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"#$%&'$%() *+,-.'$, /%0,(#,+ 1-.'2, 344$'), 542 624+.0$%4(


}onathan Caulkins, B0TEC Analysis, Cainegie Nellon 0niveisity
Natthew Cohen, TiiQ Inc.
Luigi Zamaiia

7($24+.0$%4(
This uocument anu associateu spieausheet pioviue a guiue foi estimating the
cultivation aiea neeueu to suppoit a given level of cannabis piouuction. The uata is
uiawn fiom a ieview of the ielevant liteiatuie anu fiom inteiviews conuucteu with
16 gioweis. This iepoit finus that inuooi anu outuooi yielus aveiage about 4u
giams pei squaie foot pei haivest, but with a consiueiable iange. Yielus pei squaie
foot pei yeai can be much highei of couise, because theie can be multiple haivests
pei yeai, paiticulaily foi inuooi piouuction.

If the goal is to limit a licensee's piouuction, iestiicting giowing aiea may be a
useful supplemental constiaint. Setting a limit that is ielatively geneious (say
uouble what one might expect is iequiieu) might uiscouiage willful gioss violations
of piouuction limits, without gieatly inconveniencing a iesponsible giowei.
Bowevei, tiying to make giowing aiea the binuing constiaint invites a iange of
auaptations to inciease yielu pei squaie foot that woulu also uiive up cost anu
might even somewhat iestiict the iange of vaiieties biought to maiket.

3'0$42# 84&9:%0'$%() 8.:$%;'$%4( *2,' "#$%&'$%4(
Estimating cultivation aiea seems stiaightfoiwaiu. Foi example, if each of foui
haivests pei yeai yielus Su giams pei squaie foot, then to piouuce 12u metiic tons
of maiijuana annually, one neeus to license 12u,uuu,uuu (4 * Su) = 6uu,uuu squaie
feet.

Five factois complicate the analysis:

1) Yielu figuies aie not stanuaiuizeu.

2) Yielu is noimally expiesseu pei squaie foot haivesteu, anu inuooi maiijuana
giows customaiily piouuce multiple haivests pei yeai.

S) Yielus can vaiy by mouality (e.g., gieenhouse vs. aitificial lights), vaiiety of
stiain, anu intensity (e.g., wattage of aitificial lights oi type anu amount of
feitilizei). We use aveiages that account foi these vaiiables.


Page 2 of 11
4) Yielus aie conventionally uesciibeu in teims of giams pei squaie foot
haivesteu, but piouuction facilities also have ancillaiy spaces foi seeulings,
walkways, etc. A majoi uecision point foi the WSLCB, theiefoie, ielates to
whethei the aiea-iestiiction applies to the entiie builuing, all aieas occupieu
by plants, oi solely to aieas occupieu by matuie plants that can be haivesteu.

S) The futuie mix of piouuction stiategies anu associateu yielus is unknown
anu paitially enuogenous to WSLCB policy. Foi instance, if giowing aiea is
iestiicteu, gioweis may have an incentive to employ highei yieluing but
moie expensive piouuction methous.


<=, "55,0$ 45 /,)':%>'$%4( 4( *;,2'), ?%,:+
uiowing in the 0.S. has tenueu towaiu high yielus pei squaie foot because the neeu
to avoiu uetection by law enfoicement incentivizes a small opeiational footpiint.
Bowevei, theie aie some exceptions. uioweis conceineu about the 1uu-plant
thiesholu, (qualifying the ownei foi a S-yeai feueial manuatoiy minimum sentence)
anu who have access to a laige waiehouse might giow 99 veiy laige plants anu
spieau them out to maximize each plant's yielu. A moie common appioach is
uensely packing many small plants unuei aitificial lights to matuie them quickly
enough to piouuce multiple haivests pei yeai.

These may not iepiesent best piactices post legalization. Bensely packeu plants aie
moie vulneiable to pests anu uisease. Fuitheimoie, gieenhouses aie moie
economical (with cheapei stiuctuies anu lowei electiicity costs), attesteu by the
fact that few legal ciops aie giown entiiely with aitificial light. Bowevei,
gieenhouses' economic auvantages uisappeai in wintei uue to heating costs.
uieenhouse R-values aie veiy low, meaning they aie pooily insulateu foi heat, so
gieenhouses might not piouuce as many ciops pei yeai.

