and reacted to assess the
ripening process. Monte Carlo Simulation is carried out to compare theory and the experiment. A widely-
accepted explanation oI the growth kinetics oI the NPs in high temperature coordinating solvents is
described by Talapin et. al.
1
The model calculates the size-dependent growth rate oI the NPs, which leads to
a good prediction oI the selI Iocusing and the Ostwald ripening
2,3
oI NP ensembles. In this study, NP
solutions consisting oI 2000 large particles oI 3.50.35 nm radius and 80000 particles oI 10.1 nm radius
are simulated. For comparison, repeated injection technique is also simulated. The bimodal distribution
technique is a slower process, which could lead to better control over the NP synthesis. The monomer
oversaturation stays relatively low over the reaction time. This is crucial iI one wants to avoid producing
new nuclei that is diIIicult to control. II we compare the rate oI nucleation in case oI repeated injection vs.
bimodal size Iocusing, one Iinds considerably reduced rate oI re-nucleation Ior bimodal size Iocusing. This
is important to develop a general methodology that extends the time required to achieve size Iocusing
during the growth oI NPs. Slower growth will reduce the eIIect oI inhomogeneous mixing and temperatures
inherent in a scaled up production. In addition, during the repeated injection the high monomer
concentrations result in re-nucleation during Iocusing oI NPs; thereIore, a method that yield better control
over the synthesis is desirable. Experimentally, our group has also observed by in situ absorbance and
Iluorescence spectroscopy
4,5
that CdSe nanoparticles exhibit spontaneous bimodal` growth over several
hours.
4
In this bimodal growth regime, nanoparticles with well deIined and very diIIerent sizes coexist in
the solution at lower temperatures. The average size and size distribution oI the nanoparticles is primarily
controlled not by the usual Iocusing-deIocusing (Ostwald ripening) oI particles, but rather by the Iormation
oI magic` sized clusters. The experimental and theoretical work will help developing an approach to Iocus
size distribution oI NPs. The key advantage oI the proposed methodology will be that scales more easily Ior
industrial production than the currently used repeated injection techniques.
6



References:

1. Talapin, D. V.; Rogach, A. L.; Haase, M.; Weller, H., Evolution oI an ensemble oI nanoparticles in a
colloidal solution: Theoretical study. Journal of Phvsical Chemistrv B 2001, 105, (49), 12278-12285.
2. Voorhees, P. W., The Theory oI Ostwald Ripening. Journal of Statistical Phvsics 1985, 38, (1-2), 231-
252.
3. Marqusee, J. A.; Ross, J., Kinetics oI Phase-Transitions - Theory oI Ostwald Ripening. Journal of
Chemical Phvsics 1983, 79, (1), 373-378.
4. Tuinenga, C.; Jasinski, J.; Iwamoto, T.; Chikan, V., In situ observation oI heterogeneous growth oI CdSe
quantum dots: EIIect oI indium doping on the growth kinetics. Acs Nano 2008, 2, (7), 1411-1421.
5. Dagtepe, P.; Chikan, V.; Jasinski, J.; Leppert, V. J., Quantized growth oI CdTe quantum dots;
Observation oI magic-sized CdTe quantum dots. Journal of Phvsical Chemistrv C 2007, 111, (41), 14977-
14983.
6. Peng, X. G.; Wickham, J.; Alivisatos, A. P., Kinetics oI II-VI and III-V colloidal semiconductor
nanocrystal growth: "Focusing" oI size distributions. Journal of the American Chemical Societv 1998, 120,
(21), 5343-5344.


90


Figure 1. Time Evolution oI the size histogram oI a solution containing bimodal distribution oI CdSe NPs.
The solution consist oI 80000 r10.1 nm particles and 2000 r3.50.35 nm particles. The solid black line
indicates the critical radius during growth oI the NPs.

Figure 2. Time evolution oI statistical parameters simulating bimodal size distribution
(Black line). When the monomer is added directly to the solution, the parameters evolve
according the red line (Injection). When no monomers are added, the parameters evolve
according to the green line (Ostwald Ripening). The inset shows the ratio oI nucleation
rates oI Repeated Injection method to the bimodal size distribution method.







91

Phase and conductivity dynamics of strontium hexaferrite nanocrystals
in a hydrogen gas flow

A. A. Fargali
1
, M. K. Zayed
2
, M. H. Khedr
1
* and A. F. MoustaIa
1

1. Chemistry Department, Faculty oI Science, Beni-SueiI University, Beni-SueiI-62111, Egypt.
2. Physics Department, Faculty oI Science, Beni-SueiI University, Beni-SueiI-62111, Egypt.


The phase and conductivity dynamics oI strontium hexaIerrite nanocrystals were isothermally studied at
diIIerent temperatures during a constant Ilow oI hydrogen gas at normal atmospheric pressure. The
nanocrystals were prepared by selI-Ilash combustion oI acetate precursors. While the Iormed phase was
characterized using XRD, TEM, and optical microscopy aIter hydrogen exposure, the electrical
conductivity was in-situ measured during reduction. The temporal changes in conductivity as well as the
Iormed phases at partial and complete reduction were Iound to be signiIicantly aIIected by the operating
temperature. Nanocrystals reduced at lower temperatures showed Iormation oI lower oxygen content
phases oI strontium-iron oxides (SrFe
12
O
19
, Sr
2
Fe
2
O
5
, Sr
7
Fe
10
O
22
), and iron oxides (Fe
3
O
4
, FeO), while
those reduced at higher reducing temperature showed the Iormation oI metallic iron responsible Ior higher
electric conductivity during reduction. Metallic iron nanocrystals oI increased sizes were Iormed at higher
reducing temperatures and longer reducing times. Temporal conductivity changes during hydrogen gas
Ilow at diIIerent temperatures showed three regions corresponding to removal oI surIace oxygen, surIace
reduction, and bulk reduction oI the nanocrystals. Nanocrystals reduced at temperatures higher than 400
o
C
showed three reduction regions corresponding to these mechanisms, whereas those reduced at 400
o
C only
two regions could be detected. The activation energies oI the oxygen desorption, surIace reduction and bulk
reduction were Iound to be 55.5, 40.2, and 44.1 kJ mol
-1
respectively. This indicates that oxygen desorption
Iollows a chemical reaction controlled mechanism, while surIace and bulk reductions are oI combined gas
diIIusion and interIacial chemical reaction controlled mechanisms. The results obtained Irom the
conductivity measurements were Iurther supported by thermo-gravimetric measurements.










92

Electrodic Behavior of Pt Nanoparticles Coupled With CdSe Quantum
Dots In Confined Media

Clifton Harris
Department oI Chemistry and Biochemistry
University oI Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN
E-mail: charri10nd.edu


The electrodic behavior oI platinum nanoparticles (NPs), and the nature oI the interactions between Pt and
CdSe quantum dots (QDs) has been investigated by conIining 2.8 nm Pt NPs and 3.4 nm CdSe QDs within
heptane/AOT/water reverse micelles. By monitoring the exciton bleaching recovery oI CdSe via
Iemtosecond absorption spectroscopy, the electron transIer Irom CdSe to Pt was Iound to be completed
with an average rate constant oI 3.27 10
9
s
-1
, and an eIIiciency oI 53. Using methyl viologen (MV
2
) as
a probe molecule, the role oI Pt in the system was determined. UltraIast oxidation oI the MV
.
radical (3.1
10
9
s
-1
), as well as dramatic decreases in the yield oI the radical product Iollowing steady illumination
indicate that Pt acts exclusively as an electron sink. The presence oI both Pt and MV
2
in the reverse
micelle creates a synergistic eIIect to enhance the rate constant oI the CdSe exciton bleaching recovery by
nearly an order oI magnitude. The Pt NPs also exhibit the capability oI storing and discharging electrons.
The nature oI the physical and photoinduced metal-semiconductor interactions, and the electrodic behavior
oI Pt NPs in conIined media are potentially important in light energy conversion and photocatalysis.

























93

Kinetics of acetylene decomposition over reduced strontium hexaferrites
catalyst for the production of carbon nanotubes

M.H. Khedr*, A.A. Farghali, M.K. Zayed and A.F. MoustaIa
1Chemistry Department, Faculty oI Science, Beni-SueiI University, Beni-SueiI-62111, Egypt.


Carbon nanotubes were synthesised over catalysis oI the composition 40SHF (SrFe
12
O
19
): 60Al
2
O
3
by the
catalytic decomposition oI acetylene Ior diIIerent reaction conditions. The kinetics oI synthesis oI CNTs
were investigated through two types oI experiments, the Iirst was done at diIIerent temperatures. The
optimum conditions Ior the higher yield were Iound to be 600C (367 yield ). The second type oI
experiments was done at variable decomposition temperature and constant reduction temperature at 600C.
The highest yield was Iound at reduction and decomposition temperature 600C and 700C respectively
(436.9).





























