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Although cynics may like to see the governments policy for women in terms of the partys internal power struggles, it will
nevertheless be churlish to deny that it represents a pioneering effort aimed at bringing about sweeping social reforms. In its
language, scope and strategies, the policy document displays a degree of understanding of womens needs that is uncommon
in government pronouncements. This is due in large part to the participatory process that marked its formulation, seeking the
active involvement right from the start of womens groups, academic institutions and non-government organizations with
grass roots experience. The result is not just a lofty declaration of principles but a blueprint for a practical programme of action.
The policy delineates a series of concrete measures to accord women a decision making role in the political domain and greater
control over their economic status. Of especially far-reaching impact are the devolution of control of economic infrastructure
to women.
An enlightened aspect of the policy is its recognition that actual change in the status of women cannot be brought about by
the mere enactment of socially progressive legislation. Accordingly, it focusses on re-orienting development programs and
sensitizing administrations to address specific situations as, for instance, the growing number of household headed by women,
which is a consequence of rural-urban migration. The proposal to create an equal-opportunity police force and give women
greater control of police stations is an acknowledgement of the biases and callousness displayed by the generally all-male law-
enforcement authorities in cases of dowry and domestic violence. While the mere enunciation of such a policy has the salutary
effect of the sensitizing the administration as a whole, it does not make the task of its implementation any easier. This is
because of the changes it envisages in the political and economic status of women strike at the root of power structures in
society and the basis of man-woman relationships. There is also the danger that reservation for women in public life, while
necessary for their greater visibility, could lapse into tokenism or become a tool in the hands of vote seeking politicians. Much
will depend on the dissemination of the policy and the ability of elected representatives and government agencies to reorder
their priorities.
1. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
A. Most of the governments policies are formulated through participatory process.
B. There is need for stricter legislation.
C. The policy recommends reservation for women.
D. Domestic violence is on the rise
2. Which of the following is true about the policy?
A. This is another pronouncement by the government.
B. It is a pioneering effort.
C. It is not based on the understanding of womans needs.
D. It has made many big declaration.
3. According to the passage, which of the following is a consequence of rural-urban migration?
A. Legislation is not enforced properly.
B. Many women migrate to urban areas leaving their family in the rural areas.
C. Industries do not get sufficient man power in rural areas.
D. None of the above
4. According to the passage which of the following is not true?
A. The policy gives a blueprint for program of action.
B. The women should be given greater control of police stations.
C. There is no law-enforcement bias in case of dowry.
D. For effective implementation, the government agencies will have to reorder their priorities.
5. Which of the following has the danger of becoming a token?
A. Socially progressive legislation.
B. Policy for women.
C. Reservation for women.
D. Man-woman relationships.
6. Which of the following is opposite in meaning to lofty as used in the passage?
A. Sublimated B. Humble C. Undignified D. Exalted
7. Which of the following words is the most opposite in meaning to sweeping as used in the passage?
A. Limited B. Half-hearted C. Acceptable D. Incomplete
8. Which of the following words is nearly the same in meaning as the word devolution is used in the passage?
A. Relegation B. Succession C. Deployment D. Decentralization
9. Which of the following words is most nearly the same in meaning as the word enunciation as used in the passage?
A. Suggestion B. Formulation C. Recommendation D. Proclamation
10. According to the passage, which of the following aspects has been identified as, it alone would not bring change in
the status of women?
A. Enactment of socially progressive legislation.
B. Decision making role in political area.
C. Greater control over economic status.
D. Creating equal opportunity police force.

A great deal of discussion continues as to the real extent of global environmental degradation and its implications. What few
people challenge however, is that the renewable natural resources of developing countries are today subject to stresses of
unprecedented magnitude. These pressures are brought about, in part, by increased population and the quest for an ever
expanding food supply. Because the health, nutrition and general well-being of the poor majority are directly dependent on
the integrity and productivity of their natural resources, the capability of governments to manage them effectively over the
long term becomes of paramount importance.
Developing countries are becoming more aware of the ways in which present and future economic development must build
upon a sound and sustainable natural resource base. Some are looking at our long tradition in environmental protection and
are receptive to US assistance which recognizes the uniqueness of the social and ecological systems in these tropical countries.
Developing countries recognize the need to improve their capability to analyze issues and their own natural resource
management. In February 1981, for example AID funded a National Academy of Sciences panel to advise Nepal on their severe
natural resource degradation problems. Some countries such as Senegal, India, Indonesia and Thailand, are now including
conservation concerns in their economic development planning process.
Because so many governments of developing nations have recognized the importance of these issues, the need today is not
merely one of the raising additional consciousness, but for carefully designed and sharply focused activities aimed at the
establishment of effective resource management regime that are essential to the achievement of sustained development.
1. Some of the developing countries of Asia and Africa have
A. formulated very ambitious plans of protecting habitat in the region.
B. Laid a great stress on the conservation of natural resources in their educational endeavor.
C. Carefully dovetailed environmental conservation with the overall strategy of planned economic development.
D. Sought the help of US experts in solving the problem of environmental degradation.
2. Technical know-how developed in the USA
A. Cannot be easily assimilated by the technocrats of the developing countries.
B. Can be properly utilized on the basis of developing countries being able to launch an in-depth study of their
specific problems.
C. Can be easily borrowed by the developing countries to solve the problem of environmental degradation.
D. Can be very effective in solving the problem of resource management in tropical countries.
3. There has been a pronounced deterioration of habitat all over the globe because of
A. Rigorous operation of the Malthusian principle.
B. Unprecedented urbanization and dislocation of self-contained rural communities.
C. Optimum degree of industrialization in the developing countries.
D. Large scale deforestation and desertification.
4. The poor people of the developing world can lead a happy and contented life if
A. There is a North-South dialogue and aid flows freely to the developing world.
B. Industries based on agriculture are widely developed.
C. Economic development takes place within the ambit of conservation of natural resources.
D. There is an assured supply of food and medical care.
5. How much environmental pollution has taken place in the developing and the developed world?
A. There has been a marginal pollution of environment in the developed world and extensive damage in the
developing world.
B. There has been a considerable pollution of environment all over the globe.
C. There has been an extensive environmental degradation both in the developed and developing world.
D. The environmental pollution that has taken place all over the globe continues to be a matter of speculation and

