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SURVEY OF

CNC MACHINE TOOLS


Final Report
Submitted by
SEBCON (Pvt.) Limited
Socio-economic and Business Consultants (SEBCON), Islamabad
Januar !""#
Table of Contents
Preface.........................................................................................................................................i
1. Introduction........................................................................................................................1
2. Objective............................................................................................................................2
3. CNC Machines...................................................................................................................3
3.1 Before CNC................................................................................................................3
3.2 How CNC works........................................................................................................
3.3 !"ecific "ro#ra$$ab%e functions...............................................................................
3. &hat is a C'M s(ste$...............................................................................................)
3.) &hat is a *NC s(ste$...............................................................................................)
3.+ In the $eta% re$ova% industr(.....................................................................................)
3., In the $eta% fabrication industr(................................................................................+
3.- In the e%ectrica% dischar#e $achinin# industr(...........................................................+
3.. In the woodworkin# industr(.....................................................................................+
3.1/ Other t("es of CNC $achines................................................................................,
3.11 Present de$and and uti%i0ation of CNC Machines in Pakistan..............................,
. 1va%uation of &or%d Machine 2oo%s 3 4ear 2//+..............................................................-
.1 Production of the Machine 2oo%s in the &or%d..........................................................-
.2 Production of the $achine too%s in the wor%d.............................................................
.3 15"ort of the Machine 2oo%s in the &or%d...............................................................11
. 15"ort of Machine 2oo%s in the &or%d 6 2//+..........................................................13
.) Machine 2oo%s I$"ort in the &or%d 3 2//+.............................................................1
.+ Consu$"tion of Machine 2oo%s in the &or%d..........................................................1+
., Consu$"tion of the &or%d Machine 2oo%s "er Po"u%ation......................................1-
.- China !ets !i#ht on Machine 2oo% *eve%o"$ent....................................................1.
.. 2aiwan7s 8ise in Machine 2oo% *eve%o"$ent.........................................................2/
.1/ 9orea7s Machine 2oo% !tren#th............................................................................22
). 8esearch Methodo%o#(.....................................................................................................2
+. :i$itations and Cha%%en#es..............................................................................................2)
+.1 CNC Machines and Pakistani Industr(....................................................................2)
,. ;enera% 'na%(ses<.............................................................................................................3
,.1 Nu$ber of CNC $achines.......................................................................................3)
,.2 'dditiona% Infor$ation.............................................................................................3+
-. =ie%d !urve( *ata.............................................................................................................3,
.. 'na%(sis............................................................................................................................3,
..1 =eedback fro$ interviews........................................................................................3,
..2 Industria% surve( findin#s.........................................................................................3-
..3 Prob%e$s =aced b( the Industr( and Possib%e !o%ution...........................................3
9.3.1 Problems with Information on CNC Machines.......................................................3
9.3.2 Problems with the Import Process of CNC machines.............................................3
9.3.3 Problems with Repair/Maintenance of CNC Machines..........................................
9.3.4 Problems with Aailabilit! of "pare Parts..............................................................
9.3.# Problems with $ailore% "oftware............................................................................)
9.3.& Problems with 'irin( $echnical People..................................................................)
.. 'dditiona% Infor$ation.............................................................................................+
9.4.1 Pro%)ction "tatistics.........................................................................................+
..) =uture =orecast for CNC Machines.........................................................................,
1/. 8esu%ts > 8eco$$endations.......................................................................................-
1/.1 !tron# 's"ects..........................................................................................................-
1/.2 &eak 's"ects...........................................................................................................-
Annexes
'nne5 6 I =acin# Prob%e$s and 2heir !o%utions
'nne5 6 II Product and !ervices
'nne5 6 III Production
'nne5 6 I? ;enera% Infor$ation
'nne5 6 ? 2urnin#
'nne5 6 ?I Mi%%in# Machine
'nne5 6 ?II &ire Cut
'nne5 6 ?III 1*M Machine
'nne5 6 @I ;rindin# Machine
Preface
2his stud( is the resu%t of a co%%ective tea$ effort with hi#h e5"ert and technica% advice fro$
the $ana#e$ent of 1*B that was who%ehearted%( #iven durin# the course of the stud(.
&e wou%d %ike to thank the fo%%owin#A whose su""ort and feedback was Buite crucia% and
without which we wou%d not have been ab%e to conduct the surve( nor co$"i%e this re"ort<
1. Mr. I$tia0 '%i 8ast#ar 8ast#ar Industr( Is%a$abad
2. Mr. 8o$i Moi0 8esearcher 9arachi
3. Mr. C$ar Da$an 1n#ineerin# 15"ert
. Mr. Easi$ '%i 8ast#ar 8ast#ar Industries Is%a$abad
). Mr. Nabee% Hashi$ Industria%ist :ahore
+. Mr. Perve0 Bai# Ne5tec :ahore
,. Mr. 9ara$at 1Bui"t 2ech :ahore
-. Mr. Ina$ C%%ah 1cono$ist Is%a$abad
.. Mr. 8ia0 8ashid 1*B Is%a$abad
1/. Mr. 1ja0 1*B Is%a$abad
11. Mr. Mansoor CNC Machine I$"orter Is%a$abad
12. Mr. 9ha%id !hahba0 CNC Machine I$"orter Is%a$abad
13. Mr. 2anveer CNC !u"ervisor
1. Mr. I%(as 1nu$erator 9arachi
1). Mr. Ha$id Dia 1nu$erator :ahore
1+. Mr. 'ftab 9arachi Machine 2oo%s
1,. Mr. Mansoor But *ata 'na%(st Is%a$abad
&e are dee"%( #ratefu% to the staff of different industries that unconditiona%%( "artici"ated in
the surve( and took out ti$e to "atient%( res"ond to different Bueries of the surve( tea$.
Based u"on their "rofessiona% res"onse and "rovidin# va%uab%e insi#hts into the current and
future $arket of CNC $achinesA we were ab%e to sha"e u" so$e concrete reco$$endations
for future actions.
IA 9a$ran !adiB F!1BCONG wou%d a%so %ike to a""reciate the efforts of $( tea$A Mr.
!hah0ad 'nwar and Mr. Muha$$ad !hafi ;u% and other associates.
:ast%( and $ost i$"ortant%( we are #ratefu% to '%$i#ht( '%%ah who #ave us the stren#th and
resources to a$icab%( conduct the stud(.
i
1. Introduction
Industria%i0ation "%a(s an i$"ortant ro%e in the econo$ic deve%o"$ent of an( countr(. It
"rovides the base for "roduction of various #oods and services b( e5"%oitin# avai%ab%e
resources and a%so enab%in# the addition of va%ue to the "ri$ar( "roductsA #eneration of $ore
e$"%o($ent o""ortunitiesA and an i$"rove$ent in %ivin# standards of the "eo"%e.
In PakistanA the contribution to ;*P of the a#ricu%ture sector has decreased fro$ )/H to
around 2)H and in the case of the industria% sectorA has increased fro$ 1/H to about 1-H
since inde"endence. 2he avera#e #rowth in the industria% sector over the %ast )/ (ears has
been about -H "er annu$.
*urin# the subseBuent "eriod the "rocess of refor$s with focus on %ibera%i0ationA
dere#u%ation and "rivati0ation were carried throu#h. 2he "o%icies ado"ted inc%uded $easures
such as si$"%er "rocedures for sanctionin# of "rojectsA s"ecia% concessions for "ioneerin#
industriesA ta5 ho%ida(s for %ess deve%o"ed areasA credit for industria% "rojectsA as we%% as
"rotection for forei#n "rivate invest$ent. 2hese "o%icies he%"ed acce%erate industria%i0ation
b( re$ovin# a%% ear%ier bott%enecks faced b( "ros"ective investors and $an( restricted fie%ds
were o"ened to the "rivate sector.
Manufacturin# is the second %ar#est sector of PakistanIs econo$( in ter$s of out"ut and
e$"%o($ent. Pakistan7s $anufacturin# industr( is do$inated b( te5ti%eA foodA a""are%A and
%eather industries. Overa%%A $anufacturin# recorded an i$"ressive and broad6based #rowth of
-.+H a#ainst a tar#et of 12HA whi%e contributin# 1-.2H to the ;*P in the =4/+. :ar#e6sca%e
$anufacturin#A accountin# for +..)H of overa%% $anufacturin# re#istered an i$"ressive
#rowth of .H in the 2//)62//+ "eriod a#ainst a tar#et of 1.)H. ;rowth of :!M acce%erated
in E16=4/,A risin# to ..,H as co$"ared with -.-H #rowth seen in E16=4/+. 2he "ri$ar(
drivers of this i$"rove$ent were te5ti%eA e%ectronicA che$ica% > $eta% industries.
*eve%o"$ent of the 1n#ineerin# !ector in Pakistan has a%so "ro#ressed but at a s%ower "aceA
with "ub%ic sector invest$ent in recent (ears a%so bein# %i$ited. ' nu$ber of 'uto$obi%e
1n#ineerin# and thousands of anci%%ar( and vendor units have $ushroo$ed to cater to the
reBuire$ents of the countr(Is auto$obi%e industr(. Present%(A the $anufacturin# sector
occu"ies a share of 1-H in the countr(Is ;ross *o$estic Product F;*PG which inc%udes
contribution of 1,H b( the en#ineerin# sector. 2his share $a( #o u" further when the
en#ineerin#A auto$obi%e and other va%ue added industries $ake headwa( in the co$in# (ears.
1
2. Objective
2he 1n#ineerin# *eve%o"$ent Board F1*BGA with its $ission to strengthen the
Engineering ector and integrate it !ith the !orld "ar#et to "a#e it the driving force
of econo"ic gro!th$% has been directed b( the 2ask =orce for initiation of CNC Machine
2oo%s 'sse$b%( to carr( out an in6de"th stud( on the "resent $arket for CNC $achinesA its
"o"u%ationA t("es and ori#inA and issues and "rob%e$s faced b( CNC $achine owners.
'dditiona%%(A focus shou%d a%so be #iven to the "otentia% de$and of the concerned industries
in the (ears ahead whi%e e5"%orin# the "ossibi%it( of CNC $anufacturin# or fabrication within
the countr(.
2he other out"ut of the stud( is to e5"%ore the financia% viabi%it( of i$"ortin# CNC $achines
initia%%( in !e$i69nocked *own F!9*G for$A fo%%owed b( that of i$"ortin# the$ in
Co$"%eted 9nocked *own FC9*G for$A and then co$"arin# that to the "resent "ractice of
i$"ortin# new and used CNC $achines fro$ $ajor CNC $achine $anufacturin# countries.
2his stud( was outsourced to a %oca% nationa% consu%tin# fir$ throu#h a trans"arent and cost6
Bua%it( "rocedure of se%ection.
2
&. C'C (achines
CNC stands for Co$"uter Nu$erica% Contro% and these $achines have been around since the
ear%( 1.,/s. Prior to this the( were ca%%ed NCA for Nu$erica% Contro%A Fco$"uters were
introduced to these contro%s in the ear%( ,/sA hence the na$e chan#eG. &hi%e "eo"%e in $ost
wa%ks of %ife have never heard of this ter$A CNC has touched a%$ost ever( for$ of
$anufacturin# "rocess in one wa( or another. If (ouIre workin# in $anufacturin#A itIs %ike%(
(ouIre dea%in# with CNC on a re#u%ar basis.
&.1 )efore C'C
&hi%e there are e5ce"tions to this state$entA CNC $achines t("ica%%( re"%ace For work in
conjunction withG so$e e5istin# $anufacturin# "rocessFesG. 2ake one of the si$"%est
$anufacturin# "rocesses 6 dri%%in# ho%es 6 for e5a$"%e.
' dri%% "ress can of course be used to $achine ho%es. FItIs %ike%( that a%$ost ever(one has seen
so$e for$ of dri%% "ressA even if (ou donIt work in $anufacturin#.G ' "erson can "%ace a dri%%
in the dri%% chuck that is secured in the s"ind%e of the dri%% "ress. 2he( can then F$anua%%(G
se%ect the desired s"eed for rotation Fco$$on%( b( switchin# be%t "u%%e(sGA and activate the
s"ind%e. 2hen the( $anua%%( "u%% on the Bui%% %ever to drive the dri%% into the work6"iece bein#
$achined.
's (ou can easi%( seeA there is a %ot of
$anua% intervention reBuired to use a dri%%
"ress to dri%% ho%es. ' "erson is reBuired to do
so$ethin# a%$ost ever( ste" a%on# the wa(.
&hi%e this $anua% intervention $a( be
acce"tab%e for $anufacturin# co$"anies if a
s$a%% nu$ber of ho%es or work "ieces $ust
be $achinedA but as Buantities #rowA so does
the %ike%ihood for fati#ue due to the
tediousness of the o"eration. 'nd do note
that weIve used one of the si$"%est
$achinin# o"erations Fdri%%in#G for our
e5a$"%e 6 there are $ore co$"%icated $achinin# o"erations that wou%d reBuire a $uch hi#her
ski%% %eve% Fand increase the "otentia% for $istakes resu%tin# in scra" work "iecesG of the
"erson runnin# the conventiona% $achine too%A Fthe st(%e of $achine that the CNC is
re"%acin# is co$$on%( referred to as the conventiona% $achineG.
B( co$"arisonA the CNC eBuiva%ent for a dri%% "ress F"ossib%( a CNC $achinin# center or
CNC dri%%in# > ta""in# centerG can be "ro#ra$$ed to "erfor$ this o"eration in a $uch $ore
auto$atic fashion. 1ver(thin# that the dri%% "ress o"erator was doin# $anua%%( wi%% now be
done b( the CNC $achineA inc%udin# "%acin# the dri%% in the s"ind%eA activatin# the s"ind%eA
"ositionin# the work "iece under the dri%%A $achinin# the ho%eA and turnin# off the s"ind%e.
3
&.2 *o! C'C !or#s
1ver(thin# that an o"erator wou%d be reBuired to do with conventiona% $achine too%s is
"ro#ra$$ab%e with CNC $achines. Once the $achine is setu" and runnin#A a CNC $achine
is Buite si$"%e to kee" runnin#. In fact CNC o"erators tend to #et Buite bored durin# %en#th(
"roduction runs because there is so %itt%e to do. &ith so$e CNC $achinesA even the work
"iece %oadin# "rocess has been auto$ated. F&e donIt $ean to over6si$"%if( here. CNC
o"erators are co$$on%( reBuired to do other thin#s re%ated to the CNC o"eration %ike
$easurin# work "ieces and $akin# adjust$ents to kee" the CNC $achine runnin# #ood
work "ieces.G
&.& +ecific +rogra""able functions
'%% CNC $achine t("es share this co$$ona%it(< 2he( a%% have two or $ore "ro#ra$$ab%e
directions of $otion ca%%ed a5es. 'n a5is of $otion can be %inear Fa%on# a strai#ht %ineG or
rotar( Fa%on# a circu%ar "athG. One of the first s"ecifications that i$"%( a CNC $achineIs
co$"%e5it( is the nu$ber of a5es it has. ;enera%%( s"eakin#A the $ore a5esA the $ore
co$"%e5 the $achine. 2he a5es of an( CNC $achine are reBuired for the "ur"ose of causin#
the $otions needed for the $anufacturin# "rocess. In the dri%%in# e5a$"%eA these F3G a5es
wou%d "osition the too% over the ho%e to be $achined Fin two a5esG and then dri%% the ho%e
Fwith the third a5isG. '5es are na$ed with %etters. Co$$on %inear a5is na$es are @A 4A and D.