94

Plasmonic Field Enhancement of the Exciton-Exciton Annihilation
Process in a Poly(paraphenyleneethynylene) Fluorescent Polymer by Ag
Nanocubes

Adam J. Poncheri,f Mahmoud A. Mahmoud,f Ronnie L. Phillips, and MostaIa A. El-Sayedf
Laser Dynamics Laboratory, School oI Chemistry and Biochemistry
Georgia Institute oI Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400
aponcheri3mail.gatech.edu

fLaser Dynamics Laboratory, School oI Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute oI Technology,
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400
School oI Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute oI Technology,
Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400

Using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB), a poly(paraphenyleneethynylene) (PPE) Iluorescent polymer was
assembled on either a quartz substrate (system I) or on the surIace oI silver nanocube (AgNC) monolayers
(system II). The Iluorescence intensity oI the polymer was studied in system I as a Iunction oI the surIace
density oI the polymer sample when deposited on quartz substrates and in system II on the surIace coverage
oI the underlying AgNC monolayers. In system I, a continual increase in the Iluorescence intensity is
observed as the surIace density oI excited polymer is increased. In system II, the Iluorescence intensity oI
the polymer Iirst increased until a threshold surIace coverage oI AgNC was reached, aIter which it
decreased rapidly with increasing surIace density in the AgNC monolayer. The exciting light intensity
dependence is studied beIore and aIter this threshold in system II. The results suggest that one-photon
processes were responsible Ior the increased intensity beIore the threshold, and two-photon processes were
responsible Ior the rapid decrease in the polymer Iluorescence intensity aIter the threshold. These
observations are explained by the increase oI the surIace plasmon enhancement oI the exciting light
intensity as the nanoparticle surIace coverage is increased. In turn, this increases the polymer absorption
rate, which results in a continuous increase in the exciton density as evidenced by an increase in
Iluorescence intensity. At the threshold, the increased exciton density leads to an increase in the rate oI
exciton-exciton collisions, which leads to exciton-exciton annihilations. When this phenomenon becomes
Iaster than the rate oI Iluorescence emission, an intensity decrease is observed. By exploiting the surIace
plasmon enhancement oI absorption processes, we have observed the Iirst exciton-exciton annihilation
using a low-intensity Hg-lamp cw-source









95

Formation of Copper Nanoparticles by Nanosecond Laser Ablation

"
W. A. Ghaly, H. T. Mohsen, Y. A. Badr
*
and A. I. HelalNuclear Research Center, Atomic
Energy Authority, P. O. Box 13759, Cairo, Egypt,
*
National Institute Ior Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: wghalyjpyahoo.com


Preparation oI Copper nanoparticles during laser ablation oI Copper target in the
presence oI Nitrogen ambient gas is presented. The experiment was carried out by
using the radiation oI the pulsed Excimer laser, operating at 193nm, 6ns, 8mJ.
Morphology oI the Iormed nanoparticles is studied using Scanning Electron
Microscope. High population oI spherical shape Ior the Iormed nanopaticles is
observed. Size distribution oI the Iormed nanoparticles is demonstrated. Digital
Imaging Process technique is used to describe the shape oI the Iormed
naonparticles.
















96

Influence of Water on Radical-Molecular Reactions at Surfaces:
Perspective from a Study of Water Atmosphere Surface Reaction
Models

R. J. Buszek and J.S. Francisco
Department oI Chemistry and Department oI Earth and Atmospheric Sciences,
Purdue University, West LaIayette, Indiana
E-mail: rbuszekpurdue.edu

Hydrogen peroxide plays an integral role in the HO
x
cycle, as a reservoir Ior both OH and HO
2
radicals.
The major chemical removal processes oI H
2
O
2
is the oxidation via OH radical, however this process is
slow. SulIuric acid also has slow removal processes, including oxidation via OH radical, leading to the
Iormation oI acid rain. The isomerization reaction oI the methoxy radical is also oI great interest. Methoxy
radical is Iormed in the oxidation oI methane and its isomerized into hydroxymethyl radical is a potential
source oI HO
2
radical, however this isomerization is too slow to be relevant. In order to obtain a better
overall understanding oI the atmospheric chemistry oI these reactions, the chemistry in a cloudy
atmosphere must also be taken into account, speciIically the chemistry happening at the surIace oI water
droplets. Results Irom high level ab inito computations examining the eIIect oI a model system involving a
single water molecule on the oxidation oI H
2
O
2
and H
2
SO
4
,

atmospherically important reactions will be
presented. The modeled eIIects oI both water and atmospheric acid catalysis on the isomerization oI
methoxy radical will also be discussed.


97

Synthesis and Characterization of pH-Sensitive PAMPS/PVP Nanogels
in Aqueous Media

Ayman M. Atta
*
, Rasha A. M. El-Ghazawy, Reem K. Farag and Shymaa M. Elsaeed
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City 11727, Cairo, Egypt


A novel method Ior preparing poly (2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulIonic acid) (PAMPS) and poly
(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) complex nanogels in PVP aqueous solution was discussed in this article. The
PAMPS/PVP complex nanogels were prepared via polymerization oI 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane
sulIonic acid monomer in the presence oI PVP nanoparticles which Iormed in water/acetone cosolvent in
presence oI N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker, N,N,N,N-tetramethylethylenediamine
(TEMED) and potassium peroxydisulIate (KPS) as redox initiator system. The results oI FTIR and
1
HNMR spectra indicated that the compositions oI PAMPS/PVP are consistent with the designed structure.
TEM micrographs proved that PAMPS/PVP nanogels possess the spherical morphology beIore and aIter
swelling. These PAMPS/PVP nanogels exhibited pH-induced phase transition due to protonation oI
PAMPS chains. The properties oI PAMPS/PVP nanogels indicate that PAMPS/PVP nanogels can be
developed into a pH-controlled drug delivery system.























98

Synthesis and Evaluation of Some Hydrophobically Modified
Polyacrylamide (HMPAM) Nanolatexes Using Polymerizable
Surfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery Applications

E. A. Elsharaky, M. R. Noor El-din, R. A. Elghazawy, N. Kandile and
A. M. Alsabagh
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt


Three series oI head type polymerizable surIactants (surImers) based on maleic anhydride were
synthesized. These surImers have Y shape conIiguration (with two tails).
1
HNMR and FT-IR ascertained
the chemical structure oI the prepared surImers.

Also, their surIace active properties and thermodynamic
parameters were estimated at room temperature. The object oI this study is to prepare nanosized particles oI
hydrophobically modiIied polyacrylamide (HPAM) using the prepared surImers. HPAM samples are
supposed to enhance the rheological properties oI their aqueous solutions at low concentrations to Iind
improved systems Ior enhanced oil recovery applications.























99

Characterization of electrophoretically deposited nanocrystalline
hydroxyapatite on 316L stainless steel for biomedical applications

A. M. Elbasiony
(1)
, N.A. Abdel Ghany
(1, #)
and Y. A. Elewady
(2)

(1) Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Lab., Centre oI Excellence Ior
Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
(2) Chemistry Department, Faculty oI Science, Mansoura University, Egypt
E-mail: namanakhlyyahoo.co.uk


Type 316L SS plays a key role in the bone replacement surgery due to its excellent mechanical Ieatures,
availability at low cost and ease oI Iabrication. However it Iails miserably in vivo conditions due to
corrosion related problems. Hence an alternative method on the development oI hydroxyapatite (HAP)
coatings has been elucidated to impart corrosion resistance oI the base metal and ensure biocompatibility oI
the ceramic on the metal surIace. A simple method was attempted Ior coating hydroxyapatite on 316L
stainless steel through electrophoretic deposition (EPD). An ethanolic solution oI 0.5M calcium nitrate and
0.5M diammonium hydrogen phosphate at pH 9-11 adjusted to Ca/P molar ratio 1.67 was taken as
electrolyte Ior EPD. The characteristics oI the resultant HAP coats on 316L SS have been investigated
using: reIlectance IR, Scaning electron microscope (SEM) ,X-Ray diIIraction, energy dispersive X-Ray and
transmition electron microscope (EDAX) the results show the Iormation oI homogeneous coat with Ca/P
molar ratio 1.67 wich is compatible with the bone tissue composition and the particle size was in the range
9-20 nm.













100

EPRI researching works in the field of natural gas processing

Tamer Zaki
Department oI Catalysis, Petroleum ReIining Division, Egyptian Petroleum Research
Institute, Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: tamerzakishararayahoo.com


The production oI the natural gas is an important and promising investment in Egypt and
the world. The presence oI acidic gases such as carbon monoxide represented one oI the
important technical problems in the production process, whereas the CO2 causes
decreasing in the caloriIic value oI the Iuel in addition to its corrosive disadvantage.