Democratic societies from the earliest times have expected their governments to protect the weak against the strong. No era
of good feeling can justify discharging the police force or giving up the idea of public control over concentrated private wealth.
On the other hand, it is obvious that a spirit of self-denial and moderation on the part of those who hold economic power will
greatly soften the demand for absolute equality. Men are more interested in freedom and security than in an equal distribution
of wealth. The extent to which Government must interfere with business, therefore, is not exactly measured by the extent to
which economic power is concentrated into a few hands. The required degree of government interference depends mainly on
whether economic powers are oppressively used, and on the necessity of keeping economic factors in a tolerable state of
But with the necessity of meeting all these danger and threats to liberty the powers of government are unavoidably increased,
whichever political party may be in office. The growth of government is a necessary result of the growth of technology and of
the problems that go with the use of machines and science. Since the government in our nation, must take on more powers to
meet its problems, there is no way to preserve freedom except by making democracy more powerful.
1. The advent of science and technology has increased the
A. Freedom of people
B. Tyranny of the political parties.
C. Powers of the government.
D. Chances of economic inequality.
2. A spirit of moderation on the economically sound people would make the less privileged
A. Unhappy with the rich people.
B. More interested in freedom and security.
C. Unhappy with their lot.
D. Clamour less for absolute equality.
3. The growth of the government is necessitated to
A. Make the rich and the poor happy.
B. Curb the accumulation of wealth in a few hands.
C. Monitor science and technology.
D. Deploy the police force wisely.
4. Era of good feeling in sentence 2 refers to
A. Time of prosperity.
B. Time of adversity.
C. Time without government
D. Time of police atrocities.
5. Tolerable state of balance may mean
A. An adequate level of police force.
B. A reasonable level of economic equality.
C. A reasonable amount of government interference.
D. A reasonable check on economic power.


Educational planning should aim at meeting the educational needs of the entire population of all age groups. While the
traditional structure of education as a three layer hierarchy from the primary stage to the university represents the core, we
should not overlook the periphery which is equally important. Under modern conditions, workers need to rewind, or renew
their enthusiasm, or strike out in a new direction, or improve their skills as much as any university professor. The retired and
the aged have their needs as well. Educational planning, in their words, should take care of the needs of everyone.
Our structures of education have been built up on the assumption that there is a terminal point to education. This basic defect
has become all the more harmful today. A UNESCO report entitled Learning to Be prepared by Edgar Faure and the others
in1973 asserts that the education of children must prepare the future adult for various forms of self-learning. A viable
education system of the future should consist of modules with different kinds of functions serving a diversity of constituents.
And performance, not the period of study, should be the basis for credentials. The writing is already on the wall.
In view of the fact that the significance of a commitment of lifelong learning and lifetime education is being discussed only in
recent years even in educationally advanced countries, the possibility of the idea becoming an integral part of educational
thinking seems to be a far cry. For, to move in that direction means such more than some simple rearrangement of the present
organization of education. But a good beginning can be made by developing Open University programs for older learners of
different categories and introducing extension services in the conventional colleges and schools. Also these institutions should
learn to cooperate with the numerous community organizations such as libraries, museums, municipal recreational programs,
health services etc.
1. What is the main thrust of the author?
A. Traditional systems should be strengthened.
B. Formal education is more important than non-formal.
C. One should never cease to learn.
D. It is impossible to meet the needs of everyone.
2. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the author?
A. To criticize the present educational system
B. To strengthen the present educational practices.
C. To support non-conventional organizations.
D. To present a pragmatic point of view.
3. According to the passage, the present education structures assume which of the following?
A. All people can be educated as per their needs.
B. Present educational planning is very much practical.
C. Education is one time process.
D. Simple rearrangement of the present educational system is a must.
4. According to the author, what measures should Open University adopt to meet modern conditions?
A. Develop various programs for adult learners.
B. Open more colleges on traditional lines.
C. Cater to the needs of those who represent core.
D. Primary education should be under the control of Open Universities.
5. According to the author, what should be the basis for awarding credentials?
A. Duration of the course.
B. Competence of the course teachers.
C. Diversity of the topic covered.
D. Real grasp of matter or skill.
6. Which of the following is not true in context of the given passage?
A. Lifelong learning is a recent concept.
B. Workers knowledge and skills also need to be updated constantly.
C. Learning to Be defends that there is a terminal point to education.
D. Schools and colleges should open extension services.
7. According to the author, the concept of lifetime education is
A. As old as traditional education.
B. Still in formative stages.
C. In vogue in advanced countries.
D. Not practical.
8. Integrating the concepts of lifelong learning with the educational structure would imply
A. Closing down conventional schools and colleges.
B. Longer durations for all formal courses.
C. Simple rearrangement of present educational organizations.
D. More weightage for actual performance than real understanding.
9. In the context of the passage, what is the meaning of the sentence The writing is already on the wall?
A. Everything is uncertain now-a-days.
B. Changes have already taken place.
C. The signs of change are already visible.
D. You cannot change the future.
10. Which of the following is most opposite in meaning to the word integral as used in the passage?
A. Essential B. independent C. major D. minor