Bence, theie is a tiaue-off between yielu anu piouuction cost. If theie is no limit on
piouuction aiea, one might expect gieenhouse piouuction to gain populaiity uue to
cost consiueiations. Bowevei, if piouuction aiea is constiaineu to the point that
gieenhouse piouuction woulu leave some uemanu unsatisfieu, gioweis might use
theii scaice giowing aiea foi piouuction unuei aitificial lightsunless piouuction
limits keep piices high.

Theie can be a similai tiaue-off acioss uiffeient moues of piouuction unuei aitificial
lights. Some stiains oi vaiieties of cannabis yielu moie pei squaie foot than otheis.
Likewise, some matuie fastei, iesulting in moie ciops pei yeai. Similaily,
incieasing lighting oi feitilizei intensity can inciease yielu. Theiefoie, if piouuction
aiea is constiaineu, gioweis might focus on the highest yieluing vaiieties oi use
moie lamps pei squaie foot to boost yieluseven if that constiains the iange of
vaiieties available foi sale oi incieaseu electiicity consumption anu piouuction cost
pei kilogiam.


Page 3 of 11
This complicates the establishment of suitable piouuction quotas. Foi example,
even if the WSLCB licenseu the coiiect acieage to piouuce foi the entiie WA maiket
at gieenhouse-level yielus, piouuceis might still use all licenseu anu allocateu space
foi high yielu methous, if the excess piouuction coulu still be solu (e.g., because
"smuif anu aggiegate" opeiations caiiieu the auuitional piouuct to othei states).


@#%() $=, *$$'0=,+ 192,'+#=,,$ '# ' <44: 542 "#$%&'$%() ?%,:+
The spieausheet associateu with this iepoit accounts foi multiple piouuction foims
anu intensities. 0seis may entei not only the total piouuction taiget (e.g., 12u
metiic tons), but also a uesciiption of the mix of piouuction foims the inuustiy is
anticipateu to employ. Those cells (inuicateu in blue in the spieausheet) aie now
set to uefault values that iepiesent oui best guess at piesent, but shoulu be upuateu
by the WSLCB as bettei infoimation on inuustiy stiuctuie becomes available.

The spieausheet is "pieloaueu" with five scenaiios: (i) base case, (ii) high yielu
moualities, (iii) a low cost scenaiio, (iv) all inuooi piouuction (balanceu mix), anu
(v) all gieenhouse piouuction.
1
Aveiage yielu vaiies by a factoi of about 2 acioss
the scenaiios. Foi instance, the aiea neeueu foi a taiget piouuction of 12u metiic
tons vaiies fiom about u.8 to 1.S million squaie feet (19 - S4 acies). 0f couise, we
woulu encouiage the LCB to uefine its own scenaiios as moie anu bettei
infoimation becomes available on giowei behavioi.
2


Note: We set "no ioof" (full sun) at 2% as a place holuei, in the belief that it will
account foi a negligible shaie of piouuction in Washington. If that pioves false, then
of couise that paiametei shoulu be changeu.

If the WSLCB tiies to iestiict piouuction substantially by tightly constiaining aiea
cultivateu, it shoulu expect the inuustiy to auapt in vaiious ways anu so achieve
yielus pei unit aiea that aie at the highei enu of the ianges uesciibeu. As a iesult,
the WSLCB may piefei to utilize the "skeweu towaiu high yielu" in oiuei to
ueteimine total allowable piouuction aiea. Conveisely, if piouuction aiea weie not
meaningfully constiaineu, then the mix of piouuction methous might tienu towaiu
moualities that piouuce less pei squaie foot pei yeai, anu the "all gieenhouse"
scenaiio might be moie infoimative.

A'2%'B:,# 6,2$%(,($ $4 ?%,:+C9,2C.(%$C'2,'C='2;,#$,+
Yielu vaiies foi thiee uistinct types of ieasons: (1) contiolleu vaiiables, (2) the
possibility of a paitial oi complete ciop failuie, anu (S) ianuom vaiiation.

Besiues venue (aitificial lights vs. gieenhouse vs. open aii), contiolleu vaiiables
incluue factois such as vaiiety, feitilizei, hyuiation, soil quality, piuning methou,

1
Scenaiios can be accesseu by choosing fiom the Excel (2u1u oi latei) menu: Bata, What-If Analysis,
anu Scenaiio Nanagei, then highlighting the uesiieu scenaiio anu clicking the "Show" button.
2
Befining auuitional scenaiios is easy in Excel. We woulu be happy to teach how if necessaiy.

