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‫שָׁ ָנה ְבּשָׁ ָנה בַּ ְתּ ַנ"ְך‬

Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

A year-by-year analysis

of all the principal events

recorded in the Hebrew Scriptures

‫ציון וד"ר בצלאל ברזילאי‬-‫פרופ' מרדכי בן‬

‫ירושלים עיר הקודש‬

‫תשס"ח וחמשת אלפים לבה"ע‬


Chronology of the Hebrew Bible i

INTRODUCTORY NOTES

T HE HEBREW SCRIPTURES document approximately the first three and a half millennia of the
Hebrew nation’s history, from the origins of our earliest ancestors up to a point a little after the
return from the Babylonian exile. About two-thirds of this period is covered by the first book of
the twenty-four Books that comprise the Scriptures, which is called in Hebrew by its opening word
B'réshit ("At the start of...")—but which the christian World calls "Genesis".

3,338 years elapsed from the creation of the first man to the destruction of the First Temple by the
Babylonians in the summer of 586BCE; according to Hebrewer tradition the "Adam" was "created" on
Rosh Hashanah, so this places his "creation" in the autumn of 3925BCE. The 3,338 years are made up as
follows:

From the creation of the Adam to the birth of No'ah........... 1,056 years (B'réshit 5:3-29)
From the birth of No'ah to the Flood................................... 600 years (B'réshit 7:6, 7:11)
From the Flood to the birth of Avram (Avraham) ............... 292 years (B'réshit 11:10-27)
From the birth of Avram to the birth of Yitz'hak ................. 100 years (B'réshit 21:5)
From the birth of Yitz'hak to the Exodus............................. 400 years (B'réshit 15:13, see below)
From the Exodus to the building of the First Temple ......... 480 years (M'lachim Alef 6:1)
From the building of the First Temple to its destruction..... 410 years (see below)
3,338 years

Two items in the above list require explanation—the figures of 400 years "from the birth of Yitz'hak to
the Exodus" and 410 years "from the building of the First Temple to its destruction". The first of these is
derived from the verse cited above (B'réshit 15:13), which reads:

…then He said to Avram, "Know with certainty that your zera will be strangers in lands that will not be their
own for 400 years, and they will serve them and they will persecute them".

On a literal reading of this verse, it appears that God was warning Avram that his zera ("seed") were
going to be enslaved in Egypt for 400 years. But it can't really mean that, because when Ya'akov first
migrated to Egypt to join Yosef, Lévi’s son K'hat was one of his grandchildren who went with him
(B'réshit 46:11). Now, K'hat lived for 133 years (Sh'mot 6:18), his son Amram (who was Mosheh’s
father) lived to be 137 years old (Sh'mot 6:20), and Mosheh was 80 years of age at the time of the
Exodus (Sh'mot 7:7); so the combined lifetimes of K'hat and Amram, and the 80 years Mosheh lived
before the Exodus, together only amount to 350 years—and the years that K'hat lived before Ya'akov’s
migration to Egypt and after Amram was born, and those that Amram lived after Mosheh was born, all
have to be deducted from these 350 years to find the total time that the Hebrews actually lived in Egypt;
and moreover, the enslavement of the Hebrews didn't begin until after Yosef and all his brothers had died
(see Sh'mot 1:6-11). What the verse actually says is that the Hebrews were going to "live as strangers in
lands that were not their own" for 400 years (and there is no specific mention of Egypt at all), and that
during that time (but not necessarily for all of it) they would be enslaved and persecuted.

B'réshit 15:13 does not specify when the "400 years" of "living as strangers" were to begin; but it is
reasonable to assume that they would start as soon as Avram actually had any zera. God made references
to Avram’s "zera" many times both before and after this incident—B'réshit 13:16, 15:5, 15:13, 17:7,
17:10, 22:17-18—and B'réshit 21:12 specifies exactly what He meant by this word: "…[your
descendants] through Yitz'hak will be considered your zera…". Moreover, Scripture repeatedly speaks
ii Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

of Avraham and all his family "living as strangers" (christian versions use the archaism sojourning)
starting from the moment Yitz'hak was born—for example…

(i) immediately after Yitz'hak’s birth, it says: "Avraham lived as a stranger [or 'sojourned']
for many years in the land of the P'lishtians" (B'réshit 21:34);
(ii) Yitz'hak was told: "Live as a stranger [or 'Sojourn'] in this land…" (B'réshit 26:3);
(iii) T'hillim 105:23 says poetically: "…Ya'akov lived as a stranger [or 'sojourned'] in the
land of Ham"—Egypt is identified with Ham because Mitzrayim was one of the sons of
No'ah’s youngest son, Ham (B'réshit 10:6) and Mitzrayim is also the Hebrew name for
Egypt;
(iv) On their arrival in Egypt, Ya'akov’s sons told the Pharaoh "We have come to live as
strangers [or 'to sojourn'] in your land…" (B'réshit 47:4); and
(v) when the Pharaoh asked Ya'akov how old he was, the patriarch described the whole of
his life as m'gurai—literally, "my time of living as a stranger" [or "my soujourn"]
(B'réshit 47:8-9).

The inference drawn from this is that there were to be 400 years from the birth of Yitz'hak to the Exodus,
and note the way I have translated B'réshit 15:13 above, which is subtly different from the way it is
rendered in christian "versions".

The other item that requires explanation is the figure of 410 years "from the building of the First Temple
to its destruction". This is recorded in the Talmud (Treatise Yoma, folio 9a), and can also be derived
from the Scriptures by a detailed analysis of the Books of M'lachim and Divrei Hayamim (with
occasional references to various other Biblical Books); I shall demonstrate this in the coming pages, but
I begin with an examination of the earlier periods.

B'RÉSHIT opens with a description of God’s "Creation" of the Heavens and the Earth, which is said to
have been accomplished in six "Ages" (Hebrew yamim), each of unspecified duration. The "Creation"
culminates in the appearance of the first human beings, and the first ten generations of one specific
individual, whose name is given as "Adam" in B'réshit 5:1-3, are listed in B'réshit 5:3-32 (note that the
Hebrew verb vayoled is virtually impossible to render precisely in English and so I have translated it as
"[he] gave birth to...", despite the logical absurdity of that in English):

Adam lived 130 years and then gave birth to… Shet; and Adam lived 800 years after he gave birth to Shet…
making a total of 930 years, and then he died.
Shet lived 105 years and then gave birth to Enosh; and Shet lived 807 years after he gave birth to Enosh…
making a total of 912 years, and then he died.
Enosh lived 90 years and then gave birth to Keinan; and Enosh lived 815 years after he gave birth to Keinan…
making a total of 905 years, and then he died.
Keinan lived 70 years and then gave birth to Mahalal'el; and Keinan lived 840 years after he gave birth to
Mahalal'el… making a total of 910 years, and then he died.
Mahalal'el lived 65 years and then gave birth to Yered; and Mahalal'el lived 830 years after he gave birth to
Yered… making a total of 895 years, and then he died.
Yered lived 162 years and then gave birth to Hanoch; and Yered lived 800 years after he gave birth to
Hanoch… making a total of 962 years, and then he died.
Hanoch lived 65 years and then gave birth to M'tushelah; and Hanoch "walked with God" for 300 years after
he gave birth to M'tushelah… making a total of 365 years, and then "he was no more", because God had
taken him.
M'tushelah lived 187 years and then gave birth to Lemech; and M'tushelah lived 782 years after he gave birth
to Lemech… making a total of 969 years, and then he died.
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible iii

Lemech lived 182 years and then gave birth to… No'ah; and Lemech lived 595 years after he gave birth to
No'ah… making a total of 777 years, and then he died.
No'ah lived 500 years, and then he gave birth to Shem, and Ham, and Yefet… (B'réshit 5:3-32)

Reckoning from the "Creation of Adam" in Year Zero, it is now a simple matter to calculate that…

Adam died in the year 930 (2995/94BCE);


Shet was born in 130 (3795/94BCE) and died in 1042 (2883/82BCE);
Enosh was born in 235 (3690/89BCE) and died in 1140 (2785/84BCE);
Keinan was born in 325 (3600/3599BCE) and died in 1235 (2690/89BCE);
Mahalal'el was born in 395 (3530/29BCE) and died in 1290 (2635/34BCE);
Yered was born in 460 (3465/64BCE) and died in 1422 (2503/02BCE);
Hanoch was born in 622 (3303/02BCE) and "was no more because God had taken him" in 987 (2938/37BCE);
M'tushelah was born in 687 (3238/37BCE) and died in 1656 (2269/68BCE);
Lemech was born in 874 (3051/50BCE) and died in 1651 (2274/73BCE);
No'ah was born in 1056 (2869/68BCE); and
the oldest of No'ah’s three sons was born in 1556 (2369/68BCE).

But which of the three was the oldest? Certainly not Ham, who is referred to explicitly as being No'ah’s
"youngest" son in B'réshit 9:24. This leaves Shem and Yefet (and also forces the conclusion that the sons
are not being named in age-order in B'réshit 5:32 and 6:10, or in Divrei Hayamim Alef 1:4). So was
Shem the oldest of the three brothers, or was it Yefet? B'réshit 10:21 says

[Children] were also born to Shem—[he was] the ancestor of all Éver’s children…

but unfortunately the final phrase of the verse (ahi yefet hagadol) is ambiguous—it could mean EITHER
"…Yefet the Elder’s brother" OR "…Yefet’s older brother". The ambiguity is resolved by B'réshit 11:10

"…Shem was 100 years old when he gave birth to Arpach'shad, which was two years after the Flood".

This means that Shem was born 98 years before the Flood in 1558 (2367/66BCE), and hence two years
after Yefet, who was therefore the first son to be born, in 1556 (2369/68BCE), and was thus the oldest of
the three brothers.

The Flood began on "the 17th day of the 2nd month in the 600th year of No'ah’s life" (B'réshit 7:11) and
ended on "the 27th day of the 2nd month" (B'réshit 8:14) "in his 601st year" (B'réshit 8:13)—i.e. it
began in 1656 (2369/68BCE) and ended in 1657 (2368/67BCE), respectively. The total duration of the
whole event, based on these dates, was therefore a full "calendar" year, plus an additional eleven days.
That may not seem very significant at first sight, but it should be remembered that a "calendar" year in
Biblical terms means 12 lunar months, or 354 days (because the average length of a lunar month is
roughly 29½ days). Thus the whole of the Flood event, based on the dates given in B'réshit, amounted to
365 days—an exact solar year.

No'ah lived 350 years after [the beginning of] the Flood (B'réshit 9:28), and died at the age of 950
(B'réshit 9:29)—in the year 2006.

The next ten generations of Adam’s descendants are listed in B'réshit 11:10-32:

Shem was 100 years old when he gave birth to Arpach'shad, two years after the Flood; and Shem lived 500
years after he gave birth to Arpach'shad…
iv Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Arpach'shad lived 35 years and then gave birth to Shelah; and Arpach'shad lived 403 years after he gave birth
to Shelah…
Shelah lived 30 years and then gave birth to Éver; and Shelah lived 403 years after he gave birth to Éver…
Éver lived 34 years and then gave birth to Peleg; and Éver lived 430 years after he gave birth to Peleg…
Peleg lived 30 years and then gave birth to R'u; and Peleg lived 209 years after he gave birth to R'u…
R'u lived 32 years and then gave birth to S'rug; and R'u lived 207 years after he gave birth to S'rug…
S'rug lived 30 years and then gave birth to Nahor; and S'rug lived 200 years after he gave birth to Nahor…
Nahor lived 29 years and then gave birth to Terah; and Nahor lived 119 years after he gave birth to Terah…
Terah lived 70 years and then gave birth to Avram, Nahor and Haran…
Now these are Terah’s descendants: Terah gave birth to Avram, and Nahor, and Haran; and Haran gave birth
to Lot—but Haran died during his father Terah’s lifetime in the land of his birth, in Ur of the Chaldæans. Then
Avram and Nahor both married: Avram’s wife was called Sarai and Nahor’s wife was called Milkah daughter
of Haran—[he was] the father of both Milkah and Yiskah…
Terah took his son Avram, his grandson Lot (son of his son Haran) and his daughter-in-law Sarai—his son
Avram’s wife—and he set out with them from Ur of the Chaldæans [intending] to go to the land of K'na'an;
but they [only] got as far as Haran, and settled there. Terah lived for a total of 205 years—Terah died in
Haran.

A little more simple arithmetic reveals that

No'ah died in the year 2006 (1919/18BCE);


Shem was born in 1558 (2367/66BCE) and died in 2158 (1767/66BCE);
Arpach'shad was born in 1658 (2267/66BCE) and died in 2096 (1829/28BCE);
Shelah was born in 1693 (2232/31BCE) and died in 2126 (1799/98BCE);
Éver was born in 1723 (2202/01BCE) and died in 2187 (1738/37BCE);
Peleg was born in 1757 (2168/67BCE) and died in 1996 (1929/28BCE);
R'u was born in 1787 (2138/37BCE) and died in 2026 (1899/98BCE);
S'rug was born in 1819 (2106/05BCE) and died in 2049 (1876/75BCE);
Nahor was born in 1849 (2076/75BCE) and died in 1997 (1928/27BCE);
Terah was born in 1878 (2047/46BCE) and died in 2083 (1842/41BCE); and
Avram was born in 1948 (1977/76BCE).

Note that "Éver" (Shem’s great-grandson and Avram’s great-great-great-great-grandfather) was


the true ancestor of the "Hebrew" nation; the Hebrew word ivri (a "Hebrew") actually means
"descendant of Éver". In fact, "Eberite" would be a more appropriate translation, but the
translators of the earliest extant christian Greek version, made in the early-4th century CE,
rendered this word εβραιος (evraios) and Jerome (who translated the Greek version into Latin—
the "Vulgatus"—at the end of the 4th century CE) used the Latin letter B to transliterate the
Greek letter β (beta) irrespective of pronunciation (the Greek letter beta, like the Hebrew letter
bet, can be pronounced either like B or like V, depending on the grammatical context). It was
Jerome who coined the pseudo-Latin word Hebraeus, from which the English word "Hebrew" is
derived.

A quick word about Sarai, Avram’s wife: B'réshit 11:29 reads…

Avram and Nahor both got married: Avram’s wife was called Sarai and Nahor’s wife was called Milkah
daughter of Haran—[he was] the father of both Milkah and Yiskah.

But who on Earth was "Yiskah"? This name is not found anywhere else in the Scriptures; and there
seems to be no reason to mention her here; unless Sarai was also known by this name, in which case the
verse is simply saying "Haran was the father of both Milkah and Sarai".
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible v

Yitz'hak was born in 2048 (1877/76BCE), when Avraham was 100 years old (B'réshit 21:5). Chapters 22
and 23 of B'réshit form a continuous narrative dealing with with three events, which all occurred at
about the same time: (i) God testing Avraham’s faith by asking him to sacrifice Yitz'hak; (ii) the birth of
Rivkah (who was destined to be Yitz'hak’s wife); and (iii) Sarah’s death. Now, Sarah was 10 years
younger than Avraham (B'réshit 17:17), so she was born in 1958 (1967/66BCE); and she died at the age
of 127 (B'réshit 23:1), therefore, these three events all took place in 2085 (1840/39BCE). Consequently,
Yitz'hak was 37 years old when Avraham was told to sacrifice him and, as he was 40 when he married
Rivkah (B'réshit 25:20)—in 2088 (1837/36BCE)—it follows that she was a 3-year-old child-bride!
Clearly, though, he did not begin to sleep with her until she reached maturity (which in Hebrew law is at
the age of 12 for a girl), i.e. in 2097 (1828/27BCE), because it was not until 2107 (1818/17BCE), when
ten years had passed from then without her becoming pregnant, that he deemed her infertile and resorted
to prayer on that account (B'réshit 25:21); Rivkah then became pregnant and gave birth to the twins
Ya'akov and Ésav the following year, i.e. 2108 (1817/16BCE), when Yitz'hak was aged 60 (B'réshit
25:26). There is a parallel with this in B'réshit 16:3, where it is recorded that Sarai only considered
herself "infertile" after she and Avram had been settled in Canaan for ten years and she had still not
become pregnant, and she persuaded Avram to use her Egyptian maid Hagar as a surrogate.

The first incident in the lives of Ya'akov and Ésav that is recorded in B'réshit occurs at the end of ch.25,
where Ya'akov is cooking lentil soup and Ésav agrees to "sell" his firstborn’s rights to him in return for
some of the soup. This incident is traditionally associated with Avraham’s death in 2123 (1802/01BCE),
when the two boys were 15 years old—the connection is the lentils, which even today still form part of
the traditional "meal of condolence" that is served to mourners on their return from a close relative’s
funeral.