Co$$on rotar( a5is na$es are 'A BA and C.
' CNC $achine wou%dnIt be ver( he%"fu% if it cou%d on%( $ove the work6"iece in two or
$ore a5es. '%$ost a%% CNC $achines are "ro#ra$$ab%e in severa% other wa(s. 2he s"ecific
CNC $achine t("e has a %ot to do with its a""ro"riate "ro#ra$$ab%e accessories. '#ainA an(
reBuired function wi%% be "ro#ra$$ab%e on fu%%6b%own CNC $achine too%s. Most $achinin#
centers can ho%d $an( too%s in a too% $a#a0ine. &hen reBuiredA the reBuired too% can be
auto$atica%%( "%aced in the s"ind%e for $achinin#. 2he s"ind%e s"eed Fin revo%utions "er
$inuteG can be easi%( s"ecified and the s"ind%e can be turned on in a forward or reverse
direction. It can a%soA of courseA be turned off. Man( $achinin# o"erations reBuire a coo%ant
for %ubrication and coo%in# "ur"oses. Coo%ants can be turned on and off fro$ within the
$achine c(c%e. 2hink of #ivin# an( series of ste"6b(6ste" instructions. ' CNC "ro#ra$ is
nothin# $ore than another kind of instruction set written in sentence6%ike for$at and the
contro% wi%% e5ecute it in seBuentia% orderA ste" b( ste". ' s"ecia% series of CNC words are
used to co$$unicate what the $achine is intended to do. CNC words be#in with %etter
addresses F%ike = for feed rateA ! for s"ind%e s"eedA and @A 4 > D for a5is $otionG. &hen
"%aced to#ether in a %o#ica% $ethodA a #rou" of CNC words $ake u" a co$$and that
rese$b%es a sentence. =or an( #iven CNC $achine t("eA there wi%% on%( be about /6)/
words used on a re#u%ar basis. !o if (ou co$"are %earnin# to write CNC "ro#ra$s to %earnin#
a forei#n %an#ua#e havin# on%( )/ wordsA it shou%dnIt see$ over%( difficu%t to %earn CNC
"ro#ra$$in#. 2he CNC contro% wi%% inter"ret a CNC "ro#ra$ and activate the series of
co$$ands in seBuentia% order. 's it reads the "ro#ra$A the CNC contro% wi%% activate the
a""ro"riate $achine functionsA cause a5is $otionA and in #enera%A fo%%ow the instructions
#iven in the "ro#ra$. '%on# with inter"retin# the CNC "ro#ra$A the CNC contro% has severa%
other "ur"oses. '%% current $ode% CNC contro%s a%%ow "ro#ra$s to be $odified FeditedG if
$istakes are found. 2he CNC contro% a%%ows s"ecia% verification functions F%ike dr( runG to
confir$ the correctness of the CNC "ro#ra$. 2he CNC contro% a%%ows certain i$"ortant
o"erator in"uts to be s"ecified se"arate fro$ the "ro#ra$A %ike too% %en#th va%ues. In #enera%A
the CNC contro% a%%ows a%% functions of the $achine to be $ani"u%ated.

&., -hat is a CA( s.ste"


=or si$"%e a""%ications F%ike dri%%in# ho%esGA the CNC "ro#ra$ can be deve%o"ed $anua%%(.
2hat isA a "ro#ra$$er wi%% sit down to write the "ro#ra$ ar$ed on%( with "enci%A "a"erA and
ca%cu%ator. '#ainA for si$"%e a""%icationsA this $a( be the ver( best wa( to deve%o" CNC
"ro#ra$s.
's a""%ications #et $ore co$"%icatedA and es"ecia%%( when new "ro#ra$s are reBuired on a
re#u%ar basisA writin# "ro#ra$s $anua%%( beco$es $uch $ore difficu%t. 2o si$"%if( the
"ro#ra$$in# "rocessA a co$"uter aided $anufacturin# FC'MG s(ste$ can be used. ' C'M
s(ste$ is a software "ro#ra$ that runs on a co$"uter Fco$$on%( a PCG that he%"s the CNC
"ro#ra$$er with the "ro#ra$$in# "rocess. ;enera%%( s"eakin#A a C'M s(ste$ wi%% take the
tediousness and drud#er( out of "ro#ra$$in#.
In $an( co$"anies the C'M s(ste$ wi%% work with the co$"uter aided desi#n FC'*G
drawin# deve%o"ed b( the co$"an(Is desi#n en#ineerin# de"art$ent. 2his e%i$inates the
need for redefinin# the work "iece confi#uration to the C'M s(ste$. 2he CNC "ro#ra$$er
wi%% si$"%( s"ecif( the $achinin# o"erations to be "erfor$ed and the C'M s(ste$ wi%%
create the CNC "ro#ra$ F$uch %ike the $anua% "ro#ra$$er wou%d have writtenG
auto$atica%%(.
&./ -hat is a 0'C s.ste"
Once the "ro#ra$ is deve%o"ed Feither $anua%%( or with a C'M s(ste$GA it $ust be %oaded
into the CNC contro%. 2hou#h the setu" "erson cou%d t("e the "ro#ra$ ri#ht into the contro%A
this wou%d be %ike usin# the CNC $achine as a ver( e5"ensive t("ewriter. If the CNC
"ro#ra$ is deve%o"ed with the he%" of a C'M s(ste$A then it is a%read( in the for$ of a te5t
fi%e. If the "ro#ra$ is written $anua%%(A it can be t("ed into an( co$"uter usin# a co$$on
word "rocessor Fthou#h $ost co$"anies use a s"ecia% CNC te5t editor for this "ur"oseG.
1ither wa(A the "ro#ra$ is in the for$ of a te5t fi%e that can be transferred ri#ht into the CNC
$achine. ' distributive nu$erica% contro% F*NCG s(ste$ is used for this "ur"ose.
' *NC s(ste$ is nothin# $ore than a co$"uter that is networked with one or $ore CNC
$achines. Cnti% on%( recent%(A rather crude seria% co$$unication "rotoco%s F8!6232cG had to
be used for transferrin# "ro#ra$s. Newer contro%s have $ore current co$$unication
ca"abi%ities and can be networked in $ore conventiona% wa(s F1thernetA etc.G. 8e#ard%ess of
$ethodsA the CNC "ro#ra$ $ust of course be %oaded into the CNC $achine before it can be
run.
's statedA CNC has touched a%$ost ever( facet of $anufacturin#. Man( $achinin# "rocesses
have been i$"roved and enhanced throu#h the use of CNC. :etIs %ook at so$e of the s"ecific
fie%ds and "%ace the e$"hasis on the $anufacturin# "rocesses enhanced b( CNC $achine
usa#e.
&.1 In the "etal re"oval industr.
Machinin# "rocesses that have traditiona%%( been done on conventiona% $achine too%s that are
"ossib%e Fand in so$e cases i$"rovedG with CNC $achinin# centers inc%ude a%% kinds of
)
$i%%in# Fface $i%%in#A contour $i%%in#A s%ot $i%%in#A etc.GA dri%%in#A ta""in#A rea$in#A borin#A
and counter borin#.
In si$i%ar fashionA a%% kinds of turnin# o"erations %ike facin#A borin#A turnin#A #roovin#A
knur%in#A and threadin# are done on CNC turnin# centers. 2here are a%% kinds of s"ecia% Joff6
shootsJ of these two $achine t("es inc%udin# CNC $i%%in# $achinesA CNC dri%% and ta"
centersA and CNC %athes.
;rindin# o"erations of a%% kinds %ike outside dia$eter FO*G #rindin# and interna% dia$eter
FI*G #rindin# are a%so bein# done on CNC #rinders. CNC has even o"ened u" a new
techno%o#( when it co$es to #rindin#. Contour #rindin# F#rindin# a contour in a si$i%ar
fashion to turnin#GA which was "revious%( infeasib%e due to techno%o#( constraints is now
"ossib%e Fa%$ost co$$on"%aceG with CNC #rinders.
&.2 In the "etal fabrication industr.
In $anufacturin# ter$sA fabrication co$$on%( refers to o"erations that are "erfor$ed on
re%ative%( thin "%ates. 2hink of a $eta% fi%in# cabinet. '%% of the "ri$ar( co$"onents are $ade
of stee% sheets. 2hese sheets are sheared to si0eA ho%es are "unched in a""ro"riate "%acesA and
the sheets are bent Ffor$edG to their fina% sha"es. '#ainA o"erations co$$on%( described as
fabrication o"erations inc%ude shearin#A f%a$e or "%as$a cuttin#A "unchin#A %aser cuttin#A
for$in#A and we%din#. 2ru%(A CNC is heavi%( invo%ved in a%$ost ever( facet of fabrication.
CNC back #a#es are co$$on%( used with shearin# $achines to contro% the %en#th of the "%ate
bein# sheared. CNC %asers and CNC "%as$a cutters are a%so used to brin# "%ates to their fina%
sha"es. CNC turret "unch "resses can ho%d a variet( of "unch6and6die co$binations and
"unch ho%es in a%% sha"es and si0es throu#h "%ates. CNC "ress brakes are used to bend the
"%ates into their fina% sha"es.
&.3 In the electrical discharge "achining industr.
1%ectrica% dischar#e $achinin# F1*MG is the "rocess of re$ovin# $eta% throu#h the use of
e%ectrica% s"arks which burn awa( the $eta%. CNC 1*M co$es in two for$sA vertica% 1*M
and &ire 1*M. ?ertica% 1*M reBuires the use of an e%ectrode Fco$$on%( $achined on a
CNC $achinin# centerG that is of the sha"e of the cavit( to be $achined into the work "iece.
Picture the sha"e of a "%astic bott%e that $ust be $achined into a $o%d. &ire 1*M is
co$$on%( used to $ake "unch and die co$binations for dies sets used in the fabrication
industr(. 1*M is one of the %esser known CNC o"erations because it is so c%ose%( re%ated to
$akin# too%in# used with other $anufacturin# "rocesses.
&.4 In the !ood!or#ing industr.
's in the $eta% re$ova% industr(A CNC $achines are heavi%( used in woodworkin# sho"s.
O"erations inc%ude routin# Fsi$i%ar to $i%%in#G and dri%%in#. Man( woodworkin# $achinin#
centers are avai%ab%e that can ho%d severa% too%s and "erfor$ severa% o"erations on the work
"iece bein# $achined.
+
&.15 Other t.+es of C'C "achines
Man( for$s of %etterin# and en#ravin# s(ste$s use CNC techno%o#(. &ater jet $achinin#
uses a hi#h "ressure water jet strea$ to cut throu#h "%ates of $ateria%. CNC is even used in
the $anufacturin# of $an( e%ectrica% co$"onents. =or e5a$"%eA there are CNC coi% windersA
and CNC ter$ina% %ocation and so%derin# $achines.
&.11 Present de"and and utili6ation of C'C (achines in Pa#istan
2he use of CNC $achines in Pakistan has been %i$ited on%( to $ediu$ to %ar#e industria%
sector setu"s and $u%tinationa% co$"anies. 2he CNC $achines and too%s $arket has
e5"anded with the enor$ous #rowth Pakistan has witnessed over the %ast few (earsA
s"ecifica%%( in the auto$obi%e and do$estic a""%iances industr( 6 the $ain consu$ers for
"roducts that wou%d reBuire different "arts to be $anufactured on econo$ies of sca%e
co$"arab%e to internationa%%( "roduced co$"onents.
2he en#ineerin# sector of Pakistan is creatin# a new niche for itse%f and workin# hard to #ain
internationa% reco#nition. 2he #rowth in PakistanIs do$estic en#ineerin# sector has "ro"e%%ed
the #rowth $o$entu$ of severa% en#ineerin# #oods sub6sectors. In "articu%arA the auto sector
of the countr( has shown un"recedented #rowth durin# the %ast few (ears. 2he econo$ic
surve( of Pakistan de"icts that the overa%% #rowth in the auto$obi%e sector was 2..,+HA whi%e
the basic $eta% industr( #rew b( )-.+H durin# the 2//)6/+ "eriod.
Pakistan wi%% be "roducin# /.) $i%%ion cars and 1 $i%%ion $otorc(c%es b( 2/1/. 2he #rowth in
do$estic a""%iances $anufacturin# is a%so encoura#in#. 2hese #rowth tar#ets wou%d e5"and
the de$and for the asse$b%( of CNC Machine 2oo%s b( $anifo%d. On%( "roduction of /.)
$i%%ion cars reBuire $achinin# of +)/// tons of ferrous castin#sA 1)/// tons of for#in#A
//// tons of a%u$inu$ castin#A "roduction of +//// tons of "%astic and 32/// tons of
rubber "arts. B( the (ear 2/1/A CNC $achine too%s "o"u%ation reBuire$ents wou%d increase
to 1)2A+/ units as co$"ared to the current .13 units.
Machiner( i$"orts contributed 1)H to the additiona% increase in i$"orts and +.)H "oints to
the overa%% #rowth in i$"orts. Major contributors to $achiner( i$"orts were "ower
#eneration $achinesA a#ricu%ture $achiner(A construction and $inin# $achiner(A and other
$achiner(.
,
$. Evaluation of -orld (achine Tools 7 8ear 2551
In a%% industria%i0ed countries the K$achine too%s sectorL 3 the $ain techno%o#( "rovider of
"roduction industries 6 has a ver( si#nificant ro%e. 2he K$achine too%sL that are used inside
the $achiner( industr( and are known to "rovide the $ost added va%ue other than
infor$ation techno%o#(A have a ver( s"ecia% "%ace as the K$achine $akin# $achinesL.
2he Machine 2oo%s sector which constitutes the backbone of the industries of a%% countriesA
direct%( or indirect%( affects the deve%o"$ent of a %ot of sectors due to its efficienc( at
techno%o#( "roduction. 2hese $achine too%s have a contribution one wa( or another direct%(
and indirect%( in the conve(ance of a%% kinds of consu$"tion #oods and $eans of co$fort we
use in our ever(da( %ives. 2his sector is a%so direct%( connected with the sector of #enera%
$achiner( "roductionA auto$otive and defense industries. &hen ado"tin# new techno%o#ies
and new desi#nsA technica% infor$ation is the ke( "rereBuisite and due to the reason that the
%oca% industr( is not su""orted b( this the Pakistani industr( is "redo$inant%( %abour
intensive.
*esi#nin# and "roduction of $achine too%s is at a basic en#ineerin# industr( %eve%. 2his
sector is sensitive to chan#es occurrin# in the econo$(A co$"%etin# a %ot of sectors as we%% as
#eneratin# e$"%o($ent.