Page 4 of 11
haivest time, anu lighting intensity. Theie aie some pieuictable ielationships, such
as causation between moie intense lighting anu yielu pei unit aiea. Inueeu, it is not
uncommon to see the liteiatuie measuie yielu pei watt iathei than pei squaie foot
(e.g., Rosenthal). 0thei ielationships aie still being investigateu. Foi example,
vanhove (2u1S) finus that matching the piopei feitilizei to the stiain type can have
a substantial effect on yielu. Theie aie also factois that can affect yielu post-haivest,
in the uiying, cuiing anu piocessing phases.

Suipiisingly, the giaue of flowei oi TBC potency uoes not necessaiily play a factoi
in yielu. A veiy high quality ciop can have a veiy low yielu, anu a veiy low quality
ciop can have a high yielu. Bowevei, since uiffeient stiains have uiffeient lengths of
giowth cycles, limiting licenseu giowth squaie footage may encouiage piouuceis to
giow those stiains that have shoitei giowth cycles.

Ciop failuies can occui foi a vaiiety of ieasons, incluuing pests (mites), fungal
contamination, anu othei miscellaneous causes. Even when the ciop uoes not fail
anu the familiai contiol vaiiables aie helu constant, theie can still be vaiiation fiom
ciop to ciop. Even expeit gioweis can have seemingly iuentical ciops next to one
anothei that vaiy in yielu by 1u-2u%. Inueeu, vanhove et al. (2u11) uemonstiate
that the aveiage coefficient of vaiiation in yielu !"#$"% a giowth conuition is u.SS.
This is not a mysteiy oi in any way unique to maiijuana; yielus in all foims of
agiicultuie aie moie vaiiable than in assembly line piouuction.


624+.0$%4( 94$,($%': 9,2 #-.'2, 544$ ='2;,#$,+
The tables below summaiize the eviuence gatheieu foi this task fiom the liteiatuie
anu 16 inteiviews with gioweis.
S
Inuooi anu outuooi yielus aveiage about 4u anu
47 giams pei squaie foot, iespectively, iegaiuless of whethei ianges aie ieuuceu to
point estimates via aiithmetic oi geometiic aveiaging.
4


The highei value foi outuooi piouuction is uue to two veiy high estimates. It is the
inteiviewei's juugment that one iesponuent was thinking of an extieme best case
scenaiio, anu that the seconu may have pioviueu an anecuotal iesponse not
suppoiteu by ieliable uata. Bue to outliei uata points, a tiimmeu mean may be a
moie ieliable cential measuie than the usual mean. The tiimmeu means, omitting
the two lowest anu two highest estimates, aie veiy close to 4u giams pei squaie
foot inuooi oi out.
S



S
The Appenuix pioviues fuithei infoimation on the estimates uiawn fiom the liteiatuie beyonu that
ievieweu by Leggett (2uu6).
4
ueometiic aveiages - meaning the n
th
ioot of the piouuct of n numbeis - have some auvantages
ovei the tiauitional aiithmetic mean when ieuucing ianges to point estimates, but in this case gave
essentially the same oveiall answei.
S
Inueeu, the tiimmeu mean foi inuooi piouuction (4u.9) is slightly laigei than foi the outuooi
estimates (S9.6), inuicating just how heavily the simple aveiage of 47 giams pei sq. ft. was influenceu
by the two veiy high iepoits.