After this, we hear nothing of Ya'akov until chapter 27 where Yitz'hak, now old and blind, sends Ésav
out to hunt and prepare his favourite delicacy, venison (compare B'réshit 25:28) "so that I can bless you
from my heart before I die" (B'réshit 27:4). The language of ch.27 seems to suggest that Ya'akov and
Ésav were still very young when this was taking place—for example, Ésav’s plaintive cry of "Bless me
too, Daddy!" in v.34, when Yitz'hak told him that he had already given Ésav’s blessing to his brother,
and confirmed what he had done by declaring "And he really shall be blessed!" (v.33). And yet, Ya'akov
and Ésav must logically have been much older, because Yitz'hak had only been 60 when they were born,
and this chapter opens by saying that he was "old" and blind.

There is a clue at the end of the chapter: learning that Ésav is biding his time until Yitz'hak dies, meaning
to kill Ya'akov when then happens, Rivkah warns Ya'akov about his twin-brother’s intentions and advises
him to flee to Haran and take refuge with his Uncle Lavan, "just for a few days…" (or possibly, 'years'),
"until your brother’s anger cools down and he forgets what you did to him", promising that "then, I will
send and bring you back from there" (B'réshit 27:41-45). She tells Yitz'hak that she is worried that Jacob
may marry a native K'na'anit [Hittite] girl (B'réshit 27:46) as Ésav had already done, to his parents' great
distress (B'réshit 26:34-35): Yitz'hak takes the hint and, instructing Ya'akov not to marry any K'na'anit
girl, he sends him off to B'tuel, his maternal grandfather, in Paddan-Aram, to find a wife among the
daughters of his mother’s brother, Lavan (B'réshit 28:1-2). Then, a few verses later (vv.6-9), we read

…when Ésav saw that Ya'akov had confirmed his blessing to Ya'akov and had sent him [away] to Paddan-
Aram to find himself a wife there; and that, when he had blessed him, he had told him not to marry any of the
K'na'anit girls—and that Ya'akov had listened to his father and mother and had gone off to Paddan-Aram—
then Ésav realised how much his father Yitz'hak disapproved of K'na'anit girls; so Ésav went to Yishma'el, and
vi Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

married Avraham’s son Yishma'el’s daughter Mahalat—N'vayot’s sister—in addition to his wives [that he
already had].

The Talmud (Treatise Megillah, folio 17a) wonders…

Since the text says she was Yishma'el’s daughter, isn't it obvious that she was N'vayot’s sister?

(because we have already been told in 25:13 that N'vayot was Yishma'el’s firstborn son) and then
proceeds to explain:

…but what happened was that Yishma'el had died right after he had betrothed her [to Ésav], and it was left to
her brother N'vayot to arrange the completion of the marriage.

Ah, but we know when Yishma'el was born and when he died: Avraham was 86 years old when Hagar
gave birth to him (B'réshit 17:16) and he lived for 137 years (B'réshit 25:17); so Yishma'el was born in
2034 (1891/90BCE) and died in 2171 (1754/53BCE). Tying all these details together, it emerges that
Ya'akov and Ésav (who were born in 2108 or 1817/16BCE) were 63 years old when Ya'akov "stole"
Ésav’s blessing and then fled to Paddan-Aram.

But Ya'akov did not proceed directly to Paddan-Aram when he left his parents' home. How so?—well,
Yosef was born at the end of the second period of seven years that Ya'akov worked for Lavan in return
for his cousin Rahel’s hand in marriage (B'réshit 30:25-26), and he was 30 years old when he was made
Viceroy of Egypt (B'réshit 41:46); and it was a further 9 years after that—when the "seven years of
abundant harvests" and the first two of the "seven years of famine" had passed—that Yosef sent for his
father Ya'akov to come and join him in Egypt (B'réshit 45:6). Thus, 14+30+9 = 53 years elapsed
between Ya'akov’s arrival at Paddan-Aram and his migration to Egypt to join Yosef: and, as he was 130
years old when he went to Egypt (B'réshit 47:9), it follows that he had been 77 years old when he landed
on his uncle Lavan’s doorstep. Fourteen years of Ya'akov’s life are therefore unaccounted for—and,
according to Hebrew tradition, he is supposed to have spent them studying Theology with his ancestor
Éver—yes, he was still alive: Éver died in 2187 (1738/37BCE), when Ya'akov was 79 years old, i.e. 2
years after he (Ya'akov) arrived in Paddan-Aram.

Moving on to chapter 29, we are told how Ya'akov arrives in Paddan-Aram, falls in love with his pretty
cousin Rahel, and offers to work for his uncle Lavan for 7 years in return for her hand in marriage…

"…and he loved her so much that they seemed like just a few days to him!" (B'réshit 29:20)

Ya'akov was born in 2108 (1817/16BCE), so he arrived in Paddan-Aram in 2185 or 1740/39BCE (when
he was 77 yars old). So, in 2192 (1733/32BCE), when the seven years are over, Ya'akov asks for his wife
(B'réshit 29:21)… but Lavan tricks him, and the morning after the wedding he finds that he has in fact
married her older sister, Lé'ah (v.23-25). Lavan protests that "it is not customary around here to marry
off the younger daughter before the older one" (v.26)—why didn't he mention this before?—and
suggests a compromise: if Ya'akov will accept the situation and complete the week of celebrations for
his marriage to Lé'ah, he can then marry his beloved Rahel also. But there’s a catch: he must agree to
work for Lavan for a further seven years (v.27). Ya'akov agrees, and a week later he marries Rahel as
well (v.28-30).

The births of all Ya'akov’s children (with the exception of Binyamin, who was born several years later)
are described in B'réshit 29:31-30:24. The full passage reads as follows:
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible vii

29. 31When Adonai saw that Lé'ah was disliked, He made her fertile, while Rahel was childless… 32so Lé'ah
fell pregnant and gave birth to a son, she named him R'uven…
33
…and she fell pregnant again and gave birth to another son… she named him Shim'on…
34
…and she fell pregnant again and gave birth to another son… [God] named him Lévi…
35
…and she fell pregnant again and gave birth to another son… she named him Y'hudah—then she stopped
having children.
30. 1When Rahel [had] realised that she was not having any children by Ya'akov, she grew jealous of her sister
and said to Ya'akov, "Give me children, or I might as well be dead!" 2This made Ya'akov angry with her, and he
said "Do you think I am in God’s place? He is the One who has prevented you from having children!" 3Rahel
answered, "Here is my maid Bilhah, sleep with her and let her be a surrogate for me—that way I, too, can have
children, through her!" 4So she gave him her maid Bilhah to marry. Ya'akov slept with Bilhah 5and she fell
pregnant and gave birth to a son; 6[Rahel]… named him Dan.
7
Rahel’s maid Bilhah fell pregnant again and gave birth to a second son by Ya'akov; 7[Rahel]… named him
Naftali.
9
When Lé'ah realised she had stopped having children, she took her maid Zilpah and gave her to Ya'akov to
marry; 10Lé'ah’s maid Zilpah then gave birth to a son by Ya'akov; 11[Lé'ah]… named him Gad.
12
Lé'ah’s maid Zilpah then gave birth to a second son by Ya'akov; 13[Lé'ah]… named him Asher.
14
In wheat-harvest time, R'uven went into the countryside and found some dudai'im, which he took and gave to
his mother Lé'ah. Rahel said to Lé'ah, "Please give me some of your son’s dudai'im". 15[Lé'ah] answered,
"Aren't you satisfied with taking my husband—do you even have to take away my son’s dudai'im?" So Rahel
said, "Okay, he can sleep with you tonight in return for your son’s dudai'im!" 16That evening, when Ya'akov
was coming home from the countryside, Lé'ah went out to meet him; she said to him, "You're going to sleep
with me tonight, because I have hired you with my son’s dudai'im!"—so he slept with her that night. 17God
heard Lé'ah[’s prayers], and she fell pregnant and gave birth to a fifth son by Ya'akov… 18Lé'ah… named him
Yissachar.
19
Then Lé'ah fell pregnant again and gave birth to a sixth son by Ya'akov; 20Lé'ah… named him Z'vulun.
21
And after that, she gave birth to a daughter; she named her Dinah.
22
Then God remembered Rahel; God heard her [prayers] and restored her fertility. 23She fell pregnant and gave
birth to a son… 24she named him Yosef…
25
…and when Rahel had given birth to Yosef, Ya'akov said to Lavan: "Let me go, so I can return to my home,
my own country; 26give me my wives and my children, for whom I have worked—you know how hard I have
worked for you!"…

It may appear from a cursory reading of this narrative that there were twelve consecutive pregnancies,
one after the other, all in the space of seven years—which does seem rather unlikely! I therefore suggest
that this is what actually happened: We have already seen that Ya'akov arrived in Paddan-Aram in 2185
(1740/39BCE) and agreed to work for Lavan for 7 years in return for being allowed to marry his cousin
Rahel. His marriages to Lé'ah and Rahel thus took place in 2192 (1733/32BCE). I suggest that R'uven,
Shim'on, Lévi and Y'hudah were then born in 2193, 2194, 2195 and 2196 (1732/31BCE, 1731/30BCE,
1730/29BCE and 1729/28BCE) respectively, and that Rahel’s jealousy of Lé'ah which led her to persuade
Ya'akov to use Bilhah as a surrogate occurred in 2194 (1731/30BCE), soon after Lé'ah had given birth to
Shim'on: this is entirely consistent with the text, requiring only that the verb vatérë (she saw) at the
beginning of 30:1 be translated as a pluperfect ("she had seen"). Dan would then have been born in 2195
(1730/29BCE) and Naftali in 2196 (1729/28BCE), making them the same age as Lévi and Y'hudah,
respectively. I further suggest that the statement at the end of 29:35 that Lé'ah "stopped having children"
simply means that she failed to become pregnant again immediately after giving birth to Y'hudah (as she
had after R'uven, Shim'on and Lévi were born) and that she therefore assumed she was not going to have
any more children, and that the events of 30:9 ("When Lé'ah realised she had stopped having children,
she took her maid Zilpah and gave her to Ya'akov…") followed soon after Y'hudah’s birth in 2196
(1729/28BCE), so Gad would have been born in 2197 (1728/27BCE) and Asher in 2198 (1727/26BCE).

The duda'im indident must have happened at about the same time as Ya'akov’s marriage to Zilpah, also
viii Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

in 2196 (1729/28BCE) when R'uven was 3 years old and Yissachar would then have been born in 2197
(1728/27BCE) and Z'vulun in 2198 (1727/26BCE)—making them the same age as Gad and Asher,
respectively—with Dinah following in 2199 (1726/25BCE). Finally, Yosef was also born in 2199
(1726/25BCE), just as the fourteen years that Ya'akov had agreed to work for Lavan were coming to an
end.

Ya'akov’s 12th son, Binyamin, was born about 8 years later, on the northern outskirts of Beit-Lehem,
when Ya'akov was returning home from Paddan-Aram: Rahel died giving birth to him (in consequence
of the curse Ya'akov unintentionally pronounced against her in B'réshit 31:32)—he buried her there and
erected a mausoleum over her grave: the location of her lonely tomb is marked by a small shrine to this
very day (B'réshit 35:18-20, 48:7).

Rahel’s Tomb
"on the way to…Beit-Lehem" (B'réshit 35:19, 48:7)

Ya'akov spent a total of 7+7+6 = 20 years with Lavan (B'réshit 31:41) and the Talmud deduces (in
Treatise Megillah, folios 16b-17a) from B'réshit 33:17 that he spent 18 months (a winter, a summer, and
the following winter) at Sukkot, since he needed to build "a house for himself" (for the winter) and
"shelters for his cattle" (for the summer: plural "shelters", implying twice) and a further 6 months at
Beit-El. He was finally reunited with his father (B'réshit 35:27) in 2207 (1718/17BCE), after a total
absence of 36 years. Furthermore, in his emendation to B'réshit 28:9 and 37:34, Rashi notes that Ya'akov
grieved for 22 years, believing Yosef to be dead, from the time when Yosef was sold at the age of 17
(B'réshit 37:2) until he disclosed his real identity to his brothers and sent then back to K'na'an to bring
their father Ya'akov back to Egypt, at which time he was 39 years old (see below)—as punishment for
leaving his father’s house for 22 years and failing in his duty to care for him in his old age—but he
received no punishment for the first 14 years of his absence, because Torah-study takes precedence even
over the commandment of honouring parents.

Ya'akov was reunited with his father Yitz'hak in 2207, i.e. 1718/17BCE (at which time Yosef was 8 years
old). It was 9 years later, in 2216 or 1709/08BCE (when Yosef was 17 years old—B'réshit 37:2), that
Yosef was sold into slavery by his brothers, who convinced their father that he had been killed by a wild
animal (B'réshit 37:31-33); Ya'akov was heartbroken at the loss of his favourite son… "then Ya'akov
ripped his clothes and put sacking on his body: he mourned for his son for many years; all his sons and
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible ix

daughters tried to comfort him, but he was inconsolable… he declared 'I will go to my grave still
mourning for my son'... his father wept for him..." (B'réshit 37:34-35)—that is to say, Ya'akov’s father
wept for his son’s grief: Yitz'hak was still alive at this time; he died in 2228 (1697/96BCE) at the age of
180 (B'réshit 35:28), 12 years after Yosef was sold and just one year before he was made Viceroy of
Egypt—see below.

After his brothers sold him into slavery, Yosef was taken to Egypt and (eventually) was sold to Potifar
(B'réshit 37:36, 39:1), a junior minister in the Egyptian government (the text calls him sar hatabahim,
the Justice Minister: this official had responsibility for the prison service, among other things—see
B'réshit 40:3-4 and 41:10-12; it is interesting, though, that this same term is used for N'vuzar'adan, one
of Nebuchadnezzar II’s generals, in M'lachim Beit 25 and Yirm'yahu 39-41, 43 and 52). It was not long
before Potifar’s wife took a fancy to the good-looking young Hebrew and tried to seduce him—and,
when he repeatedly spurned her advances, she spitefully accused him (falsely, of course) of attempting
to rape her (B'réshit 39:6-18). It seems to me that Potifar possibly did not entirely believe his wife’s
allegations, or the unfortunate Yosef would most likely have been summarily executed; but for the sake
of appearances Potifar had to take some action, and so it was that Yosef found himself in an Egyptian
prison (B'réshit 39:20).

Ten long years passed and, in 2226 (1699/98BCE), the Pharaoh’s Chief Cupbearer and Chief Baker—
having somehow offended their royal master (the B'réshit narrative does not record the precise nature of
their offences)—were committed to the very same prison where Yosef was incarcerated, and the Head
Gaoler appointed the young Hebrew to attend to their personal needs. A year went by (B'réshit 40:1),
and then each of the two former royal servants had a very strange dream, both on the same night—this is
in 2227 (1698/97BCE). The following morning Yosef found them looking glum and confused and, when
he asked them what the matter was, they told him about their dreams (B'réshit 40:1-8). Yosef asked them
to tell him about the dreams and first the Cupbearer described his, whereupon Yosef told him that the
Pharaoh was going to pardon him two days later (literally "on the third day") and restore him to his
former position (B'réshit 40:9-13), adding a plea that the Cupbearer should tell the Pharaoh about
Yosef’s own predicament, in the hope that he, too, might be released from prison (B'réshit 40:14-15).
Then the Baker, encouraged by the Cupbearer’s favourable prognosis, eagerly recounted his own dream:
but his fate was not to be as happy as his colleague's—Yosef told him that he would be hanged two days
later "and birds will peck the flesh from your corpse" (B'réshit 40:16-19). And sure enough, on the "third
day" (which happened to be the Pharaoh’s birthday—or more likely the anniversary of his accession),
the Cupbearer was pardoned and the Baker was hanged, exactly as Joseph had predicted; but the
Cupbearer conveniently "forgot" all about Yosef, and did not speak to the Pharaoh about him (B'réshit
40:20-23).