,.1 Production of the (achine Tools in the -orld
'%% "roducin# countries $ake #ainsA and so$e are doub%e6di#it #ains. China7s esti$ated
shi"$ents soared in the (ear 2//+. &or%d out"ut increased $ore than 1/H to near%( M+/
bi%%ion. 'sian bui%ders increased their "roduction at a faster "ace than those in 1uro"e or the
'$ericas.
'ccordin# to the infor$ation obtained fro$ the re"ort ca%%ed 2//+ &or%d Machine 2oo%
Out"ut and Consu$"tion !urve(A the i$"ortant countries of the wor%d "roducin# $achine
too%s in 2//+ had "roduced $achine too%s to a va%ue of M)..) bi%%ion. 2his va%ue indicates that
the "roduction of the sa$e 2. countries increased b( 1/H whi%e it had been M)3.- bi%%ion one
(ear a#o. ConseBuent%(A it can be said that there had been a decrease in the risin# "ace of
"roductionA since "roduction of $achine too%s had dis"%a(ed an increase of 1H in 2//) as
we%%A co$"ared with the (ear 2//.
-
Table9 Machine 2oo% Production of the &or%d FCuttin# > =or$in# 2("esG in $i%%ions of C.!.
*o%%ars
r.
'o
Countries
2551
+roduction
:esti"ated;
Total (illion
<0
= (etal
Cutting
= (etal
>or"ing
255/
:revised;
Total
(illion
<0
=
change in
local
currenc.
= change
in <0
1. Na"an 13)22./ --H 12H 131-+.3 -H 3H
2. ;er$an( 1/2,+.+ ,3H 2,H .,.,./ H )H
3. ChinaA Peo"%es 8e". ,///./ ,H 2+H )1//./ M 3,H
. Ita%( ))1.+ )1H .H -+2.) 11H 12H
). 9oreaA 8e". of 1./ ,2H 2-H 3)1/., 1-H 1-H
+. 2aiwan 3+.2./ ,,H 23H 33.. 1/H .H
,. Cnited !tates 3+2).3 ,.H 21H 3+,.2 M )H
-. !wit0er%and 2-3..- -H 1,H 2+)+.2 +H ,H
.. !"ain 122. +H 3+H 112.1 1/H 11H
1/. =rance 11)/.) )H +H .)/.. 2/H 21H
11. Canada 11).- +/H /H ...1 13H 21H
12. Bra0i% .)/.2 -1H 1.H -+/., M 1/H
13. Cnited 9in#do$ -++.) ,-H 22H ,1,.- 1.H 21H
1. Nether%ands +)./ 2/H -/H 2/.1 1/H 11H
1). C0ech 8e"ub%ic )2.2 .2H -H 3-..- .H 1+H
1+. 2urke( 2+.2 3/H ,/H 3,.+ M 1H
1,. 'ustria 1..- +/H /H /,., 2H 3H
1-. India u32. --H 12H 333.2 /H 63H
1.. Be%#iu$ 3/.) 1/H ./H 2)..- 1+H 1,H
2/. =in%and 2+.., 1+H -H 22/.2 21H 22H
21. !weden 2/..3 3H ),H 1.,.+ )H +H
22. 8ussia u1+1. ,,H 23H 1+1. /H /H
23. 'ustra%ia 13./ ++H 3H 13+.+ M 62H
2. Croatia .-./ 3H ),H -../ M 1/H
2). *en$ark .1.) /H +/H -.) ,H -H
2+. 8o$ania u)..3 )+H H )..3 M u
2,. Portu#a% ),.+ 1/H ./H -.) 1-H 1.H
2-. Me5ico c)/./ 3)H +)H )/./ M /H
2.. 'r#entina 2-.+ /H +/H 23./ M 2/H
Total /4,/3.2 /&354.2 15=
,.2 Production of the "achine tools in the !orld
Na"an and ;er$an( a%one were res"onsib%e for /H of the tota% "roduction. 2o#etherA
countries within the first 1/ ranks rea%i0e about -.H of the tota% wor%d "roduction. 'ccordin#
to the "roduction fi#ures for 2//+A 2) 1C countries rea%i0ed 3).,)H of the wor%d "roductionA
whereas in 2//) share of 1C countries had attained 3+.)H. But the si$i%ar "osition in the
"roduction of $achine too%s as the $achine "roducin# $achines has a%so been "erceived as
the resu%t of the sta#nation #enera%%( bein# e5"erienced in "roduction in the 1C countries.
2he deve%o"ed , countries F;6,< C!'A Na"anA ;er$an(A =ranceA C9A Ita%(A CanadaG "rovide
a""ro5i$ate%( +1H of the tota% wor%d share.
2he seBuence of countries invo%ved in the "roduction of the wor%d7s tota% $achine too%s is as
fo%%ows< Na"an at C!M13.) bi%%ionA ;er$an( at C!M1/.2 bi%%ionA China at C!M, bi%%ionA Ita%(
at C!M). bi%%ionA !outh 9orea at C!M.1 bi%%ionA 2aiwan at C!M3., bi%%ionA C.!.'. at C!M3.+
bi%%ionA and !wit0er%and at C!M2.- bi%%ion.
.
Of the tota% "roduction of $achine too%s across the wor%d in 2//)A the share of these countries
was +)H.
Chinese 2rade 'ssociation officia%s re"ort that their countr(7s esti$ated shi"$ents of
$achine too%s in 2//+ #rew to M, bi%%ionA a #ain of 3,H. Increases "osted b( other 'sian
countriesA thou#h not as dra$aticA are sti%% i$"ressive< !outh 9orea boosted out"ut b( 1-HA
2aiwan b( 1/HA and Na"an b( -HA in their res"ective currencies. Overa%%A the #rowth rate for
'sian bui%ders %ast (ear was 12.HA out"acin# the 1/.3H #ain $ade b( the #%oba% industr( as
a who%e. Perha"s $ore re$arkab%e is that those countries were co$in# off an a%read( stron#
sur#e 6 fro$ 2// to 2//)A the( co%%ective%( #rew their $achine too% industries b( 2+..HA and
in the (ear before that the( #ained b( 31.3H.
2he wor%d7s bi##est "roducer re$ains Na"anA with M13.) bi%%ion in shi"$ents in 2//+. But
there was so$e shrinka#e in Na"an7s %ead over ;er$an(A which a%so #rew its "roduction
durin# 2//+.
1/
'fter ;er$an(7s reunificationA startin# in 1..1 it7s been the wor%d7s second6%ar#est "roducer
Fafter Na"anG ever( (ear e5ce"t 1... and 2//2A when it ed#ed out Na"an for the nu$ber one
s%ot. ;er$an( do$inates 1uro"ean Co$$ittee for Coo"eration of the Machine 2oo%
Industries FC1CIMOGA the Brusse%s6based a%%iance of %ar#e%( &estern 1uro"ean $achine6too%
trade associations. 's a b%oc the( increased their shi"$ents near%( .H in 2//+. C1CIMO
accounts for about 2H of the esti$ated wor%d "roduction of $achine too%sO this (ear the
or#ani0ation s"onsored the biennia% 1MOA the wor%d7s %ar#est $achine6too% showA run in
HanoverA ;er$an(A in !e"te$ber 2//,. 'nother C1CIMO $e$berA Ita%(A saw an 11H
increase in out"ut and re$ains the fourth6%ar#est "roducer. 'n 1-H #ain b( !outh 9orea
$oves it into fifth "%ace. 9orean "roducers had been virtua%%( tied with those in the C.!. and
2aiwanA but now the(7re noticeab%( ahead.
2he 'sian countries in 2//)A with Na"an at the "eakA had undertaken about -.)H of the
wor%d "roduction of $achine too%s. 2he 'sian countries had a share of 1H in 2//3A H in
2//A and -H in 2//).
Production at a va%ue of M2.3 bi%%ion was $ade b( the 1C $e$ber countries in 2//+. 2his
fi#ure $eans 1H of the wor%d "roduction. HoweverA the share of the C1CIMO countries in
2//) was 2.2HA +H in 2// and -H in 2//3.
!ince the "roducer countries of the sector that are rankin# hi#h are deve%o"ed countriesA this
indicates the strate#ic i$"ortance of the $achine too%s sector. 2echno%o#( and know6how
transfer are "ro$inent as i$"ortant factors affectin# the rankin#s.
'$erican $achine6too% "roduction #rew at a res"ectab%e )H durin# 2//+. 2he Cnited !tates
statisticsA "rovided b( 'M2 6 2he 'ssociation for Manufacturin# 2echno%o#( outside
&ashin#ton 6 break down into M2.-+ bi%%ion for $eta% cuttin# $achines and M/.,+ bi%%ion for
for$in# $achinesA or a ,.P21 s"%it of the M3.+3 bi%%ion tota%.
&hereas $ost re"orts for this surve( inc%ude an actua% cuttin#Pfor$in# breakdownA a few do
notA and in those cases the s"%it between $achine t("es is esti$ated based on "revious
re"orts.
,.& Ex+ort of the (achine Tools in the -orld
15"orts b( the 2. countries in the surve( rose in 2//+ to M33.,36bi%%ion or b( 12.+HA
out"acin# the rise in "roduction b( those countries. !o the wor%dwide industr( #ot just a %itt%e
$ore trade6oriented in its sco"e.
2he Cnited !tates increased its $achine6too% i$"orts si#nificant%(A to M1.-6bi%%ionA or u" 2+H
over 2//). 2his fo%%ows a 2/H increase the (ear before and is %ike%(A at %east "art%(A to be
traceab%e to an initiative b( the '$erican 2rade 'ssociation.
'$on# other "roducin# countries that $ade substantia% "ercenta#e increases in e5"orts %ast
(ear are !outh 9oreaA ChinaA and Canada.
11
r.
'o
Countries
Ex+ort (illion <0 Change
Ex+ort as = of
2551 +roduction 2551 255/
In local
currenc.
In <0
12
1. ;er$an( ,)1..) +3,/.2 1,H 1-H ,3H
2. Na"an +---.+ +1//.+ 1.H 13H )1H
3. Ita%( 32)-. 2,..2 1+H 1,H +/H
. 2aiwan 2.23.) 2+)1.1 11H 1/H ,.H
). !wit0er%and 2)1./ 22--.3 .H 1/H -.H
+. Cnited !tates 1-/.., 13,.- M 2+H )/H
,. 9oreaA 8e". of 1+)/./ 11),./ M 3H /H
-. ChinaA Peo"%es 8e". 11+/./ -2/./ M 1H 1,H
.. Cnited 9in#do$ -,)., ,.+.3 .H 1/H 1/1H
1/. !"ain ,13.) +1... 1H 1)H ),H
11. Be%#iu$ ++-./ ).+.+ 11H 12H 21.H
12. =rance +++., +//. 1/H 11H )-H
13. C0ech 8e"ub%ic -3.) 3...- 1H 21H 1/,H
1. 'ustria ,,.) )1.2 )H +H 11H
1). Nether%ands 32-.3 2-3. 1)H 1+H ,1H
1+. Canada 2-., 21..) 21H 3/H 2)H
1,. 2urke( r2,1., r213.2 M 2,H +H
1-. =in%and 22/.+ 1-/.2 21H 22H -2H
1.. !weden 1,..2 1+../ )H +H -+H
2/. Bra0i% 1..) 22/., M 632H 1+H
21. *en$ark 11..1 1/.. -H .H 13/H
22. 'ustra%ia 11/./ 1/-./ M 2H -2H
23. 8o$ania u1/3.1 1/3.1 M /H 1,H
2. Croatia -../ ,-.. M 13H .1H
2). 8ussia u,3.+ ,3.+ M /H +H
2+. Portu#a% 1. 33.+ 22H 23H ,2H
2,. Me5ico c2..2 c2/., M 1H 1H
2-. 'r#entina 1)2 1+1 M 6+H )3H
2.. India 1) 11, 3)H 32H H
Total &&1&3.1 2342,./ 11=
!ource< ;ardner Pub%icationsA Inc.
,., Ex+ort of (achine Tools in the -orld ? 2551
13
*eve%o"ed countries a%so enjo( su"eriorit( in the e5"ort orderin# of $achine too%s as the( do
in that of their "roduction. It can be seen fro$ the chan#es in e5"orts that the sector is
sensitive to econo$ic deve%o"$ents and invest$ent tendencies. 2he e5"ort vo%u$e of the
wor%d e5"ort of $achine too%s for 2//+ has been rea%i0ed as a""ro5i$ate%( C!M33., bi%%ion.
2he to" 1/ countries that account for -.H of the tota% wor%d "roduction a%so account for
about -+.)H of the tota% e5"orts of the wor%d. On%( three fro$ the 2. countries rea%i0in# .2H
of the wor%d "roduction of $achine too%s in 2//+ e5"erienced a decrease in e5"orts the(
$ade based on the do%%ar. 2hese countries inc%ude Bra0i% and 'r#entina. !outh 9oreaA China
and the C!A whi%e takin# "%ace a$on# the bi##est 1/ $achine too% "roducin# countriesA have
a%so e5hibited the bi##est rates of increase in e5"orts. &hen fi#ures of the (ear 2//+ are
e5a$inedA ;er$an( and Na"an re$ain ahead with e5"orts of M,.) and M+.. bi%%ion
res"ectve%(. 2he( are fo%%owed b( Ita%(A 2aiwan and !wit0er%and each with e5"ort fi#ures of
M3.3A M2.. and M2.) bi%%ion res"ective%(A fo%%owed b( the C! and !outh 9orea. 2.-H of this
e5"ort is $ade b( Na"an and ;er$an( a%one. 2hese two countries a%so ranked the hi#hest
with re#ards to "roduction %eve%s the (ear beforeA constitutin# for 3.1H of the "roduction of
$achine too%s.
2he 15"orters 2ab%e inc%udes a co%u$n that ca%cu%ates each countr(7s e5"orts as a "ercenta#e
of its do$estic "roduction. It can be an interestin# $easure of a nation7s re"utation as a
su""%ier of $achine too%s to outside $arkets. 2hus !wit0er%and7s e5"ort ratio is -.HA 2aiwan
has a ratio of ,.HA and ;er$an( has a ratio of ,3H. Na"anA often noted as a stron# su""%ier of
$achine too%s to forei#n factoriesA has a re%ative%( $oderate e5"ort ratio of )1H. But the
e5"ort6ratio $easure can a%so be so$ewhat $is%eadin#. !o$e entre"Qt countries %ike Be%#iu$
have "ercenta#es far in e5cess of their do$estic "roduction as $achines "ass throu#h their
"orts to other $arkets.
r.
'o
Countries
I"+ort (illion <0 Change Ex+ort as
= of 2551
+roduction
2551 255/
In local
currenc.