Page 5 of 11





!"#$%& '(&)*+&,-"./&.( 0&(123, "5 6"/& 62. 617
8$2(9)&(2%
8:&$1;&
<&")&($2%
8:&$1;&
'./""$
lnLervlewer #1 #1 20 70 43 37.4
#2 28.373 78.03 33.2023 47.1
#3 20 70 43 37.4
#4 20 70 43 37.4
#3 20 70 43 37.4
#6 13 60 37.3 30.0
#7 28 36 42 39.6
#8 30 60 43 42.4
lnLervlewer #2 #1 30 30 40 38.7
#2 28 42 33 34.3
#3 41 46 43.3 43.4
#4 20 40 30 28.3
#3 28 36 32 31.7
#6 23 46 34.3 32.3
LeggeLL (2006) revlew #1 lndoor sclenLlflc 37 36 46.3 43.3
#2
lndoor sclenLlflc 17 63 40.9 33.0
#3 lndlca/saLlva 1 m lndoor 37 37 37.2 37.2
#4 lndoor ("Skunk #1") 14 28 20.9 19.7
#3 lndoor Sea of Creen 30 47 38.3 37.3
#6 lndoor Screen of Creen 70 70 70.2 70.2
#7 lndoor Screen of Creen 47 47 46.8 46.8
#8 unspeclfled lndoor 63 63 63.2 63.2
#9 lndoor hydroponlcs uropped as an ouLller
#10 lndoors 28 36 41.8 39.4
1oonen eL al. (2006) 46.9 46.9 46.9 46.9
vanPove eL al. (2011) 400 WaLLs / sq. meLer 11.6 31.43 21.3 19.1
600 WaLLs / sq. meLer 21.44 44.9 33.2 31.0
knlghL eL al. (2010) ScrCC, successful grow 32.7 32.7 32.7 32.7
CervanLes (2006) 29.6 33 41.3 39.6
8osenLhal 23.43 62.3 44.0 39.9
8:; 1%$",, $&,-"./&.(, =>?@ @A?B
C#(/""$
lnLervlewer #1 #9 27.24 27.24 27.24 27.2
lnLervlewer #2 #1 40 70 33 32.9
#3 93 93 93 93.0
#4 23 30 37.3 33.4
#3 112 112 112 112.0
LeggeLL (2006) revlew #1 CuLdoor raln-fed 14 14 14.1 14.1
#2 CuLdoor lrrlgaLed 24 24 23.6 23.6
#3 unspeclfled ouLdoor 14 28 21.2 20.0
#4 CuLdoor 46 46 46.3 46.3
8:; 1%$",, $&,-"./&.(, =D?A =D?E

Page 6 of 11
624+.0$%4( 94$,($%': 9,2 #-.'2, 544$ !"#$%&$'
It is ciucial to unueistanu that the figuies citeu above aie pei haivest anu pei aiea
haivesteu.

Inuooi piouuction allows 4-6 haivests pei yeai (S being typical), wheieas outuooi
piouuction allows only 1-S haivests pei yeai. Thus, piouuction pei squaie foot pei
yeai is much highei with inuooi giowing.

Theie weie no complete estimates of yielus in gieenhouses. 0ne might expect the
piouuction to be compaiable pei haivest pei squaie foot, but that the numbei of
haivests pei yeai woulu be somewhat lowei, since gieenhouse heating can be so
expensive in wintei months. 0n the othei hanu, aii conuitioning costs in the
summei when giowing with aitificial lights can also be veiy high.

Theie is also the complicateu question of ancillaiy space that is essential to
piouuction, but which is not itself haivesteu. Theie aie thiee types of ancillaiy
space:

1) Space foi giowing plants that aie not at the haivestable stage (mothei plants,
seeulings, etc.).

2) Beau space that is inteitwineu with aiea to be haivesteu (e.g., walkways).

S) 0thei aieas not uiiectly involveu in giowing (space useu foi uiying, stoiing
tools, iecoiu keeping, bathiooms, etc.).

Ancillaiy space can easily be half as laige as the canopy aiea that is haivesteu,
meaning that 2S of a facility may be uevoteu to canopy.

Auministiatively, the simplest appioach might be to license the total size of the
builuing, which woulu encompass all of these types of ancillaiy space. Bowevei, if
the license limits the sum of all these types of space, then gioweis will have an
incentive to go to gieat lengths anu expenses to minimize the ancillaiy space. Foi
example, a giowei might employ ciawl space unuei giow tables foi stoiing supplies
anu moving about. uiven the high potential value of cannabis yielu pei unit aiea,
such limits coulu justify iathei extiaoiuinaiy measuies.

An alteinative woulu be to license just the aiea uevoteu to matuie plants. This
appioach woulu allow officials to apply the yielu figuies above without aujustment.
Bowevei, that woulu iequiie some peihaps consiueiable extia effoit foi gioweis
anu inspectois to subtiact out the aiea of walkways when computing aiea unuei
canopy. Fuitheimoie, theie is also the question of how to wiite a cleai anu
consistent iule that uiffeientiates matuie plants fiom seeulings.
6


6
The mothei plants uo not iequiie that much space in total, so foluing them in with matuie plants
woulu iequiie a ielatively minoi aujustment to the yielu estimates above.