So poor Yosef had to languish in prison for another 2 years, until 2229 (1696/95BCE) when, one night,
the Pharaoh himself had a very strange dream, woke up and realised it had been just a dream, fell asleep
again and, after having a second very strange dream, woke up again, realising that it had been just
another dream. In the morning, the Pharaoh sent for his magicians and astrologers, but none of them
could explain the strange dreams. Suddenly, the Cupbearer remembered the young Hebrew he had met
in prison two years before who had been so good at interpreting dreams. It’s hard to imagine how Yosef
must have felt when, after 13 long years in prison, he was suddenly freed, given just a few minutes to
shave and make himself look presentable, and was then rushed to the royal palace and dragged before
the Pharaoh, who demanded that Yosef interpret his dreams (B'réshit 41:1-15)! Nevertheless, interpret
them he did, predicting that there were going to be abundant harvests in Egypt for the next seven years,
to be immediately followed by seven consecutive years of terrible famine (B'réshit 41:25-32).
x Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Family Tree of the Partiarchs

ADAM = HAVVAH
d. 930

Kayin Hevel Shet


b. 130, d. 1042

Enosh
b. 235, d. 1140

Keinan
b. 325, d. 1235

Mahalal'el
b. 395, d. 1290

Yered
b. 460, d. 1422

Hanoch
b. 622, d. 987

M'tushelah
b. 687, d. 1656

Lemech
b. 874, d. 1651

NO'AH
b. 1056, d. 2006

Yefet SHEM Ham


b. 1556 b. 1558, d. 2158

Arpach'shad
b. 1668, d. 2096

Shelah
b. 1693, d. 2126

Éver
b. 1723, d. 2187

Peleg
b. 1757, d. 1996

R'u
b. 1787, d. 2026

S'rug
b. 1819, d. 2049

Nahor
b. 1849, d. 1997
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xi

Family Tree of the Partiarchs (continued)

TERAH
b. 1878, d. 2083

Haran

(2) (1) (1) (2)


Hagar = AVRAM = SARAI Lot Milkah = NAHOR = R'umah
m. 2033 (AVRAHAM) (SARAH)
b. 1948 b. 1958
d. 2123 d. 2085 Mo'av Ammon Tevah Tahash
Gaham Ma'achah

Utz Buz K'mu'el Kesed Hazo Pildash Yidlaf

Aram

B'tu'el

Yishma'el YITZ'HAK = RIVKAH Lavan


b. 2034 b. 2048 b. 2085
d. 2171 d. 2228 m. 2088

(1) (2) (3) (4)


N'vayot Mahalat = Ésav YA'AKOV = LÉ'AH = RAHEL = Bilhah = Zilpah
b. 2108 b. 2108 m. 2192 m. 2192 m. 2194 m. 2196
d. 2255 d. 2207

R'uven Shim'on LÉVI Y'HUDAH Yissachar Z'vulun Dinah YOSEF Binyamin Dan Naftali Gad Asher
b. 2193 b. 2194 b. 2195 b. 2196 b. 2197 b. 2198 b. 2199 b. 2199 b. 2207 b. 2195 b. 2196 b. 2197 b. 2198
d. 2332 d. 2309

Peretz Zerah
Gershon K'hat M'rari M'nasheh Efrayim

Hetz'ron B'riyah

AMRAM = Yocheved Refah


Ram
Telah
MIRYAM MOSHEH
b. 2368 Tahan
d. 2488

Amminadav La'adan

Ammihud
AHARON = Elisheva Nah'shon
b. 2365 Elishama
d. 2487 Salmah
Nun (Non)
Iv'tzan (Bo'az)
Nadav Avihu EL'AZAR Itamar HOSHÉ'A (Y'HOSHUA)
Oved b. 2406/07, d. 2515/16

Yishai

DAVID
xii Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Yosef went on to recommend suitable administrative measures that the Pharaoh should introduce to cope
with the situation: the king readily agreed, and decided that Yosef was the very man to implement them
himself, making him Viceroy of all Egypt, second in authority only to the Pharaoh himself (B'réshit
41:33-44)! The Pharaoh also gave Yosef an Egyptian name, Tzofnat-Pa'ané'ah (B'réshit 41:45; probably
a Hebrew transliteration of an Egyptian name—in Hebrew, tzofnat pa'ané'ah means "revealer of hidden
things"), and also an Egyptian bride: Osnat daughter of Poti-Fera, a variant spelling of Potifar—in other
words, the daughter of his master from 13 years earlier, who by this time had been promoted to the
much more senior post of Minister for the Armed Forces (Hebrew: kohen on—B'réshit 41:45, 41:50—
translated by christians as "Priest of On" in the mistaken belief that "On" is a place name—the Hebrew
word on actually means force or power). Yosef was 30 years old when he was made Viceroy of Egypt
(B'réshit 41:46), which provides the date 2229 (1696/95BCE).

When the "seven years of abundant harvests" (2229-2235 or 1696/95BCE-1690/89BCE) had passed, the
"seven years of famine" began (in 2236 or 1695/94BCE); and the famine was not limited to Egypt, but
also affected all the surrounding countries (including neighbouring K'na'an—B'réshit 42:5)… in Egypt,
however, there was an abundance of food, so everyone flocked to Egypt from all over the whole region
to buy grain (B'réshit 41:53-57). Soon, word reached the aging Ya'akov (now 128 years old) that "that
there was food in Egypt" and so he sent his ten oldest sons there to buy some (B'réshit 42:1-2). Yosef had
taken charge of food-distribution himself during the emergency and was dealing with sales of grain
personally, so in due course his ten older brothers appeared before him (B'réshit 42:6). He recognised
them at once, but they had no idea who he was (B'réshit 42:7-8); after all, it would have been the very
last thing they could have expected for the Viceroy of Egypt to be none other than the long-lost brother
they had sold as a slave 20 years earlier when he had been a boy of only 17 years old—especially as he
spoke to them through an interpreter (B'réshit 42:23) although, of course, he didn't actually need one.

Yosef then embarked upon an elaborate subterfuge, to find out whether his brothers were still the cruel,
cold-hearted men who had ignored his pleas when he had begged for his life 20 years earlier (B'réshit
42:21); being forced to treat his own flesh and blood in this way was a heart-rending experience for
Yosef and he had to withdraw to a private room to give vent to his emotions (B'réshit 42:24), but he
needed to be sure that their feelings towards him had changed. The subterfuge continued when the
brothers returned on a second food-purchasing expedition, bringing their youngest brother with them at
Yosef’s insistence (B'réshit 43:15). Setting eyes on Binyamin—his only full-blood brother—for the first
time in more than 20 years, Yosef was again overcome by emotion; the description in B'réshit is most
poignant: "Then Yosef raised his eyes and saw his brother Binyamin, his mother’s son… and he had to
rush away because he was overcome by emotion for his brother and couldn't stop himself weeping; so
he withdrew into a private room and wept there. He washed his face before emerging and, controlling
himself, he ordered: 'Serve up the food!'..." (B'réshit 43:29-31).

Only when he was totally convinced of his brothers' change of heart did Yosef disclose to them his true
identity. The brothers were dumbfounded by the revelation (B'réshit 45:1-4) but Yosef, in an act of
unbelievable generosity, assured them that he bore them no ill-will for having sold him into slavery
twenty years earlier: "it was God who sent me ahead of you to provide relief… there have already been
two years of famine in the land and there are still another five years to come in which there will be no
sowing or harvesting…" (B'réshit 45:5-6). "Hurry," Yosef told his brothers, "go back up to my father and
tell him, 'Your son Yosef says: God has made me the ruler of all Egypt—come and join me, don't
delay…" (B'réshit 45:9). Ya'akov fainted in disbelief when they told him, but on regaining consciousness
he realised it must be true when he saw the vast quantities of provisions and the magnificent royal
cavalcade of horses and wagons that Yosef, acting on the personal orders of the Pharaoh, had provided to
transport and to escort him (B'réshit 45:17-27). So it was that Ya'akov and the entire clan of the Hebrews
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xiii

(70 persons in all, enumerated individually in B'réshit 46:8-27) migrated from K'na'an to Egypt, settling
in an area of the fertile Nile Delta known as Goshen. It was 2238 (1687/86BCE), and Ya'akov was 130
years old (B'réshit 47:9).

Aside: in fact only 69 individuals are actually listed in B'réshit 46:8-27, because Lévi’s daughter
Yocheved—mother of Miryam, Aharon and Mosheh—who was "born" but not conceived in
Egypt (B'midbar 26:59) is included in the count, but not listed by name... she was born just as
the clan of Hebrews was crossing the frontier into Egypt.

Ya'akov lived for 17 years after his migration to Egypt, and died there in 2255 (1670/69BCE) at the age
of 147 (B'réshit 47:28). His last wish was not to be buried in Egypt, but to be taken back to K'na'an and
buried in the family tomb in the cave of the Machpélah field in Hevron with his wife Lé'ah, his parents
Yitz'hak and Rivkah, his grandparents Avraham and Sarah (B'réshit 49:30): Yosef promised to attend to
this personally (B'réshit 47:29-31) and, when the time came, he kept his word (B'réshit 50:4-14).

Machpélah, Hevron
Today a huge mosque stands on the site of the burial-place of Avraham & Sarah,
Yitz'hak & Rivkah, and Ya'akov & Lé'ah.

Yosef lived for 80 years after he was made Viceroy of Egypt (although B'réshit does not record how long
he held that position)—long enough to see his older son Manasseh’s grandchildren and his younger son
Ephraim’s great-grandchildren—that is, his own great-grandchildren and great-great-grandchildren,
respectively (B'réshit 50:23); he died in 2309 (1616/15BCE) at the age of 110 (B'réshit 50:22, 50:26). On
his deathbed, he promised his brothers that, one day…

"…God will certainly remember you (pakod yifkod et'chem) and will bring you up out of this land to the land
that He swore to Avraham, to Yitz'hak, and to Ya'akov about" (B'réshit 50:24).
xiv Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

This was the "sign" of the redemption, the "code-word", that Ya'akov’s descendants were still waiting
for 139 years later when, at the "Burning Bush", God told Mosheh…
"Go, gather Yisrael’s leaders together, and tell them: Adonai, your ancestors' God—Avraham’s God, Yitz'hak’s
God and Ya'akov’s God—appeared to me and said 'I have certainly remembered you (pakod yifkad'ti
et'chem)'…" (Sh'mot 3:16)

The years passed and, one by one, Yosef’s eleven brothers died—according to the Midrash Sh'mot
Rabba, Lévi outlived all his brothers, and he died in 2332 (1593/92BCE), at the age of 137 (Sh'mot 6:16).
Meanwhile, the clan of foreigners settled in Goshen had bred prolifically and increased dramatically in
numbers. Then, in about 1550BCE (ca.2375) according to conventional Egyptology, but actually up to 10
years earlier, Pharaoh Neb-pehty-ra Ah-Mosheh I, the founder of Egypt’s 18th Dynasty, came to power
and established what today’s Egyptologists refer to as the “New Kingdom”. The new king conveniently
chose to "forget" the great service Yosef had been to Egypt, and saw the rapidly multiplying Hebrews as
a threat to the stability and security of his country:

Yosef, all his brothers, and the whole of that generation died. The Yisraelites were fertile and bred in swarms
and became numerous and powerful—very, very much—until the land became full of them. Then a new king,
who knew nothing about Yosef, came to power in Egypt—he said to his people, "See: the nation of Yisraelites
is more numerous and more powerful than we are! Come on, let’s be smart about this... if they increase [any
more] and war breaks out, they may ally themselves with our enemies and fight against us—we could even be
driven from our own country!" (Sh'mot 1:6-10)

So Pharaoh Ah-Mosheh implemented a radical "Solution to the Hebrew Problem": he imposed a regime
of forced labour on the unfortunate Hebrews, reducing them to the status of slaves, and set them to work
building fortified storage facilities at locations that Shmot names as Pit'om and Ra'amses (Sh'mot 1:11).

Note: the use of the name "Ra'amses" in Sh'mot 1:11 has led to much confusion and encouraged
the popular misconception that the "Pharaoh" of the narrative was one of those who bore the
name Ramses (or Ramesses), particularly Ramesses II, also known as "Ramesses the Great". In
fact, there were ten Pharaohs with this name… two of them (Ramesses I & Ramesses II) in the
19th Dynasty, and another eight (Ramesses III to Ramesses X) in the 20th Dynasty—but even
the earliest of these didn't come to power until about 1295BCE, some 300 years after the
enslavement of the Hebrews.

But Ah-Mosheh’s plan didn't work… in fact, it seemed to have the opposite effect to what he wanted:

…the more they persecuted them, the more they multiplied and the more they flourished, until [the Egyptians]
despaired because of the Yisraelites… (Sh'mot 1:12)

The Pharaoh was therefore forced to take even more drastic measures…

…so the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives (the chief one was called Shifrah and her deputy was
called Pu'ah); he said to them, "Whenever you are attending the Hebrew women, look at what happens on the
delivery-seat—if the child is a boy, you are to kill him; but if it’s a girl, you may let her live" (Sh'mot 1:15-16)

But the Hebrew midwives "feared God" and were unwilling to commit infanticide—so they ignored the
Pharaoh’s orders (Sh'mot 1:17) and the Pharaoh was therefore forced to come up with a "Final Solution
to the Hebrew Problem":

…so the Pharaoh gave orders to all his people: "You shall throw every [Hebrew] boy that is born into the Nile,
but all the girls may live" (Sh'mot 1:22).
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xv

Not long after this, in 2368 (1557/56BCE), a baby son was born to a Lévi couple—Amram ben K'hat ben
Lévi, and his wife Yocheved bat Lévi (yes, Amram had married his own aunt, as Scripture records
explicitly in Sh'mot 6:20). Yocheved managed to hide her baby for 3 months, but then, when she could
not keep his existence a secret any longer, she constructed a waterproofed basket, put the baby in it, and
hid it among the reeds that grew by the banks of the Nile, with his older sister Miryam keeping watch
over him from a safe distance (Sh'mot 2:1-4). Amram and Yocheved also had another son, Aharon, who
was three years older than his newly-born brother (Sh'mot 7:7), but he was apparently considered too
young for the responsibility of this task.

Yet again, the guiding finger of Providence is evident in the Scriptural narrative—for who should arrive
to bathe in the river at that very moment but the princess Bit'yah, Pharaoh Ah-Mosheh’s daughter!

[The princess’s name does not appear anywhere in Sh'mot, where she is referred to only as bat
par'oh, "the Pharaoh’s daughter"; but it is recorded in Divrei Hayamim Alef 4:18, from which it
appears that she converted to Judaism, married a Y'hudean by the name of Mered—a pseudonym
for Kalev, who was so called because he "rebelled" (Hebrew marad) against the other "spies"—
and joined the escaping Hebrews when they left Egypt... this may account for there being no
mention of her in any Egyptian records].

Spotting the basket hidden among the reeds, the princess sent one of her handmaids to retrieve it, and
she realised at once that the crying little boy (who obviously would have been circumcised) was a
Hebrew baby.

Baby Mosheh’s sister Miryam then approached the princess and offered to call a Hebrew wet-nurse to
suckle the child and the princess, taking pity on him, readily accepted in flagrant violation of her own
father’s edict. Of course, the young Miryam brought Yocheved—the baby’s own mother, and the
princess even paid her to suckle her own baby (Sh'mot 2:1-9)!

When the infant no longer needed to be suckled, Yocheved handed him over to the princess, who
adopted him as her own son and named him Mosheh—according to the narrative, Bit'yah chose this
name to reflect the way she found him: ki min hamayim m'shitihu, "because I pulled him out of the
water" (Sh'mot 2:10), but it does seem somewhat implausible for an Egyptian princess to have chosen a
name for her adopted son based on a Hebrew remark (or even for her to have spoken Hebrew at all); it is
far more likely that she gave him an Egyptian royal name similar to that of her own father, the reigning
Pharaoh, whose birth-name was Ah-Mosheh (indeed, many of the Pharaohs had birth-names that
contained the word mosheh, which means "son of" or "born of" in ancient Egyptian) and only connected
ths name with the remark ki min hamayim m'shitihu years later.

Eighty years passed. The account in Sh'mot says only

Many years passed and the king of Egypt died; the Yisraelites groaned and cried out [to God] because of the
forced labour. Their cries because of the forced labour rose to God and, when He heard their groaning, God
remembered His covenant with Avraham, Yitz'hak and Ya'akov. Then God looked upon the Yisraelites and
became aware of them… (Sh'mot 2:23-25)

but this is a rather abridged version of Egyptian history, because in fact several pharaohs came and went
during those 80 years. Ah-Mosheh died in ca.1525BCE and was succeeded by his son (Djeser-ka-ra) who
reigned as Amun-hotep I until ca.1504BCE and was then succeeded by his brother-in-law (Aa-kheper-ka-
ra) who reigned as Toth-Mosheh I until ca.1492BCE. His son (Aa-kheper-en-ra) reigned as Toth-Mosheh
II until ca.1479BCE but, when he died, his only son (Men-kheper-ra) was still too young to reign and so
xvi Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

his mother, Ma'at-ka-ra (Toth-Mosheh II’s half-sister and also his principal wife), was appointed regent.
She reigned jointly (as Queen Hat-shepsut) with her son (Toth-Mosheh III) until ca.1473BCE when she
declared herself Pharaoh and reigned alone for about another 15 years, but she suddenly vanishes from
Egyptian history in ca.1458BCE and Toth-Mosheh III reigned alone from then onwards. It is not clear
whether there was a coup and she was deposed, or whether she simply died.