In <0
1. ChinaA Peo"%es 8e". ,1//./ +)//./ M .H ))H
2. Cnited !tates 1.1 3./3.+ M 1H ,1H
3. 9oreaA 8e". of 2))/./ 2/+..- M 23H )1H
. ;er$an( 21-.- 2/+3.3 1+H 1,H ,H
). 2aiwan 1,,1.1 1)/.- 1.H 1-H ,/H
+. Ita%( 13)..- 1233./ .H 1/H 3-H
,. Me5ico c1131., c112,.3 M /H .-H
-. =rance 112,.. 11,.3 62H 62H ,/H
.. 2urke( r./,.- ,.-.- M 13H -)H
1/. Cnited 9in#do$ -,)., ,3., 1-H 1.H 1/1H
11. Na"an ,... +,3.1 2)H 1.H 11H
12. Canada ,,. ,13./ 62H )H +H
13. Be%#iu$ +-.3 +2./ .H 1/H 213H
1. India --2.+ +),.. 3-H 3H +.H
1). Bra0i% +1..3 +13.- M 1H H
1+. !"ain ),1.3 )++.+ /H 1H )2H
1,. !wit0er%and )1. -3.) 11H 12H +2H
1-. C0ech 8e"ub%ic 3).. 1., 61H )H 1/-H
1.. !weden 3+/.. 31.- )H +H .2H
2/. 'ustria 3)3. 33. )H +H 11.H
21. 8ussia u3/1./ 3/1./ /H /H ,,H
22. Nether%ands 3//.- 2,1./ 1/H 11H +.H
23. 'ustra%ia 2//./ 1..2 M 3H -.H
2. 8o$ania u1.- u1.-. M u 12-H
2). *en$ark 1.-./ 1-./ ,H -H 11+H
1
2+. =in%and 1)..2 12.. 1/H 11H ,+H
2,. Croatia 1)/./ 13., M 11H .H
2-. 'r#entina 12-., 1-.2 M 613H .1H
2.. Portu#a% 1/).3 .)., .H 1/H -,H
Total &1,21.2 2312/./ 12=
III In 2//+ the wor%d i$"ort of $achine too%s has increased fro$ M2- bi%%ion u" to M31.)
bi%%ion 6 an increase of 11H.
,./ (achine Tools I"+ort in the -orld 7 2551
'$on# i$"ortersA China a#ain %eads the wor%dA with an esti$ated M,.1 bi%%ion in $achine
too%s shi""ed in. 2his is fo%%owed b( the C!A !outh 9oreaA and ;er$an(. I$"orts tracked b(
the surve( ca$e to M31.2 bi%%ionA u" 1/.-H fro$ the 2//) fi#ure.
&hen we have a %ook at the i$"ort of $achine too%s for the (ear 2//+A China is the bi##est
i$"orter of the wor%d with M,.1 bi%%ionA C! ranks second with M. bi%%ionA and !outh 9orea
third with M2.) bi%%ion. 2he( are fo%%owed b( ;er$an( with M2. bi%%ionA 2aiwan with M1.,
bi%%ionA and Ita%( with M1.3 bi%%ion.
&hen the rates of covera#e of consu$"tion b( i$"orts are co$"aredA these rates are as
fo%%ows< ,1H for the C!A +H for Na"anA ))H for ChinaA and in 1C countries it7s ,H for
1)
;er$an(A 3-H for Ita%(A and 11H for the C9. 2he rate of covera#e of consu$"tion b(
i$"orts increased fro$ -2H u" to a %eve% of -)H in 2urke(.
C1:IMO 3 1uro"ean 2rade 'ssociations for Machine 2oo%sA 2oo%s and 2echno%o#ies which
has 11 1C countries as we%% as 2urke( and !wit0er%and as $e$bers 6 for$s a""ro5i$ate%(
3/H of the tota% wor%d i$"orts to the tune of M..3 bi%%ion do%%ars. &hi%e this share had been
32H in 2//3A it had decreased down to 3/H in 2//. In 2//) and 2//+A this share had been
2..)H. '$on#st the $e$bers of C1:IMOA ;er$an( a%one for$s the bi##est $arket in ter$s
of i$"orts with a share of 2+H of C1:IMO.
' si$i%ar caution $ust be used for the I$"orters 2ab%e a%soA whose ri#ht6hand co%u$n %ists
i$"orts as a "ercenta#e of %oca% consu$"tion. Once a#ainA heav( tradin# countries such as
Be%#iu$ and 'ustria have i$"ort ratios #reater than 1//H.
2he tota% of this !urve(7s e5"orts a%wa(s e5ceeds the tota% of re"orted i$"orts. 2his is
because so$e i$"ortin# countries are not inc%uded because the( %ack %oca% "roduction. &ith
the inc%usion of Me5ico this ti$eA that difference is di$inishedA but there are sti%% cases %ike
2hai%and that cause dis"arit(.
T@A0E )AAA'CE O> T*E (AC*I'E TOOA
r.
'o
Countries (illion <0 2551 (illion <0 255/
1. Na"an +/-..2 )2,.)
2. ;er$an( )1//., 3/+..
3. !wit0er%and 1.,2.+ 1-/.-
. Ita%( 1-.-., 1)+1.2
). 2aiwan 11)2.) 11+.3
+. !"ain 12.2 )3.3
,. 'ustria 12.1 11+.-
-. =in%and +1. 3,.3
.. C0ech 8e"ub%ic ,.+ 61..
1/. Nether%ands 2,.+ 12.
11. Cnited 9in#do$ /./ +1.,
12. Be%#iu$ 61+.3 62,.3
13. Croatia 6+1./ 6)).-
1. Portu#a% 6+3.. 6+2.1
1). *en$ark 6,../ 6,.+
1+. 'ustra%ia 6././ 6-+.2
1,. 8o$ania 6.)./ 6.).3
1-. 'r#entina 6113.) 6132.1
1.. !weden 61-1., 61,2.-
2/. 8ussia 622,. 622,.
21. =rance 6+1.2 6)+..
22. Canada 6+2., .3.)
23. Bra0i% 6+..- 63.3.1
2. 2urke( 6+3+.1 6)-).)
2). India 6-+,.2 6++.2
2+. 9oreaA 8e". of 6.//./ 6.12.-
2,. Me5ico 611/2.) 611/+.+
1+
2-. Cnited !tates 62+31. 62+).-
2.. ChinaA Peo"%es 8e". 6)././ 6)+-/./
,.1 Consu"+tion of (achine Tools in the -orld
'$on# consu$er nationsA China retains the nu$ber one "osition b( farA acBuirin# a%$ost as
$uch as the second and third ranked countries co$bined. C! consu$"tion #ains a hea%th(
)HA and '$erica retains the nu$ber three s"ot a$on# consu$ers. On the "roduction sideA
howeverA !outh 9orea7s #ains force the C! to s%i" to nu$ber seven in ter$s of out"ut.
On a "er6ca"ita basisA the !wissA 2aiwaneseA and the 9oreans s"end the $ost on "roduction
$achiner(. I$"orts and consu$"tion of $achine too%s indicate the %eve% of industria%
deve%o"$ent of the countries and their new invest$ent trends.
'ccordin# to the infor$ation obtained fro$ a re"ort "ub%ished b( ;ardner Pub%ic Inc.A in
2//+ consu$"tion %eve%s of the wor%d $achine too%s reached M),.3 bi%%ionA increasin# -H. In
2//+A China a%so $aintained its "osition of bein# Kthe nu$ber one $achine too%s consu$er
of the wor%dL with M12.. bi%%ion worth of consu$"tion of $achine too%s which it obtained b(
"assin# ;er$an(A Na"an and the C! in 2//2. Chinese $achine6too% consu$"tion is eBua% to
$ore than 21H of the tota% out"ut of a%% "roducin# countries in the surve(. '%thou#h China
increased its "roduction in coverin# this consu$"tion at a rate of 12HA its de"endence on
i$"orts sti%% $aintains to a #reat de#ree. China covers M,.1 bi%%ion of its consu$"tion throu#h
i$"ort and with that i$"ort fi#ure it is the bi##est $achine too%s i$"orter countr( of the
wor%d at the sa$e ti$e. !i$"%( "utA one out of ever( five $achines $ade an(where in the
wor%d ends u" in China.
'ccordin# to the 2//+ &or%d Machine 2oo%s Production > Consu$"tion !urve(A the ne5t6
bi##est consu$erA Na"anA insta%%ed M,. bi%%ion worth of $achinesA a fi#ure that indicates what
$i#ht be a s%i#ht s%owin#. 2he third6bi##est consu$er is the C! at M+.2+ bi%%ionA u" )HA
fo%%owed b( ;er$an( at nu$ber fourA where insta%%ations droo"ed b( +H in 2//)A but where
orders for de%iveries in 2//, are %ike%( to cause a rebound. 2hese countries are fo%%owed b(
!outh 9orea with M) bi%%ion.
1,
'%thou#h the C! $ade a "ro#ress of )H and Na"an had a decrease of H based on the do%%ar
in the consu$"tion of $achine too%sA Na"an went on fo%%owin# its second "%aceA with the C!
at third.
' s%ow6down takin# "%ace in the consu$"tion %eve%s of 1C countries in the front ranks is
worth( of note. =or e5a$"%eA in 2//+ ;er$an( indicated a decrease of +H in consu$"tion in
res"ect of the "revious (ear. '#ain in 2//+ with an increase of -HA Ita%( sta(ed behind !outh
9oreaA which had increased its consu$"tion b( 1H. 'n interestin# variation on the
consu$"tion $easure is consu$"tion wei#hted for "o"u%ation FPer6Ca"itaG. B( that $easureA
!wit0er%and ranks at the to"A s"endin# $ore than M11+ for ever( !wiss on new $achine too%s.
2aiwan is ne5t at M111A and !outh 9orea a%so $akes substantia% "er6ca"ita e5"enditures on
"roduction eBui"$ent.
1-
,.2 Consu"+tion of the -orld (achine Tools +er Po+ulation
r.
'o
Countries
Consu"+tion
billion <0
2551
Po+ulation
555s
Consu"+tion
BCPo+ulation
1. !wit0er%and -+,.2 ,)1 M11+.3.
2. 2aiwan 2)3..+ 22,) M111.+3
3. 9oreaA 8e". of )/./ -).- M1/3.,.
. ;er$an( )1,).. -22) M+2.-/
). Ita%( 3))2.. )-/), M+1.2/
+. Na"an ,32., 12,333 M)-.3,
,. Canada 1+/-.) 32)/- M..-
-. !weden 3.1./ -.-+ M3.)1
.. =in%and 2/-.3 )21) M3...
1/. C0ech 8e"ub%ic /.+ 1/2+ M3...
11. 'ustria 2.).- -1,) M3+.1-
12. Croatia 1)../ ., M3).3+
13. *en$ark 1,/. )13 M31..
1. Be%#iu$ 32/.- 1/3- M31.//
1). !"ain 11//.2 /2-1 M2,.31
1+. Nether%ands 3,. 1+13- M2+.-/
1,. =rance 1+11., +/2 M2+.+,
1-. Cnited !tates +2)+., 2.3/2- M21.3)
1.. 2urke( 1/+2.3 +--. M1).2
2/. Cnited 9in#do$ -++.) +/2,1 M1.3-
21. Portu#a% 121.+ 1/)2 M11.))
22. 'ustra%ia 22./ 1..13 M11.2)
23. Me5ico 11)2.) 1/.+ M1/..-
2. China Peo"%es 8e". 12././ 12.--- M...+
2). Bra0i% 12+.+ 1-1/1 M,.,)
2+. 8o$ania 1).+ 223)+ M+..2
2,. 'r#entina 12.1 3.1) M3.+3
2-. 8ussia 3--.- 13,-2 M2.,/
2.. India 12,). 1/+)/,1 M1.2/
1.
,.3 China ets ight on (achine Tool 0evelo+"ent
China has been the bi##est i$"orter and consu$er of $achine too%s in the wor%d for so$e
(earsA but now the $arket ca"acit( for %oca%%(6$ade and forei#n6"roduced too%s is set to #row
with the $uscu%ar nationa% econo$(.
'ccordin# to statistics co$"i%ed b( the China Machine 2oo% and 2oo% Bui%dersI 'ssociation
FCM2B'GA China has so$ewhere over 2A/// $achine too% enter"rises. Of theseA )+H are
state6ownedA 3/H are "rivate fir$s and 1H are forei#n6invested Finc%udin# a s$a%% nu$ber
of who%%( forei#n6owned enter"risesG.
1$"%o(in# over )//A/// "eo"%eA these or#anisations have tota% assets worth a hu#e
8$b11,.3 bi%%ion FH9M11/.+ bi%%ionG and "roduce so$e )A/// t("es of "roducts with a tota%
out"ut va%ue of 8$b.1.3 bi%%ion.
ChinaIs $achine too% consu$"tion has increased shar"%( (ear after (ear since 1... and
continues to be the wor%dIs bi##est consu$er in 2//3 after bein# so in 2//2. Consu$"tion in
2//3 was C!M1. bi%%ion $ore than in 2//2A u" 2,H.
In the "ast three (earsA consu$"tion has soared at an annua% rate of over 2/H. Nu$erica%%(6
contro%%ed $achine too%s for$ the bu%k of ChinaIs $achine too% consu$"tionA which has $ore
than doub%ed in the "ast three (earsA e5ceedin# that of ordinar( $achine too%s b( $ore than
2/H. China isA of courseA a%so a bi# i$"orter as we%% as "roducer of $achine too%s. It
i$"orted $eta% "rocessin# $achine too%s worth C!M.13 bi%%ion in 2//3 and was the %ar#est
i$"orter of $achine too%s in the wor%d in 2//2 and 2//3. 2he $achine too% industr(
$aintains ra"id #rowth in 2//A increasin# its tota% out"ut va%ue b( 32H and its sa%es revenue
b( 3-H (ear6on6(ear in the first ha%f of the (ear. *urin# the "eriodA $achine too% i$"orts
a$ounted to C!M3.- bi%%ionA u" +.,+H (ear6on6(earA and e5"orts a$ounted to C!M.)/
$i%%ionA u" )/H.
Csers of $achine too%s are en#a#ed in a wide s"ectru$ of industries. 2he auto industr(A the
bi##est user of $achine too%sA wi%% see a chan#e fro$ e5"%osive #rowth two (ears a#o to on%(
re%ative%( ra"id #rowth in 2//. 2he dec%ine in the #rowth rate wi%% inhibit invest$ent in the
auto industr( to so$e e5tentA thus s%owin# down de$and for $achine too%s.
On the other handA de$and for $ediu$6to6hi#h end nu$erica%%(6contro%%ed $achine too%s
fro$ such hi#h6tech industries as e%ectronic infor$ationA aviation and aeros"ace wi%% continue
to be hi#h.
2he $achine too% industr(Is #rowthA a$on# other factorsA has been "redicated b(
considerab%e fi5ed asset invest$ent b( the state and "rivate econo$ies. 'dditiona%%(A fi5ed
asset and cost in"uts have risen as a resu%t of the "o%ic( reshuff%in# of assets under different
ownershi" s(ste$s and strate#ic in"utsA as we%% as state "o%ic( towards techno%o#( and
industria%isation.