Page 7 of 11

A thiiu alteinative woulu be to license total aiea uevoteu to plants, incluuing matuie
plants, seeulings, anu mothei plants. That leaves out the thiiu type of ancillaiy
space, but incluues the fiist two. In that case, the licenseu aiea woulu be somewhat
gieatei than what is occupieu by matuie plants, anu the yielu figuies above woulu
be ieuuceu coiiesponuingly.


Page 8 of 11
*99,(+%D *E /%$,2'$.2, F,;%,G

324& $=, 9.B:%#=,+ :%$,2'$.2,

&'(()*+ -. /0110## 234456
Leggett (2uu6, Table S, pp.27-29) ievieweu SS yielu estimates fiom a wiue iange of
souices. Key elements of inuooi estimates aie iepiouuceu below. Leggett (p.Su)
summaiizes them as ianging fiom just ovei Suu to just unuei 8uu giams pei squaie
metei pei haivest, with an oveiall aveiage of about Suu giams pei squaie metei,
with foui-stage cultivation systems allowing S-6 haivests pei yeai.



Foi outuooi yielus, Leggett quotes Coniau in suggesting that yielus of 2uu giams pei
squaie metei aie consistent with figuies gatheieu fiom couit cases in the 0.S., but
nonetheless uses 1uu giams pei squaie metei (one NT pei hectaie). Those figuies
woulu tianslate to 18.6 anu 9.S giams pei squaie foot. Nonetheless, Leggett's Table
S iecoius some substantially gieatei yielus, which aie given heie (exclusive of two
uesciibeu as "feial"). The sole gieenhouse estimate is also incluueu.




&'7809'0%# )%: ;::"#"-%)< ="#)7<0 &-'*>08 -% ?%:--* @"0<:
Toonen et al. (2uu6) builu a iegiession mouel baseu on 86 samples obtaineu fiom
law enfoicement iaius in the Netheilanus. Point estimate was SuS giams pei
squaie metei of uiieu female flowei buus, which is equivalent to 46.9 giams pei
squaie foot.
8ow Source CulLlvaLlon SLyle
CuLpuL per
planL (grams)
lanLs per
square meLer
WelghL per
Square MeLer
(grams)
Seasons per
year
CuLpuL per square
meLer per year
(grams)
#1 W. ScholLen lndoor sclenLlflc 100 4-6 400-600 4 1600-2400
#2 8r Columbla Compasslon Club Soc lndoor sclenLlflc 180-700
#3 8. Clarke (2002, p.9)
lndlca/saLlva 1 m
lndoor 100 Assume 4 400 3-4 1200-1600
#4 8. Clarke (19998, p.189) lndoor ("Skunk #1")
130-300
(flowers only) 3
#3 M. 1homas (2002) lndoor Sea of Creen 9-14 (0.3 oz.) 36 (2 per sq. fL.) 324-304 4 1296-2016
#6 M. 1homas (2002)
lndoor Screen of
Creen 84 (3 oz.) 9 736 3 2268
#7 C. Creen (2003)
lndoor Screen of
Creen 36 (2 oz.) 9 304 3 1312
#8 CnllnepoL.org webslLe unspeclfled lndoor 170 Assume 4 680
4-32
(wlLh CC2) 720-3400
#9 !. CervanLes (1993) lndoor hydroponlcs 7 4 28 4 112
#10 Cannabls-seedbank.nl webslLe lndoors 300-600 3-6
8ow Source CulLlvaLlon SLyle
CuLpuL per
planL (grams)
lanLs per
square meLer
WelghL per
Square MeLer
(grams)
Seasons per
year
CuLpuL per square
meLer per year
(grams)
#1 unCuC Morocco CuLdoor raln-fed 76 1 76 2 132
#2 unCuC Morocco CuLdoor lrrlgaLed 4 30 127 2 234
#3 M. SLarks (1990) unspeclfled ouLdoor 227-434 0.66 132-304 1 132-304
#4 M. 1homas (2002) CuLdoor AbouL 300 1 300 1 300
#3 Cannabls-seedbank.nl webslLe CuLdoor 10-200 40 x 10 g 300-600
#6 Cannabls-seedbank.nl webslLe Creenhouse 1-10 30-230 3-6