So who was the "Pharaoh" of the Exodus? The Yisraelites left Egypt in Nisan of 2448 (the spring of
1476BCE); but it must be borne in mind that the dates of all the pharaohs of this period are uncertain by
as much as ten years either way, so that when, for example, Egyptologists give the dates of Pharaoh
Toth-Mosheh I as "ca. 1504-1492BCE", his 12-year reign could actually have ended as late as 1482BCE.
This rules him out, but Pharaoh Toth-Mosheh II’s reign (given conventionally as 1492-1479BCE) could
have ended as late as 1469, and Queen Hat-shepsut’s reign (conventionally 1479-1458BCE) could have
begun as early as 1489BCE, so they are both possible contenders. It is known that Hat-shepsut behaved
like a man and dressed in male attire (she is even depicted as bearded in her shrines and statues), so it is
by no means impossible that the "Pharaoh" of the Exodus was actually a woman! This possibility adds a
whole new dimension to one of God’s early threats to the Exodus "Pharaoh":

…Adonai said to Mosheh, "Go to the Pharaoh and tell him: 'This is what Adonai says—Release My people, so
it can serve Me! And if you persist in refusing to let it go, I will infest the whole of your country with frogs…
the Nile will swarm with frogs—they will emerge [from the river], enter your house and come into your
bedroom… they will even come onto your bed!'…" (Sh'mot 7:26-28)

Now, the prospect of frogs hopping around on one’s bed, while not exactly pleasant, is unlikely to have
been seriously disturbing to a male pharaoh; but few women would be able to tolerate this without
dissolving into hysterics!

The Exodus

The Yisrael nation left Ra'amses in Goshen "the morning after the Pesah", i.e. in the morning of 15th
Nisan 2448 (approx. 27th March 1476BCE) and travelled to Sukkot (Sh'mot 12:37, B'midbar 33:3-5),
where they camped overnight before travelling onward the following day to Eitam "which was at the
edge of the desert" (Sh'mot 13:20, B'midbar 33:6). There, God instructed Mosheh…

"Now tell the Yisraelites to turn back and camp at Pi-Hahiroth between the Tower (Hebrew "migdol") and the
sea, in front of the Ba'al-Tz'fon [the "Ba'al of the North"]—have them camp by the sea opposite it. Then the
Pharaoh will say of the Yisraelites, 'They have got lost in the land; the desert has closed in on them!'…"

When the king of Egypt was told that the people had escaped, he and his advisers changed their minds; "What
have we done," they said, " releasing Yisrael from our service?" So he hitched up his chariot and, taking his
army with him, …he chased after the Yisraelites… (Sh'mot 14:2-3)

The French mediæval Hebrew commentator Rashi, quoting Midrash M'chilta, explains:

[The Pharaoh] sent agents with them and, when they reached the three days' [distance] that it had been agreed
for the Yisraelites to go and then come back, and it became obvious that they had no intention of returning to
Egypt, the agents came back on the 4th day and reported to the Pharaoh; he chased after them throughout the
5th and 6th days [and overtook them on the 6th day in the evening]; they crossed the sea during the night
before the 7th day and sang the "Song" [Sh'mot 15:1-18] the following morning—which was the 7th day of
Pesah… and this is why we read the "Song" [as the ceremonial Torah-reading] on the 7th day [of the
Festival].
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xvii

The account of the Yisraelites' travels in B'midbar continues

…Then they departed from Eitam and turned back towards Pi-Hahiroth which is in front of the Ba'al-Tz'fon,
where they camped in front of the Tower (Hebrew "migdol"); then they left Pi-Hahiroth and passed through
the middle of the sea into the desert: they travelled through the Eitam Desert for three days, and camped at
Marah… (B'midbar 33:7-8)

while the Sh'mot narrative says

Mosheh drove Yisrael onwards from the Suf Sea and they emerged into the Shur Desert. They travelled through
the desert for three days without finding water and then they arrived at Marah, but they couldn't drink the
water at Marah because it was bitter—which is why they called it 'Marah' [Hebrew for 'bitter']... (Sh'mot
15:23).

Thus Yisrael crossed the Suf Sea on 21st Nisan 2448 and reached Marah on 24th Nisan. They then
travelled to the oasis at Élim "where there were 12 fountains and 70 palm trees" (Sh'mot 15:27, B'midbar
33:9). From there, according to the account in B'midbar,

...they left Élim and camped by the Suf Sea; then they left the Suf Sea and camped in the Sin Desert; then they
left the Sin Desert and camped at Dofkah; then they left Dofkah and camped at Alush; then they left Alush and
camped at R'fidim… then they left R'fidim and camped in the Sinai Desert. (B'midbar 33:10-15)

The Sh'mot narrative omits several stages of the journey, but it does give the date of their arrival in the
Sin Desert ("which is between Elim and Sinai")—15th Iyyar (Sh'mot 16:1), a month after the Exodus; it
then describes the provision of "manna" (Hebrew 'man'), which "the Yisraelites ate for 40 years, until
they reached habitable land—until they arrived at the border of the land of K'na'an" (Sh'mot 16:4-35).
The abridged account in Sh'mot 17:1ff omits the stops at Dofkah and Alush, but hints at a cross-reference
to the full account in the B'midbar passage…

Then the whole congregation of the Yisraelites travelled away from the Sin Desert l'mas'eihem al pi adonai on
their journeys [as dictated] by Adonai’s Mouth, and they camped at R'fidim… (Sh'mot 17:1)

…because the opening words of the account in B'midbar include exactly the same phrase,

Mosheh wrote down their departures l'mas'eihem al pi adonai on their journeys [as dictated] by Adonai’s
Mouth… (B'midbar 33:2)

Leaving R'fidim after the battle with Amalek (Sh'mot 17:8-13), who launched an unprovoked and
cowardly attack on them targeting the old and the weak who were travelling at the rear (D'varim 25:18),
Yisrael moved on into the Sinai Desert, where they arrived on 1st Sivan…

On [the first day of] the third month, reckoned from the Yisrael's departure from Egypt—on that exact day—
they arrived in the Sinai Desert. They had left R'fidim and entered the Sinai Desert where they camped in the
desert: Yisrael camped there opposite the Mountain. Then Mosheh climbed up to God… (Sh'mot 19:1-3)

On his first ascent of the Mountain, Mosheh was given preliminary instructions to pass on to the people
about the "covenant" that God was going to make with them. He descended the next day (the 2nd of the
month) and did this (Sh'mot 19:4-7), and climbed the mountain again on the 3rd of the month to report
back to God their response—

"We will do everything that Adonai says" (Sh'mot 19:8)


xviii Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

On the 4th of the month, God sent Mosheh back yet again with a warning they had that day and the next
day to prepare themselves for the Divine Revelation that was going to take place "on the 3rd day"
(Sh'mot 19:10-11), i.e. on the 6th of the month.

The sequence of events was thus

1st Sivan—Mosheh’s first ascent of the Mountain;


2nd Sivan—Mosheh returns to give the people their preliminary instructions: they reply "We
will do everything that Adonai says";
3rd Sivan—Mosheh’s second ascent of the Mountain, to report the people’s reply back to
God;
4th Sivan—Mosheh returns again to warn the people they have that day and the following
day to prepare themselves for the Divine Revelation;
5th Sivan—second day of preparation;
6th Sivan—the Divine Revelation takes place.

What happened on Shavu'ot, the 6th Sivan 2448 (about 15th May 1476BCE) at Horev—also known as
Har Sinai—was, and remains, without precedent in the history of the World. The Midrash Sh'mot Rabba
(ch.29, para. 9) describes it like this:

Heralded by an awesome display of thunder, lightning, fire, smoke and a fanfare of horns, the Holy Presence
descended onto Mount Horev. The scene was set for the most awe-inspiring moment in the history of the
World. No insect chirped, no bird flew, no creature made a sound, even the Ministering Angels surrounding
the Divine Throne interrupted their continuous chant of kadosh, kadosh, kadosh (Holy, Holy, Holy). The seas
froze, the winds were stilled, the whole of the vast Universe fell silent—only when there was absolute silence
did the Voice issue forth from the Heavens, proclaiming to the assembled Yisraelites:

"I AM ADONAI, YOUR GOD, WHO HAS BROUGHT YOU OUT OF EGYPT, THE PLACE OF YOUR ENSLAVEMENT...
DO NOT HAVE ANY OTHER GODS THAN ME...
DO NOT MAKE ANY STATUE OR PICTUREOF ANYTHING IN HEAVEN ABOVE, ON EARTH BELOW, OR IN THE WATER
UNDER THE EARTH—DO NOT BOW TO THEM OR SERVE THEM...
DO NOT USE ADONAI YOUR GOD'S NAME NEEDLESSLY...
REMEMBER WHICH DAY IS SHABBAT AND SANCTIFY IT—YOU MUST WORK FOR SIX DAYS AND COMPLETE ALL
YOUR M'LACHAH TASKS, BUT SATURDAY IS ADONAI YOUR GOD'S SHABBAT: DO NOT DO ANY M'LACHAH ON IT...
RESPECT YOUR FATHER AND MOTHER...
DO NOT COMMIT MURDER...
DO NOT COMMIT ADULTERY...
DO NOT STEAL...
DO NOT COMMIT PERJURY...
DO NOT DESIRE ANOTHER'S HOUSE, HIS WIFE, SERVANT, HIS ANIMAL, OR ANY OF HIS POSSESSIONS."

The day after the Revelation (the 7th Sivan), Mosheh was again summoned to the top of the Mountain:

Adonai’s Presence had settled on the Mountain and the Cloud had covered it for 6 days (Adonai’s Presence
seemed to the Yisraelites like a devouring fire at the top of the Mountain). Then He called to Mosheh on the
7th day [of the month], so Mosheh entered the cloud and ascended the Mountain; Mosheh remained on the
Mountain for 40 days and 40 nights. (Sh'mot 24:16-18)

The Mishnah (Treatise Ta'anit, ch.4, para. 6) records that

Five calamities befell our ancestors on 17th Tammuz and five more on 9th Av… on 17th Tammuz, the luhot
were smashed…
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xix

…and the Talmud (folio 28b) explains

On 17th Tammuz, the luhot were smashed—what is the source for this? It was taught: the Decalogue was given
to Yisrael on the 6th of Sivan… and on the 7th Mosheh ascended the Mountain… as it is written, "… He called
to Mosheh on the seventh day…" (Sh'mot 24:16) and immediately after that it is written "…so Mosheh entered
the cloud and ascended the Mountain; Mosheh remained on the Mountain for 40 days and 40 nights" (Sh'mot
24:18).
Reckon [the last] 24 days of Sivan and [the first] 16 days of Tammuz—those forty days were completed on
17th Tammuz; he then descended and came [to the camp] and smashed the luhot… as it is written, "…as he
was approaching the camp, he saw the calf… and he threw the luhot from his hands, smashing them at the foot
of the Mountain" (Sh'mot 32:19).

This computation is based on a literal reading of the phrase "40 days and 40 nights", i.e. each day
together with its following night. It is also assumed that the months of that year followed the pattern of
months in a regular lunar year, that is to say: Nisan—30 days, Iyyar—29 days, Sivan—30 days, etc.
Thus, if the first of the "40 days" was 7th Sivan, then 30th Sivan would have been the 24th day, and the
first 16 days of Tammuz would have made up the 40 days; but forty days and forty nights would not
have been completed until the morning of 17th Tammuz.

After smashing the luhot, Mosheh immediately set about dealing with the calf-idol and those who had
been worshipping it (Sh'mot 32:26-29). The narrative then continues TABLETS

The following day, Mosheh said to the people, "You have committed a grievous sin; now I shall go [back] up
to Adonai—maybe I will be able to make atonement for your sin". So Mosheh returned to Adonai and said:
"Oh, please… this people has committed a grievous sin, making golden idols for themselves; but even now, if
only You will tolerate their sin…" (Sh'mot 32:20-23)
Mosheh made this second ascent of the Mountain on 18th Tammuz (the day after his return from his first
ascent) and he remained there for a second period of 40 days and 40 nights:
"Then I threw myself down before Adonai just as I had done the first time—[for] 40 days and 40 nights…
because of all your sins that you had committed, doing what is evil in Adonai’s sight and provoking His Rage"
(D'varim 9:18)
Applying the same computation as before, the second period of 40 days is found to comprise the last 12
days of Tammuz (from the 18th to the 29th inclusive) and the first 28 days of Av, so that they would
have been completed in the morning of 29th Av; on that day, God became partially reconciled with
Yisrael and sent Mosheh down from the Mountain with instructions to carve a second pair of luhot, "just
like the first ones that you smashed" (Sh'mot 34:1, D'varim 10:1). This he did, returning to the top of the
Mountain the next morning (Sh'mot 34:4, D'varim 10:3); Mosheh spent a third period of 40 days and 40
nights there (D'varim 10:10)—30th Av, the whole month of Elul (29 days), and the first 9 days of Tishri
2449; it was thus in the morning of 10th Tishri—Yom Kippur, the eternal "Day of Forgiveness"—that
God was fully reconciled with Yisrael, forgave them completely, and handed to Mosheh the second pair
of luhot.

The construction of the Portable Temple—variously referred to as the "Tabernacle", the "Appointed
Tent" or the "Tent of Meeting" (Hebrew: ohel mo'éd or mishkan)—together with all its furniture and
ancillary equipment, occupied Mosheh and the people for the following 6 months. It was completed and
erected on 1st Nisan of the second year (Sh'mot 40:17) and its dedication was marked by 12 daily
offerings presented by the 12 tribal chieftains (B'midbar 7:1-88), from 1st until 12th Nisan, after which
the people celebrated the first Pesah festival after the Exodus at Horev (B'midbar 9:1-5), starting on
15th Nisan. The first census was held on 1st Iyyar (B'midbar 1:1). They left Horev on 20th Iyyar and
travelled for three days (B'midbar 10:33), reaching Kivrot-Hata'avah in the Para'n Desert on 23rd Iyyar
(B'midbar 10:11-12, 33:16).
xx Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

There, the "mixed rabble" that had left Egypt with Yisrael (see Sh'mot 12:38) began complaining that
they were sick of eating nothing but man and wanted meat to eat (B'midbar 11:4-6)… even though they
actually had plenty of livestock (see Sh'mot 12:38). This made God so angry that He said He would give
them meat, but—

"…you won't eat it for just one day, or for two days, or for five days, or for ten days, or even for just twenty
days—but for a whole month, until it comes out of your noses and the very sight of it makes you sick…"
(B'midbar 11:19-20).

A "whole [calendar] month" from 23rd Iyyar brings us up to 22nd Sivan, after which the people moved
on to Hatzerot:

From Kivrot-Hata'avah, the people travelled to Hatzerot. While they were at Hatzerot, Miryam and Aharon
began to gossip about Mosheh… (B'midbar 11:35-12:1); and also

…then they left Kivrot-Hata'avah and camped at Hatzerot… (B'midbar 33:18)

The entire nation remained at Hatzerot for the 7 days (22nd to 28th Sivan) that Miryam was excluded
from the camp (B'midbar 12:15) out of respect for her because she was Mosheh’s sister, after which they
left Hatzerot and camped at Ritmah, also in the Para'n Desert (B'midbar 33:18, 12:16). Ritmah is more
usually called Kadesh-Barné'a (and should not be confused with the other Kadesh, which was in the
Tzin Desert about 10km further north-east, or the other place with the same name in Naftali’s territiry
which was the home town of Judge D'vorah’s general, Barak). It was from Kadesh-Barné'a that, on 29th
Sivan 2449, Mosheh sent twelve spies (really "explorers") to explore (Hebrew la-tur, literally "to tour")
the land of K'na'an (B'midbar 13:3; see also 13:26, 32:8, Y'hoshua 14:7 et al.). They returned from their
mission "at the end of 40 days" (B'midbar 13:25) and the people, disheartened and demoralised by their
report of the land, "wept all that night" (B'midbar 14:1). The 4th century CE Talmud scholar Abbayé
states (Treatise Ta'anit, folio 29a) that unusually there were 30 days in Tammuz that year (Tammuz
normally has only 29 days) and consequently the "spies" returned on 8th Av and God decreed that the
Eve of 9th Av, when the people "wept needlessly", would become a night of weeping for ever.