Cniversa% nu$erica%%(6contro%%ed $achines are $ainstrea$ "roducts in ChinaIs $achine too%
$arket. 2he( are a%so $uch sou#ht after b( do$estic and forei#n $anufacturers. Brand6na$e
"roducts now do$inate the $arket and end6users in China are fa$i%iar with %eadin#
internationa% brands 6 $akin# these their first choice when the( $ake "urchases. 's there are
2/
no do$inant Chinese brands in the $arketA creatin# the$ for nu$erica%%(6contro%%ed $achine
too%s is not on%( necessar( for the deve%o"$ent of ChinaIs $achine too% industr( but is
essentia% for its surviva%. China is %a##in# considerab%( behind deve%o"ed countries in its
"roduction of nu$erica%%(6contro%%ed "roducts. '#ainst this backdro"A CMB2' has been
ur#in# enter"rises in the industr( to stren#then internationa% coo"eration and strive to narrow
this #a" within a shorter ti$e and at a faster rate and %ower cost.
ChinaIs $achine too% industr( has ste""ed u" its internationa% coo"eration in recent (earA and
forei#n co$"anies are "%a(in# an increasin#%( i$"ortant ro%e. More and $ore forei#n
$anufacturers are settin# u" "%ants or offices in ChinaA "art%( due to the attraction of ChinaIs
hu#e $arket and "art%( as a resu%t of the transfer of $anufacturin# industries with a hi#h
techno%o#( content to China. 2oda(A forei#n6invested enter"rises account for 1H of ChinaIs
2A23- $achine too% enter"rises.
Noint ventures are t("ica%%( eBuit(6based and contractua% undertakin#s. 'n e5a$"%e is that
between Beijin# =irst Machine 2oo%s P%ant and Na"anIs Oku$a Co. 'nother was inherent in
the reor#anisation of Hefei =or#in# and Pressin# 2oo%s Co :td b( Hon# 9on#Is Mantu
Ho%din#s :td.
2he #overn$ent encoura#es Chinese co$"anies to o"en u" internationa% $arkets b( takin#
over forei#n co$"anies. =or e5a$"%eA *a%ian Machine 2oo%s ;rou" acBuired the $achine
too% business of In#erso%% Internationa%A Einchuan Machine 2oo% Co :td took u" a stake in
C!6based C'IA whi%e !han#hai Min#jin# Machine 2oo% Co :td successfu%%( acBuired a
;er$an( co$"an( ca%%ed &oh%enber#..
,.4 Tai!anDs @ise in (achine Tool 0evelo+"ent
2he histor( of $achine too% bui%din# in 2aiwan is one of difficu%t situations and une5"ected
cha%%en#es. Overco$in# these obstac%esA howeverA has been #ood for the co$"anies invo%ved.
Machine too% bui%ders have thrivedA but the( have never had the o""ortunit( to #et fatA ha""(
and %a0(.
&hen $achine too% bui%din# first be#an in the 1.)/sA it was "ri$ari%( to $eet the de$ands at
ho$e for vita% "roduction eBui"$ent. :itt%e thou#ht was #iven to e5"ort. 2he #overn$ent
#ave virtua%%( no "rotection to the f%ed#%in# industr( since the deve%o"$ent of the countr(
had the $ost to #ain fro$ co$"etitive "ressures that wou%d kee" $achine too% "rices %ow.
*es"ite the ra"id deve%o"$ent of $anufacturin# in 2aiwanA the do$estic $arket for $achine
too%s was soon saturated and bui%ders had to consider e5"ort for further #rowth. 't firstA the
chief co$"etitive advanta#e to be e5"%oited was %ow %abor costs. 2his a""roach "roved to be
rather effective in ca"turin# the overseas $arket for $achines at the %ow6end of techno%o#( 6
standard %athesA basic $i%%in# $achinesA and #rinders.
's 2aiwanIs econo$( has continued to #rowA howeverA a shorta#e of workers has deve%o"ed.
2he bui%ders have been findin# it increasin#%( difficu%t and e5"ensive to retain its su""%( of
ski%%ed workers. 2his situation is forcin# the bui%ders to reva$" their own $anufacturin#
$ethods for #reater efficienc(. Man( now re%( heavi%( on subcontractorsA an arran#e$ent that
has "roven Buite workab%e. Nobbin# out various "arts of the $achine bui%din# activit( #ives
the$ e5ce"tiona% f%e5ibi%it( whi%e kee"in# overhead costs down.
21
=reBuent%(A the subcontractors are for$er e$"%o(ees who have struck out on their own. 2hese
entre"reneurs often #et financia% backin# fro$ their for$er e$"%o(erA who does not wish to
%ose a%to#ether the services and ski%%s of these e5"erienced workers. 2his arran#e$ent $a(
see$ unusua%A but it is "ra#$atic and e5"editious and Buite t("ica%%( Chinese.
2he hitch with re%(in# on subcontractors isA howeverA the issue of $aintainin# or i$"rovin#
Bua%it(. Bui%ders are workin# c%ose%( with their subcontractors to share Bua%it( contro%
$ethods and i$"roved $anufacturin# techniBues. Cse of $odern ins"ection techniBuesA
statistica% "rocess contro%A coordinate $easurin# $achinesA and so onA is #rowin#.
2he other effect of a %abor sBuee0e is to "ush bui%ders into concentratin# efforts on the hi#h
end of their "roduct %ines where %abor content re"resents a s$a%%er "ro"ortion of "roduction
costs and where $ar#ins are hi#her. 2he %abor shorta#e $akes CNC $ore attractive to the
do$estic bu(er because of the auto$ation it offers. 'nd in restricted e5"ort $arketsA hi#her
$ar#ins are i$"ortant because bui%ders obvious%( want ever( $achine so%d under a Buota to
re"resent $a5i$u$ revenue.
*eve%o"in# the 1uro"ean $arket has been "articu%ar%( rewardin#. &ith fewer o%der $achines
in "%ace thereA "reconceived ideas about the Bua%it( of eBui"$ent fro$ 2aiwan do not have to
be overco$e. '%soA the Na"anese have $ade so$ewhat shorter inroads in 1uro"eA so
co$"etition fro$ that Buarter for CNC $achines is not Buite as intense. 2aiwan $achine too%
bui%ders are now $ore e5"erienced at "ro$otion and sa%esA settin# u" dea%er networksA
"rovidin# after6sa%es service and s"are "artsA and so on.
Neverthe%essA there is sti%% a #ood distance to #o. I$"rovin# Bua%it( and raisin# efficienc( do
not ha""en overni#ht. 2echniBues for hi#her accurac( $anufacturin# and #reater efficienc(
$ust work further down the tiers of contractors and subcontractors. 2here is the unavoidab%e
%earnin# curve to c%i$b. Man( bui%ders the$se%ves are re"%acin# o%der eBui"$ent with CNCsA
often confi#ured in ce%%s.
2he %eadin# bui%dersA such as :eadwe%%A ?ictorA =1MCOA Cheva%ier and othersA have invested
heavi%( in new factories or u"#raded faci%ities. :eadwe%%Is newest factor( in 2aichun#A %ocated
in a recent%( deve%o"ed industria% "ark that wou%d see$ "erfect%( at ho$e a%on# an interstate
hi#hwa( or near an air"ort in the !tatesA is a c%eanA order%( and bust%in# "%ace. 2his faci%it( is
"ri$ari%( devoted to fina% $achine too% asse$b%(.
:eadwe%% was founded in the ear%( 1.-/s with the e5"%icit "ur"ose of bui%din# CNC $achines
for the e5"ort $arket. Most of the co$"onents for its %inesA which inc%ude $achinin# centersA
turnin# centersA and #rindersA are bui%t b( subcontractors and %oca% job sho"sA or are i$"orted
fro$ Na"an and other overseas su""%iers. J*onIt $ake it (ourse%f if (ou can bu( itAJ and on%(
bu( hi#h Bua%it(A but search the wor%d for the best "riceJ are the ru%e here.
'nother co$"an( that has %earned to think #%oba%%( and is bein# rewarded is 2aichun#
Machiner( &orks Co. :td. Fbetter known in the C.!. as the ?ictor ;rou"G. =ounded in 1.))A
?ictor was a "ioneer a$on# $achine too% bui%ders in 2aiwan and Buick%( beca$e the %eadin#
su""%ier of %athes. It sti%% fi#ures "ro$inent%( in the %oca% $arket for %athesA a%thou#h it now
a%so bui%ds $achinin# centersA with )H of its sa%es #oin# to do$estic bu(ers.
1uro"e now accounts for 3/H of its sa%es. ?ictor has recent%( added a new %ine of "%astic
injection $achines to re"%ace %ost $achine too% sa%es in the Cnited !tates. ?ictor is #radua%%(
22
re"%acin# its o%derA %ess efficient faci%itiesA which are a %e#ac( of its ear%( start in the industr(.
?ictor re%ies %ess heavi%( on subcontractorsA and sti%% o"erates its own foundr(A another %e#ac(
fro$ its "ioneerin# da(s when there was no one e%se to su""%( basic co$"onents or services.
:ike other "ro#ressive bui%ders in 2aiwanA Cheva%ier sees increased e5"ort de"endin# on hi#h
Bua%it( and hi#h accurac(A not %owest "rice. !u"erior e%ectronics $ust enhance su"erior
$echanica% construction is their thinkin#. CNC #rinders wi%% beco$e a $ajor "ortion of their
out"ut. Ori#ina% research and deve%o"$ent at ho$e and an e5tensive service or#ani0ation
abroad are reco#ni0ed as ke(s to continued #rowth.
9entA another i$"ortant #rinder $anufacturer on the is%andA is es"ecia%%( "roud of its
en#ineerin# and research efforts. It has deve%o"ed #rinders s"ecifica%%( desi#ned for cubic
boron nitride FCBNG whee%sA with ri#id s"ind%esA hi#h6s"eed stroke ca"abi%it(A and coo%ant
de%ivered on both sides of the whee%. 2his co$"an(Is "roducts inc%ude e%ectrica% dischar#e
#rindersA which are desi#ned for #rindin# and s%icin# of cera$icsA si%icon wafersA "orce%ainA
cr(sta%%ine $ateria%s and co$"osites. Cree" feed #rindersA "rofi%e #rindersA and hi#h
efficienc( #rindin# $achines are the thrust of its "roduct deve%o"$entA and a%% have CNC
avai%ab%e as an o"tion.
,.15 EoreaDs (achine Tool trength
It is a #%oba% fact that 9orea is now on its wa( to beco$in# a $ajor $anufacturer of $achine
too%s. Current%(A that countr( ranks seventh a$on# the wor%dIs "roducers. 2he 9orean
$achine too% industr( has #radua%%( u"#raded %eve%s of techno%o#( and 9orean6$ade
"roducts are considered co$"atib%e in the wor%d $arket in ter$s of functiona% techno%o#ies
such as $achinin# and asse$b%( "rocesses. 2he auto industr(A co$bined with new interest in
e%ectronics and constructionsA has i#nited ra"id #rowth in $uch of 9oreaIs econo$(. It is
further ascertained that J9oreaIs $arket de$and has chan#ed fro$ standardA cost6effective or
#enera% "roducts to hi#h6"recisionA hi#h6s"eedA and hi#h6"owered $achine too%sL. In %ine
with this trendA #%oba% $arket de$and for co$"uteri0ed nu$erica%%( contro%%ed FCNCG
$achine too%s has ra"id%( increased.
J2here are current%( 12- $achine too% $anufacturers in 9oreaA $ost of which are $ediu$
and s$a%%6si0ed co$"anies. In "articu%arA 9oreaIs "roduction of nu$erica%%( contro%%ed FNCG
$achine too%s #rew constant%( at a 2H annua% rate. 2he 9orean $achine too% industr( ai$s at
increasin# the NC "roduction ratio to ,/HAJ as one of the C! Co$$erce re"ort conc%udes.
2he best of 9oreaIs $achine too% "roduction can be witnessed at the !eou% Internationa%
Machine 2oo% !how '"ri% 1261, "eriodica%%(A which "ro$ises to be the %ar#est $achine too%
show ever he%d in 9orea.
!"onsored b( MOCI1 FMinistr( of Co$$erceA Industr( and 1ner#(G and or#ani0ed b(
9OMM' F9orea Machine 2oo% ManufacturersI 'ssociationGA the show inc%udes $ore than
33// booths re"resentin# over // $achine too% co$"anies fro$ 3/ countries inc%udin#
Na"anA Ita%(A C9A !wit0er%andA !"ainA 2urke(A C!'A and 8ussia. 't %east +/A/// trade
"rofessiona%s attend this event.
15hibition cate#ories wi%% inc%ude $eta% cuttin# $achines FCNC %athesA $u%ti"ur"ose
$achinin# centersA #rindin# $achinesA and 1*MG. Meta% for$in# $achines Fh(drau%ic
"ressesA servo contro%%ed "ressesA CNC shearin# $achinesA bendin# $achinesA %aser cuttin#
23
$achinesA and robotsG. 2he e5hibition ha%%s wi%% be divided into five sections< Meta% cuttin#
MachinesA Meta% for$in# MachinesA Industria% 8obots and 'uto$ationA Cuttin#
2oo%sPMeasurin# 1Bui"$entA and Machine 2oo% Parts.
9orean "artici"ants inc%ude $ajor $anufacturers such as *oosan Infracore Ffor$er%( known
as *aewoo Heav( Industries > Machiner(GA &I'A *oosan MecatecA HwacheonA Hankook
Machine 2oo%sA Na$sun Machiner( Cor".A Hanwha Machiner(A and HN9 Machine 2oo%.
Major overseas $anufacturers wi%% inc%ude 4a$a0aki Ma0akA Oku$aA Mori !eikiA MakinoA
Haas 'uto$ationA *M;A MurataA and '#ie Char$i%%es. 2he 9orean $achine too% industr(
shows continued #rowth. In 2//) sa%es rose b( ,.H co$"ared to the "revious (ear to reach
C!M2.. bi%%ionA and $achine too% e5"orts increased b( 1..)H co$"ared to the "revious (ear
to C!M1.1) bi%%ion and so on. Machine too% i$"orts to 9oreaA the wor%dIs fifth $achine too%
$arketA tota%ed C!M2 bi%%ion in 2//) to $ark an increase of 2/H co$"ared to the "revious
(ear.
2he 9orean $achine too% industr( in 2//+ was forecasted to e5ceed the C!M3 bi%%ion $ark in
"roduction for the first ti$e in its histor(. !u""ortin# events at !IM2O!2//+ inc%uded an
Internationa% Machine 2oo% 2echno%o#( !e$inarA Machine 2oo% 2rade Meetin#A CNC
Contro%%er 8e"air and Maintenance &orksho"A and IM! ?ision =oru$. 2he 9orea Machine
2oo% ManufacturersI 'ssociation re"orts that the tota% $arket de$and for $achine too%s is
increasin#A and this trend ref%ects "ro$isin# %on#6ter$ "ros"ects as an i$"ortant #enerator of
$arket de$and for 9oreaIs $anufacturin# industries.