Recent advances in science and technology have made it possible for geneticists to find out abnormalities in the unborn foetus
and take remedial action to rectify some defects which would otherwise prove to be fatal to the child. Though genetic
engineering is still at its infancy, scientists can now predict with greater accuracy a genetic disorder. It is not yet an exact
science since they are not in a position to predict when exactly a genetic disorder will set in. While they have not yet been able
to change the genetic order of the gene in germs, they are optimistic and are holding out that in the near future they might be
successful in achieving this feat. They have, however, acquired the ability in manipulating tissue cells. However, genetic mis-
information can sometimes be damaging for it may adversely affect people psychologically. Genetic information may lead to
a tendency to brand some people as inferiors. Genetic information can therefore be abused and its application in deciding the
sex of the foetus and its subsequent abortion is now hotly debated on ethical lines. But on this issue geneticists cannot be
squarely blamed though this charge has often been levelled at them. It is mainly a social problem. At present genetic
engineering is a costly process of detecting disorders but scientists hope to reduce the costs when technology becomes more
advanced. This is why much progress in this area has been possible in scientifically advanced and rich countries like the U.S.A,
U.K and Japan. It remains to be seen if in the future this science will lead to the development of a race of supermen or will be
able to obliterate disease from this world.
1. Which of the following is the same in meaning as the phrase holding out as used in the passage?
A. Catching B. expounding C. sustaining D. restraining
2. According to the passage, the question of abortion is
A. Ignored B. hotly debated C. unanswered D. left to the scientists to decide
3. Which of the following is true regarding the reason for progress in genetic engineering?
A. It has become popular to abort female fetuses.
B. Human beings are extremely interested in heredity.
C. Economically sound and scientifically advanced countries can provide the infrastructure for such research.
D. Poor countries desperately need genetic information.
4. Which of the following is the same in meaning as the word obliterate as used in the passage?
A. Wipe off B. Eradicate C. give birth to D. wipe out
5. Which of the following is the opposite in meaning to the word charged as used in the passage?
A. Calm B. disturbed C. discharged D. settled
6. Which of the following is not true of the genetic engineering movement?
A. Possibility of abuse
B. B. It is confronted by ethical problems
C. Increased tendency to manipulate gene cells.
D. Acquired ability to detect genetic disorders in unborn babies.
7. In the passage, abused means
A. Insulted B. talked about C. killed D. misused
8. At present genetic engineering can rectify all genetic disorders. Is it?
A. Yes B. No C. It can do so only in some cases
9. Which of the following is the same in meaning as the word squarely as used in the passage?
A. Rigidly B. firmly C. directly D. at right angle
10. Which of the following is not true, according to the passage?
A. Society is not affected by the research in genetic engineering.
B. Genetic engineers are not able to say something with certainty
C. If genetic information is not properly handled, it will create problems.
D. Manipulation of genes is presently done only in tissue cells.


Economists, ethicists and business sages persuade us that honesty is the best policy, but their evidence is weak. We hope to
find data that would support their theories and thus, perhaps encourage higher standards of business behavior. To our
surprise, our pet theories failed to stand up. Treachery, we found, can pay. There is no compelling economic reason to tell the
truth or keep ones word punishment for the treacherous in the real world is neither swift nor sure.
Honesty is, in fact, primarily a moral choice. Business people do tell themselves that, in the long run, they will do well by doing
good. But there is little factual or logical basis for this conviction. Without values, without a basic preference for right over
wrong, trust based on such self-delusion would crumble in the face of temptation. Most of us choose virtue because we want
to believe in ourselves and have others respect and belief in us.
And for this, we should be happy. We can be proud of a system in which people are honest because they want to be, not
because they have to be. Materially too, trust based on morality provides great advantages. It allows us to join in great and
exciting enterprises that we could never undertake if we relied on economic incentives alone.
Economists tell us that trust is enforced in the market place through retaliation of reputation. If you violate a trust your victim
is apt to seek revenge and others are likely to stop doing business with you, at least under favorable terms. A man or woman
with a reputation for fair dealing will prosper. Therefore, profit maximizers are honest. This sounds plausible enough until you
look for concrete examples. Cases that apparently demonstrate the awful consequences of trust turns out to be few and weak,
while evidence that treachery can pay seems compelling.
1. What did the author find out about the theory that honesty is the best policy?
A. It is a useless theory.
B. It is correct on many occasions.
C. It is correct for all businessmen.
D. It is correct only occasionally.
2. Why does the author say that one can be proud of the present situation? Because people are
A. Respect seekers
B. Honest without compulsion
C. Unselfish
D. Self-respecting.
3. What do economists and ethicists want us to believe?
A. Businessmen are honest only at times.
B. Businessmen should be honest at all times.
C. Businessmen cannot be honest at all times.
D. Businessmen turn dishonest at times.
4. Which is the material advantage which the author sees in being honest? It permits one to
A. Undertake activities which may not be economically attractive.
B. Be honest for the sake of honesty alone.
C. Make a lot of profit in various areas
D. None of these.
5. Which if the following is the same in meaning as persuade as used in the passage?
A. Try to convince B. cheat C. motivate D. give assurance
6. Which of the following is false according to the passage?
A. People are generally honest because it pays in the long run.
B. Virtuous behavior earns the self-respect of others.
C. Economists believe that all businessmen are dishonest.
D. Generally people are honest to earn self-respect.
7. Why do businessmen, according to economists, remain honest? Because dishonest businessmen
A. Are flogged in the market.
B. Are always prosecuted.
C. Can make more money.
D. Cannot stay in business for long.
8. The phrase stand up as used in the passage means
A. Hold up B. get up C. supported D. get established
9. Which is the same in meaning as the word compelling used in the passage?
A. Coercive B. binding C. forceful D. mandatory
10. Which of the following best describes what the author is trying to point out through the last sentence of the passage
cases that------compelling?
A. Economists predict correctly.
B. The consequences of dishonesty.
C. The contradictions in the real world.
D. Theories do not seem to be true.