Furthermore, it was the following morning—that of 9th Av itself—that it was decreed that none of the
generation which had left Egypt, apart from Kalev and Y'hoshua, would enter the land of K'na'an, but
that the nation was to wander in the desert for 40 years—one year for each day the "spies" had spent on
their mission—until the whole of that generation had died out (B'midbar 14:21-24, 14:28-30, 14:34). It
was 38 years from then until they reached and crossed the Zered Brook on the borders of K'na'an
(D'varim 2:14; see also B'midbar 21:12), because the decree of 40 years in the desert included the first
two years after their departure from Egypt. They spent half of those 38 years (i.e. 19 years) at Kadesh-
Barné'a…

"You stayed at Kadesh for many years—as [many as] the years that you stayed [at all the other places]…"
(D'varim 1:46)

The Book of B'midbar resumes the narrative in the fortieth year with Yisrael's arrival at Kadesh in the
Tzin Desert…

Yisrael—the entire congregation—arrived in the Tzin Desert in the first month; Miryam died while the people
were at Kadesh, and she was buried there. (B'midbar 20:1)

It was also at Kadesh that Mosheh and Aharon were instructed to speak to a rock and make it produce
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xxi

water for the people and their livestock to drink (B'midbar 20:7-8); but instead Mosheh struck the rock
with his walking-stick (B'midbar 20:11), in the same way as he had been told to do at R'fidim (Sh'mot
17:5-6). Mosheh and Aharon were both punished severely for this single error of judgement: God
decreed that neither of them was to play any part in leading Yisrael into the land of K'na'an (B'midbar
20:12) and, as a result of this, Aharon died at Mt. Hor on 1st Av 2487—summer of 1437BCE—(B'midbar
33:38) and Mosheh died seven months later at Mt. N'vo (D'varim 34:1-5) on 7th Adar 2488—very early
spring of 1436BCE—(see D'varim 34:8, Y'hoshua 1:11 and Y'hoshua 4:19), after handing the mantle of
leadership on to his successor, Y'hoshua (B'midbar 27:18-23; see also D'varim 3:28, 34:9).

Y'hoshua

Y'hoshua was originally named Hoshé'a but Mosheh changed his name to Y'hoshua (B'midbar 13:16).
He had been Mosheh’s personal aide since his youth (B'midbar 11:28). Y'hoshua was from the tribe of
Efrayim: his ancestry is given in Divrei Hayamim Alef 7:23-27 as "ben Nun [Non], ben Elishama, ben
Ammihud, ben La'adan, ben Tahan, ben Telah, ben Refah, ben B'ryiah, ben Efrayim [ben Yosef]". He
was the tribe of Efrayim’s representative among the twelve "spies" (B'midbar 13:8) and his grandfather,
Elishama ben Ammihud, was Efrayim’s tribal chieftain (B'midbar 2:18) who had contributed the tribe’s
offering at the dedication of the Portable Temple (B'midbar 7:49-53); Elishama had also represented his
tribe at the first census (B'midbar 1:10) and had led his tribe when the nation was marching (B'midbar
10:22).

Y'hoshua ruled Yisrael for 28 years—i.e. from Ex41 until Ex68—although this is not recorded anywhere
in Scripture—in his note to Shoftim 11:26, Rashi remarks…

We learn in Séder Olam [ch.12] that "Y'hoshua ruled Yisrael for 28 years", but I have no Scriptural source to
derive this from…

Mosheh had ruled Yisrael throughout the 40 years they spent wandering in the desert—that is from
2448/49 until 2487/88, the first 40 years of the "Exodus Era" (Ex1 through Ex40). He died on 7th Adar
2488 and the 30 days of mourning that the Yisraelites observed in his honour (D'varim 34:8) ended on
7th Nisan 2488 (at the beginning of Ex41). On that day, Y'hoshua assumed the leadership and, as his
first act as leader,

Y'hoshua gave orders to the officers of the people, "Pass through the whole camp and tell the people: 'Prepare
provisions for yourselves, because in three days' time you are going to cross this [River] Yarden to enter and
take possession of the land that Adonai your God is giving you to possess'." (Y'hoshua 1:10-11).

The nation’s entry into K'na'an three days later is recorded in chapter 4:

The people came up out of the [River] Yarden on the 10th day of the 1st month and camped at Gilgal on the
eastern edge of Y'riho (Y'hoshua 4:19).

The first seven years of Y'hoshua’s leadership were taken up by the Wars of Conquest by which Yisrael
took possession of the land and are described in the Book of Y'hoshua’s first twelve chapters. The
duration of the Wars is derived in the Talmud (Treatise Z'vahim, folio 118b and Treatise 'Arachin, folio
13a) as follows: when the Wars were over, Kalev approached Y'hoshua to claim the inheritance that he
had been promised by God (B'midbar 14:24, D'varim 1:36). The passage reads

Then the sons of Y'hudah approached Y'hoshua at Gilgal and Kalev ben Y'funneh the K'nizi said to him, "You
know what Adonai said to Mosheh, the Man of God, about me and about you at Kadesh-Barné'a. I was 40
xxii Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

years old when Mosheh, Adonai’s servant, sent me from Kadesh-Barné'a to explore the land, and I followed
my heart when I reported back to him—my brothers who went with me demoralised the people, but I remained
wholehearted in following Adonai my God. That day, Mosheh swore an oath: 'What ever happens, the land that
your foot trod on will belong to you and your children as your inheritance for ever, because you followed
Adonai my God wholeheartedly'. And now, see: just as He said He would, Adonai has kept me alive for these
45 years since the time that Adonai said that to Mosheh—the whole time that Yisrael walked through the
desert—and I am now 85 years old…" (Y'hoshua 14:6-10)

Now, as the "spies" were sent during the second year of Yisrael’s departure from Egypt, it follows that
they spent 38 years in the desert after that, so that Kalev would have been 78 years old when they
entered the land—and if he was 85 years old when the Wars of Conquest ended, they must have lasted 7
years—that is, from Ex41 (1436/35BCE) until Ex47 (1430/29BCE) inclusive.

The Wars of Conquest were followed by a second period during which the newly-conquered land was
allocated among the 9½ tribes who were to occupy it: the other 2½ tribes—R'uven, Gad and half of
M'nasheh—had elected to settle east of the Jordan (B'midbar 32:1-42). The land was allocated randomly
by lottery, as God had stipulated while they were still camped on the edge of Mo'av on the east bank of
the Yarden:

Adonai spoke to Mosheh in the Mo'avite Plain, by the Yarden [opposite] Y'riho, as follows: "Speak to the
Yisraelites and tell them, 'You are about to cross the Yarden into the land of K'na'an. You will dispossess all of
the indigenous population, and you are to demolish all their places of worship, tear down all the statues of their
idols, and destroy all their shrines; you will then occupy the land and settle in it, because I am giving this land
to you as your possession. You are to allocate the land among your clans by lottery—those that are numerous
will receive greater allocations and those who are few in number will receive smaller allocations—each will
receive his share as determined by the lottery: you are to allocate the land in this way among your paternal
clans'…" (B'midbar 33:50-54)

The implementation of these commands is described in detail in chs.13-21 of Y'hoshua. Precisely how
long the allocation of the land actually took cannot be determined from the Scriptures; the Talmud
(Treatise Z'vahim, folio 118b) states that the Gilgal Sanctuary (where Y'hoshua erected the Portable
Temple after the people first crossed the Jordan and entered the land) existed for 14 years: "seven years
of conquest and seven years of allocation", and it was transferred from Gilgal to Shiloh at the end of the
period of allocation (Y'hoshua 18:1). The Talmud’s explanation for these "seven years of allocation" is
not particularly satisfying:

"7 years of allocation"—what is the source for this? If you want, you can say: just as the conquest took 7 years,
so the allocation must similarly have taken 7 years; or, alternatively, you could say: it must have been so or
else you will not find [that a Yovel occurred] "in the 14th year after the City was destroyed" (Y'hezkel 40:1).

I shall be returning to Y'hezkel’s "14th year after the City was estroyed" in a few moments.

Y'hoshua died at the age of 110 (Y'hoshua 24:29; Shoftim 2:8) in Ex68, which corresponds to the second
half of 2515 (1410/09BCE) and the first half of 2516 (1409/08BCE), so this places his birth in 2406/07
(between the spring of 1518BCE and the spring of 1517BCE).

Shiloh remained Yisrael’s national Sanctuary until that area was overrun by the P'lishtians at the time of
the Chief Kohen Judge Éli’s death (i.e. at the time that the P'lishtians captured the "Aron"—see Sh'muel
Alef 4:3-18); a new national shrine was then built at Nov, which is first mentioned in Sh'muel Alef 21:2.
This shrine was in turn demolished by King Sha'ul after Sh'muel died (Sh'muel Alef 22:19) and the
Kohanim then congregated around the "little hill" (Hebrew giv'ah) at Kir'yat Y'arim where the Aron had
been kept since the P'lishtians had returned it some ten years earlier (Sh'muel Alef 7:1); the new ad-hoc
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xxiii

shrine became known as Giv'on—this name is first mentioned in M'lachim Alef 3:4.

The Talmud (Treatise Z'vahim, folio 118b-119a) notes that the 20 years the Aron remained at Kir'yat
Y'arim (Sh'muel Alef 7:2), during which time "the whole house of Yisrael was drawn after Adonai", were
the ten years that Sh'muel was Yisrael’s ruler (traditional), the one year that Sh'muel and Sha'ul ruled
jointly and the two years that Sha'ul reigned alone after Sh'muel’s death (see Sh'muel Alef 13:1), together
with the first seven years of David’s reign, at the end of which he captured Y'rushalayim, made it his
new capital, and brought the Aron there (10+1+2+7 = 20).

It is then deduced that the national Sanctuary was...

at Gilgal for the 14 years Ex41-54 (1436/35BCE to 1423/22BCE);


at Shiloh for the 369 years from Ex55-424 (1422/21BCE to 1053/52BCE),
at Nov for the 10 years of Sh'muel’s judgeship, Ex424-434 (1052/51BCE to 1043/42BCE), and
at Giv'on for the 47 years Ex434-479 (1042/41BCE to 998/97BCE)

after which Shlomoh’s Temple became the permanent national shrine in Ex480 (997/996BCE).

The Yovel Calendar

Up to this point, I have been using two Biblical calendars to date events recorded in the Scriptural
narrative: one that counts years "from the creation of Adam", and one counting years "of the Exodus"
(the former is not found in the Scriptures, but there are numerous examples of the latter’s use). The
introduction of "Sabbatical" (or "Fallow") years (Hebrew: shmittah) and "Jubilee" (Hebrew: yovel) years
(see Vayikra 25:3-13) provided a third calendar, because years are conveniently grouped into 50-year
periods by the Yovel legislation, so that a year can be described as, for example, "the 3rd year of the 12th
Yovel" (or Y12/3). The Talmud (Treatise Arachin folios 12b and 13a) records that

…the Yisraelites reckoned 17 Yovel cycles from the time they arrived in their land until the time they were
exiled; but you cannot say that they began to do so immediately upon their arrival, or you cannot account for
Y'hezkel’s "14th year after the City was destroyed" (40:1)…

The verse in Y'hezkel, which I have now mentioned twice, reads

"In the 25th year of our Exile, on Rosh Hashanah—the tenth day of the month—in the 14th year after the City
was destroyed…"

which immediately raises the obvious question: since when does Rosh Hashanah—New Year’s Day—
fall on the tenth day of the month? Everyone knows that Rosh Hashanah is the first day of Tishri (the
seventh month)! Well, this is true, most of the time: but…

…you are to count off seven "weeks of years"—seven times seven years—so that the seven "weeks of years"
amount to 49 years: and then, in the fiftieth year, you will cause horns to be sounded on the tenth day of the
[seventh] month—you shall cause horns to be sounded throughout your land on Yom Kippur. You are to
inaugurate the fiftieth year in this manner and proclaim liberty throughout the land for all its inhabitants: this is
yovel—every person is to be restored his [ancestral] inheritance, and every [bonded servant] is to return to his
family… (Vayikra 25:8-10).

So the Yovel year is an exception to the usual rule: "New Year’s Day" (Rosh Hashanah) in a Yovel year
occurs on the tenth of Tishri, which is normally called Yom Kippur. This provides a most important
piece of information: Y'hezkel 40:1 tells us indirectly that the 25th year of the Exile was a Yovel.
xxiv Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

This also, incidentally, helps us to understand the obscure dating in the opening verse of Y'hezkel’s
book:

"It was in the year 30, on the fifth day of the fourth month, when I was among the exiles [living] by the River
K'var, that the heavens opened and I saw visions of God …" (Y'hezkel 1:1).

"The year 30" doesn't tell us much unless we know what calendar the author is using, and he doesn't say!
But he does add in verse 2 that it was also "the fifth year of King Y'hoyachin’s exile" and, as we now
know that the 25th year of the exile was a Yovel year, i.e. the last year of a 50-year Yovel period, it
follows that the fifth year of the exile, 20 years earlier, must have been the 30th year of the same Yovel
period. Thus, Y'hezkel was using the Jubilee Calendar in his opening verse; and the fact that he didn't
find it necessary to say so explicitly suggests that this was the common way of giving a date at that time,
just as today it is normal for us to give the date of this present year as "2008", for example, without
bothering to specify "CE", or even just "08" (omitting the thousands and hundreds).

The Period of the Shoftim ("Judges") & the three Kings of All Yisrael

The time of Y'hoshua was a golden age for Judaism, during which Yisrael had remained completely
faithful to God and had observed the Torah scrupulously (Y'hoshua 24:31; Shoftim 2:7). Sadly, though,
it didn't last: "after Y'hoshua and his generation had all passed away, a new generation arose who had
not known Adonai and everything He had done for Yisrael" (Shoftim 2:8-10). Yisrael then began to
abandon the worship of God and observance of the Torah (verses 11-13). Throughout the next several
centuries, they repeatedly lapsed into idolatry, only returning to God and crying out for His help when
He sent enemies to conquer and oppress them. Each time they did so, God relented and "raised Shoftim
('Judges') for them who 'saved' them from their enemies", but their faithfulness to Him was short-lived
and after the Shofet ('Judge') died they would once again lapse into idolatry (Shoftim 2:18-19). The book
of Judges chronicles that Yisrael…

— was dominated for 8 years by Kushan-Rish'atayim, the king of Aram-Naharayim (Shoftim 3:8);
— was liberated by Ot'niyel benK'naz (Shoftim 3:10) who ruled for 40 years until he died (Shoftim 3:11);
— was dominated for 18 years by Eglon, the Mo'avite king, who was allied with the Ammonites and the
Amalekites (Shoftim 3:12-14);
— was liberated by Éhud benGéra, of Binyamin (Shoftim 3:16-29), who ruled for 80 years (Shoftim 3:30);
— was ruled briefly by Shamgar ben Anat (Shoftim 3:31);
— was dominated for 20 years by Yavin, the K'na'anite king (Shoftim 4:1-3);
— was liberated by Barak ben Avino'am under the inspiration of the prophetess D'vorah (Shoftim 4:4-24), who
ruled for 40 years (Shoftim 5:31);
— was dominated by the Midiyanites for 7 years (Shoftim 6:1);
— was liberated by Gid'on (Shoftim 7), who then ruled for 40 years (8:28);
— was ruled for 3 years (Shoftim 9:22) by Gid'on’s son Avimelech, who had been proclaimed "king" by one
small faction (Shoftim 9:6);
— was ruled for 23 years by Tola ben Pu'ah, of Yissachar (Shoftim 10:1-2);
— was ruled for 22 years for Ya'ir of Gil'ad (Shoftim 10:3); and
— was dominated for 18 years by the P'lishtians and Ammonites, starting "that same year" (Shoftim 10:7-8)…

But wait: something is wrong. Why?—because, including the 28 years that Y'hoshua was Yisrael’s ruler,
we have just accounted for 346 years since Y'hoshua led them into K'na'an; and yet Yiftah states
explicitly in his diplomatic overtures to the Ammonite king after the 18 years of domination by the
P'lishtians and Ammonites had ended (Shoftim 11:12-27) that Yisrael had been setled in K'na'an for only
300 years (verse 26). The discrepancy is 46 years, which is precisely the total of the three periods during
which they were dominated by Kushan (8 years), Eglon (18 years) and Yavin (20 years). Let us
therefore re-examine the text: the historian-author of Shoftim uses the same formula "the land was quiet
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xxv

for forty/eighty years…" to close his accounts of Ot'niyel, Éhud, D'vorah and Gid'on… with one subtle
difference:

— The land was quiet for 40 years; and then Ot'niyel ben K'naz died… (Shoftim 3:11);
— That day, Mo'av was subdued by Yisrael’s power; and the land was quiet for 80 years… (Shoftim 3:30);
— The land was quiet for 40 years… (Shoftim 5:31); BUT.....
— So Midian was subdued by the Yisraelites and did not continue to raise their heads: and the land was quiet
for 40 years in Gid'on’s time" (Shoftim 8:28).