2
/. @esearch (ethodolog.
2he $ethodo%o#( that was fo%%owed for this stud( was based on discussions with the re%evant
"ersonne% at the c%ient6end inc%udin# notab%e fir$s and co$"anies that cou%d be a source of
"rovidin# insi#ht into the #rowth and "ossibi%it( of "roducin# %oca%%( $anufacturePasse$b%ed
CNC $achines within the countr(.
2his was fo%%owed b( the deve%o"$ent of BuestionnairesA their fie%d testin#A and then the fie%d
surve( throu#h trained enu$erators F%ist is anne5ed with this re"ortG b( conductin# interviews
of $ana#e$ent and technica% "ersonne% of "re6se%ected industries usin# CNC $achines in
$ajor cities of the countr( that were "rovided b( 1*B F2o8 are a%so anne5ed with this
re"ortG.
2he detai%ed Buestionnaire was deve%o"ed and shared with the c%ientA which was fo%%owed b(
incor"oration of their feedback and necessar( chan#es bein# $ade. ' tea$ of enu$erators
was se%ectedA oriented and trained. 2hese enu$erators were se%ected fro$ the cities inc%uded
in the sa$"%e of the stud(. 2he enu$erators were Buite fa$i%iar with the %oca% industr( and
%ocation of su""%iers and co$"anies invo%ved in the i$"ort and business of CNC $achines.
Based u"on %iterature reviewA interviews with %eadin# industria%istsA and the infor$ation
#athered fro$ the res"ondentsA the data has been ana%(0ed in %i#ht of the objectives of the
stud( and the resu%ts have been su$$ari0ed with reco$$endations to the c%ient for further
action as dee$ed a""ro"riate.
2o further %ook into the "ossibi%ities of joint ventures and to #ather insi#ht fro$
nationa%Pinternationa% e5"eriences in deve%o"in# a %oca% CNC $anufacturin# sectorA u"on
advise of the c%ient the %ead consu%tantA Mr. !hah0ad 'nwarA %eft for ;er$an( to attend the
1uro"ean Internationa% Machine 2oo% 15hibition in Hanover fro$ the 1.
th
to 2+
th
of
!e"te$ber 2//, at his own cost faci%itated b( the c%ient.
2)
%. Ai"itations and Challenges
't the "%annin# and ne#otiations "hase of the stud(A the tea$ of consu%tants was unaware of
the serious %i$itation that the( wou%d face in #ettin# ho%d of secondar( data essentia% for
%iterature and desk review re%ated to different as"ects of CNC $achines in the Pakistani
industr(. It was rea%i0ed after re"eated atte$"ts and consu%tin# different institutions and
industria% concernsA that an( structured data is unavai%ab%e both at "ub%ic and "rivate sector
%eve% that cou%d assist the stud( in #ainin# an overview of CNC $achines for estab%ishin#
indicators for "roductionA i$"ortsA joint ventures for %oca% "roductionA ski%%ed $an "owerA sa%e
and service "ointsA trainin# "ro#ra$s in vocationa% centersA su""ort servicesA etc.
2his stud( is the first ever initiative taken u" in this sector within the countr( b( an(
or#ani0ationA hence no "rior secondar( data was used for this "ur"ose. 2he c%ient F1*BG
e5tended e5traordinar( su""ort to $ini$i0e this %i$itation.
On the technica% sideA the out"ut and sco"e of the stud( was Buite broadA e.#. the t("e of
$achines are not on%( differentiated b( their t("eA $ake or $ode%A but each and ever(
$achine is different to the other on each and ever( sin#%e co$"onent so #enera%i0in# down
on a sin#%e or a cou"%e of $achines for the stud( and drawin# inferences for reco$$endin#
the $ost wide%( used $achine and its co$"onents is not "ossib%e. 2his %i$itation has
severe%( %i$ited the stud( in reco$$endin# %oca% asse$b%in#P$anufacturin# of different
CNC $achines.
CNC $achines and their diversification has increased in recent (ears to such an e5tent that
co$"arin# or reco$$endin# a standardi0ed $achine based u"on its accessories and
co$"onents for asse$b%in# or $anufacturin# is difficu%t. 2his owes to the e5tensive usa#e of
CNC $achines in hi#h6tech industries %ike aeros"ace to %ow6tech co$$on fie%dwork %ike
woodworkin#.

Heav( rainfa%% and the resu%tin# f%ood6t("e situation in 9arachi de%a(ed the surve( in the
se%ected industries for a%$ost five weeks a%so. 'nother cha%%en#e the stud( faced was the
unwi%%in#ness of the different industria% concerns to "artici"ate in the surve(A the $ost
co$$on reason was $istrust in ;overn$ent6s"onsored surve(s whi%e a%so the resent$ent
towards econo$ic and socia% "o%icies of the ;overn$entA e.#. recent "o%itica% u"heava%s the
countr( has faced durin# the $onths "rior to the surve( Fjudiciar( crisisA 9arachi incident of
Ma(A and the :a% Masjid fiascoG. 2i%% date when this re"ort was bein# writtenA the
re$unerators were findin# it difficu%t to #et infor$ation fro$ the se%ected industries because
of their hesitance to share re%evant infor$ation.
1.1 C'C (achines and Pa#istani Industr.
&ith the advance$ent of "roduction %ines and the $ajor shift fro$ $anua%%( %abored to the
%atest technica%%( advanced techno%o#( across the wor%dA the Pakistani industr( has a%so to
so$e e5tent introduced these techno%o#ies. But this has on%( been %i$ited to %ar#e sca%e
$u%tinationa%s and so$e %oca% co$"anies as hi#h "ricesA %ack of awareness and do$estic
unavai%abi%it( of su""ort services have severe%( i$"acted the $ass uti%i0ation of CNC
$achines within the countr(7s industria% sector.
2+
2he #ra"hs be%ow show a stead( increase in the i$"ort of CNC $achines over the %ast four
(ears with a dec%ine in the =4 2//+6, that can be attributed to the s%owin# down of #rowth in
the econo$( because of soarin# fue% "rices and fa%%in# va%ue of Pakistani 8u"ee a#ainst the
C! *o%%ar.
It can be seen that the hori0onta% %athe $achines were i$"orted in %ar#e Buantities in the
initia% two (earsA which in the third (ear were sur"assed b( i$"ort of $achinin# centers.

2,
I"+ortant C'C (achine Tools u++liers9
'fter detai%ed interviews and discussions with CNC subject s"ecia%istsA the fo%%owin#
database was co$"i%ed as an the sources for C9* <
!.No. 1%e$ent Countr(POri#in Contacts
1. Chucks 2aiwan CHI' H18 M'CHIN184 CO.A :2*. Chun
ChihA Chen No.22.A !ec. 1A Min# !hen# 8d.A
Pu Hsin Hsian#A Chan#6Hua HsienA 2aiwanA
Phone<--+66-22-,1. sa%esRauto#ri".co$.tw
www.ch6h.co$.tw
2ai0hou 2ian(i Machine 2oo% 'ccessor( Co.A
:td. Ouchi Industr( DoneA :uo(an# 2ownA
:uBiao *istrictA 2ai0houA Dhejian#A China
Preco Machine 2oo% Co.A :td. 8M)/3A 4i shi (i
jia 2owerA +6Minjian# 8oadA Ein#daoA
!handon#A China htt"<PPwww.$ade6in6
china.co$Pshowroo$P"recotoo%s
2. Bed P
Castin#
:oca% E'*8I =OCN*84 FP?2G :2*
'ddress< !P3.6'A Mauri"ur 8oadA !I21A
9arachiA Pakistan
Phone< S.2621623)./-
=a5< S.2621623)./,
E'*C'!2 FP?2G :2*
'ddress< P%ot T 2/A !undar 8oad Ind.
1stateA !under 8aiwind 8oadA :ahoreA Pakistan
Phone< S.263216--)+)2
NCB Cor"oration FPvtG :td
Machine Manufacturin# Cnit
P%ot T 'P16B A !.I.2.1A
!u"er Hi#hwa(A!che$e 33A
P.O Bo5 1-)2/A9arachi6,)-)/A
Pakistan
2e%< F.2621G +--1-. 6.1
=a5< F.2621G +--/,22
1$ai% <askRfuji6ncb.co$
3. Carria#e
s"ind%e
2aiwan PO!' M'CHIN184 CO.A :2*. 9atherine
Chen No. 3,.A 4i !in !treetA 1astern 2aichun#
Cit(A 2aiwan "osa."osaR$sa.hinet.net
www."osa6s"ind%e.co$
. 2oo%
Chan#er
2aiwan *12' IN218N'2ION': '%en Huan# ,6)A
Dun#Bian 8d.A !hen#an# !hian#A 2aichun#
Count( 2.)2A 2aiwan a%enRdeta.co$.tw
www.deta.co$.tw
2-
). Cover or
!hroud
:oca% !abro 'ir conditioners
P%ot T ,,P,- Industria% 'rea I6. Is%a$abad
2e%< 1116---6,-+
www.sabro.co$."k

8avi 'utoP 1Bui"tech
-.)k$A !hekhu"ura 8oad
:ahoreA Pakistan
Phone<S.22,.//2/-
www.eBui"techinc.co$
+. Chi"
conve(er
2aiwan =ON;1I IN*C!284 CO.A :2*. 4un# Hun#A
Chen# 2-2A 4on#(i 8oadA 2ai"in#A 2aichun#
11A 2aiwan
fon#eR$s1/.hinet.net
www.fon#ei.co$
,. Power
!u""%(
China Chen#du ;81'2 Industria% CO.A :td Mrs.
@in#cenA :iu htt"<PP#reatcnc.en.ec"%a0a.netP
:IN;:ON; 8O'*A!HI:IN; 2O&N A1'!2
=8OM CH1N;*C CI24A CH1N;*CA
!ichuanA China +1/1/+
-. Contro%%er China Chen#du ;81'2 Industria% CO.A :td Mrs.
@in#cenA :iu htt"<PP#reatcnc.en.ec"%a0a.netP
:IN;:ON; 8O'*A!HI:IN; 2O&N A1'!2
=8OM CH1N;*C CI24A CH1N;*CA
!ichuanA China +1/1/+
.. H(drau%ic
!(ste$
2aiwanA;er$an( !'N*!CN P81CI!ION M'CHIN184 CO.A
:2*. No. ,A :ane ),A !ec. 3A Chun#6shan 8d.A
*ah6tsuenA Chan#6hwaA 2aiwan
sandsunR$s2+.hinet.net
PsandsunRseed.net.tw www.sandsun.co$.tw
1/. 2rans"orter ;er$an( !PINN18
&erk0eu#$aschinenfabrik
8udo%f6*iese%68in# 2
*6-2/) !auer%ach
;er$an(
11. !"ind%e 2aiwan 8O4': P81CI!ION 2OO:!
CO8PO8'2ION !te"hie &u +1A !hu(i 8oadA
2aichun#A /2A 2aiwan
ro(a%Rro(a%6s"ind%es.co$.tw
www.ro(a%6s"ind%es.co$.tw
12. Motors ;er$an(A ChinaA !ie$ens ;er$an(
HON1!2 !1N!O8 CO8P. 2=.A No.11,A
!in#de 8d.A !anchon# Cit(A
2ai"ei Count( 21A 2aiwan
sensor.honestR$sa.hinet.net
www.honestsensor.co$.tw
2.
2OPB'N* Motor > Contro% *ivision
P=A B B%ockA
2sin#hua Cniversit( InstituteA Hi6tech
Industria% ParkA !hen0henA ;uan#don#
China )1-/),
2e%< F-+ ,))G 2+,,)- F-+ ,))G 2+))112+
=a5< F-+ ,))G -+3+.2. P F-+ ,))G 2+))131/
13. 2oo%
Chan#in#
2aiwan *12' IN218N'2ION': '%en Huan# ,6)A
Dun#Bian 8d.A !hen#an# !hian#A 2aichun#
Count( 2.)2A 2aiwan
a%enRdeta.co$.tw www.deta.co$.tw
1. Ba%% !crew 2aiwan
BO!CH 81@8O2H CO8PO8'2ION
:IN1'8 MO2ION 'N* '!!1MB:4
21CHNO:O;I1! > :IN1'8 MO2ION
1//1 !outh :akes *rive Char%otteA NC 2-2,3
Phone< F,/G )-3633- U F-//G 3-6).-3
=a5< F,/G )-36/)23
'BB' :IN1'8 21CH CO.A :2*. Connie :ee
No. ,)A Chun#6!han 8d.A 2u6chen# %nd. ParkA
2ai"ei HsienA 2aiwan
abbaRabbatech.co$.tw
www.abbatech.co$.tw
4IN!H P81CI!ION IN*C!28I': CO.A
:2*. Nack &u No. 2+A :ane 31A Chun# 2e +
8d.A !ec. 1A 2aichun#A 2aiwan
(insh1+-R$s3+.hinet.net www.(insh.co$.tw
PO!' M'CHIN184 CO.A :2*. 9atherine
Chen No. 3,.A 4i !in !treetA 1astern 2aichun#
Cit(A 2aiwan "osa."osaR$sa.hinet.net
www."osa6s"ind%e.co$
1). Coo%ant
Pu$"
9orea &':8C! PCMP CO.A :2*. Huan# Chin#
=en# No. -361A *a"iantouA !anjhih 2ownshi"A
2ai"ei Count( 2)2A 2aiwan
wa%rus."u$"R$sa.hinet.net
www.wa%rus"u$".co$
1+. C%a$"in#
s(ste$
2aiwan 2OP 2OO: P81CI!ION 21CHNO:O;4
CO.A :2*. Hsian# 4unA Huan# No. +.-A =en#
ChouA 8d.A !henkan# 2aichun#A 2. 2aiwan
to".too%R$sa.hinet.net
www.to"too%.co$.tw
3/
1,. 8otar(
2ab%e
2aiwan 2'N!HIN; 'CCC8'21 IN*C!28I': CO.A
:2*. ;eor#e &ei No. 161A :ane 1+)A !ec. 1A
2an6!hin# 8d.A 2an620uA 2aichun#A 2aiwan
tanshin#R$s1+.hinet.net www.tanshin#.co$
1-. Pneu$atic
Co$"onents
2aiwan M'2CH:IN; 2OO:IN; CO.A :2*. No.22,A
Nhon#jhen# 8d.A *a(a 2ownshi"A 2aichun#
Count( 2-A 2aiwan
$atch%in#R$atch%in#.co$.tw
www.$atch%in#.co$.tw
1.. Contro%%ers China Chen#du ;81'2 Industria% CO.A :td Mrs.