Though the U.S prides itself on being a leader in the world community, a recent report shows that it lags far behind other
industrialized countries in meeting the needs of its youngest and most vulnerable citizens. The U.S has a higher infant mortality
rate, a higher proportion of low birth weight babies, a smaller proportion of babies immunized against childhood diseases and
a much higher rate of adolescent pregnancies. These findings, described as a quiet crisis requiring immediate and far reaching
action, appeared in a report prepared by a task force of educators, doctors, politicians and business people. According to the
report, a fourth of nations 12 million infants and toddlers live in poverty. As many as half confront risk factors that could harm
their ability to develop intellectually, physically and socially. Child immunizations are too low, more children are born into
poverty, more are in substandard care while their parents work and more are being raised by single parents. When taken
together, these and other risk factors can lead to educational and health problems that are much harder a more costly to
The crisis begins in the womb with unplanned parenthood. Women with the unplanned pregnancies are less likely to seek pre-
natal care. In the U.S 80% of teenage pregnancies and 56% of all pregnancies are unplanned. The problems continue after birth
where unplanned pregnancies and unstable partnerships often go hand in hand. Since 1950, the number of single parent
families has nearly tripled. More than 25 percent of all births today are to unmarried mothers. As the number of single parent
families grows and more and more women enter the work force, infants and toddlers are increasingly in the care of people
other than their parents.
Most disturbingly, recent statistics show that American parents are increasingly neglecting or abusing their children. In only
four years from 1987-1991 the number of children in foster care increased by over 50%. Babies under the age of one are the
fastest growing category of children entering foster care. The crisis affects children under the age of three most severely, the
report says. Yet, it is this period from infancy through preschool years that sets the stage for a childs future.
1. The main focus of the passage is on the plight of
A. Orphaned children
B. Teenage mothers
C. Low birth weight babies
D. Unwed mothers
2. Children falling in which age group are most severely affected by the quiet crisis?
A. Below 1 year B. Below 3 years C. between 2& 3 years D. Between 1&3 years\
3. Which of the following statements is not true in the context of the passage?
A. The number of single parent families today is approximately three times that four decades ago.
B. The number of children in the U. S. entering foster care has decreased after 1991.
C. In the U.S, the number of infants living in poverty is about 3 million.
D. Only 20 % of all the pregnancies in the U.S are planned.
4. The number of children born to married mothers in the U.S is approximately how many times the number of children
born to unwed mothers?
A. 1.5 times B.2 times C. 3 times D. 3.5 times
5. Children born out of unplanned pregnancies are highly vulnerable because
A. They are raised by single parents.
B. Their parents are mostly poor.
C. They are mostly mal-nourished.
D. They are less likely to receive parental care.
6. An increased number of infants in the U.S are in foster care on account of
A. An increasing number of single parent families with the female member working.
B. An increasing number of women maintaining the status of unwed motherhood and becoming economically
C. An increasing number of employed couples who are required to stay apart.
D. An increasing number of women getting divorced and abandoning their babies.
7. The task force report seems to be based on the data pertaining to the period
A. 1987-91
B. 1950 onward till date
C. 1987 onwards till date
D. 1950-91
8. Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word confront in the passage?
A. Face B. Tolerate C. succumb D. eliminate
9. Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word Abusing in the passage?
A. Cursing B. beating C. ill-treating D. accusing
10. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning as the word unstable used in the passage ?
A. Changing B. steady C. stagnant D. confined


The history of literature really began long before man learned to write. Dancing was the earliest of the arts. Man danced for
joy round his primitive camp fire after the defeat and slaughter of his enemy. He yelled and shouted as he danced and gradually
the yells and shouts became coherent and caught the measures of the dance and thus the first war song was sung. As the idea
of god developed, prayers were framed. The songs and prayers became traditional and were repeated from one generation to
another, each generation adding something of its own.
As man slowly grew more civilized, he was compelled to invent some method of writing by three urgent necessities. There
were certain things that it was dangerous to forget and which, therefore, had to be recorded. It was often necessary to
communicate with persons who were some distance away and it was necessary to protect ones property by making tools,
cattle and so on, in some distinctive manner. So man taught himself to write and having learned to write purely for utilitarian
reasons, he used this new method for preserving his war songs and his prayers. Of course, among these ancient peoples, there
were only a very few individuals who learned to write, and only a few could read what was written.
1. Before man invented writing
A. Literature was passed on by word of mouth.
B. Prayers were considered literature.
C. Literature was just singing and dancing.
D. There was no literature
2. As for the war songs and prayers each generation
A. Added something of its own to the stock
B. Blindly repeated the songs and prayers.
C. Composed its own songs and prayers.
D. Repeated what has handed down to it.
3. The first war song
A. Was inspired by god.
B. Developed spontaneously.
C. Was a song traditionally handed down
D. Was composed by leading dancers
4. The war song evolved out of
A. Creative inspiration
B. There was no literature
C. Artistic urge
D. Yelling and shouting
5. Man invented writing because he wanted
A. To be artistic
B. To write war song
C. To write literature
D. To record and communicate
6. The word measure in the context of the passage means
A. Weight B. rhythm C. size D. quantity