In Gid'on’s case, the historian emphasises that the land "was quiet" for 40 years in Gid'on’s time; he
does not say that about Ot'niyel, Éhud, or D'vorah. This suggests that the periods of 40, 80 and 40 years
with which he credits those three leaders included the preceding years of foreign domination, whereas
Gid'on ruled for his full 40 years after the 7 years during which Yisrael was dominated by the Midianites
before he came to power. So here is a revised summary of the period of the Shoftim (or "Judges"),
continued to include all the later Shoftim from Yiftah onwards and also the reigns of Sha'ul, David and
Shlomoh. (Since when were Éli the Chief Kohen and Sh'muel of Ramah the Prophet also "Judges"?—see
Sh'muel Alef 4:18 and 7:6, 7:15):

Ex69-108 Ot'niyel (dominated by Kushan-Rish'atayim, king of Aram-Naharayim, for the first 8 years)
Ex109-188 Éhud (dominated by Eglon, king of Mo'av, for the first 18 years)
Ex189-228 Shamgar (briefly) and then D'vorah (dominated by Yavin, king of K'na'an, for the first 20 years)
Ex229-235 Midianite domination
Ex236-275 Gid'on
Ex276-278 Avimelech ben Gid'on
Ex279-301 Tola
Ex302-323 Ya'ir
Ex323-340 Philistine-Ammonite domination
Ex340-345 Yiftah of Gil'ad—ruled for 6 years (Shoftim 12:7)
Ex345-351 Iv'tzan of Beit Lehem—ruled for 7 years (Shoftim 12:8-10)… called Bo'az in the Book of Rut
Ex351-360 Élon of Z'vulun—ruled for 10 years (Shoftim 12:11-12)
Ex360-367 Avdon ben Hillel—ruled for 8 years (Shoftim 12:13-15)
Ex367-386 Shimshon ben Mano'ah—ruled for 20 years (Shoftim 15:20, 16:31)
Ex386-425 Éli, Chief Kohen of the Shiloh Sanctuary—ruled for 40 years (Sh'muel Alef 4:18)
Ex425-435 Prophet Sh'muel of Ramah—ruled for 11 years, the 11th year (Ex435) jointly with Sha'ul (Talmud,
Treatise Z'vahim, folio 118b—see above)
Ex435-437 King Sha'ul—reigned for 3 years: 1 year (Ex435) jointly with Sh'muel and 2 years (Ex436-437)
alone after Sh'muel died (Sh'muel Alef 13:1)
Ex437-476 King David—40 years (Sh'muel Beit 5:4-5; M'lachim Alef 2:11; Divrei Hayamim Alef 3:4 & 29:27)
Ex477-516 King Shlomoh—40 years (M'lachim Alef 11:42)

The books of M'lachim and Divrei Hayamim confirm the accuracy of this computation, because if
Ex477 (i.e. the 477th year counting from the Exodus) was Shlomoh’s 1st year, his 4th would have been
the 480th year from the Exodus and this was indeed the case—

"In the 480th year from the Yisraelites' departure from Egypt, in the month Ziv—the second month—of the
fourth year of Shlomoh’s reign over Yisrael, he began to build Adonai’s Temple" (M'lachim Alef 6:1)

"…he began to build on the second day of the second month in the fourth year of his reign" (Divrei Hayamim
Beit 3:2).
xxvi Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

The divided kingdom

Shlomoh’s death and the succession of his son R'hav'am led to a major political upheaval in Yisrael. The
young R'hav'am was as foolish as his father had been wise and, by his foolishness, he precipitated a rift
that resulted in the secession of the ten northern tribes under Yarov'am I, leaving only "those Yisraelites
who lived in the cities of Y'hudah" under R'hav'am’s control (M'lachim Alef 12:17). So great was
Yarov'am’s hostility to the southern kingdom (which became known as Y'hudah, or "Judæa") that he was
determined to distance his new kingdom of "Yisrael" (which had its capital at Tir'tzah, first mentioned in
M'lachim Alef 15:21) as far as possible from Judæan culture and practices. To this end, he introduced
into his kingdom a new, idolatrous religion with twin temples at Dan in the extreme north and Beit-El in
the south (M'lachim Alef 12:28-29) and a new festival in the 8th month, mimicking the Judæan festival
of Sukkot, celebrated in the 7th month (ibid., verses 32-33). He also abolished the use of the Exodus
calendar for recokoning his own regnal years, adopting in its place the pre-Mosaic calendar with years
beginning in the autumn, and also abandoned the practice of accession-year reckoning which the Judæan
kings used.
How do we know he did this? Well, consider the data: the reigns of R'hav'am and Yarov'am both began
at the same time, and yet we read that
R'hav'am died after reigning for seventeen years (M'lachim Alef 14:21, Divrei Hayamim Beit 12:13) and was
succeeded by his son Aviyyam (called "Aviyyah" in Divrei Hayamim) in Yarov'am’s eighteenth year
(M'lachim Alef 15:1, Divrei Hayamim Beit 13:1);
Aviyyam died after reigning for three years (M'lachim Alef 15:2, Divrei Hayamim Beit 13:2) and was
succeeded by his son Asa in in Yarov'am’s twentieth year (M'lachim Alef 15:9);

but.....
Yarov'am died after reigning for twenty-two years (M'lachim Alef 14:20) and was succeeded by his son Nadav
in Asa’s second year (M'lachim Alef 15:25); and
Nadav reigned for two years (M'lachim Alef 15:25) and in Asa’s third year was assassinated by Ba'asha ben
Ahiyyah, who took his place (M'lachim Alef 15:28).
Now, as we have seen, when Shlomoh died in Ex516 (2963/64), his son R'hav'am succeeded him.
Following the traditional Judæan practice, R'hav'am had then counted the remainder of Ex516 as his
own "accession-year" and started to number the years of his reign when the next Exodus calendar year
(Ex517) began on 1st Nisan 2964. Then, when he died in his "17th year" (Ex533, or 2980/81), his son
Aviyyam did the same: he counted the remainder of Ex533 as his "accession-year" and started to number
the years of his reign when the next Exodus calendar year (Ex534) began on 1st Nisan 2981—and three
years later, when he died in his "3rd year" (Ex536, or 2983/84), his son Asa counted the remainder of
Ex536 as his "accession-year" and started to number the years of his reign when the next Exodus
calendar year (Ex537) began on 1st Nisan 2984
The northern kings, however, cannot have been counting the years of their reigns in the same way
because, if they had, Asa’s reign would have started in Yarov'am’s 21st rather than in his 20th (as both
M'lachim and Divrei Hayamim record); furthermore, it is necessary for Yarov'am to have introduced
both changes to the way the northern kings reckoned the years of their reigns, because if he had retained
the Exodus calendar but abandoned accession-year reckoning in favour of the alternative system that
counts the year in which one king is succeeded by another as the last year of one king and the first year
of the other, Asa’s reign would have begun in Yarov'am’s 21st, whereas if Yarov'am had only abandoned
the Exodus calendar but had retained accession-year reckoning, Asa’s reign would have begun in
Yarov'am’s 21st/22nd and Nadav’s reign would have begun in Asa’s 2nd/3rd, but now we find that
Ba'asha’s reign would have begun in Asa’s 4th/5th and not in his 3rd, as stated in M'lachim Alef 15:28
and 15:33. In fact, a rational chronology that is consistent with all the Biblical data can only be
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xxvii

constructed if it is assumed that the southern kings continued to use the Exodus calendar together with
accession-year reckoning, while the northern kings abandoned the Exodus calendar in favour of the
secular Creation calendar, and also abandoned accession-year reckoning in favour of shared-year
reckoning. We are now ready to trace the chronology of the two parallel kingdoms as recorded in
M'lachim and Divrei Hayamim.

Kings of Yisrael (the northern kingdom)


Yarov'am I (ben N'vat), 2964-2985
Yarov'am I reigned over Yisrael for 22 years (M'lachim Alef 14:20); he was succeeded by his son Nadav.

Nadav, 2985-2986
Nadav came to the throne in Asa of Y'hudah’s 2nd year (M'lachim Alef 15:25) and reigned for 2 years
(M'lachim Alef 15:25). He was assassinated by Ba'asha ben A iyyah.

Ba'asha, 2986-3009
Ba'asha assassinated Nadav and claimed the throne in Asa of Y'hudah’s 3rd year (M'lachim Alef 15:28
& 15:33) and reigned for 24 years (M'lachim Alef 15:33). He was succeeded by his son Élah.

Élah, 3009-3010
Élah came to the throne in Asa of Y'hudah’s 26th year (M'lachim Alef 16:8) and reigned for 2 years
(ibid.). He was assassinated by Zimri, "the commander of half of his chariots" (verse 9).

Zimri, 3010
Zimri reigned over Yisrael for only seven days, during Asa of Y'hudah’s 27th year (M'lachim Alef
16:15). He was attacked in his palace by Omri, who had already been proclaimed king on the battle-field
(verses 16-17)—Zimri committed suicide by setting fire to his own palace (verse 18) to avoid capture,
which would certainly have resulted in his execution.

The Civil War, 3010-3015


Omri’s support was not universal, however, and many of the people favoured a rival, Tivni ben Ginat.
Civil war broke out, lasting for six years until Omri’s supporters defeated Tivni's, Tivni himself was
killed, and Omri began to reign unopposed, in Asa’s 31st year (M'lachim Alef 16:21-23).

Omri, 3010-3021
Omri reigned for a total of 12 years (M'lachim Alef 16:23), including the duration of the six years of
Civil War. After the Civil War was over,

"...he bought the hill at Shomron from Shemer for two kikkars (6,000 sh'kalim, or about 4.2kg) of silver; he
then built up the hill and named the city that he had built after Shemer, the [original] owner of the Shomron
hill" (M'lachim Alef 16:24)

and this great, fortified city then became his new capital. He was succeeded by his son Ah'av.

Ah'av, 3021-3042
Ah'av came to the throne in Asa of Y'hudah’s 38th year (M'lachim Alef 16:29) and reigned for 22 years
(ibid.). He was a wicked man by nature and, being of weak character, was greatly influenced by his
pagan wife Izevel, who was a royal princess in her own right—she was the daughter of the Tzidonian
xxviii Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

king Etba'al (verse 31). Ah'av was sensible enough, though, to realise that the constant feuding and
bickering with the southern kingdom, that had been going on ever since Yarov'am I’s secession some
half a century earlier, was not benefitting either kingdom, and he responded positively to Y'hoshafat’s
peace-overtures (M'lachim Alef 22:45), sealing an alliance with Y'hudah in the time-honoured fashion by
marrying his daughter Atalyah to Y'hoshafat’s son Y'horam (see M'lachim Beit 8:18, and also Divrei
Hayamim Beit 18:1 & 21:6). The two men actually seem to have become quite friendly, because in
M'lachim Alef 22:2 we read about Y'hoshafat paying what appears to have been a social visit to Shomron
(the northern kingdom’s new capital) and, in verse 4, he readily agrees to Ah'av’s suggestion that they
join forces to mount a campaign to reclaim the Gil'ad Heights from the Syrians whose king, ben-Hadad,
had promised (M'lachim Alef 20:34) to return all the lands the Syrians he had previously taken from
Yisrael, but the Gil'ad Heights had apparently been overlooked. Ah'av was killed in the ensuing battle,
and was succeeded by his son Ahazyah (M'lachim Alef 22:34-40); which places the battle in the year
3042, Ah'av’s 22nd, corresponding to Y'hoshafat’s 17th/18th and, indeed, the text states explicitly that
Ah'av’s death and the succession of his son Ahazyah took place during Y'hoshafat’s 17th year (M'lachim
Alef 22:52).

Ahazyah, 3042-3043
Ahazyah came to the throne Y'hoshafat’s 17th year and reigned for 2 years (M'lachim Alef 22:52). He
died from injuries sustained when he accidentally fell from the balcony of his bedroom in the palace at
Shomron and, having no heir, was succeeded by his brother Y'horam, another of Ah'av’s sons, whose
reign is said to have begun in Y'horam of Y'hudah’s 2nd year (M'lachim Beit 1:2, 1:17), and also in
Y'hoshafat of Y'hudah’s 18th year (M'lachim Beit 3:1).

But wait—how can that be? Y'hoshafat’s reign began in 3025/26, so his 18th year was 3042/43. He
didn't die until 3050/51 and his son Y'horam’s reign didn't begin until 3051/52, and yet the text seems to
be saying that Ah'av’s son Ahazyah—who came to the throne in 3042—began to reign both in
Y'hoshafat’s 18th (M'lachim Beit 3:1), and also in the 2nd year of Y'hoshafat’s son Y'horam (M'lachim
Beit 1:17)!!!

What are we to make of these apparently contradictory statements? Well, we have already seen that the
first battle of the Gil'ad Heights, in which Ah'av died, took place in 3042, corresponding to Y'hoshafat’s
17th and 18th years; so is it carrying speculation too far to suggest that he left his son reigning in his
absence while he was away fighting? This was a common enough practice in ancient times. The
accession of Ah'av’s son Ahazyah would then have occurred during Y'horam’s 2nd year as regent, and
also in Y'hoshafat’s 18th year, just as the text states.

Y'horam, 3043-3054
Y'horam reigned over Yisrael for 12 years (M'lachim Beit 3:1). Just as his father had done, he joined
forces with the Judæan king (Y'horam’s son Ahazyah) in a further attempt to recapture the Gil'ad
Heights (M'lachim Beit 8:28-29). The text does not say how successful this campaign was, but it does
record that Y'horam was wounded. Soon after, the Judæan king went to visit his northern counterpart,
who was recuperating from his injuries at Yizr'el, and it was there that they encountered Yéhu, who
assassinated both of them (M'lachim Beit 9:24-27).

Yéhu, 3055-3082
Yéhu reigned for 28 years (M'lachim Beit 10:36) and was succeeded by his son Y'hoahaz.
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xxix

Y'hoahaz, 3082-3098
Y'hoahaz came to the throne in Yo'ash of Yh'udah’s 23rd year and reigned for 17 years (M'lachim Beit
13:1); he seems to have crowned his son Y'hoash regent in 3096/97, which was Yo'ash of Y'hudah’s 37th
year (M'lachim Beit 13:10); but Y'hoash did not actually become king until 3099 when Y'hoahaz died.

Y'hoash, 3099-3114
Y'hoash came to the throne on his father’s death and reigned for 16 years (M'lachim Beit 13:10); like his
father had done to him, he seems to have crowned his son Yarov'am II regent while he was still alive and
reigned jointly with him for 3 years (see below).

Yarov'am II, 3112-3152


Yarov'am II reigned over Yisrael for 41 years (M'lachim Beit 14:23); his 1st, 2nd and 3rd years
coincided with Y'hoash’s 14th, 15th and 16th years—this must be so, or Yarov'am II’s 41st year, when
he died and was succeeded by his son Z'charyah, couldn't have coincided with Azaryah/Uzziyahu’s 38th
(see below). Note however, that 3141 (the year in which Azaryah/Uzziyahu of Y'hudah was stricken with
tzara'at—levitical leprosy—and in which the Earthquake occurred), was Yarov'am’s "27th year"
(M'lachim Beit 15:1) as sole monarch: it was actually his 30th year as king, including the three years he
reigned jointly with his father. He was succeeded by his son Z'charyah.

The photograph below shows a seal made of jasper (a variety of quartz), found at M'giddo in 1903. The
inscription, in ancient Hebrew script, reads ‫לשמע עבד ירבעם‬, or "[belonging] to Shéma, Yarov'am’s
servant". The seal is believed to date from the reign of King Yarov'am II (812-772 BCE)—it is not
known who "Shéma" was.

Z'charyah, 3152-3153
Z'charyah came to the throne in Azaryah/Uzziyahu’s 38th year (M'lachim Beit 15:8) and reigned for 6
xxx Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

months (M'lachim Beit 15:8); he was assassinated by Shallum ben Yavesh… his 6-month reign must
therefore have run over the New Year into 3153.

Shallum, 3153
Shallum assassinated Z'charyah and claimed the northern kingdom’s throne in Azaryah/Uzziyahu’s 39th
year, and reigned for just one month (M'lachim Beit 15:13); he was assassinated by M'nahem ben Gadi.