@in#cenA :iu htt"<PP#reatcnc.en.ec"%a0a.netP
:IN;:ON; 8O'*A!HI:IN; 2O&N A1'!2
=8OM CH1N;*C CI24A CH1N;*CA
!ichuanA China +1/1/+
)2A 1st !treetA :uochon# North 8oadA
:uochon#weiA
;uan#0houA China )1/1+)
2e%< -+ 2/ -1,.+1/
=a5<-+ 2/ -1..3+-3
16$ai%< #skR#sk.co$.cn
Aocal C 'ational (odel9
It has been su##ested to se%ect the $ost e5tensive%(6used re%iab%e $achine that has the
confidence of the %oca% industr(. 2he stud( has identified K!u"er$a5L as one such $achine
that Bua%ifies fro$ the avai%ab%e "o"u%ation of CNC $achines.
Aocal 0o!nstrea" u++liers9
's far as %oca% $anufacturin# faci%ities are concernedA the stud( "ro"oses two $ain areas that
can be $anufactured initia%%( in Pakistan.
Casting9
2he heaviest "art of a CNC $achine is the castin#A which accounts for +/H of the tota%
wei#ht. B( castin# %oca%%( not on%( wi%% forei#n e5chan#e be saved but %oca% e$"%o($ent wi%%
a%so be #enerated that cou%d %ead to the future deve%o"$ent of %oca% $anufacturin# of CNC
$achines. In a standard CNC $achine there are three $ajor co$"onents that are $ade b(
castin#<
Machine Bed
Machine Co%u$n
Machine !%ide
2he wei#ht of a%% these $achine co$"onents is %ess than 2 tons and can be "roduced %oca%%(.
31
Fadri >oundr.9
's one of the %eadin# sources owin# to their e5tensive e5"erience of
$achine too%s castin# in Pakistan for the %ast 1. (earsA the( have
casted $achine too%s co$"onents for co$"anies %ike Pakistan Machine
2oo%s FPM2=G. 'n I!O certified co$"an(A the( run a heav(
en#ineerin# and $anufacturin# faci%it( incor"orated in 1.-. and have
fast "ro#ressed to beco$e the countr(Is %ar#est heav( $achinin#
faci%it(. 2heir =oundr( sho"s are eBui""ed with in6house $eta%%ur#ica%
testin# faci%ities and are eBui""ed with an arra( of %ar#e and e5tra6%ar#e $achine too%s.
!in#%e6"iece co$"onents wei#hin# u" to ,/ tons can be $achined in6house. 2he co$"an(
carries %on# (ears of e5"erience of $anufacturin# heav( "%ant and eBui"$ent for the su#arA
ce$entA stee%A che$ica% and "ower "%ants under %icense of wor%d renowned techno%o#(
"artners. 2he co$"an(Is reference %ist inc%udes $ajor "rojects at ho$e as we%% as custo$ers
%ocated in $an( countries of the wor%d. 2he co$"an( takes "ride in havin# $anufactured and
su""%ied su#arcane crushin# eBui"$ent to the wor%dIs %ar#est su#arcane crushin# "%ant in
!outh 1ast 'sia. 2he co$"an( has a%so recent%( su""%ied the %ar#est su#arcane crusher
insta%%ed within the su#ar industr( in the C!'.
'C)9
2his is another #ood a%ternative source for castin# $achine too% beds u" to 2.) tons. 2he(
have a $odern foundr( idea% for $achine too%s castin#. 2he( have CNC Machinin# Center
Bed si0es u" to five $etersA ca"ab%e of hand%in# co$"%icated "rofi%es. 2he( have CNC :athes
Precise dri%%in#A borin# and turnin# o"erationsA as we%% as Hi#h =reBuenc( !urface Hardenin#
ca"ab%e of hand%in# $achine beds of various %en#ths and widths. 2he( have Conventiona%
Machines co$"rehensive $achines setu" enab%ed to hand%e a variet( of jobs %ike ;earin#A
Hobbin#A =acin# and 2urnin#A etc.
32
heet (etal9
'nother reco$$ended area for %oca% $anufacturin# is !heet Meta% &ork. 2his is done b(
basic sheet $eta% $achines %ike Press BreakA !harin# and Punchin# "rocesses. 2here are
$an( industries in Pakistan that s"ecia%i0e in the fie%d of !heet Meta% work. 8eco$$ended
industries inc%ude<
Standard CNC Machine
abro Industries Isla"abad9
2he !abro F!. a. Brothers FPvtG :tdG is an I!O6.//1 certified 'ir6Conditionin# $anufacturin#
co$"an( based in Is%a$abadA PakistanA estab%ished in 1.+-. 2he %ate si5ties and ear%(
seventies trend of air6conditionin# cine$a bui%din#s boosted the overa%% sa%es of the air6
conditionin# industr(. Present%( !abro is $anufacturin# different t("es of s"%itsA "acka#esA
chi%%ersA air hand%in# unitsA air curtainsA hu$idifiersA dehu$idifiersA hot water #eneratorsA
ran#e of *?*s and instant water #e(sersA and e5"orts to the Midd%e 1ast and Centra% 'sian
countries. 2he( have #ood $anufacturin# and fabrication faci%itiesA with we%% eBui""ed sheet
$eta% units for sharin#A bendin#A CNC "unchin#A ro%%in#A s"ot we%din# and "aint "%ants.
@avi Auto C EGui+tech9
8avi 1n#ineerin# is a #rou" of si5 co$"anies en#a#ed in different $anufacturin# "rocesses.
Bein# an Ori#ina% 1Bui"$ent Manufacturer FO1MG to $eet their in6house de$and of
$achine too%sA the( retrofit CNC $achines. 2i%% now the( have so%d 2) units of $achines
%oca%%( deve%o"edPasse$b%ed. 2he( are now ab%e to $akePasse$b%e CNC $achines b( usin#
the bed castin#s of second6hand CNC $achines. 2he( fit Chinese contro%%er ;!9 and CNC
kit to co$"%ete a $achine. 2he( have sufficient ca"acit( to "erfor$ en#ineerin# works %ike
sheet $eta% with a #ood reBuired set of $achines.
33
Asse"bling C Testing9
Machine testin# durin# asse$b%in# is to be "erfor$ed in6house b( the $anufacturer. 2he
"rocedure for this is to use a %aser interfero$eter and than tweak the $achine b( adjustin# the
di#ita% "ara$eters of the $achine CNC contro%%er. 2he fina% Bua%ification is "erfor$ed b( the
Eua%it( 'ssurance 9it "rovided b( Mioto(o and other $easurin# instru$ents su""%iers.
Current%( there is no faci%it( in the "ub%ic sector for this kind of testin#. HoweverA it is the
res"onsibi%it( of the individua% $achine $anufacturers to satisf( their custo$ers re#ardin#
the accurac( and re"eatabi%it( of their $achines.
3
2. Heneral Anal.ses9
'na%(sis of the data #athered fro$ the $e$bers of the Pakistan 'uto Parts Manufacturers
'ssociation FP''P'MG and the surve( conducted b( !ebcon is as fo%%ows<

'bout 123 different CNC Machine 2oo%s Cser Industries were surve(ed for infor$ation
re#ardin# CNC $achine t("es that are current%( bein# used. =ro$ the surve( the fo%%owin#
have been identified as the $ain t("es of CNC $achines that are bein# used in Pakistan.
:athe Machines
Machinin# Centers
&ire Cut Machines
2urnin# Machines
Mi%%in# Machines
1*M Machines
Other Machines
' %ar#e nu$ber of industries use Mi%%in# and 2urnin# $achinesA that is about 23H and 21H
res"ective%(. 1+H of the industries use Machinin# Centers. :athe $achines have been found
to be used b( 1+H of the industries a%so. 13H of the industries use &ire6Cut Machines. 1*M
and #rindin# $achines have 3H and 2H usa#e res"ective%(. ' %ar#e "oo% of about ,H use
various other t("es of $achines.


3)
2.1 'u"ber of C'C "achines
&ac'ines ()e Numbers
Lathe Machine 93
Machining Centre 101
Wire Cut Machine 38
Turning Machine 215
Milling Machine 162
EDM Machine 8
Grinding Machine 7
Other 83
(otal 707
2he tota% nu$ber of CNC $achines in use b( the surve(ed "o"u%ation is ,/, a%to#ether. '
%ar#e "ercenta#e of this fi#ure co$"rises 2urnin# Centers 3 that is about 31H or 21) units.
Machinin# Centers $ake u" 1H or 1/1 units of the tota% nu$ber of $achines "resent. 2he
rest of the industries have units of 1*MA ;rindin#A Mi%%in#A &ire6Cut and :athe $achines
F1HA /.,HA 23HA )H and 13H 6 or -A ,A 1+2A 3- and .3 units 3 res"ective%(G.
12HA or -3 unitsA of the industries co$"rise of various different kinds of CNC $achines.
2hese various kinds of CNC $achines inc%ude the fo%%owin#<
*ri%%in#
Cuttin# 2ab%e
*oub%e ;%a0in# :ine
Co$"uteri0ed 2e$"erin# P%ant
CMM
15trusion
Pi"e Bendin#
Injection Mo%din# > 8ubber Machines
*ri%%in# > 2a"in# Centers
9nittin#
3+
2.2 Additional Infor"ation
=ro$ the surve( of the CNC $achinesA the fo%%owin# infor$ation was a%so obtained
re#ardin# CNC $achines.
-,H of the $achines are fro$ the %ist #iven aboveA whereas 13H of the $achines are not
s"ecified as the industries did not "rovide infor$ation re#ardin# the nature or t("e of these
$achinesA on%( #ivin# the nu$ber of $achines the( have instead.

8e#ardin# the nu$ber of a5es of various $achinesA the fo%%owin# infor$ation was inter"reted
fro$ the data #athered<
:athe Machines< 263 '5es
Machinin# Centers< 26) '5es
&ire6Cut Machines< 26 '5es
2urnin# Machines< 26 '5es
Mi%%in# Machines< 26 '5es
1*M Machines< 3 '5es
)H of the industr( has bou#ht CNC $achines that wou%d be o"erationa% within a $onth or so.
2he $achines "urchased are fro$ the Mi%%in# and &ire6Cut CNC $achines cate#ories.
3,
3. >ield urve. 0ata
2ab%e No. 1
1 'u"ber of Guestionnaires )/
2 Cities visited a"+le si6e
a 9arachi ,
b Is%a$abad
c :ahore 11
d ;ujranwa%a )
e Peshawar 2
f &ah Cantt .
# 8awa%"indi 2
h Hattar 1
i ;ujrat ,
j Hassanabda% 1
k 2a5i%a 1
4. Anal.sis
4.1 >eedbac# fro" intervie!s
2hrou#h different sessions with %eadin# industria%ists and $e$bers of the task force it was
evident that Pakistan has a #reat "otentia% for CNC $achines "resent%( and the increase in
de$and is "rojected to be $anifo%dA which wou%d $ake business sense in investin# in the
deve%o"$ent of CNC $achines %oca%%(A either throu#h retrofittin# or asse$b%( F!9* > C9*G
with a $i5 of i$"orted and %oca%%( $anufactured "arts. 2here was an a""rehension that this
bein# re%ative%( a new fie%dA !tate su""ort and s"onsorshi" b( %eadin# co$$ercia%
or#ani0ations wou%d be crucia% for encoura#in# and sustainin# such ventures.
2he res"onse was $i5ed as to whether i$"ort of used CNC $achines "ositive%( affected the
cost and efficienc( of "roduction within the en#ineerin# sector in Pakistan. *ee$in# it as an
eas( wa( out in the short ter$ with %ow cost $achines avai%ab%e and bein# heavi%( re%ied
u"on within the %oca% industr(A it was be%ieved that soon it wou%d %ose ed#e when the a%read(
out6dated $achines %ose their effectiveness and uti%it(. 2his has been detri$enta% for %on#
ter$ #rowthA sustainabi%it( and se%f6re%iance of the $anufacturin# industr(. 2he "ane% was of
the view that with a hi#her start6u" cost and s%ow returns of invest$ent in deve%o"in# %oca%
CNC $achinesA the business co$$unit( and %ack of institutiona% su""ort have not
encoura#ed "otentia% investors to venture into such innovative deve%o"$ent initiatives.
&ith the #%oba% $arket beco$in# $ore and $ore co$"etitive throu#h econo$ies of sca%e and
%ow costs of "roductionA the countr(7s $anufacturin# industr( wou%d face i$$ense
co$"etition and intrusion in retainin# its e5istin# internationa% $arketA set aside increasin# its
share and e5"%orin# new $arketsA if the( hesitate in deve%o"in# %oca% CNC $achines. In this
a#e of techno%o#ica% deve%o"$ent and intense $echani0ation of "roduction %inesA re%iance on
$anua% %abor or obso%ete wa(s of "roduction wou%d %ead to the end "roduct bein# cost%( and
of %ow Bua%it( thus $akin# it i$"ossib%e to co$"ete nationa%%( and internationa%%(.
3-
4.2 Industrial surve. findings
Based u"on the fie%d surve( throu#h structured interviews and "re6set BuestionsA it was found
that the $ost "o"u%ar brand of $achines bein# used within the industr( are $ade in ChinaA
with %athe and $i%%in# $achines havin# the %ar#est "o"u%ation a$on# the fa$i%( of CNC
$achines in use in the Pakistani industries. 2he t("eA $ode%sA contro%%ers usedA and other
#enera% s"ecifications of CNC $achines used in the surve(ed industria% concerns is "rovided
in 2ab%e 2 F'nne5 I?G
3.
2ab%e No. 2
.'o T.+e = (a#e Controller (odels +ecification
1 2urnin#
Machine
2+ Na"an
2urke(
China
;er$an(
1n#%and
!INCM18I9
!I1M1N!
='NCC
9N*
'N:'M
!INCM18I9 ,1/t
N:=C:D9 )//A N'=CA !chaub%in 12-6cnc
?NC62/A 922A 2C6+)A N:=CID93+/A 2B6-
N1= ,1/A N:=C:D9 )//A ND=:3=28A
N1= ,1/?A 1N;:'N*A N'=CA
;18M'N4A Churchi%%A =!;A !;:CA
=a%con
2wo and three a5is
*ia$eter 2// 3 ,)/ $$
&orkin# %en#th 3// 3 2/// $$
'ir "ressure 2 to + bar
=%oor reBuire$ent 2/ 3 1// sBft
2 Mi%%in#
Machine
Na"an
;er$an(
M1:*'! +$
='NCC
!INCM18I9 -1/$
M@P 2//1
!I1M1N!
!ie$ens 21 6 =CA 9I&'A MI2!CBI!HI
Ma563 +$A 4MCA C&=-)/A C&=-)1
Hart =ordA !u"er Ma5A Hard =ord Pro61///s
C&=-)1A 2NC 1)A =P)NCA 1+//MA
=anucA 'jar INank+//A 4CM I?OV?1+
Hart =ord 4I1+329-A Hart =ord ?ertica%
'N?MCA '2?MC 6-//A 'N'@
2hree and four a5is
Cuttin# rate 2// 3 3/// $$P$in
'ir "ressure 1.) 3 1/ bar
=%oor reBuire$ent ) 3 1// sBft
3 &ire Cut
Machine
1. China
2aiwan
;rindin#
Machine
1 ;er$an(
!wit0er%an
d
) 1*M 3 6 2hree a5is
Cuttin# rate 1)$$P$inute
+ Other
CNC
Machines
+ 'ustria
9orea
CM26-/ 2wo and three a5is
&orkin# %en#th 3// 3 2/// $$
'ir "ressure + bar
=%oor reBuire$ent 2/ 3 1// sBft
/
=ro$ the data #athered it is evident that after the 1../sA the CNC industr( has #rown b(
a""ro5i$ate%( /H since inde"endence.