The stock taking done at the first national convention on consumer protection served to highlight the areas that called for
special attention to sustain the momentum of the movement as genuine forum for safe-guarding the peoples interests.
Spreading awareness about the rights of the consumers and the relief open to them in case they did not get their moneys
worth of goods and services has rightly been identified as the first priority. While this may not be a difficult task in urban areas,
where the movement is concentrated at present, taking it to the vast rural hinterlands calls for a multimedia approach in which
radio and television have a crucial role to play. The involvement of the 500-odd consumer organizations in the country in
publicizing the concept of fair trade practices and the remedies available against their violation will prove rewarding, if the
message is conveyed through village bodies.
Government efforts remain confined at best to setting up the infrastructure after the formal launch of the movement with the
enactment of the consumer protection Act. The mounting backlog of cases in consumer courts, points to the need for toning
up the district level redressal machinery.
The main objective of the movement is the creation of a culture that denies place in the market for products that are not
consumer friendly. This is possible only if consumer bodies take over the watchdog role performed by the Government till now
and exercise social control over the market to see that the benefits of liberalization are not reaped by traders alone. But the
plea to industry to exercise self-regulation and maintain minimum standards of quality and devise appropriate pricing is bound
to go unheeded unless strict measures are taken to ensure compliance.
1. The first national convention on consumer protection has
A. Highlighted the areas for special attention
B. Spread awareness about consumer rights
C. Specified in relief open to the consumer
D. Given it a momentum
2. Consumer Protection Act proposes to give the consumer protection against
A. Highly priced substandard goods
B. Cheating by selling substandard goods
C. Not getting his moneys worth
D. Denial of relief if the product is not up to the mark
3. Government contributed to the Consumer Protection Movement by
A. Toning up a district level redressal machinery
B. Clearing the backlog cases in the consumer court
C. Setting by infrastructure
D. Enactment of the consumer Protection Act
4. Spreading Consumer Protection Movement to the rural areas needs
A. Official patronage
B. A multimedia approach
C. Consumer organization to canvass this
D. Message to be conveyed by village bodies.
5. Role of consumer bodies is
A. To maintain minimum standards of quality
B. To function as a watchdog
C. To make a plea to industry to exercise self-control
D. To exercise social control over the market

Power and possession have been central pursuits of modern civilization for a long time. They blocked out or distorted other
features of the western renaissance (revival) which promised so much for humanity. What people have been and are still being
taught to prize are money, success, control over the lives of others, acquisition of more and more objects. Modern social,
political, and economic systems, whether capitalist, fascist or communist, reject in their working the basic principle that the
free and creative unfoldment of every man, woman and child is the true measure of the worth of any society. Such unfoldment
requires understanding and imagination, integrity and compassion, cooperation among people and harmony between the
human species and the rest of nature. Acquisitiveness and the pursuit of power have made the modern man an aggressor
against everything that is non-human, an exploiter and oppressor of those who are poor, meek and unorganized, a pathological
type which hates and distrusts the world and suffers from both acute loneliness and false pride.
The need for a new renaissance is deeply felt by those sensitive and conscientious men and women who not only perceive the
dimensions of the crisis of our age but who also realize that only through conscious and cooperative human effort may this
crisis be met and probably even overcome.
1. The author appears to be advocating which of the following approaches to be adopted by the society?
A. Capitalistic B. Communist C. Humanistic D. Authoritarian
2. Which of the following best describes the behavior of modern man?
A. Imaginative and sympathetic.
B. Cruel and greedy.
C. Conscientious and cooperative
D. Perceptive and creative
3. According to the passage, why has modern man turned out as an enemy of everything that is non-human?
A. He hates and distrusts other human beings.
B. Non-human have refused cooperation to human beings.
C. He has been dominated by drives of acquisitiveness and power.
D. He consciously practices spirit of cooperation.
4. Which of the following statements is not true in context of the given passage?
A. Power and possession go hand in hand.
B. There is a need for a new renaissance.
C. Poor and weak people are oppressed by the modern man.
D. The modern man is not individualist.
5. Which of the following is one of the requirements bringing out the best in man?
A. Money B. Success C. Power D. Acquisitiveness
6. The author hopes that the present crisis can be solved by
A. Devoted individual efforts
B. Different political systems
C. Purpose and collective human efforts
D. Spiritually developed individuals
7. The modern value systems encourage the importance of which one of the following?
A. Craving for power and possession
B. Basic respect for all individuals
C. Spiritual development of all individuals
D. Spirit of inquiry and knowledge
8. Which of the following is most opposite in meaning to the word central as used in the passage?
A. Lateral B. Inadequate C. Peripheral D. Major
9. Which of the following is most nearly the same meaning as the word rest as used in the passage?
A. Partial B. Remaining C. Relax D. All
10. Which of the following is most opposite in meaning to the word deeply as used in the passage?
A. Widely B. Superficially C. Wrongly D. Openly

In the past thirty years, drugs have been discovered that prevent and cure physical disease and reverse the disturbances that
occur in some mental illness. Excitement over what drugs can do has led people to believe that any ailment, infective or
psychic, can be relieved by taking a pill. At the first sign of nervousness, they try pep pills. Medical journals now advertise
tranquillizers, and other mood-altering drugs, doctors prescribe them; and the public expects miracle from them. In such an
atmosphere, it is not surprising that drug abuse has spread.
1. According to the author, in recent years there has been
A. A misplaced trust in drugs
B. A distrust of drugs
C. Recognition of the ill-effects of medicine
D. None of the above
2. According to the passage, the medicines that have been discovered in recent times
A. Can cure mental illness
B. Can help treat some symptoms of mental illnesses
C. Can reduce mental illnesses
D. Cannot cure mental illnesses
3. People often believe that
A. Medicines cannot cure all the diseases
B. Doctors can cure all the diseases
C. Medicines can cure all the diseases
D. Doctors cannot cure all the diseases