Page 9 of 11
Toonen et al. (2uu6, p.1uSS) also iepoit that, "in populai cannabis cultivation
liteiatuie, aveiage yielus of S66-61u gm2 aie uesciibeu (11)" with the citation
being to uieen u. The cannabis giow bible. 0SA: uieen Canuy Piess, 2uu1. That
iange is equivalent to S4.u to S6.7 giams pei squaie foot.

vanhove et al. (2u11) seek to impiove on Toonen et al. via a giowing expeiiment
with a full factoiial Latin squaie uesign, vaiying light intensity (4uu oi 6uu W pei sq.
metei), plant uensity (16 anu 2u plants pei squaie metei), anu plant vaiiety (foui
vaiieties). Plants weie haivesteu aftei 11 weeks. Yielus weie 11.6 - 44.9 giams
pei squaie foot, although the uiscussion states, "Accoiuing to the Belgian Police, the
yielu figuies piesenteu in this stuuy aie below the aveiage yielu founu in common
illicit cannabis inuooi plantations." Yielus weie substantially highei unuei the
6uuW conuition, even slightly moie than 1.S times highei. Yielus pei unit aiea weie
not affecteu by plant uensity ovei this iange. Yielus uiu veiy consiueiably by
vaiiety. If we focus on the two highei-yieluing vaiieties (Big Bug anu Supei Skunk)
unuei the 6uuW conuition, the aveiage yielu was 4u.7 giams pei squaie foot.

vanhove et al. (2u12) summaiizeu moie such expeiiments, stating: "the lowei-
bounu of the one-siueu 9S% confiuence inteival of the yielu of an inuooi cannabis
plantation can be set at S7S gm
2
."

vanhove (2u1S, peisonal communications) peifoimeu a subsequent, unpublisheu,
stuuy inteiacting feitilizei type (complete scheme uesciibeu in eailiei papeis vs.
just NPK-feitilizeis) ciosseu with vaiiety. Theie was a (negative) main effect foi the
just NPK-feitilizei, but also a veiy stiong inteiaction effect (e.g., Big Buu uiu bettei
with basic feitilizei). The conclusion is that mismatching feitilizei with type can
ieuuce yielu below the S7S giam pei squaie metei potential obtaineu eailiei.

Knight et al. (2u1u) uiu thiee cycles of hyuioponic giowing ("Scieen of uieen" oi
Sci0u methou). Each ciop hau six plants giown in 4.S2m X S.48 m. Piouuction
iangeu fiom 94.2 to 186.4 ounces, which is 16.S - S2.7 giams pei squaie foot.
Authois iepoit pioblems with all thiee giows, uue to theii inexpeiience,
paiticulaily the two giows with lowei yielus. So the S2.7 giam pei squaie foot
figuie woulu appeai to the best most ielevant fiom this stuuy.
As an asiue, the yielus pei plant weie consiueiable. The authois concluue
that they have uemonstiateu one can obtain 42 ounce pei plant with TBC of Su%.

Ceivantes (2uu6, pp.148-1S2) uesciibes a case stuuy of thiee ciops with yielus of
29.6 - SS.u giams pei squaie foot in 1u, 9, anu 9 weeks, iespectively.


Crop #1 Crop #2 Crop #3
Space 16' 3" x 7' 10" 33' x 7' 10" 33' x 7' 10"
Sq. leeL 128.6 238.3 238.3
?leld (pounds) 8.4 27.6 30.2
!"#$% '(" %) *+, -.,/ 01,0 23,4

Page 10 of 11

This is consistent with his iule of thumb of "u.Sg-1gwatt", which at typical light
uensities, equates to S1.2Sg-62.Sgsq. ft.

Rosenthal (Naiijuana uiowei's Banubook) states that "A 1uuuw lamp piouuces a
yielu of about S7S-1uuu giams." Typically a 1uuuw floweiing lamp is useu eveiy 16
sq. ft. (4'x4'), so this tianslates to 2S.4Sg-62.Sg pei sq. ft.

H$=,2 #$.+%,# 2,'+I B.$ (4$ +,,&,+ 2,:,;'($
NcNeill (1992, p.S91, "Kif in the Rif") iepoits outuooi piouuction in Noiocco as
2,uuu kilogiams pei hectaie, which is equivalent to 18.6 giams pei squaie foot.