On the other hand, mercury has received considerable attention Irom the environmental
engineers due to its high toxicity, a tendency to bio-accumulate and diIIiculties in its
control. The presence oI mercury in natural gas became a problem aIter the catastrophic
Iailure oI the aluminum heat exchangers at Skikda in 1973 and the discovery oI similar
damage at the Groningen Field in the Netherlands which resulted Irom the amalgamation
oI elemental mercury in natural gas with the aluminum in heat exchangers, eventually
causing physical Iailure.
Volatilized mercury has also been responsible Ior damaging valuable reIinery catalysts,
and Ior contaminating both plant equipment and products. In spite oI the presence oI
many publications on the removal oI mercury species Irom natural gas and wastewater,
there is a shortage in the Iocusing on the mercury problem associated with the petroleum
condensate. Such lack in the scientiIic research may be related to the complexity oI the
nature oI mercury species on the petroleum condensate and petroleum oil.

These research projects involve:
-Synthesis oI Mg-Al and Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles Ior
selective carbon dioxide adsorption Irom natural gas.
-Removal oI mercury compounds Irom natural gas, condensate and the dehydration waste
using nano-adsorbents and metal-organic Irameworks (MOFs).














101

Poster Session II
Wednesday, March 31, 2010

8:00 PM 10:00 PM

1 Nanotechnologies for the Preparation of Selective Catalvsts

Ilkeun Lee and Francisco Zaera
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Riverside, CA 92521

2
Catalvtic Oxidation of CO bv O
2
Over Nanosi:ed CuO- ZnO Svstem
Prepared Under Jarious Conditions

Gamil A.El-Shobaky

, Naema S.Yehia, Hassan M.A. Hassan, Abdel
Rahman A.A.Badawy

Physical Chemistry Department
National Research Center
Dokki , Cairo , Egypt

3 Svnthesis, characteri:ation, and reactivitv of magneticallv recoverable Pd and Pt
nanocatalvsts

Kevin J. Major and Sherine O. Obare
Department of Chemistry and the Nanoscale Science Program
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Charlotte, NC 28223

4 ZnO Embedded with Metal Nanoparticles for Jisible Range Photocatlvtic
Applications

Ahmed Gera and F.A. Mahmoud*
Solid State Physics Dept.,
National research Center,
Dokki , Giza, Egypt

5 Conversion of Svnthesis Gas to Ethanol via Potassium Promoted Molvbdenum
Sulfide Catalvst Supported on Activated Carbon

Michael Morrill, Thao Nguyen, Pradeep Agrawal, Christopher W. Jones,
David Barton, Daniela Ferrari

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
102


6

Roles of Core Diameter and Silica Content in the Photocatalvtic
Activitv of TiO2/SiO2/Fe3O4 Composite

Tarek A. Gad-Allah, Shigeru Kato, Shigeo Satokawa, Toshinori Kojima*
Department of Materials and Life Science
Seikei University
3-3-1 Kichijoji Kita-machi, Musashino-shi
Tokyo 180-8633, Japan

7 Insights into Structure-Sensitive Reactions Using Model Supported
Nanoparticles. Reaction Kinetics and PM-IRAS Studies at Near Atmospheric
Pressures

Sean M. McClure, M. Lundwall, D. Wayne Goodman
Department of Chemistry
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77842-3012

8 Enhancement of Olive Mill Wastewater Biodegradation bv Homogeneous and
Heterogeneous Photocatalvtic Oxidation

M.I. Badawy, F.El. Gohary, M.Y. Ghaly, , M.E.M. Ali
Water Pollution Research Department
National Research Centre (NRC)
Dokki, Cairo 11312, Egypt

9 Janadium dioxide nanostructures and nanocomposites as thermal switches

Joyeeta Nag
Department of Physics and Vanderbilt Institute of Nanoscale Science and
Engineering,
Vanderbilt University
Nashville, Tennessee, USA

10 Characteri:ation and Photocatalvtic Properties of Spraved TiO2 thin Films
Doped Cu

M. Boshta, M. O. Abou-Helal
Solid State Physics Deptartment
National Research Center
12311 Dokki, Giza

103


11

Photo-sensiti:ed Formation and Breaking of I-I Bonds at Nanocrvstalline TiO2
Interfaces

John Rowley, Shane Ardo, and Gerald J. Meyer
Departments of Chemistry and Materials Science & Engineering
Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, MD 21218

12 Catalvsis and Gas Sensing Properties of Nanostructured ZnO and Al2O3
Nanobelts and Nanoribbon Grown from the Japor Phase

Osama A. Fouad
Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute
Helwan, Egypt

13 Breaking Molecular Chemical Bonds in Adsorbed Molecules on a Model Carbon
SurfaceAlkali-Induced Reactions on Single-Walled Nanotubes

Lynn Mandeltort, Michael Bttner, and John T. Yates, Jr.
Department of Chemistry
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904

14 Svnthesis and Characteri:ation of Pure and Doped
Titanosilicates for Hvdrogen Uptake

Nahla Ismail, Islam Hamdy, A. Ghanem, Heba Ezzat
Centre of Excellency for Advanced Science
Physical Chemistry Department
National Research Centre
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

15 Building Block Approach for the design and assemblv of Zeolite-like Metal-
Organic Frameworks (ZMOFs).

Ryan Luebke and Mohamed Eddaoudi
Department of Chemical Sciences
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia

104


16 Svnthesis, Characteri:ation and Evaluation of New Materials for Hvdrogen
Uptake

M. Madian, N. Ismail, A. A. El-Meligi and M. S. El-Shall
Centre of Excellency for Advanced Science
Physical Chemistry Department
National Research Centre
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

17 Innovative Method for the Reduction of Nitrophenols Using
Nickel Nanocatalvsts Supported on Zeolite-Y Prepared from Egvptian kaolin

Doaa El-Mekkawi, Hayam Helmi and Mohamed Selim
Physical Chemistry Department
National Research Center
Dokki. Cairo. Egypt

18 Phvsicochemical, Surface and Catalvtic Properties of Nanosi:ed
Fe2O3-Cr2O3 Svstem with Different Compositions

Gamil A. El-Shobaky* Awad I. Ahmed, Hassan M. A. Hassan and Shaymaa
E. El-Shafey
Physical Chemistry Department
National Research Center
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

19 Utili:ation of Svnthetic Zeolite for Removal of Organic Dves

Rasha M. Abd El Wahab Doaa M. El.Mekkawy and M.M.Selim
Department of Physical Chemistry
National Research Center
Cairo, Egypt

20 Jarious Characteristics and Catalvtic Activitv of Iron (II) Phthalocvanine
Immobili:ed onto Titania- and Janadia- Pillared Bentonite Clav in in-situ
Polvmeri:ation of Methvl Methacrvlate

Salah A. Hassan, Atef S. Darwish, Fatma Z. Yehia, Hamdi A. Hassan, Salwa
A. Sadek
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science
Ain Shams University
Cairo, Egypt

105

106

21 EPRI Catalvsis Group Activities in the Field of Gas Processing and Petroleum
Refining

Tamer Zaki
Department of Catalysis, Petroleum Refining Division
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute
Cairo, Egypt



107
Nanotechnologies for the Preparation of Selective Catalysts

Ilkeun Lee and Francisco Zaera
Department oI Chemistry
University oI CaliIornia, Riverside, CA 92521
E-mail: ilkeun.leeucr.edu


Nano-sized materials have been Iundamental in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In catalysis in particular,
unexpected activities have been observed and better selectivity control has been possible when using nanoparticles
with narrow size distributions and well-deIined shapes. In our studies, heterogeneous catalysts have been prepared
using platinum nanoparticles with tetrahedral shapes, which expose only (111) Iacets, or cubic shapes, with only
(100) Iacets. Those particles were initially prepared using colloidal chemistry, and then dispersed and activated on
high-surIace-area supports. These catalysts have been tested to control selectivity in several catalytic reactions,
including cis-trans isomerization in oleIins, oxidation oI glycerol, and hydrogenation oI crotonaldehyde. The
nanoparticles have initially been deposited on silica xerogel, but more recent work aims to use better-deIined
mesoporous supports such as SBA-15 or MCM-41. In separate projects, core-shell architectures and silica coating oI
supported metal particles via sol-gel chemistry are being explored as a way to enhance the stability oI catalysts at
higher temperatures.






















108
Catalytic Oxidation of CO by O
2
Over Nanosized CuO- ZnO System
Prepared Under Various Conditions

Gamil A.El-Shobaky
a ,*
, Naema S.Yehia
b
, Hassan M.A. Hassan
c
,
Abdel Rahman A.A.Badawy
a
a
Physical Chemistry Department , National Research Center , Dokki , Cairo , Egypt
b
Chemistry Department , Faculty oI Science , MenouIia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt
c
Chemistry Department , Faculty oI Education , Suez Canal University , Suez , Egypt


A series oI copper and zinc mixed oxides composed oI equimolar ratio and treated with 0.05 Al
2
O
3
/mol
catalyst has been prepared by coprecipitation method using their nitrates in presence oI 1 M NaOH
solution . The precipitation was carried out at a pH 9.5 and 50
o
C.