M'nahem, 3154-3163
M'nahem assassinated Shallum and claimed the throne in Azaryah/Uzziyahu’s 39th year, and reigned for
10 years (M'lachim Beit 15:17). He was succeeded by his son P'kahyah.

P'kahyah, 3164-3165
P'kahyah came to the throne in Azaryah/Uzziyahu’s 50th year and reigned for 2 years (M'lachim Beit
15:23). He was assassinated by Pekah ben R'malyahu.

Pekah, 3166-3185
Pekah assassinated P'kahyah and claimed the northern kingdom’s throne in Azaryah/Uzziyahu’s 52nd
year, and reigned for 20 years (M'lachim Beit 15:27). At the beginning of Ahaz of Y'hudah’s reign
(ca.3182/83), he formed an alliance with the Syrian king, R'tzin, and together they launched an abortive
attack on Y'rushalayim (M'lachim Beit 15:37; Y'shayahu 7:1). The prophet Y'shayahu prophesied their
deaths (7:14-16), which occurred in Ex738 (3185/86). Pekah was assassinated by Hoshé'a ben Élah.

Hoshé'a, 3186-3203
Hoshé'a ben Élah was the last king to occupy the throne of the northern kingdom, which he acquired by
assassinating Pekah in the 20th year of Yotam’s reign (M'lachim Beit 15:30)… or rather what would
have been Yotam’s 20th year if he had still been alive: in fact, Yotam only reigned for 16 years, and then
died and was succeeded by his son Ahaz (M'lachim Beit 15:33, 15:38), so that year was actually Ahaz’s
4th. Pekah reigned for 20 years (M'lachim Beit 15:27)—from 3166 until 3185, inclusive—which
confirms the year of Pekah’s assassination.

Now the Scriptural account becomes confusing, because M'lachim Beit 17:1 says that Hoshé'a began to
reign in Ahaz’s twelfth year! Reading on in M'lachim Beit 17, we find that Hoshé'a was attacked and
subjugated by the Assyrian king, Shalman-Esar V, who in 727BCE succeeded his father Tiglat-Pileser III
(the same Assyrian king that had attacked Pekah not long before as recorded in M'lachim Beit 15:29,
just before Hoshé'a assassinated him, and whose aid Ahaz had bought to discourage the Aramean king
R'tzin from attacking him again, as recorded in M'lachim Beit 16:5-9; see also Y'shayahu 7:1-2).

Hoshé'a seems to have accepted the situation and paid tribute to the Assyrian king at first (M'lachim Beit
17:3)—although the text doesn't say for how long—but "then the Assyrian king discovered that Hoshé'a
had betrayed him and corresponding with the Egyptian king So, and was not paying his annual tribute
as he had in previous years; the Assyrian king therefore arrested him and threw him into prison,
invaded the whole country and laid siege to Shomron for three years…" (M'lachim Beit 18:4-5). The
"Egyptian king So" was Pharaoh Osorkon IV, an obscure king of Egypt’s 23rd Dynasty who reigned
ca.735-712 BCE. The siege lasted from Hiz'kiyyahu’s 4th and Hoshé'a’s 7th (Ex754, 3201) until
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xxxi

Hiz'kiyyahu’s 6th and Hoshé'a’s 9th (Ex756, or 3203), when Shomron was captured and the northern
kingdom came to an end (M'lachim Beit 18:9-11).

Just to make matters even more confusing, M'lachim Beit 18:1 places the beginning of Hiz'kiyyahu’s
reign in Hoshé'a’s third year, which is absurd because, as we have seen, Hoshé'a took the throne from
Pekah in the 4th year of Hiz'kiyyahu’s father Ahaz, and Ahaz had reigned a further twelve years after
that—which means that Hiz'kiyyahu’s reign should have begun in about Hoshé'a’s 12th. So what is
going on?

Recall that, at first, Hoshé'a had been subjugated by the Assyrian king and had accepted this situation
and paid tribute for an unspecified number of years before he had asserted his independence and refused
to pay up any longer. Now we can fill up the blank: Hoshé'a was dominated by the Assyrian king
Shalman-Eser for 8 years, from 3186 until 3193, and then, in the 9th year (3194), corresponding to
Ahaz’s 12th, he rebelled against Assyrian domination and re-asserted his independence, counting the
years of his independent reign starting in 3195. Then, Ahaz died and was succeeded by his son
Hiz'kiyyahu (in 3197), which was the 3rd year of Hoshé'a’s independent reign… the siege of Shomron
began in 3201, which was the 7th year of Hoshé'a’s independent reign (corresponding to Hiz'kiyyahu’s
4th)… and Shomron fell in 2103, which was the 9th year of Hoshé'a’s independent reign
(corresponding to Hiz'kiyyahu’s 6th)—exactly as the M'lachim historian recorded.

The prophet Amos, writing "two years before the Earthquake" (Amos 1:1)—only a prophet could have
dated his writings like that!—i.e. in the year 3139, predicted the downfall of the northern kingdom
twice—

"Yarov'am [the second] will perish by the sword and Yisrael will be exiled from its land" (Amos 7:11)

"Your wife will behave immorally in the city, your sons and daughters will fall by the sword, and you yourself
will die on contaminated [i.e. foreign] soil— Yisrael will be exiled from its land" (Amos 7:17)

Amos did not, however, say when this was going to happen; that was left to another prophet—
Y'shayahu—who, at the beginning of Ahaz’s reign, declared

"…after 65 years, Efrayim will be crushed and will no longer be an independent country" (Y'shayahu 7:8)
("Efrayim" was a common metaphor for the northern kingdom frequently used by the prophets, because
its founder, Yarov'am I, had been from that tribe—see M'lachim Alef 11:26). But from the date of
Y'shayahu’s declaration to the fall of Shomron was nothing like 65 years; it was 22 years at the most,
because Ahaz reigned for a total of 16 years (M'lachim Beit 16:2) and Shomron fell in his son
Hiz'kiyyahu’s 6th year (M'lachim Beit 18:10). So did Y'shayahu get it wrong? No—it was Amos’s
prophecy, not his, and he was saying how long after Amos had originally foretold the overthrow of the
northern kingdom it was going to occur. And he was spot-on, too: following the usual Hebrew
convention of counting years "of" an event (as opposed to years "after" it), the 65th year "of" Amos’s
prophecy—that is, the 64th year after it—was 3203, precisely the year that Shomron was captured and
destroyed.

Kings of Y'hudah (the southern kingdom)

R'hav'am, Ex517-533 (2964/65-2980/81)


xxxii Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

R'hav'am reigned in Y'hudah for 17 years (M'lachim Alef 15:1, Divrei Hayamim Beit 13:1). He was
succeeded by his son Aviyyam (who is called Aviyyah in Divrei Hayamim).

In the 5th year of his reign (Ex521, or 2968/69—i.e. ca.956 BCE), R'hav'am was attacked by "the
Egyptian king Shishak" (M'lachim Alef 14:25, Divrei Hayamim Beit 12:2). This was probably Pharaoh
Hedj-kheper-ra Sheshonq I (22nd Dynasty), who reigned ca.945-924 BCE according to Egyptologists;
but it seems from this verse that he was already in power at least 10 years earlier, and Yarov'am (ben
N'vat) is also said to have sought refuge with him even earlier still, during the reign of Shlomoh
(M'lachim Alef 11:40). It is possible that he acted as regent before becoming Pharaoh; or perhaps the
Biblical authors, writing long after the event, just called him "king" because he had later been king.

Aviyyam, Ex534-536 (2981/82-2983/84)


Aviyyam came to the throne in Yarov'am I’s 18th year (M'lachim Alef 15:1) and reigned for 3 years
(M'lachim Alef 15:2, Divrei Hayamim Beit 13:2). He was succeeded by his son Asa (he is called Aviyyah
in Divrei Hayamim).

Asa, Ex537-577 (2984/85-3024/25)


Asa came to the throne in Yarov'am I’s 20th year (M'lachim Alef 15:9) and reigned for 41 years
(M'lachim Alef 15:10, Divrei Hayamim Beit 16:3). He was succeeded by his son Y'hoshafat.

Y'hoshafat, Ex578-602 (3025/26-3049/50)


Y'hoshafat came to the throne in Ah'av’s 4th year (M'lachim Alef 22:41) and reigned for 25 years
(M'lachim Alef 25:42); as explained above, he appointed his son Y'horam regent to reign in his absence
while he was away with Ah'av fighting at the first battle of the Gil'ad Heights, in his 17th year (Ex594,
or 3041/42); he also seems to have crowned Y'horam as his successor during his own lifetime (see
below).

Y'horam, Ex600 (3047/48) - 3054


Y'hoshafat crowned his son Y'horam as his successor in Joram of Yisrael’s 5th year, "while Y'hoshafat
was [still] alive" (M'lachim Alef 8:16). Y'horam reigned for 8 years (M'lachim Beit 8:17), thus his 1st,
2nd and 3rd years coincided with his father Y'hoshafat’s 23rd, 24th and 25th. Y'horam was a thoroughly
wicked man, who followed the ways of the kings of Yisrael, [doing all the things] that Ah'av’s House
had done—for Ah'av’s daughter had become his wife (M'lachim Beit 8:18; see also Divrei Hayamim Beit
21:6). He had a most unpleasant and ignominious end, which was was foretold to him in a letter that the
prophet Éliyyahu sent him: his death from a prolapsed bowel is recorded in graphic detail in Divrei
Hayamim:

…he received a letter from the prophet Éliyyahu, which said: "Adonai, your ancestor David’s God, has decreed
this… you will suffer recurrent attacks of an intentinal complaint, until your bowel protrudes because of the
illness—for a year and then another year"… after this, Adonai inflicted an incurable bowel disease on him: he
suffered from it for a full year and then it became progressively more severe until, when the two-year deadline
arrived, his bowel protruded and he died in agony… he… had reigned for 8 years. When he departed, he was
not mourned; they buried him in David’s city but not in the Royal Tombs. The people of Y'rushalayim had
already made his youngest son Ahazyah king, because all his older sons had been killed… thus Y'horam’s son
Ahazyah became king of Y'hudah (Divrei Hayamim Beit 21:12-22:2).

Y'hoshafat had crowned Y'horam as his successor in the 5th year of Ah'av’s son Yoram—

Y'hoshafat’s son Y'horam, king of Y'hudah, began to reign in the 5th year of Ah'av’s son Yoram, king of Yisrael
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xxxiii

and [while] Y'hoshafat was [still] king of Y'hudah… (M'lachim Beit 8:16)

—that is to say, Y'hoshafat and Y'horam reigned together as co-regents for the last three years of
Y'hoshafat’s reign (Ex600, 601 and 602). After Y'hoshafat died, Y'horam, following the ways of the
kings of Yisrael [and doing all the things] that Ah'av’s House had done, seems to to have gone so far
as to abandon the traditional Judæan method of reckoning the years of a king’s reign in favour of the
northern method, counting the second half of Ex602 as his "4th year" and reckoning the years of his
reign in civil (Creation) calendar years, starting in Tishri, from his 5th year onwards. He died and was
succeeded by his son Ahazyah in Yoram ben Ah'av’s 12th year (3054)—although Ahazyah had already
been reigning as regent since the previous year (3053, Yoram ben Ah'av’s 11th) when Y'horam had
become too ill to reign (see below).

Ahazyah, 3055
Y'horam’s son Ahazyah only reigned for a few months after succeeding to the throne, although M'lachim
Beit 8:26 credits him with a reign of a full [regnal] year. Like his grandfather Y'hoshafat had done before
him, he joined forces with the northern king (Ah'av’s younger son, Yoram) to try to win back the Gil'ad
Heights from the occupying Syrians; it is difficult to gauge from the Scriptural narrative just how
successful this campaign was, but we do know that Yoram was wounded in the battle (M'lachim
M'lachim Beit 8:28-29). Not long afterwards, Ahazyah went to visit him at Yizr'el, where he was
recuperating from his battle-injuries, and it was there that they encountered Yéhu, who killed them both
(M'lachim Beit 9:21-28). Note that, even though M'lachim Beit 8:25 states that Ahazyah came to the
throne during Yoram ben Ah'av’s 12th year, Scripture adds a final comment to this passage (in 9:29)
recording that "he had [also] reigned during Y'horam ben Ah'av’s 11th year"—that is to say, when his
father Y'horam of Y'hudah had become too ill to reign.

Queen Atalyah, 3055-3060


Atalyah usurped the Judæan throne and made herself queen regnant at the same time as Yéhu claimed
the northern throne; she reigned for six years. She was was Ah'av’s and Iezevel’s daughter whom
Y'hoshafat’s son Y'horam had married, and also Ahazyah’s mother. The events that followed Yéhu’s
assassination of Ahazyah are recorded in the book of M'lachim

When Ahazyahu’s mother, Atalyah, learned that her son was dead, she arose and exterminated all the royal
offspring… but King Y'horam’s daughter, Y'hosheva—Ahazyahu’s sister—took Ahazyahu’s son Yo'ash and
smuggled him away from the king’s [other] sons who were being slaughtered… she hid him from Atalyah,
together with his nurse, in a dormitory, so he wasn't killed… he remained hidden with her in Adonai’s Temple
for 6 years, while Atalyah reigned over the land… and then, in the 7th year, Y'hoyada assembled the officers
who commanded the warriors and the foot-soldiers, and summoned them to a conference with him in Adonai’s
Temple; he agreed an alliance with them and made them swear an Oath of loyalty in Adonai’s Temple—and
then he produced to them the king’s son… (M'lachim Beit 11:1-4)

which is a little confusng because it begs the question Who was this Y'hoyada?—a question answered
by the parallel account in the Divrei Hayamim:

When Ahazyahu’s mother, Atalyah, learned that her son was dead, she rose up and exterminated all the royal
offspring of the House of Y'hudah… but Y'hoshav'at, the king’s daughter, took Ahazyahu’s son Yo'ash and
smuggled him away from the king’s [other] sons who were being slaughtered—she put him in a dormitory,
xxxiv Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

together with his nurse: king Y'horam’s daughter Y'hoshav'at, the Chief Kohen Y'hoyada’s wife, hid him from
Atalyah because she was Ahazyahu’s sister, so he was not killed… he remained hidden with them in God’s
Temple for 6 years, while Atalyah reigned over the land… and then, in the 7th year, Y'hoyada mustered his
courage and took the military commanders—Azaryah ben Y'roham, Yishma'el ben Y'hohanan, Azaryah ben
Oved, Ma'aseiyyah ben Adaiyah and Elishafat ben Zichri—into his confidence. They circulated throughout
Y'hudah and assembled the L'viyim from all the cities of Y'hudah, and the heads of all the Yisraelite clans—
and came to Y'rushalayim; all this assembly entered into an alliance with the king there, in God’s Temple; for
[Y'hoyada] had said to them "The king’s son should be reigning, as Adonai commanded about David’s
descendants"… (Divrei Hayamim Beit 22:10-23:3)

The usurper was then arrested and executed, and the rightful king was restored to the throne amid
general celebrations and rejoicing.

Yo'ash, Ex613-652 (3061-3099/3100)


Yo'ash was crowned in 3061, Yéhu’s 7th year (M'lachim Beit 12:2); he was generally a good king,
having been tutored by the Chief Kohen, Y'hoyada (who, together with his wife Y'hosheva, had saved
him from being murdered by Atalyah), although he seems to have rather gone off the rails in the latter
part of his reign. He reverted to the traditional Judæan method of reckoning the years of a king’s reign,
counting Ex614 (3061/62) as his second year, and reigned for 40 years (M'lachim Beit 12:2). Yo'ash was
succeeded by his son Amatz'yahu.

Amatz'yahu, Ex653-681 (3100/01-3128/29)


Amatz'yahu came to the throne in Y'hoash of Yisrael’s 2nd year (M'lachim Beit 14:1) and reigned for 29
years (M'lachim Beit 14:2). After defeating the Edomites and capturing Petra (M'lachim Beit 14:7), he
challenged Yéhu’s grandson Y'hoash, the northern king, to battle (M'lachim Beit 14:8, see also Divrei
Hayamim Beit 25:17). The Divrei Hayamim account elaborates on this: to augment his own forces for
the battle with the Edomites, Amatz'yahu had hired 100,000 mercenaries from the northern kingdom; but
had dismissed them after being warned by an unnamed prophet that he would be defeated if he allowed
them to fight alongside the Judæans. Amatz'yahu had paid the mercenaries one hundred kikars (or
"talents")—more than two metric tonnes—of silver for their services and, in an amusing human note
(Divrei Hayamim Beit 25:9), he says to the unnamed prophet, "So what about my one hundred kikars of
silver?"—to which he receives the terse response: "Adonai can give you much more than that!"