Primitive man was probably more concerned with fire as a source of warmth and as a means of cooking food than as a source
of light. Before he discovered less laborious ways of making fire, he had to preserve it, and whenever he went on a journey he
carried a firebrand with him. His discovery that the firebrand, from which the torch may very well have developed, could be
used for illumination was probably incidental to the primary purpose of preserving a flame.
Lamps, too, probably developed by accident. Early man may have had his first conception of a lamp while watching a twig or
fiber burning in the molten fat dropped from a roasting carcass. All he had to do was to fashion a vessel to contain fat and
float a lighted reed in it. Such lamps, which were made of hollowed stones or sea shells, have persisted in identical form up to
quite recent times.
1. Primitive mans most important use for fire was
A. To provide warmth
B. To cook food
C. To provide light
D. Both A and B
2. The firebrand was used to
A. Prevent accidents
B. Provide light
C. Scare animals
D. Save labour
3. By primary the author means
A. Primitive
B. Fundamental
C. Elemental
D. Essential
4. Lamps probably developed through mere
A. Hazard
B. Fate
C. Chance
D. Planning
5. Early lamps were made by
A. Using a reed as a wick in the fat
B. Letting a reed soak the fat
C. Putting the fat in a shell and lighting it
D. Floating a reed in the sea-shell

The crowd surged forward through the narrow streets of Paris. There was a clatter of shutters being closed hastily by trembling
handsthe citizens of Paris knew that once the fury of the people was excited there was no telling what they might do. They
came to an old house which had a workshop on the ground floor. A head popped out of the door to see what it was all about.
Get him! Get him! Get Thimonier! Smash his devilish machines! yelled the crowd.
They found the workshop without its owner. M.Thimonier had escaped by the back door. Now the fury of the demonstrators
turned against the machines that were standing in the shop, ready to be delivered to buyers. They were systematically broken
up and destroyed dozens of them. Only when the last wheel and spindle had been trampled underfoot did the infuriated crowd
recover their senses.
That is the end of Msieur Thimonier and his sewing machines, they said to one another, and went home satisfied. Perhaps
now they would find work, for they were all unemployed tailors and seamstresses who believed that their livelihood was
threatened by that new invention.
1. The passage throws light on
A. Why inventions should be avoided altogether.
B. How a well-meant invention can be misunderstood.
C. What mischief an inventor can do to ordinary people.
D. How dangerous an invention can prove to be?
2. The crowd was protesting against
A. The closing of workshops
B. The misdoings of Thimonier
C. The newly invented sewing machine
D. Thimonier keeping the invention a secret
3. The aim of the crowd was to
A. Kill Thimonier
B. Drive Thimonier away
C. Bring discredit to Thimonier
D. Destroy the sewing machines
4. The people thought that
A. Their lives were in danger.
B. Thimonier was mad.
C. The sewing machine was dangerous.
D. Thimonier was depriving them of their livelihood.
5. Shutters were being closed hastily because the shopkeepers
A. Wanted to attack the crowd
B. Wanted to protect Thimonier
C. Feared their shops would be invaded
D. Wanted to show their solidarity with the crowd

Culture is the cultivation of a plant or garden, not the eradication of its roots, it is an understanding of the roots and seeds,
their patient care and instructed nourishment. Culture is not knowledge, nor is it art, still less is its acquaintance with literature
and art. By culture I mean first of all what the anthropologists mean; the way of life of a particular people living together in
one place. The culture is made visible in their arts, in their social system, in their habits and customs, in their religion. It is an
aggregate of customs, institutions, manners, standards, tastes, morals and beliefs. Now these are transmitted rather by the
family than by the school, hence when family life fails to play its part, we must expect our culture to deteriorate. It is a delusion
to think that the maladies of the modern world can be put right by a system of instruction. On the contrary, universal
education, by lowering standards, morals and tastes to a common denominator, and by sharpening the wits rather than
disciplining character, tends to break down existing checks and balances. Education should be the drawing forth of potential
values, it should not be the destruction of the safeguards that tradition places around young egos naturally inclined to willful
and precarious flights.
1. The writer uses the term culture to refer to
A. The cultivation of a plant or garden by a community.
B. Ones acquaintance with literature and art.
C. Ones acquaintance of knowledge.
D. The way of life of a particular people living together in one place.
2. The passage suggests that universal education
A. Is in fact, aggravating the existing problems of the modern world.
B. Is the solution to the problems in the modern world.
C. Would prevent us from transmitting culture to the future generation.
D. Would help retain the cultural values.
3. The culture of a community is said to deteriorate when
A. There is a fall in its educational standards.
B. The family life fails to play its part.
C. There is universal education.
D. It adopts the modern system of instruction.
4. The culture of a community is transmitted
A. More by school than the family.
B. More by the family than school.
C. Equally by both.
D. By the peer group.
5. According to the passage, education is
A. The sharpening of wits.
B. Tapping and encouraging the inherent values in man.
C. The substitution of old traditions with new ones.
D. The development of moral standards.