The results revealed that the bulk oI various solids consisted oI CuO and ZnO having ratios varying
between 0.84 and 0.98. On the other hand, the values oI surIace concentrations oI copper and zinc were
bigger than those present in the bulk. The values oI surIace Cu /Zn ratio varied between 1.04 to 1.46
depending on the mode oI preparation and calcination conditions. The mixed solids existed as
nanocrystalline CuO and ZnO phases. The surIace characteristics are strongly dependent on mode oI
coprecipitation and calcination temperature. The computed S
BET
values varied between 146 and 23 m
2
/g
depending on mode oI coprecipitation and calcination temperature. The increase oI calcination
temperature oI diIIerent adsorbents within 300 400
o
C led to a signiIicant progressive decrease in the
BET-surIace area with subsequent increase in the values oI mean pore radius. All adsorbents are
mesoporous solids. All prepared solids showed a good catalytic activity in CO oxidation by O
2
which
proceeds via Iirst order kinetics in all cases. The activation energy oI the catalyzed reaction was
determined Ior various solids and the computed values were very small indicating the big catalytic activity
oI the investigated solids.














109
Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of magnetically recoverable Pd and
Pt nanocatalysts

Kevin J. Major and Sherine O. Obare
Department oI Chemistry and the Nanoscale Science Program
University oI North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223
kmajoruncc.edu

Pt and Pd nanoparticles have been extensively used in catalysis and photocatalysis processes, however, in
many cases control oI particle size or shape is oIten neglected. We have developed a straightIorward one-step wet
chemical synthetic approach that produces uniIorm Pt and Pd nanoparticles in 90 yield. The particles size is
controllable within 1 5 nm. Particle size was characterized by microscopy, spectroscopy and electrochemistry.
With uniIorm particles at hand, we studied the photocatalytic eIIects oI well-deIined Pt nanoparticles. Under speciIic
reaction conditions we Iind that these Pt particles are eIIective capacitors, with strong reduction potentials.
Recovery oI nanocatalysts is also a major challenge to overcome. We demonstrate the reactivity oI Pd and Pt
nanocatalysts with various small molecules, as well as magnetic recovery oI the particles.


Figure 1: TEM image and electrochemical data Ior Pt nanoparticles.









110
ZnO Embedded with Metal Nanoparticles for Visible Range Photocatlytic
Applications

Ahmed Gera and F.A. Mahmoud*
Solid State Physics Dept., National research Center, Dokki , Giza, Egypt
E-mail: Iawzyhameedyahoo.com


The design oI highly eIIicient and selective photocatalytic systems that work with minimum cost and sustainable
energy Ior applications that help in reducing global atmospheric pollution and/or degradation oI various toxic
compounds in pollutant water is one oI the most desirable and vital goals in environmental-Iriendly-catalyst
research. The utilization oI the nanostructured thin Iilms oI semiconductors materials as photocatalysts has attracted
a great deal oI attention especially Ior environmental applications.

Pure ZnO thin Iilm and ZnO thin Iilm embedded with Ag nanoparticles or Au were obtained by Sol-Gel technique
using spin coater on glass, quartz and silicon substrates. The sintering temperature was varied according to the type
oI substrate; 500 Ior glass and 750-800 Ior both oI quartz and Silicon. The deposited Iilm was Iormed Irom 8-10
layers. The surIace morphology oI prepared Iilms was studied using SEM where the crystal structure was
investigated by XRD and the optical properties were obtained by UV-Vis spectrophotometer.

The photocalysis response oI the deposited thin solid Iilms was tested in photoreactor and correlated with the
preparation parameters. The result oI the work is expected to be a signiIicant advance in our capacity to produce
simple and sustainable system Ior water and air cleaning based on nanostructured materials.





















111
Conversion of Synthesis Gas to Ethanol via Potassium Promoted
Molybdenum Sulfide Catalyst Supported on Activated Carbon

Michael Morrill
1
, Thao Nguyen
1
, Pradeep Agrawal
1
, Christopher W. Jones
1
, David Barton
2
, Daniela Ferrari
2
1
Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute oI Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
2
Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI 48674, USA; Dow Benelux, Terneuzen, Netherlands
E-mail: mike.morrillgatech.edu


As crude oil becomes increasingly scarce, the search Ior petroleum Iree routes to chemical products
intensiIies. The current annual global production Ior poly(ethylene) is 80 metric tons the largest oI any plastic.
Historically, poly(ethylene) has been synthesized via the polymerization oI ethene that is most oIten derived Irom
the steam cracking oI petroleum. However, alternative routes to ethene exist such as the dehydration oI ethanol.
Ethanol is particularly enticing as a Ieedstock as it can be obtained through the Iermentation oI sugars or the thermo-
chemical conversion oI synthesis gas (H
2
/CO).
Synthesis gas has substantial appeal because it can be a product oI biomass and/or coal gasiIication two
sources oI minimal cost. To this end, the conversion oI synthesis gas to higher hydrocarbons and alcohols over
supported molybdenum sulIide catalysts is a topic oI contemporary interest.
In this poster, we report the catalytic activity and selectivity oI a molybdenum sulIide catalyst supported on
Norit activated carbon and promoted by potassium carbonate. The catalyst was prepared by impregnating the
activated carbon with molybdenum oxide, addition oI potassium carbonate, Iollowed by calcination. The resultant
oxide catalyst is sulIided ex-situ in Ilowing H2S, and then used Ior the catalytic conversion oI synthesis gas to
higher alcohols and hydrocarbons in a Iixed bed reactor at 310 C and 1500 psig. The catalyst structure is probed via
by XRD, SEM, FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. Reaction products are quantiIied by online GC.
Under the above conditions, the supported molybdenum sulIide catalyst shows high ethanol selectivity but
low methanol and hydrocarbon selectivity. Additionally, a carbon monoxide conversion oI 19 at a space velocity
oI 4000h
-1
suggests that this catalyst is promising candidate material Ior ethanol synthesis Irom synthesis gas. The
perIormance oI this catalyst will be compared with the perIormance oI other known catalysts Ior this reaction.


112
Roles of Core Diameter and Silica Content in the Photocatalytic Activity of
TiO
2
/SiO
2
/Fe
3
O
4
Composite

Tarek A. Gad-Allah, Shigeru Kato, Shigeo Satokawa, Toshinori Kojima*
Department oI Materials and LiIe Science, Seikei University, 3-3-1 Kichijoji Kita-machi, Musashino-shi, Tokyo
180-8633, Japan


Magnetically separable TiO
2
/SiO
2
/Fe
3
O
4
composites oI diIIerent core (Fe
3
O
4
) diameters and silica contents have
been prepared by sol-gel technique Ior both silica and titania coatings. Energy dispersive X-ray Iluorescence (EDX),
X-ray diIIraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), BET surIace area analysis and scanning electron
microscope (SEM) have been used Ior characterization oI prepared samples. Photocatalytic activity oI the prepared
samples has been investigated by photodegradation oI methyl orange. Obtained results have shown that 25-45 m
core diameter exhibits the maximum activity since it possesses a convenient surIace area and light transmittance.
Silica content has a signiIicant eIIect on the activity oI composite. Silica content oI more than 10 wt has reduced
the catalyst activity because oI the increase in particle diameter and reduction oI surIace area.





























113
Insights into Structure-Sensitive Reactions Using Model Supported
Nanoparticles: Reaction Kinetics and PM-IRAS Studies at Near Atmospheric
Pressures

Sean M. McClure, M. Lundwall, D. Wayne Goodman
Department oI Chemistry
Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77842-3012
E-mail: smcclurechem.tamu.edu


Model catalyst surIaces, consisting oI metal nanoparticles supported on a planar oxide support, hold the potential to
bridge the material gap between single crystal and technical catalyst studies. When coupled with near atmospheric
pressure kinetic and spectroscopic techniques, these well-deIined model catalyst surIaces represent a useIul
approach to provide insights into the structure-activity relationships oI industrially relevant reactions. Here, we
present recent results oI our investigations into the structure sensitivity oI the C
2
H
4
hydroIormylation reaction
(C
2
H
4
COH
2
) at near atmospheric pressures on Rh/SiO
2
model catalyst surIaces. Experiments are conducted in a
contiguous UHV/high pressure reactor cell system, enabling elevated pressure kinetic and PM-IRAS measurements
on Rh/SiO
2
surIaces which have been characterized by a variety oI surIace analytical techniques (e.g. STM, TPD,
etc) and probe reactions. As will be presented in detail, kinetic and spectroscopic measurements (PM-IRAS) can
provide insights into particle morphology, surIace adsorbates and the observed structure-sensitivity (activity and
selectivity) during C
2
H
4
hydroIormylation at near atmospheric pressures.





