CNC $achines are used both within #overn$ent and "rivate sector industries. =ro$ the data
"oo% #athered 22H of the $achines used in the #overn$ent6run institutions "erfor$ various
functions fro$ defense6re%ated "rojects to trainin# and ski%% deve%o"$entA whereas the rest of
the ,-H are "rivate "%a(ers $ost%( into "roduction of various "roducts.
' t("ica% industr( e$"%o(s on avera#e 1,) e$"%o(eesA #eneratin# a $assive job $arket for
ski%%ed and se$i6ski%%ed "ersonne% o"eratin# and $aintainin# different CNC $achines. 2he
statistics show that the avera#e nu$ber of e$"%o(ees direct%( re%ated to CNC $achines are at
an avera#e of 11. 2he t("ica% Bua%ifications of the "ersonne% and $an"ower workin# in the
CNC industr( are MatricA Inter$ediate and *'1 in either $echanica% or e%ectrica% ski%%s. 2he
$an"ower on avera#e has an e5"erience of +W (ears of o"eratin# the $achines. 2here were
rare instances where an en#ineerA an MB' or BB' was direct%( su"ervisin# a CNC faci%it(.
'%% the "ersonne% under#o two kinds of in6house courses and trainin#s<
Basic
'dvanced
Basic trainin# dea%s with "ro#ra$$in# and o"eratin# the $achinesA whereas advanced
courses are of C'* and C'M software and other troub%e6shootin# techniBue courses re%ated
to $aintenance and o"erationa% functions of these $achines.
1
2here are on avera#e two $achines "er industr(. 2he cost of $achines in an industr( is on
avera#e 8s.,.)2 $i%%ion. 2he avera#e cost "er $achine is 8s.3.) $i%%ion.
2he sources of "urchase inc%ude ChinaA C9A !wit0er%andA ;er$an(A Na"anA 2aiwanA !wedenA
C0echos%ovakia and Ita%(. 2he resu%ts of the surve( indicate that the fo%%owin# CNC $achines
are in use current%(<
2urnin# Machines
Mi%%in# Machines
&ire6Cut Machines
1*M Machines
;rindin# Machines
Others
=ro$ the above %ist CNC 2urnin# and Mi%%in# $achines were found to be used the $ost with
a "ercenta#e of 2+H and H res"ective%(. 2he "ercenta#e for &ire6Cut was found to be
1.HA and that of 1*M and ;rindin# 1H and 3H res"ective%(. Other $achines that were
found were for e5trusion etcA whose usa#e of which was around +H. 2his indicates that the
$a5i$u$ uti%it( of $achines in the CNC industr( was that of 2urnin# and Mi%%in# $achines.
2he surve( a%so hi#h%i#hted the fo%%owin# "roducts and services as bein# catered for b( CNC
$achines in industries<
*(es > Mou%ds
2rainin# of Personne% for Nobs
Heav( Machiner( Parts FnutsA bo%tsA etc.G
'eronautica% Parts
2oo%s and !"ares
Pu$"s > 'u5i%iar( 1Bui"$ent
'uto$otive Parts
Ho$e '""%iance Parts > 'u5i%iaries
2
2he "ercenta#es of "roduction of each "roduct are as fo%%ows<
*(es > Mou%ds< 22H
2rainin# of Personne% for Nobs< H
Heav( Machiner( Parts< 1/H
'eronautica% Parts< H
2oo%s and !"ares< 1H
Pu$"s > 'u5i%iar( 1Bui"$ent< 12H
'uto$otive Parts< 2/H
Ho$e '""%iance Parts > 'u5i%iaries<1H
' %ar#e nu$ber of "roducts "roduced b( the CNC6based industries are re%ated to d(es >
$ou%dsA s"are "arts and au5i%iar( eBui"$ent. F'nne5 IIG
3
4.& Proble"s >aced b. the Industr. and Possible olution
F'nne5 6 IG
9.3.1 Problems with Information on CNC Machines
3.H of the industr( res"ondents said the( had no infor$ation about the CNC $achines the(
were usin#A whereas 2H said the( did have infor$ation about the $achines. 12H of the
res"ondents had consu%tants and su""%iers for infor$ation "ur"osesA whereas 22H used the
%iterature and $anua%s that ca$e with the $achinesA and the internet for infor$ation. +H
didn7t re"%( to the Buestion.
9.3.2 Problems with the Import Process of CNC machines
32H of the res"ondents were not aware about the i$"ort "rocess for CNC $achinesA whi%e
1H had so$e know%ed#e. 1/H used consu%tants or su""%iers for this "ur"oseA whereas 2H
did not answer the Buestion. 2/H of the res"ondents #ave irre%evant re"%ies to the Buestion.

9.3.3 Problems with Repair/Maintenance of CNC Machines


32H of the res"ondents carried out in6house $aintenance and re"airsA whi%e a %ar#e "oo% 3
2H 3 outsourced this work to either the su""%ierPvendorA consu%tant or $aintenance
co$"an(. -H did the $aintenance either the$se%ves or b( outsourcin#. 12H didn7t re"%( to
the Buer(. +H said the( had not carried out an( $aintenance at a%% thus far.
9.3.4 Problems with Aailabilit! of "pare Parts
2/H of the res"onded with a XNo7 on the Buestion of avai%abi%it( of s"are "arts as the( did not
kee" an( inventor(. 2H used su""%iers or consu%tants for this "ur"ose. 12H "urchased the
s"are "arts fro$ O1M. 2-H didn7t re"%( whereas 1H of res"onded with a X4es7 that the(
ke"t an inventor( and s"are "arts. 2H of the res"onses were irre%evant.
)
9.3.# Problems with $ailore% "oftware
H of those surve(ed said no the( did not have an( tai%ored softwareA whi%e 1+H said the(
had their own custo$6$ade software. H said the( had consu%tants for the jobA whi%e 2H said
the( i$"orted the software whenever it was reBuired. 32H didn7t re"%( to the Buestion
whereas 2H #ave irre%evant re"%ies.
9.3.& Problems with 'irin( $echnical People
/H of those surve(ed said the( hired technica% staff and that the( used testsA interviews and
22Cs for inte%%ectua% ca"ita%. 1-H said the( did not hire technica% staffA whi%e +H hired
ski%%ed %abor throu#h consu%tants. 1+H of the industr( hired staff on a when6and6if reBuired
basis. 1+H didn7t re"%( to the BuestionA whi%e H #ave irre%evant re"%ies.
+
4., Additional Infor"ation
9.4.1 Pro%)ction "tatistics
8e#ardin# the sources for "roduction $ateria%A 2H of those surve(ed bou#ht the $ateria%
co$"%ete%( fro$ the %oca% $arketA whi%e a $assive )/H bou#ht it %oca%%( as we%% as i$"ortin#
it. =or 1/H the $ateria% was "rovided b( the c%ientsA whi%e 2H of the industria%ists usin#
woodsA "%asticA etc.A a%so acBuired $ateria% for "roduction %oca%%(. H of those surve(ed did
not #ive an( answer.
)/H of the industries surve(ed used M.!.A !.!.A Co""er or MicaO 12H used 8ods and Pi#
IronO 1/H used $ateria%s "rovided b( the c%ientO 2H worked on woods and "%asticsA and H
either did not understand the Buestion or did not re"%(.
,
4./ >uture >orecast for C'C (achines
2he industr( was surve(ed for "otentia% trends in the "urchase of CNCs in the near future.
2he resu%ts of the surve( are be%ow.
=ro$ the sa$"%e surve(edA )H of the res"ondents said the( did not intend to "urchase an(
kind of CNC $achine in the near futureA whereas 32H said (es the( did have future "%ans to
"urchase CNC $achines. 1H did not #ive an( answer.
2he fo%%owin# are statistics of so$e of the near6future "urchases of CNC $achines as
identified b( the sa$"%e surve(ed<
1. 1 industr( intends to "urchase a CNC $achine fro$ 2aiwan costin# a""ro5i$ate%(
8s.,.) $i%%ion
2. 1 &ater6Net CNC of Chinese $ake costin# a""ro5i$ate%( 8s.3.) $i%%ion
3. 1/ :athe Machines
. 1 Machinin# Centre Machine
). 1 &ire6Cut Machine
+. 1;rindin# Machine
,. 3 Mi%%in# Machines
-. 2 CNC Machines Ft("es were not se%ected as (etG
.. 3 Machines b( *aewoo
-
15. @esults I @eco""endations
's was stated ear%ier that other than the %i$itations of the stud( itse%fA the fie%d of CNC
$achines was so hi#h%( technica% and vastA for Pakistan to at %east be ab%e to $eet a fraction
of its de$and for CNC $achines throu#h %oca% "roductionA it wou%d reBuire a s%ow and
ca"ita% intensive initiative. 2his too wou%d not be "ossib%e without a consistent "o%ic(A su""ort
and "rotection for the initia% (ears. Over the "ast cou"%e of decades the use of CNC $achines
has $oved into sectors that were traditiona%%( re%(in# on $anua% %abor or outdated for$s of
"roduction. 2he use of these $achines has s"read fro$ the hi#h6tech aeros"ace industr( to
the once considered %ow6tech industr( of furniture $anufacturin#. &ith increased
#%oba%i0ation and abo%ish$ent of BuotasA "rotection and i$"ort tariffsA for an under6deve%o"ed
countr( %ike Pakistan it is i$"ortant to "ro$ote se%f6re%iance and save "recious forei#n
e5chan#e reserves b( heavi%( investin# in "ro$otin# %oca% $anufacturin# and asse$b%( of
CNC $achines.
&ith this viewA the stron# and weak as"ects of this $achine too% industr( are su$$ari0ed as
fo%%ows<
15.1 trong As+ects
2here is "otentia% de$and in the $arket
Cost of %abor is co$"arative%( %ow
'wareness of "roduction $achines in the unor#ani0ed !M1 sector is hi#h
!ki%% reBuire$ents for CNC $achines are eas( as co$"ared to conventiona% $achines
Because Pakistan is ver( accessib%e to a nu$ber of $arkets due to its #eo6"o%itica%
situationA it is we%%6"ositioned to ta" into "otentia% $arkets abroad
15.2 -ea# As+ects
Bad%( affected socio6econo$ic situation and uncertaint( for over a (ear
In"ut costs are hi#her co$"ared to co$"etitor countries %ike China
*o$estic industr( has not been ab%e to deve%o" itse%f
Insufficient ca"acit( of the "roduction $eta%6cuttin# $achines
8esearch and *eve%o"$ent studies and techno%o#ica% invest$ents are inca"ab%e
Hi#h "roduction costs
B(6"roduct industr( has not been ab%e to deve%o"
InadeBuate $arketin# and %ack of introductor( studies Fforei#n e5hibitionsG
In %i#ht of the aboveA b( takin# stock of the "resent scenario and future sco"e of the CNC
$achines $arket in PakistanA the fo%%owin# is reco$$ended<
' 2ri"od consortiu$ consistin# of 1*BA a "ro$isin# "rivate industr(P'uto O1Ms
with future de$andA and :oca% Machine 2oo%s Manufacturers cou%d be deve%o"ed as a
$ode% for su""ortin# evo%ution of $achine too%s in Pakistan.
1*B shou%d take u" a %eadin# ro%e in su""ortin#A "ro$otin# and deve%o"in# the
asse$b%(P$anufacturin# of CNC $achines. 2his wou%d invo%ve "o%ic( deve%o"$ent
.
that wou%d create an enab%in# environ$ent for the %oca% CNC $achine industr( to
f%ourishA as we%% as "rovidin# of infor$ation and technica% advice to "otentia%
investors.
2he ;overn$ent of Pakistan needs to encoura#e Ori#ina% 1Bui"$ent Manufacturers
FO1MsG to increase de%etion of auto6"arts in PakistanA thus "ro$otin# a $achinin#
cu%ture resu%tin# in the increase in de$and for CNC $achines.
' Machine 2oo%s *eve%o"$ent !che$e cou%d be initiated b( the ;overn$ent with
financia% institutions bein# encoura#ed to e5tend financin# faci%ities to those
interested on %ow $ark6u" rates %ike 2H.
In"ut costs %ike raw $ateria%s and e%ectricit( shou%d be subsidi0ed for the $achine
too%s deve%o"$ent industr(.
2he ;overn$ent of Pakistan needs to "rovide incentivesA subsidies and "rotection for
this sector to #row and f%ourish.
2he "ub%ic sector a%on# with $u%tinationa%s and %oca% #rou"s need to a%%ocate a certain
"ercenta#e of their bud#et and earnin#s for "ro$otin# and assistin# research and
deve%o"$ent F8>*G on deve%o"in# the %oca% $anufacturin# of CNCs.
2o reva$" the trainin# curricu%u$ of different trainin# institutes and brin# the$ u" to
internationa% standards for the trainin# of ski%%ed workers and trainersA $ost of the
trainin# shou%d be in the for$ of On6Nob 2rainin# FON2G to brid#e the #a" between
trainin# "roviders and the industr(.
'uto$ation of o%d $achines that do not increase efficienc( shou%d be encoura#ed but
throu#h de$onstrationA which wou%d a%so .%ead to future new e5"eri$entation and
asse$b%in# P $anufacturin# of CNC $achines
!"ecia% %oan "roducts need to be introduced b( financia% institutions for initiatives
taken u" in this sector.
In co%%aboration with the Hi#her 1ducation Co$$ission and the %oca% industr(A a
ta%ent hunt sche$e shou%d be initiated that cou%d identif( "otentia% students and ski%%ed
workers whose technica% education cou%d be s"onsored and who cou%d a%so be #iven
short "rofessiona% courses.
'""ro"riate "o%icies and ta5 re#i$es need to be introduced to #radua%%( ban or
discoura#e the i$"ort of used CNC $achinesA as and when the %oca% CNC $achines
$anufacturin# industr( #ears u".
2here is a need to identif( and "ro$ote the %oca% co$"onents $arket b( settin# it u"
on a scientific basis.
' cu%ture of know%ed#e $ana#e$ent needs to be "ro$oted with e5"osure visits for
the industr( "eo"%e invo%ved in the %oca% use and $anufacturin# of CNC $achines.
2he historica% #rowth of CNC $achines in si$i%ar countries needs to be studied and
%essons %earned fro$ their e5"eriencesA e.#. 2urke( and India.
Partnershi"s with $achine too%s $anufacturers abroad need to be fostered and joint
ventures for$ed on deve%o"in# $anufacturin# of the %oca% CNC $achines.
)/