There are some men who seem to be always on the lookout for trouble and, to tell the truth, they are seldom disappointed.
Listening to such men one would think that this world is one of the stormiest and most disagreeable places. Yet, after all it is
not such a bad place and the difficulty is often in the man who is too thin-skinned. On the other hand, the man who goes out
expecting people to be like himself, kind and brotherly, will be surprised at the kindness he meets even in the most unlike
quarters. A smile is apt to be met with a responsive smile while the sneer is just as apt to provoke a snarl. Men living in the
same neighborhood may live vastly different lives. But it is not the neighborhood which is quarrelsome, but the man within
us. And we have it in our power to change our neighborhood into a pleasant one by simply changing our own ways.
1. The passage is about
A. Our disagreeable and hostile world.
B. A kindly and pleasant world.
C. Our indifferent and unresponsive world.
D. The world and what one makes of it.
2. ----they are seldom disappointed. The statement denotes that such men
A. Welcome difficulties as a morale booster.
B. Do not have to face any trouble.
C. Manage to keep unruffled in the face of discomforts.
D. Generally do not fail to come across troubles.
3. The authors own view of the world is that it is
A. One of the loveliest and quietest places.
B. An unpleasant and turbulent place.
C. Ones own excessive sensitivity that makes it a bad place.
D. A sordid place for those who suffer in life.
4. Which of the following is opposite in meaning to the expression thin-skinned as used in the passage?
A. Insensitive
B. Intelligent
C. Awkward
D. Obstinate
5. On the other hand----unlikely quarters. The statement shows that peoples reaction to our attitude is
A. Generally indifferent.
B. Surprisingly responsive.
C. Often adverse.
D. Mainly favorable.


A book is written, not to multiply the voice merely, not to carry it merely but to perpetuate it. The author has something to
say which he perceives to be true and useful or helpfully beautiful. So far he knows no one has said it, so far as he knows no
one else can say it. He is bound to say it clearly and melodiously if he may; clearly at all events. In the sum of his life, he finds
this to be the thing or group of things, manifest him; this, the piece of true knowledge, or sight, which his share of sunshine
and earth has permitted him to seize. That is a book.
1. The opening sentence of the passage implies that the aim of writing a book is to
A. Repeat the message it contains.
B. Enable the author to express his ideas in writing.
C. Preserve from extinction the message it contains.
D. Propagate the ideology of the author.
2. Which of the following would be the most suitable title for the passage?
A. Contribution of an author.
B. Aim of writing a book.
C. Book-the source of true knowledge.
D. Writers and their books.
3. According to the writer, a person is impelled to write a book because
A. He wishes to satisfy his ego.
B. He has something nice and pleasing to say.
C. He is capable of expressing whatever he wants to say.
D. He has discovered something unique, true and good which he must convey distinctly and musically.
4. Which of the following is not implied in the passage?
A. A writer is motivated to write a book if he discerns a great truth.
B. An author of a book generally gathers some common truths and gives them a popular and pleasing expression.
C. A great writer is convinced that whatever he says is not an echo or imitation of what others have said.
D. An eminent writers message is conveyed through plain unambiguous language.
5. Which of the following is opposite in meaning of the word manifest given in the passage?
A. Unclear.
B. Dark
C. Pure
D. Hard


When we are suddenly confronted with any terrible danger, the change of nature we undergo is equally great.
In some cases fear paralyses us. Like animals, we stand still, powerless to move a step in fright or to lift a hand
in defense of our lives, and sometimes we are seized with panic, and again, act more like the inferior animals
than rational beings. On the other hand, frequently in cases of sudden extreme peril, which cannot be escaped
by flight, and must be instantly faced, even the most timid men at once as if by miracle, become possessed of
the necessary courage, sharp quick apprehension and swift decision. This is a miracle very common in nature.
Man and the inferior animals alike, when confronted with almost certain death gather resolution from despair
but there can really be no trace of so debilitating a feeling in the person fighting, or prepared to fight for dear
life. At such times the mind is clearer than it has ever been; the nerves are steel, there is nothing felt but a
wonderful strength and daring. Looking back at certain perilous moments in my own life, I remember them with
a kind of joy, not that there was any joyful excitement then; but because they brought me a new experience, a
new nature, as it were and lifted me for a time above myself.
1. An appropriate title for the above passage would be.
A. The will to Fight.
B. The Miracle of Confronting Danger.
C. The Change of Nature.
D. Courage and Panic.
2. The author names three different ways in which a man may react to sudden danger. What are they?
A. He may flee in panic, or fight back or stand still.
B. He may be paralyzed with fear, seized with panic or act like an inferior animal.
C. He may be paralyzed with fear, or seized with panic, or as if by miracle, become possessed of the
necessary courage, and face the danger.
D. He may be paralyzed with fear, run away or fight.
3. The distinction between inferior animals and rational beings is that
A. The former are incapable of fighting.
B. The latter are clever.
C. The latter are stronger.
D. The latter are capable of reasoning things out whereas the former cannot do so.
4. Explain the phrase gather resolution from danger
A. Find hope and courage.
B. A state of utter hopelessness steels one to fight out the danger.
C. Not to lose hope, but fight.
D. Find courage to face the danger.
5. The author feels happy in the recollection of dangers faced and overcome because
A. They brought him a new experience.
B. They brought him a new experience and lifted him above himself for a time.
C. He survived his ordeal.
D. He was lucky to be alive.