114
Enhancement of Olive Mill Wastewater Biodegradation by Homogeneous and
Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Oxidation

M.I. Badawy
a
, F.El. Gohary
a
, M.Y. Ghaly
b,!
, M.E.M. Ali
a

a
Water Pollution Research Department, National Research Centre (NRC),
Dokki, Cairo 11312, Egypt
b
Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo, Egypt


Olive mills wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic content and reIractory compounds. In this study,
an advanced technology Ior the treatment oI the recalcitrant contaminants oI OMW has been investigated. The
technique used was either photo-Fenton as homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation or UV/semi-conductor catalyst as
heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation Ior treatment oI OMW. For both the processes, the eIIect oI irradiation time,
amounts oI photocatalysts and semi-conductors, and initial concentration oI hydrogen peroxide has been studied. At
the optimum conditions, photo-Fenton process achieved COD, TOC, lignin (total phenolic compounds) and total
suspended solids (TSSs) removal values oI 87, 84, 97.44 and 98.31, respectively. The corresponding values
Ior UV/TiO
2
were 68.8, 67.3, 40.19 and 48.9, respectively, aIter 80 min irradiation time. The
biodegradability expressed by BOD5/COD ratio Ior treated wastewater was ranged Irom 0.66 to 0.8 compared to
0.19 Ior raw wastewater indicating enhancement oI biodegradation.


























115
Vanadium dioxide nanostructures and nanocomposites as thermal switches

Joyeeta Nag
Department oI Physics and Vanderbilt Institute oI Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Vanderbilt University,
Nashville, Tennessee, USA
E-mail: joyeeta.nagVanderbilt.edu


Devices and structures whose electrical and optical properties can switch in response to thermal
loading can create novel Iunctionalities Ior energy production, use and conservation. Vanadium
dioxide (VO
2
) exhibits a metal-insulator transition near 67
o
C, characterized by huge changes in
electrical resistivity and near-inIrared transmission. Its switching response is ultraIast ( 100 Is)
when induced with a laser and it is also possible to switch it with the application oI electric Iield.
The thermal response oI VO
2
Iilm as a whole including the transition temperature can be tailored
by doping Iilms and nanoparticles with tungsten or titanium.

The optical response oI subwavelength nanostructures can also be altered by adding plasmonic
Iunctionality, Ior example by synthesizing nanocomposites such as Au::VO
2
. The plasmonic
properties oI metal nanoparticles lead to Iocusing and redistributing eletromagnetic Iields and
energies at the nanoscale. This transport oI optical energy can be modiIied by altering the
dielectric environment oI the metal nanoparticles. Using the metal-insulator transition oI VO
2
we
have demonstrated a plasmonic switch that incorporates a thin Iilm oI VO
2
to control and switch
the plasmonic response oI gold nanoparticle arrays and nanoscale holes.
These twin characteristics

oI a 'smart material controllable reconIigurable response to an
optical or thermal stimulus along with their inherent compatibility with silicon technology,
renders VO
2
suitable Ior applications in optical switching, space and power-saving
optoelectronic modulations, thermal energy management, solar cells and smart window coatings.

In this poster, we will discuss the Iabrication oI VO
2
and Au::VO
2
thin Iilm, nanoparticles by
pulsed laser deposition, with special emphasis on epitaxial Iilm and nanoparticle growth on
diIIerent planes oI sapphire substrates which result in diIIerent interesting morphologies. For
example, on a-plane oI sapphire the VO
2
domains grow like oriented nanorods, a topology that is
required to produce the diIIerence in phonon scattering along two directions Ior thermal
rectiIication at the nanoscale. Thermal rectiIiers, like electrical rectiIiers in electronics, would
comprise the essential component oI thermal control circuits ranging Irom nanoscale
calorimeters to microelectronic processors to macroscopic reIrigerators and energy-saving
buildings.

Arrays oI specially-designed metal nanoparticles like split rings are known to give rise to special
plasmonic materials known as metamaterials, structures which have negative permeability and
permittivity in a certain range oI Irequency and can only be man-made. They can show negative
reIraction leading to superlensing eIIect and other eIIects leading to useIul redistribution oI
energies. Other applications oI metamaterials include smaller antennas with enhanced radiation
power, smart solar power management and shielding structures Irom earthquakes with acoustic
metamaterials. Making broadband metamaterials is a present-day challenge and we will report on
a split-ring-combination-based nanoparticle array covered with VO
2
which demonstrate
considerably increased tunability oI metamaterials in the visible-near inIrared range oI
Irequency.



116
Results obtained in collaboration with Davon W. Ferrara, Andrej Halabica and Richard F.
Haglund, Jr. at Vanderbilt University, Tennessee, USA; E. Andrew Payzant and Karren L. More
at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, USA; Alex J. Henegar oI Eastern Kentucky
University, Kentucky, USA; and Stephan A..Pauli and Phillip R. Willmott at Swiss Light Source,
Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. Research supported by the National Science
Foundation (EECS-0801985) and the United States Department oI Energy.






117
Characterization and Photocatalytic Properties of Sprayed TiO
2
thin Films
Doped Cu

M. Boshta and M. O. Abou-Helal
Solid State Physics Dept., National Research Center, 12311 Dokki, Giza
E-mail: boshtahotmail.com


The present paper describes the properties and photocatalytic application oI Cu doped TiO
2
thin Iilms on glass
substrate by spray pyrolysis technique. The phase structure, and surIace properties oI the coatings were
characterized by using XRD, and AFM respectively. Their optical properties were investigated by UVvis
spectroscopy. The photocatylitic eIIect oI TiO
2
:Cu on Crystal Violet (CV) dyes measured by spectrophotometer.
The absorbance oI CV decrease with increasing both the Copper concentration and exposure time.



































118
Photo-sensitized Formation and BREaking of I-I Bonds at Nanocrystalline
TiO
2
Interfaces

John Rowley, Shane Ardo, and Gerald J. Meyer
Departments oI Chemistry and Materials Science & Engineering
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218
E-mail: jrowley5jhu.edu

Recently an order oI magnitude increase in solar energy conversion eIIiciencies Irom dye-
sensitized photovoltaic cells has been realized.
1,2
These solar cells are based upon mesoporous
thin Iilms oI nanocrystalline (anatase) TiO
2
sensitized to visible light with inorganic coordination
compounds that serve as dyes. Under simulated sunlight conditions, solar-to-electrical power
conversion eIIiciencies oI 11.4 have been conIirmed. The sensitized nanocrystalline materials
have an enormous surIace area, a long eIIective pathlength, and a high photoconductivity that
aIIords both spectroscopic and photoelectrochemical characterization oI interIacial charge
transIer processes. Iodide oxidation to Iorm I-I bonds is key to sensitizer regeneration in dye-
sensitized solar cells. Mechanistic details oI how iodide oxidation yields the I-I bonds present in
I
2
-
and I
3
-
reaction products remain speculative.
3
Likewise, charge recombination to the iodide
oxidation products is thought to lower the solar energy conversion yield but remain poorly
understood.
In this presentation, mechanistic details oI photoinduced iodide oxidation and reduction at
nanocrystalline TiO
2
interIaces will be described. Oxidation oI iodide was initiated through
direct excitation oI iodide, band gap excitation oI the semiconductor, and/or sensitized to visible
light with ruthenium polypyridyl compounds. The results oI this study provide strong evidence
that I
3
-
acts as the principal electron acceptor at illuminated sensitized nanocrystalline interIaces
and that under simulated sunlight conditions interIacial charge recombination is strongly
dependant on the quasi-Fermi level oI the TiO
2
. Unwanted recombination to I
2
-
has previously
been proposed to lower the eIIiciency oI dye-sensitized solar cells and this data shows that a Iast
disproportionation reaction eIIectively prevents recombination under these conditions.
4
InterIacial energetics, quantiIied through spectro-electrochemical measurements, provide Iurther
insights into the mechanisms oI electron transIer reactions at semiconductor nanocrystallites and
the eIIiciencies oI dye sensitized solar cells.

Our experimental Iindings provide new molecular level insights into the mechanisms oI
heterogeneous electron transIer at nanocrystalline semiconductor interIaces that have broad
implications Ior energy, petrochemicals and environmental applications.


ReIerences:

1. A Low-Cost, High-EIIiciency Solar Cell Based on Dye-Sensitized Colloidal TiO
2
Films. O`Regan, B.; Gratzel,
M.; Nature (1991) 353 737-740

2. Light-Induced Redox Reactions in Nanocrystalline Systems. HagIeldt, A.; Gratzel, M.; Chem. Rev. (1995), 95,
49-68

3. Evidence Ior Iodine Atoms as Intermediates in the Dye Sensitized Formation oI I-I Bonds. Gardner, J. M.;
Giaimuccio, J. M.; Meyer, J. G.; J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2008) 130(51): 17252-17253

4. Reduction oI I
2
/I
3
- by Titanium Dioxide. Rowley, J. G.; Meyer, G. J. J. Phvs. Chem. C. (2009) 113(43):
17444-17447.