Chiis Coniau (2uu7) Safe Access Now 0nline Banubook, Cannabis Yielus anu Bosage
(Pait 1-b), uownloaueu Apiil 29, 2u1S fiom
http:www.safeaccessnow.netauveisitycanopy.htm.
"The typical inuooi yielu is u.2S to u.S ounces pei squaie foot" which woulu be 7.1 -
14.2 giams pei squaie foot, but the gestalt of the oveiall uocument was an aigument
foi libeial giowing aieas limits, so the authoi may have hau an incentive to lowball
yielu pei squaie foot. Be ielates, "About half of the aiea is useu foi floweiing
females . The othei half is foi motheis, seeulings, clones anu young plants"

Amauucci et al. (2uu8) uesciibe a caieful agiicultuial expeiimental on yielus using a
completely ianuomizeu block uesign ovei two genotypes, thiee uensities, anu two
haivest times, but is not ieally ielevant since it peitaineu to outuooi piouuction of
cannabis foi hemp. Yielu in the bettei of the two giowing seasons was close to 12
metiic tons pei hectaie of uiieu stem mattei, which coiiesponus to 111 giams pei
squaie foot. But, that is stem, so the stuuy is woith mentioning only because it
iepiesents a tiue agiicultuial expeiiment.




Page 11 of 11
F,5,2,(0,#
Amauucci, S., A. Zatta, F. Pelatti, u. ventuii, Influence of agionomic factois on yielu
anu quality of hemp 2=)%%)7"8 8)#"A) L.) fibie anu implication foi an innovative
piouuction system, B"0<: =*-C8 D08. 1u7 (2uu8) 161-169.

B.N.u. van Bei Weif, The effect of plant uensity on light inteiception in hemp
2=)%%)7"8 8)#"A) L.), j. Int. Bemp Ass. 4 (1) (1997) 8-1S

Ceivantes, }oige (2uu6). E)*"F')%) G-*#">'<#'*0H I$0 ?%:--*JK'#:--* E0:">)<
L*-!0*M8 N"7<e, van Patten Publishing, vancouvei, WA.

u. uieen, The Cannabis uiow Bible: The Befinitive uuiue to uiowing Naiijuana foi
Recieational anu Neuicinal use, fouith eu., uieen Canuy Piess, San Fiancisco, CA,
2uu1.

Knight, ulenys, Sean Bansen, Naik Connoi, Belen Poulsen, Catheiine Ncuovein, anu
}anet Stacey (2u1u). The iesults of an expeiimental inuooi hyuioponic Cannabis
giowing stuuy, using the 'Scieen of uieen' (Sci0u) methouYielu,
tetiahyuiocannabinol (TBC) anu BNA analysis. B-*0%8"> &>"0%>0 ?%#0*%)#"-%)<O 2u2:
S6-44.

Leggett, T. (2uu6). A ieview of the woilu cannabis situation. N'<<0#"% -% P)*>-#">8,
vol. LvIII, Nos 1 & 2, pp.1-1SS.

NcNeill, }.R. (1992). Kif in the Rif: A Bistoiical anu Ecological Peispective on
Naiijuana, Naikets, anu Nanuie in Noithein Noiocco. E-'%#)"% D080)*>$ )%:
Q0A0<-C(0%#, 12(4): S89-S92.

Pottei B} Buncombe P 2u11. The effect of electiical lighting powei anu iiiauiance on
inuooi-giown cannabis potency anu yielu. } Foiensic Sci. 2u12 Nay; S7(S):618-22.
uoi: 1u.1111j.1SS6-4u29.2u11.u2u24.x. Epub 2u11 Bec 28.

Toonen, N., Ribot, S., & Thissen, }. (2uu6). Yielu of illicit inuooi cannabis cultivation
in the Netheilanus. R-'*%)< -. B-*0%8"> &>"0%>08O ST, 1uSu-1uS4.

vanhove, Woutei, Patiick van Bamme, Natalie Neeit (2u11). Factois ueteimining
yielu anu quality of illicit inuooi cannabis (Cannabis spp.) piouuction. B-*0%8">
&>"0%>0 ?%#0*%)#"-%)< 212:1S8-16S.

vanhove W, Suimont T, van Bamme P, Be Ruyvei B. (2u12) Yielu anu tuinovei of
illicit inuooi cannabis (Cannabis spp.) plantations in Belgium. B-*0%8"> &>" ?%#U 2u12
}ul 1u;22u(1-S):26S-7u. uoi: 1u.1u16j.foisciint.2u12.uS.u1S. Epub 2u12 Api 1S.