The artificial ways of inducing sleep are legion, and are only alike in their ineffectuality. In Lavengro there
is an impossible character, a victim of insomnia who finds that a volume of Wordsworths poems is the
only sure soporific, but that was Borrows Malice. The famous old plan of counting sheep jumping over a
stile has never served a turn. I have herded imaginary sheep until they insisted on turning themselves into
white bears or blue pigs, and I defy any reasonable man to fall asleep while mustering a herd of stupid
1. The author points out that
A. Sleep can easily be induced.
B. The artificial means of inducing sleep are not good.
C. Artificial ways of inducing sleep are ineffective.
D. Artificial ways of inducing sleep are expensive.
2. According to the author the character in Lavengro
A. Resorts to external aids to get some sleep.
B. Is an admirer of Wordsworth.
C. Spends sleepless nights reading Wordsworth.
D. Is an avid reader of poetry.
3. The author uses impossible for the character of Lavengro in the sense of
A. Funny.
B. Unrealistic.
C. Queer.
D. Imaginary.
4. Borrows Malice is most probably directed at
A. Sleeplessness.
B. The artificial ways of inducing sleep.
C. Wordsworths poetry.
D. Poetry in general.
5. In order to cure insomnia, the writer
A. Does a lot of reading
B. Vainly tries to concentrate on imaginary situations.
C. Keeps a flock of sheep.
D. Counts sheep jumping over a stile.


Experiments with the Sulphonamides have made clear a fact about germs which is gaining increasing importance
in fighting them. Germs, it seems, have the same ability as all the other living things gradually to change
themselves to suit new conditions. But, as the generation of germs lasts only twenty, twenty-five or thirty
minutes, before all the germs divide to form new ones, changes that would take many years in animals can be
achieved by germs in a few hours. Perhaps, then, you give the attacking germ a dose of Sulphonamides which
upsets them somewhat but is not strong enough to prevent them from multiplying; if so, they very rapidly
develop new powers which enable them to resist the effects of the drug. After this has happened, even the
strongest dose will fail to disturb them.
1. Experiments with Sulphonamides have led to the important discovery that
A. Germs are living things, and can change themselves to suit new conditions.
B. One generation of germs lasts only twenty, twenty-five or thirty minutes.
C. Germs can adjust themselves to live and multiply in new conditions.
D. Germs are not disturbed even by the strongest possible dose of Sulphonamides.
2. Like all other living things, germs can change themselves to suit new conditions. This adjustment is possible
because the germs have
A. The power of fluctuation.
B. The power of compliance.
C. The power of adoptability.
D. The power of adaptability.
3. Since germs can change themselves to suit new conditions, the task of fighting them has become
A. Absolutely impossible
B. Much easier.
C. Much more difficult.
D. Increasingly important.
4. Germs which are not disturbed even by the strongest possible dose of Sulphonamides are said to have
A. Immortal.
B. Immune.
C. Improvised.
D. Immobile.
5. One generation of germs expires, bringing into existence the next generation
A. In twenty minutes.
B. In twenty-five minutes.
C. In not more than half an hour.
D. In a few hours.


It is strange that, according to his position in life, an extravagant man is admired or despised. A successful businessman does
nothing to increase his popularity by being careful with his money. He is expected to display his success, to have a smart car,
an expensive life and to be lavish with his hospitality. If he is not so, he is considered mean, and his reputation in business may
even suffer in consequence. The paradox remains that if he had not been careful with his money in the first place, he would
never have achieved his present wealth.
Among the low income group, a different set of values exists. The young clerk, who makes his wife a present of a new dress
when he hasnt paid his house rent, is condemned as extravagant. Carefulness with money to the point of meanness is
applauded as a virtue. Nothing in his life is considered more worthy than paying his bills. The ideal wife for such a man
separates her housekeeping money into joyless little piles- so much for rent, for food, for the childrens shoes; she is able to
face the milkman with equanimity every month, satisfied with her economizing ways, and never knows the guilt of buying
something she cant really afford.
As for myself, I fall into neither of these categories. If I have money to spare, I can be extravagant, but when, as is usually the
case, I am hard up, then I am the meanest man imaginable.

1. Which of the following would be the most suitable title for the passage?
A. Extravagance is always commendable.
B. Extravagance leads to poverty.
C. Extravagance in the life of the rich and the poor.
D. Miserly habits of the poor.
2. In the opinion of the writer, a successful businessman
A. Should not bother about popularity.
B. Is expected to have expensive tastes.
C. Is more popular if he appears to be doing nothing.
D. Must be extravagant before achieving success.
3. The phrase lavish with his hospitality in the third sentence of the first paragraph, signifies
A. Considerateness in spending on guests and strangers.
B. Indifference in treating his friends and relatives.
C. Miserliness in dealing with his friends.
D. Extravagance in entertaining guests.
4. The word paradox in the last sentence of the first paragraph means
A. Statement based on the popular opinion.
B. That which is contrary to received opinion.
C. Statement based on facts.
D. That which brings out the inner meaning.
5. It seems that low paid people should
A. Feel guilty if they overspend.
B. Borrow money to meet their essential needs.
C. Not keep their creditors waiting
D. Not pay their bills promptly.
6. How does the house wife, described by the writer, feel when she saves money? She.
A. Wishes she could sometimes be extravagant.
B. Is still troubled by a sense of guilt.
C. Wishes life were less burdensome.
D. Is content to be so thrifty.
7. The statement she is able to face the milkman with equanimity implies that
A. She is not upset as she has been paying the milkman his dues regularly.
B. She loses her nerve at the sight of the milkman who always demands his dues.
C. She manages to keep cool as she has to pay the milkman only a months dues.
D. She remains composed and confident as she knows that she can handle the milkman tactfully.
8. Which of the following is opposite in meaning to the word applauded in the passage?
A. Suppressed B. cherished C. decried D. humiliated
9. We understand from the passage that
A. Thrift may lead to success.
B. Wealthy people are invariably successful.
C. All mean people are wealthy.
D. Carefulness generally leads to failure.
10. As far as money is concerned, we get the impression that the writer
A. Doesnt often have any money to save.
B. Would like to be considered extravagant.
C. Is never inclined to be extravagant.
D. Is incapable of saving anything.