119

Catalysis and Gas Sensing Properties of Nanostructured ZnO and Al
2
O
3

Nanobelts and Nanoribbon Grown from the Vapor Phase

Osama A. Fouad
Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, (CMRDI),
P.O. Box: 87 Helwan 11421, Helwan, Egypt
E-mail: oaIouadcmrdi.sci.eg

Vapor growth oI nanostructured materials is a promising process Ior the Iabrication oI the materials in pure and
good quality Iorms. The driving Iorces Ior growth oI these nanostructures were Iound to be vapor density or
supersaturation, temperature, pressure and place oI deposition Irom the source materials. For these materials,
catalytic, thermal, chemical and other properties depend mainly on the particle size and shape. The large number oI
surIace and edge atoms provides active sites Ior catalyzing surIace-based reactions. Research in this area is
motivated by the possibility oI designing nanostructured materials that are stable, selective and active at low
temperatures. The high surIace-to-volume ratio oI the nanobelts, nanoribons, nanorods, nanowires and nanotubes
give an advantage oI using such structures in many processes and device Iabrication. Although, tin oxide has been
used commercially Ior gas sensing application, zinc oxide has been extensively studied as a possible promising
candidate. Moreover, alumina powder has been used as support oI many catalysts. This presentation will highlights
on some results that obtained so Iar by our group on synthesis, characterization oI ZnO and Al
2
O
3
nanostructures
that have designed and tailored Irom the vapour phase and has been tested as Ior catalytic and gas sensing
applications.


































120
Breaking Molecular Chemical Bonds in Adsorbed Molecules on a Model
Carbon SurfaceAlkali-Induced Reactions on Single-Walled Nanotubes

Lynn Mandeltort, Michael Bttner, and John T. Yates, Jr.
Department oI Chemistry, University oI Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904
E-mail: lmandeltortgmail.com

Li Xiao and J. Karl Johnson
Department oI Chemical Engineering, Pittsburgh University
Pittsburgh, PA 15236

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) exhibit superior physical adsorption properties due to their high surIace
area and their internal sites, which strongly bind molecules by van der Waals Iorces. Temperature programmed
desorption has been used to detect molecules in the various internal and external adsorption sites oI 1.36 nm
diameter SWNTs. We have Iound that Li atoms ionize on the SWNT surIace and enhance the binding oI non-polar
molecules such as n-heptane by means oI polarization in the vicinity oI the Li

ions. Molecules containing a C-Cl


bond (such as CH
3
Cl) experience dissociative adsorption in the presence oI Li, producing CH
3
radicals and LiCl.
The CH
3
radicals preIerentially bind to deIect sites on the nanotube wall while LiCl and its dimer desorb at about
675 K. Thus by doping the nanotubes with Li, it is possible to make them chemically active and eIIective adsorbents
Ior destruction oI toxic halogen-containing molecules.

Work supported by the DeIense Threat Reduction Agency under Contract HDTRA1-09-1-0008























121
Synthesis and Characterization of Pure and Doped Titanosilicates for
Hydrogen Uptake

Nahla Ismail, Islam Hamdy, A. Ghanem, Heba Ezzat
Centre oI Excellency Ior Advanced Science
Physical Chemistry Department
National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt


Natural silica source Irom Red Sea Desert - Egypt was successIully employed as a starting precursor Ior
hydrothermal preparation oI titanosilicate types natisite and sitinakite. Interestingly the structure oI the starting
precursor oI the silica source plays a role in controlling the identity oI the type oI the produced titanosilicate. ETS-4,
vanadium ETS-4 (V-ETS-4), natisite, vanadium natisite (V-natisite), sitinakite.. The samples were capable oI
adsorbing 2-2.3 wt at -193C and 20bar applied hydrogen pressure. The dense natisite structure prepared by
natural silica (n-SiO2) exhibited higher hydrogen adsorption capacity than that measured Ior solid prepared by
commercial silica (k-SiO2).


























122
Building Block Approach for the design and assembly of Zeolite-like Metal-
Organic Frameworks (ZMOFs).

Ryan Luebke and Mohamed Eddaoudi
Department oI Chemical Sciences
King Abdullah University oI Science and Technology
Thuwal, Kingdom oI Saudia Arabia
ryan.luebkekaust.edu.sa


The molecular building block (MBB) approach has emerged as a powerIul strategy in the design and
construction oI solid-state materials. MBBs have been utilized previously as components in the design and synthesis
oI novel metal-organic Irameworks (MOFs), most based on the assembly oI metal-carboxylate clusters and
polytopic organic ligands oI various shapes. Here we present the use oI the MBB approach in the rational assembly
oI pre-designed polytopic organic linkers and hetero-coordinated single metal, MN
x
O
y
-type, clusters into new
zeolite-like metal-organic Irameworks (ZMOFs) with extra-large cavities. Porous anionic ZMOFs, rho-ZMOF, sod-
ZMOF and usf-ZMOF, have been constructed by metal-ligand directed assembly oI rigid and directional tetrahedral
building units, InN
4
synthesized in-situ, and directional and rigid bis-(bidentate) organic ligands in the presence oI
diIIerent structure directing agents (SDAs). The design strategy, synthesis, structure, porosity, and their inclusion
and sensing chemistry will be discussed.

a) b) c)
Figure 1: Single-Crystal structure oI rho-ZMOF composed oI
(a) eight-coordinated MBBs which can be viewed as a 4-
connected TBUs (b), (c) the ImDC ligand, linked to In
Iorming the 8-coordinated MBB. (d) a Iragment oI the rho-
ZMOF. The large yellow spheres represent the largest sphere
that would Iit in the a-cavities without touching the van der
Walls atoms oI the Iramework
d)


123
Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of New Materials for Hydrogen
Uptake

M. Madian
1
, N. Ismail
1
, A. A. El-Meligi
1
and M. S. El-Shall
2
1
Centre oI Excellency Ior Advanced Science, Physical Chemistry Department
National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
2
Department oI Chemistry, Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, VA 23284-2006


Research on new materials to be tested to store hydrogen is oI great interest. Iron phosphorus trisulphide FePS
3
is
related to the chalcogenides characterized by layered structure. FePS
3
powder has been prepared with solid state
reaction and heated up to 650C using two diIIerent heating rates 1C/min and 40C/min. The results showed that
the FePS
3
produced with slow heating rate is highly ordered single crystalline phase while powder produced with
the Iast heating rate is poly crystalline phase. The surIace morphology, the grain size and interlayer distance are
inIluenced by the heating rate used Ior preparation. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms showed linear relationship with
increasing pressure. The materials showed hydrogen storing ability up to 2.2 wt and3.2 wt. at77 K and
hydrogen pressure oI 20 and 30 bar, respectively.

Graphene has been prepared by Hummer method by exIoliation and reduction oI graphide oxide using hydrazine
hydrate. The graphene sheets produced is able to adsorb 0.28 wt. hydrogen at 273K and 20 bar. At 77K and the
same applied pressure, the sample sucks 3.4 wt. hydrogen.

Metal organic Irame work MIL101 was prepared hydrothermally at 220
o
C. MIL101 displays hydrogen storage
capacity 4.4wt. at 77K and 20 bar. Doping oI 10 Pd and 10 Ni with MIL101 did not aIIect its hydrogen
storage capacity.


124
Innovative Method for the Reduction of Nitrophenols Using
Nickel Nanocatalysts Supported on Zeolite-Y Prepared from Egyptian kaolin

Doaa El-Mekkawi, Hayam Helmi and Mohamed Selim
Physical Chemistry Dept., National Research Center
Dokki. Cairo. Egypt


The reduction oI ortho and para nitrophenols into the corresponding aminophenols has been proceeded via
a new eIIicient catalytic reduction procedure. Nickel nanocatalysts supported on zeolite Y prepared Irom Egyptian
kaolin has been used in the presence oI hydrazine hydrate molecules which Iirst decompose to give hydrogen atoms.
These hydrogen atoms reduce the nickel ions exchanged inside the zeolite cages. This allows the Iormation oI nickel
atoms in the nanoscale size. Further decomposition oI the hydrazine hydrate on the nickel atom surIaces yields
nascent hydrogen atom that will eIIiciently reduce the nitro groups. In this work many techniques such as XRD, IR,
TEM, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, and atomic absorption measurements have been used. XRD analysis
conIirms that zeolite Y retained its Iramework aIter nickel exchange processes. The atomic absorption
measurements were used to determine the amount oI nickel ions exchanged in zeolite. TEM shows the Iormation oI
nano nickel atoms inside the zeolite cages. IR analysis conIirms the appearance oI the characteristic peaks oI only
ortho or para aminophenols. UV-Visible absorption measurements have been used to Iollow up the disappearance oI
the nitro compounds as well as the estimation oI the conversion percentage. Catalyst recovery and Iactors aIIecting
the reduction reaction such as phenol concentration, pH, catalyst loading and temperature have been studied. The
obtained data and kinetic results indicate that at a given experimental conditions, the conversion percentage reaches
100 within Iew minutes. Comparing the results to the previously published studies, it can be concluded that this
method is more economic, Iaster and more eIIicient.




















125
Physicochemical, Surface and Catalytic Properties of Nanosized
Fe
2
O
3
-Cr
2
O
3
System with Different Compositions

Gamil A. El-Shobaky,
1
* Awad I. Ahmed
,
2
Hassan M. A. Hassan
3
and
Shaymaa E. El-ShaIey
1
1. Phvsical Chemistrv Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egvpt
2. Facultv of Science, Chemistrv Department, Mansoura Universitv, Mansoura, Egvpt
3. Facultv of Science, Chemistrv Department, Sue: Canal Universitv, Sue:, Egvpt


Ferric and chromic mixed oxides solids having diIIerent compositions were prepared by thermal decomposition oI
their mixed hydroxides at 400-600C. The mixed hydroxides were obtained by coprecipitation oI mixed Ierric and
chromic nitrates solution using NH
4
OH solution at 50C and a pH 8. The obtained solids were characterized by
using TGA, DTA, XRD, N
2
adsorption at -196C and catalysis oI CO oxidation by O
2
at 200-300C.

The results revealed that all mixed oxides calcined at 400C consisted oI amorphous solids and turned to #-Fe
2
O
3

phase upon heating at 500 and 600C. The average crystallite size oI #-Fe
2
O
3
varried between 21 and 35 nm. The
S
BET
oI diIIerent solids decreased by increasing the calcination temperature. The decrease was, however, more
pronounced upon increasing the heating temperature Irom 400 to 500C. The S
BET
, in general, increases by
increasing the Cr
2
O
3
content. All adsorbents investigated are mesopores solids. The catalytic activity was Iound to
increase, also, by increasing the Cr
2
O
3
content. The computed values oI apparent activation energy oI CO oxidation
by O
2
carried out over diIIerent solids were relatively small indicating an advanced catalytic activity oI all solids
investigated.
























126
Utilization of Synthetic Zeolite for Removal of Organic Dyes

Rasha M. Abd El Wahab, Doaa M. El.Mekkawy, and M.M.Selim
Department oI Physical Chemistry
National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt


The removal perIormance oI highly coloured soluble organic pollutants in water has been investigated.
Comparative adsorption studies oI organic dyes on commercially zeolite X and zeolite Y powder prepared Irom
Egyptian kaolin have been introduced. Brilliant blue, brilliant black, eriochrome black T and ponceau 3R were
introduced as models Ior organic pollutants oI diIIerent structures. XRD, DTA, atomic absorption spectroscopy and
UV/visible spectroscopic measurements have been used in this work. For comparison the properties oI the synthetic
zeolites and commercial grade zeolites, such as elemental composition, thermal stability and cation exchange
capacity using XRD, DTA and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively were investigated. UV/visible
spectroscopic measurements have been used to determine the amount oI adsorbed dyes on zeolite surIaces. The
adsorption capacities Ior both batch method and Iixed-bed reactors were recorded. The inIluential parameters, such
as initial pH value oI the solution, temperatures, adsorbate concentration and ion exchange on the adsorption
process were studied. The suitability oI Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to the equilibrium data was investigated
in the solid-liquid system. In all the adsorption experiments, the variation oI adsorption capacities were recorded
and explained in terms oI both zeolite behaviour and dyes structures. Attempts to regenerate the adsorbents were
also made and the adsorptive properties oI the recovered zeolite have been provided.







































127
Various Characteristics and Catalytic Activity of Iron (II) Phthalocyanine
Immobilized onto Titania- and Vanadia- Pillared Bentonite Clay in in-situ
Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate:
An attempt to synthesize a novel polymer / iron phthalocyanine / pillared clay
nano composite

Salah A. Hassan
1
, AteI S. Darwish
*1
, Fatma Z. Yehia
2
, Hamdi A. Hassan
1
, Salwa A. Sadek
1
1
Department oI Chemistry, Faculty oI Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
2
Department oI Petrochemical Technology, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt


In the present study, the pure bentonite clay has been modiIied by pillaring with titania and vanadia (Ti-PILB and
V-PILB). Iron (II) phthalocyanine complex (FePc) was immobilized in 0.5 wt loading on the modiIied bentonite
supports. Structural characteristics oI the various samples were investigated through XRD, FTIR, TGA, and ICP-
EDX techniques. Textural and morphological characteristics were estimated Irom low-temperature adsorption-
desorption isotherms oI N
2
, pore size distribution analysis and SEM. Dispersion parameters oI FePc molecules were
determined Irom H
2
chemisorption isotherms. Acid-base properties were studied by potentiometric titration method
and cation exchange capacities were determined. Catalytic activity oI the prepared catalyst samples was examined
in the in-situ bulk polymerization oI methyl methacrylate. The kinetic results were discussed in correlation with the
various characteristics to determine the role oI acid sites and FePc molecules in the polymerization mechanism. !
w
and !
n
values oI the polymers produced decreased, according to the used support, in the order: Ti-PILB ~ ATTB ~
V-PILB, exactly in the same decreasing order oI the chain transIer constant (C
T
). This indicated more contribution
oI FePc. A possibility oI living polymerization mechanism, within the role oI FePc in the re-initiation oI the
dormant polymer molecules, was conIirmed. A new approach Ior the synthesis oI PMMA / 0.5 wt FePc /
modiIied bentonite composites was provided through a number oI characterization techniques and via diIIerent
proposed schemes. The modiIied bentonite layers were partially exIoliated on the PMMA base. The PMMA layered
structure was arranged in a decreasing order, according to the modiIied bentonite, V-PILB ~ Ti-PILB ~ ATTB,
where nano-sized vanadia particles (25 nm) were involved with better dispersion and well homogeneity.












128
EPRI Catalysis Group Activities in the Field of Gas Processing and
Petroleum Refining

Tamer Zaki
Department oI Catalysis, Petroleum ReIining Division,
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: tamerzakishararayahoo.com


The catalysis group in the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI) has been starting a
huge and miscellaneous researching works since Iew years. The aim oI this presentation is
bringing to light a part oI the researching activities oI this group that concerned with the
applications oI the nanomaterials in the Iield oI gas processing and petroleum reIining.

The topics oI these research projects include:
- Synthesis oI nano- and layered nano-proveskite Ior the oxidative coupling oI the methane
(OCM).
- Synthesis oI Mo-W oxide nanocatalysts Ior the petroleum condensate isomerization.
- Synthesis oI $-alumina based nanocatalysts Ior alcohols dehydration.
- Synthesis oI high surIace area #-alumina.
- Comparative study Ior the desulIurization oI diesel Iuel via oxidation-extraction and adsorption
techniques.
- Enhancement the biodesulIurization (BDS) oI petroleum distillates by using magnetic
nanoparticles.
- Bio-remediation oI petroleum spills by using biocatalysts coated with photo-catalytic magnetic
nanoparticles.
- Synthesis oI Mg-Al and Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles Ior selective
carbon dioxide adsorption Irom natural gas.
- Removal oI mercury compounds Irom natural gas, condensate and the dehydration waste using
nano-adsorbents and metal-organic Irameworks (MOFs).

























129
US CONTACTS
Faisal M. Alamgir
Materials Science and Engineering
Georgia Institute oI Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0245
Phone: (404) 385-3263
E-mail: Iaisalmse.gatech.edu

Robert Buszek
Department oI Chemistry
Purdue University
West LaIayette, IN 47907
Phone: (765) 494-5244
E-mail: rbuszekpurdue.edu

Pinar Dagtepe
Department oI Chemistry
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Phone: (785) 395-4796
E-mail: pinardksu.edu

Erik Dreaden
Laser Dynamics Laboratory, School oI Chemistry and Biochemistry
Georgia Institute oI Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
Phone: (404) 894-4009
E-mail: edreadenyahoo.com

Mohamed Eddaoudi
Department oI Chemistry
University oI Florida
Tampa, FL 33620-5250
Phone: 813-974-9622
E-mail: eddaoudicas.usI.edu

MostaIa A. El-Sayed
Laser Dynamics Laboratory, School oI Chemistry and Biochemistry
Georgia Institute oI Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332-0400
Phone: 404-894-0292
E-mail: mostaIa.el-sayedchemistry.gatech.edu

M. Samy El-Shall
Departments oI Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, VA 23284, 2006
Phone: 804-828-3518
E-mail: mselshalvcu.edu


130

Sherrie R. Elzey
Department oI Chemical & Biochemical Engineering
University oI Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
Phone: (641) 831-3975
E-mail: sherrie-elzeyuiowa.edu

Christopher Evans
Department oI Chemistry
University oI Rochester
Rochester, NY 14627, USA
Phone: (585) 750-6882
E-mail: cevans6mail.rochester.edu

Joseph S. Francisco
Department oI Chemistry and Department oI Earth and Atmospheric Science
Purdue University
West LaIayette, Indiana 47907-2084
Phone: 765-494-7851
Email: Iranciscpurdue.edu

Bruce C. Gates
Departments oI Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
University oI CaliIornia
Davis, CA 95616-5294
Phone: 530-752-3953
E-mail: bcgatesucdavis.edu

Wayne Goodman
Department oI Chemistry
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77843-3012
Phone: 979-845-0214
E-mail: goodmanmail.chem.tamu.edu

Vicki H. Grassian
Departments oI Chemistry & Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
University oI Iowa
Iowa City, IA 52242-1294
Phone: 319-335-1392
E-mail: vicki-grassianuiowa.edu

CliIton Harris
Department oI Chemistry and Biochemistry
University oI Notre Dame
Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
Phone: (574) 631-9507
E-mail: charri10nd.edu


131
Rebecca Hayoun
Department oI Chemistry
University oI Washington
Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Phone: (206) 616-4212
E-mail: rhayounu.washington.edu

Natalie Herring
Department oI Chemistry
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, VA 23284, USA
Phone: (804) 827-1222
E-mail: natalieherringgmail.com

Puru Jena
Department oI Physics
Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, VA 23284-2000
Phone: 804-848-8991
E-mail: pjenavcu.edu

Prashant V. Kamat
Departments oI Chemistry & Biochemistry
Department oI Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Radiation Laboratory
University oI Notre Dame
Notre Dame IN 46556
Phone: 574-631-5411
E-mail: pkamatnd.edu

Ilkeun Lee
Department oI Chemistry
University oI CaliIornia, Riverside
Riverside, CA 92521, USA
Phone: (951) 827-5736
E-mail: ilkeun.leeucr.edu

Ryan Luebke
Department oI Chemical Science
King Abdullah University oI Science and Technology
Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom oI Saudi Arabia
Phone: 0553422636
E-mail: ryan.luebkekaust.edu.sa

Kevin Major
Department oI Chemistry and the Nanoscale Science Program
University oI North Carolina at Charlotte
Charlotte, NC 28223, USA
Phone (704) 687-4765
E-mail: kmajoruncc.edu


132

Lynn Mandeltort
Department oI Chemistry
University oI Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
Phone: (434) 924-3344
E-mail: lmandeltortgmail.com

Sean Michael McClure
Department oI Chemistry
Texas A&M University
College Station, TX 77842, USA
Phone: (979) 845-2011
E-mail: smcclurechem.tamu.edu

Omar F. Mohammed
Physical Biology Center Ior UltraIast Science and Technology
Arthur Amos Noyes Laboratory oI Chemical Physics
CaliIornia Institute oI Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
Phone: (626) 395-2279
E-mail: omar3070caltech.edu

Michael Robert Morrill
School oI Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Georgia Institute oI Technology
Atlanta, GA 30318, USA
Phone: (801) 494-7340
E-mail: mike.morrillgatech.edu

Joyeeta Nag
Department oI Physics
Vanderbilt Institute oI Nanoscale Science and Engineering
Vanderbilt University
Nashville, TN 37235, USA
Phone: (615) 414-0340
E-mail: joyeeta.nagVanderbilt.edu

Adam Poncheri
Laser Dynamics Laboratory, School oI Chemistry and Biochemistry
Georgia Institute oI Technology
Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
Phone: (404) 894-4009
E-mail: aponcheri3mail.gatech.edu







133
John G. Rowley
Department oI Chemistry
Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
Phone: (443) 928-7374
E-mail: jrowley5jhu.edu

Mark G. White
Dave C. Swalm School oI Chemical Engineering
James Worth Bagley College oI Engineering
Box 9595, MS 39762
Phone: 662-325-2480
E-mail: whiteche.msstate.edu

John Yates
Department oI Chemistry
University oI Virginia
Charlottesville, VA 22904-4319
Phone: 434-924-7514
E-mail: johntvirginia.edu

Francisco Zaera
Department oI Chemistry
University oI CaliIornia, Riverside
Riverside, CA 92521
Phone: 951-827-5498
E-mail: zaeraucr.edu


134
EGYPTIAN CONTACTS


Ahmed Kadry Aboul-Gheit
Catalysis Division
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI)
Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: aboulgheithotmail.com

Ayman M. Atta
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute
Nasr City 11727, Cairo, Egypt

M.I. Badawy
Water Pollution Research Department
National Research Centre
Dokki, Cairo 11312, Egypt

M. Boshta
Department oI Solid State Physics
National Research Center
12311 Dokki, Giza
E-mail: boshtahotmail.com

Magdah Dawy
National Research Center
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: mdawy9yahoo.com

Ahmed A. El-Moneim
Egyptian-Japanese University oI Science and Technology
Borg El Arab, Alexandria, Egypt
National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
E-mail: ahmed.abdelmoneimejust.org

A. M. Elbasiony
Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Lab
Centre oI Excellence Ior Advanced Sciences
National Research Centre
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: namanakhlyyahoo.co.uk

Doaa El-Mekkawi
Department oI Physical Chemistry
National Research Center
Dokki. Cairo. Egypt





135

E. A. Elsharaky
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute
Cairo, Egypt

Gamil A. El-Shobaky
Department oI Physical Chemistry
National Research Center
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

M. El Sukkary
Petrochemicals Division
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI)
Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: elsukkaryhotmail.com

A.A. Elzatahry
Institute oI Advanced technology and New materials, Mubarak City Ior ScientiIic Research and
technology applications
New Borg Alarab, Alexandria, Egypt

I. K. El Zawawi
Solid State Physics Department
National Research Center
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

E-mail: enaselza1yahoo.com

A. A. Fargali
Chemistry Department, Faculty oI Science
Beni-SueiI University
Beni-SueiI-62111, Egypt

Osama A. Fouad
Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute
Helwan, Egypt
E-mail: oaIouadcmrdi.sci.eg


Rabei M. Gabr
Chemistry Department
Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
E-mail: madmodie1982yahoo.com

Tarek A. Gad-Allah
Department oI Materials and LiIe Science
Seikei University
3-3-1 Kichijoji Kita-machi, Musashino-shi
Tokyo 180-8633, Japan



136
Ahmed Galal
Department oI Chemistry, Faculty oI Science
University oI Cairo, Postal Code 12613, Giza-Egypt
Email: galalah1yahoo.com

Ahmed Gera
Department oI Solid State Physics
National research Center
Dokki , Giza, Egypt

W. A. Ghaly

Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority

National Institute Ior Laser Enhanced Sciences
Cairo University
Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: wghalyjpyahoo.com

Hassan M. A. Hassan
Chemistry Department, Faculty oI Science
Suez Canal University, Suez, Egypt
E-mail: hmohamed73yahoo.com

Salah A. Hassan
Department oI Chemistry, Faculty oI Science
Ain Shams University
Cairo, Egypt

Nahla Ismail
Centre oI Excellency Ior Advanced Science
Department oI Physical Chemistry
National Research Centre
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: nahlaismail24yahoo.com

A. B. Kashyout
Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute
Mubarak City Ior ScientiIic Research and Technology Applications (MuCSAT)
New Borg El-Arab City, P.O. Box 21934, Alexandria, Egypt
E-mail: akashyoutmucsat.sci.eg

Abd El Rahman S. Khder
Department oI Chemistry, Faculty oI Science
El-Mansoura University, El-Mansoure, Egypt
E-mail: askhder2244yahoo.com

Mahmoud H. Khedr
Nanomaterials Unit, Faculty oI Science, BenisueI University
BenisueI, Egypt
E-mail: dkhedryahoo.com


137

M. Madian
Centre oI Excellency Ior Advanced Science
Department oI Physical Chemistry
National Research Centre
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Mona B. Mohamed
National Institute oI Laser Enhanced Science (NILES)
Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
E-mail: mohamedmonahotmail.com

Magdy M. Nasrallah
Department oI Petroleum and Energy Engineering
The American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt
Email: magdinasaucegypt.edu

S. Negm
Department oI Physics and Mathematics
Faculty oI Engineering, (Shoubra)
Benha University Egypt

Abd EL-Aziz A Said
Chemistry Department, Faculty oI Science
Assiut, University, Assiut, Egypt
E-mail: a.a.saidaun.ed.eg

R. Seoudi
National Research Center
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Gamil A.El-Shobaky

Department oI Physical Chemistry
National Research Center
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Hassan Talaat
Faculty oI Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: hassantalaathotmail.com

Rasha M. Abd El Wahab
Department oI Physical Chemistry
National Research Center
Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

Mohamed I. Zaki
Chemistry Department, Faculty oI Science,
Minia University, El-Minia 61519, Egypt
E-mail: mizakilink.net


138

Tamer Zaki
Department oI Catalysis, Petroleum ReIining Division
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute
Cairo, Egypt
E-mail: tamerzakishararayahoo.com