But when Amatz'yahu had summarily dismissed the mercenaries, they had been grossly insulted and, in
revenge, had embarked on a rampage of killing and plundering through the cities of Y'hudah (Divrei
Hayamim Beit 25:13). It was because Y'hoash had done nothing to prevent this, or even to punish those
responsible, that Amatz'yahu declared war on him. Y'hoash had no desire to fight his brothers in the
south, but Amatz'yahu persisted and marched his army towards Shomron; so Y'hoash was forced to
mobilise his own army and invade Y'hudah to confront the approaching Judæan forces, and there was a
battle at Beit-Shemesh in northern Y'hudah. Amatz'yahu’s army was defeated and he himself was
captured, after which Y'hoash marched on Y'rushalayim and plundered the Temple and the Royal
Treasuries (M'lachim Beit 14:11-14, Divrei Hayamim Beit 25:20-24). Y'hoash died soon after that and
Amatz'yahu either escaped or was released; he outlived Y'hoash by 15 years (M'lachim Beit 14:17,
Divrei Hayamim Beit 25:25). But after his defeat and capture at Beit-Shemesh, Amatz'yahu seems to
have lost the confidence of his subjects. M'lachim Beit 14:17-21 records that

Amatz'yahu… lived for a further 15 years after Y'hoash’s death… there was an uprising against him in
Y'rushalayim, but he escaped to Lachish—so they sent after him to Lachish and assassinated him there. He was
brought in a procession of horses to be buried in Y'rushalayim, in his ancestors' tombs in David’s City;
meanwhile, all the people of Y'hudah had already taken his son Azaryah, who was just 16 years old, and
crowned him in his father Amatz'yahu’s place…
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xxxv

and the version in Divrei Hayamim Beit 25:25-26:1 has a few extra words…

Amatz'yahu… lived a further 15 years after the death of Y'hoash… from the time that Amatz'yahu turned away
from Adonai and there was an uprising against him in Y'rushalayim…

suggesting that the uprising against Amatz'yahu, his flight to Lachish, and the popular crowning of his
son Azaryah (who is called Uzziyahu in Divrei Hayamim) in his place, all coincided with Y'hoash’s
death (which occurred in Amatz'yahu’s 15th year), and that he spent the whole of the last 15 years of his
reign (from his 15th until his 29th inclusive) in hiding at Lachish while his son Azaryah/Uzziyahu ruled
by popular consent.

Azaryah/Uzziyahu, Ex667-718 (3114/15-3165/66)


Azaryah/Uzziyahu reigned in Y'hudah for 52 years (M'lachim Beit 15:2). The narrative of the book of
M'lachim glosses over his long reign in just a few short verses:

Azaryah ben Amatz'yahu, king of Y'hudah was [already] reigning in King Yarov'am [II] of Yisrael’s 27th
year (he had been 16 years old when he came to power, and he reigned in Y'rushalayim for 52 years)…
when Adonai struck the king with the Plague: he remained a leper from then until the day he died, living in
an isolation-home—the king’s son Yotam took over the Royal Household and governed the people of the
land… When Azaryah passed away they buried him with his fathers in David’s City; his son Yotam
succeeded him (M'lachim Beit 15:1-7).

Actually, most English translations of M'lachim Beit 15:1 say In the 27th year of Yarov'am, king of
Yisrael, Azaryah ben Amatz'yahu, king of Y'hudah, began to reign. But it’s abundantly clear from the
chronologies of the two parallel kingdoms that Azaryah/Uzziyahu must have come to power many, many
years before Yarov'am II’s 27th year. The M'lachim historian’s meaning appears to be that "King
Azaryah of Y'hudah was already reigning in Yarov'am II’s 27th year, when Adonai struck him with the
Plague". The parallel account in Divrei Hayamim describes the circumstances in which
Azaryah/Uzziyahu came to be "stricken with the Plague":

…when he became strong, his arrogance was his downfall: he trespassed against Adonai his God—he
entered Adonai’s Sanctuary [and attempted] to offer incense on the Incense Altar. The Chief Kohen,
Azaryah, backed up by eighty of Adonai’s worthy kohanim, followed him in there… they confronted King
Uzziyahu and said to him, "Uzziyahu, it is not your place to offer incense before Adonai: only consecrated
kohanim, the descendants of Aharon, may do that! Leave the Sanctuary—you have trespassed, and you will
not be honoured by Adonai God for this". But Uzziyahu became angry—he had the censer in his hand,
ready to perform the incense cermony—and when he lost his temper with the kohanim, a leprous [lesion]
flared up on his forehead, there in front of the kohanim, inside Adonai’s Temple, right by the Incense Altar.
The Chief Kohen, Azaryah, and all the other kohanim, examined him, and they declared him a m'tzora
(leper) because of [the lesion on] his forehead, so they rushed him away from there—he, too, was in a hurry
to leave, because Adonai had attacked him. King Uzziyahu remained a m'tzora until the day he died, living
in an isolation-home and banned from entering Adonai’s Temple because he was a m'tzora. His son Yotam
took charge of the Royal Household and governed the people of the land… when Uzziyahu passed away,
they buried him with his fathers in the [private] cemetery that belonged to the kings, because they said "He
was a m'tzora"; his son Yotam succeeded him (Divrei Hayamim Beit 26:16-23).

It’s a curious anomaly that this king is consistently called Azaryah in M'lachim, but Uzziyahu in Divrei
Hayamim. The two authors frequently use variant forms of many kings' names (for example, the
M'lachim historian calls R'hav'am’s son and successor Aviyyam while the Chronicler calls him Aviyyah),
but here we have two completely different names. The most likely explanation is that his real name was
Azaryah, but he was commonly known as Uzziyahu to avoid confusion with the Chief Kohen who was
also called Azaryah (as we see from the Divrei Hayamim account of the incense incident).
xxxvi Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

The Earthquake of Uzziyahu’s time, Ex693 (3140/41)


The prophet Z'charyah, whose prophecies are dated "the 2nd year of Darius I" (Z'charyah 1:1), or 520
BCE, refers to "the earthquake [that occurred] in the time of King Uzziyahu of Y'hudah" (14:5) in a
context which suggests that the event was still well-known in his time (just like the San Francisco
earthquake of 1906 is still remembered as a catastrophic event even today, over a century later).

The Earthquake of Uzziyahu’s time is not recorded explicitly anywhere in the Scriptures, but it must
have been a pretty bad one if people were still talking about it more than 250 years later. There are,
however, two oblique references to the Earthquake in the Bible: one is in the opening verse of Amos’s
writings, where he gives the date of his prophecies as "two years before the earthquake" (only a prophet
could have dated his writings in such a way!), and the other is a very obscure, oblique reference in
Y'shayahu, who remarks "the [Temple] doorposts had been shaken by the Voice of the One who was
crying out, because he was about to fill the Temple with smoke" (Y'shayahu 6:4).

But who "was about to fill the Temple with smoke"? Well, according to a well-established ancient
Hebrew tradition, Y'shayahu's Vision of the Divine Throne that he describes in his 6th chapter happened
at the same time that Uzziyahu was stricken with tzara'at (levitical leprosy): he hints at this when he
begins the chapter with the words "in the year that King Uzziyahu died…" (Y'shayahu 6:1)—the
"plague" of leprosy had long been thought of as a "living death" in Hebrew culture (compare B'midbar
12:12). For this reason, Y'shayahu 6:4 is understood as an oblique reference to Uzziyahu’s abortive
attempt to offer incense on the Incense Altar (see above); and, again according to ancient Hebrew
tradition, God Himself is supposed to have been so outraged by Uzziyahu’s sacrilege that He "cried out"
in protest and, as a result, the land was shaken by a tremendous earthquake which "shook the Temple
doorposts".

So when did this happen? Well, consider M'lachim Beit, chapter 15. The first verse appears to say that
Azaryah/Uzziyahu came to the throne in Yarov'am II’s 27th year; but see my comments at the start of the
notes about Azaryah/Uzziyahu. Now everything falls into place: Azaryah/Uzziyahu’s reign had actually
begun when the people crowned him in his father’s 15th year (Ex667), after Amatz'yahu had effectively
been deposed in a popular uprising, and the incense incident, which resulted in Azaryah/Uzziyahu being
stricked with tzara'at, occurred in Yarov'am II’s 27th year (3138), that is, in Azaryah/Uzziyahu’s 24th or
25th. Yotam then took over as regent and "governed" the people (M'lachim Beit 15:5, Divrei Hayamim
Beit 26:21), but did not take the title King until he ascended the throne after Azaryah/Uzziyahu died.

Yotam, Ex719-734 (3166/67-3181/82)


Yotam came to the throne in Pekah’s 2nd year (M'lachim Beit 15:32) and reigned for 16 years (M'lachim
Beit 15:33). He was succeeded by his son Ahaz.

Ahaz, Ex735-750 (3182/83-3197/98)


Ahaz came to the throne in Pekah’s 17th year (M'lachim Beit 16:1) and reigned for 16 years (M'lachim
Beit 16:2). He was one of the most wicked of all the kings of Y'hudah—he even sacrificed his own son
to the Molech idol, in whose shrine children were burned alive (see M'lachim Beit 16:3). He was young
(just 20 years old when he came to the throne) and inexperienced, and very stubborn. At the beginning
of his reign Pekah, the king of the northern kingdom, formed an alliance with the Syrian king, R'tzin,
and they jointly attacked Y'rushalayim; the attack failed, but Ahaz remained terrified that they would
return and attack him again:

At the beginning of [lit., "In"] the reign of Ahaz, ben Yotam, ben Uzziyahu—king of Y'hudah—R'tzin, king of
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xxxvii

Syria, and Pekah ben R'malyahu, king of Yisrael, marched against Y'rushalayim to attack it, but they were not
able to defeat it. The Davidic king was told "Syria has formed an alliance with Efrayim"… and his heart, and
his peoples' hearts, fluttered like the trees in a forest flutter in the wind (Y'shayahu 7:1-2).

Ahaz’s problem was that he didn't believe in God, and didn't trust Y'shayahu, whom he believed to be a
fraud and not a true prophet at all. So he is made a rare, possibly a unique, offer: he can challenge God
to prove Y'shayahu’s prophetic credentials and ask for any demonstration of his own choice. But Ahaz
refuses the offer (Y'shayahu 7:10-12). Y'shayahu’s response is very human: he loses his temper with the
stubborn young king (who was, incidentally, his first cousin’s grandson: the Talmud records in Treatise
M'gillah, folio 10b, and Treatise Sotah, folio 10b, a tradition that Y'shayahu’s father Amotz and King
Amatz'yahu were brothers)—

"Now listen here," he yells at the stubborn young king: "Aren't you satisfied with frustrating me—do you have
to frustrate my God too? You are going to have a 'sign', whether you want one or not, and if you won't choose
it for yourself, God will choose it for you! See that pregnant teenager? She is about to give birth to a son… he
will grow up eating cream and honey, so he will learn [very quickly] to refuse poor [food] and insist on the
best; and even before he has learned that much, the land will be rid of the two kings you're so scared of!"
(Y'shayahu 7:13-16).

This passage will be very familiar to christians (apart from the last two verses), because the first part of
the prediction is dishonestly quoted by the author of "matthew" (at 1:23), who pretends it is a prophecy
of the christian idol-baby’s "virgin birth". It is, however, perfectly clear from both the language and the
context that the baby Y'shayahu was referring to was about to be born right then, when he was speaking;
and, in fact, the prophecy was fulfilled less than 4 years later: Pekah was assassinated by Hoshé'a ben
Élah in the 4th year of Ahaz’s reign (M'lachim Beit 15:30) and R'tzin was killed in battle soon after by
the Assyrian king Tiglat-Pileser III (M'lachim Beit 16:9): Y'shayahu’s only reason for mentioning the
baby was to provide a time-frame within which his prediction was going to come about.

Ahaz was succeeded by his son Hiz'kiyyahu.

Hiz'kiyyahu, Ex751-779 (3198/99-3226/27)


Hiz'kiyyahu came to the throne in the 3rd year of Hoshé'a’s unilaterally-declared independence from the
Assyrians (M'lachim Beit 18:1)—see notes on Hoshé'a’s reign, above; Hiz'kiyyahu reigned in Y'hudah
for 29 years (M'lachim Beit 18:2). In his 14th year (Ex764, or ca.713 BCE), he was attacked by the
armies of the Assyrian king Sargon II (who reigned ca.721-705 BCE), commanded by the king’s son
Sanhériv (Sennacherib——M'lachim Beit 18:13ff). The account in M'lachim doesn't mention Sargon,
but 18:17 does refer to a military commander named Tartan, who Y'shayahu tells us was Sargon’s
general (Y'shayahu 20:1). In fact, Sennacherib didn't become king of Assyria until his father died in
ca.704 BCE, nearly ten years after this campaign.

Rejecting the Assyrian commander’s crude threat to maintain the siege of Y'rushalayim until the people
were reduced to "eating their own shit and drinking their own piss" (M'lachim Beit 18:27, Y'shayahu
36:12; literal translation), the pious Hiz'kiyyahu turned to God and appealed to the prophet Y'shayahu for
help (M'lachim Beit 19:1-2); God immediately intervened and 185,000 Assyrian soldiers miraculously
died in their sleep that very night (19:35). After that, Sennacherib returned to Nineveh in disgrace, never
to venture against Y'hudah again. He was assassinated by two of his own sons more than 30 years later,
and was succeeded by a third son, Ésar-Haddon (M'lachim Beit 19:36, and corroborated by surviving
Assyrian records), whose "first year", according to Ptolemy’s "Royal Canon" was 680 BCE (see
xxxviii Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Appendix I).

After the Assyrian attack on Y'rushalayim, there was peace in Y'hudah for more than 100 years, until
Pharaoh Wehem-ib-ra Nekau II’s attack on Yoshiyyahu at M'giddo in 610 BCE (see below); the prophet
Y'shayahu was alluding to this when he told Ahaz:

…a boy has been born for us—a son has been given to us—and one day he is destined to be king; God has
named him the "Peace-Prince" (Y'shayahu 9:5—but verse 6 in christian "versions").

Note Y'shayahu’s use of the past tense: "has been born" and "has been given". Hiz'kiyyahu was already 9
years old when Ahaz came to the throne, because he was 25 years old when he came to the throne
himself (M'lachim Beit 18:2) after Ahaz’s 16-year reign (M'lachim Beit 16:2). This is another verse that
christians claim is a reference to their idol-man; and to bolster that impression, their translations change
the verb vayikra, "he [has] called [the child’s name]" (which is identically the same word as the first
word of Vayikra 1:1 and occurs over 200 times throughout the Bible) from the active voice of the past
tense into the passive voice of the future tense, and render it as "it [the child’s name] shall be called", so
that the list of Divine titles "Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty God, Eternal Father" (which I have
translated above using the single word "God") cease to be the subject of the verb—i.e., the one doing the
"calling"—and become part of the child’s "name". Wow, a child "whose name shall be called God"—
it’s obviously a reference to the idol-man! Except that isn't what Y'#shayahu actually said.

Hiz'kiyyahu was succeeded by his son M'nasheh.

M'nasheh, Ex780-834 (3227/28-3281/82)


M'nasheh’s reign was the longest of any of the Judæan kings—55 years (M'lachim Beit 21:1). He was
succeeded by his son Amon.

Amon, Ex835-836 (3282/83-3283/84)


Amon reigned in Y'hudah for two years (M'lachim Beit 21:19); he was assassinated by his own servants,
but the conspirators were executed and his son Yoshiyyahu was crowned as his successor (M'lachim Beit
23-24).

Yoshiyyahu, Ex837-867 (3284/85-3314/15)


Yoshiyyahu reigned for 31 years (M'lachim Beit 22:1, also Divrei Hayamim Beit 34:1): he was very
young (only 8 years old) when he succeeded Amon. The M'lachim account reports that he did what was
right in Adonai’s sight, following all the ways of his ancestor David, not deviating either to the right or
to the left" (M'lachim Beit 22:2) and the Chronicler adds

…in the 8th year of his reign, when he was still a boy [when he was 16 years old] he began to seek out his
ancestor David’s God, and in his 12th year [when he was 20] he began to purge Y'hudah and Y'rushalayim of
all the idolatrous shrines, the asherah-trees, the idols and the cast-statues: [his officials] tore down the Ba'al
altars in front of him and cut down the sun-images that were above them; he smashed and ground up the
asherah-trees, the idols and the cast-statues, and threw [the debris] over the graves of those who had sacrificed
to them. He burned the bones of the idolatrous priests on their own altars—he purified Y'hudah and
Y'rushalayim (Divrei Hayamim Beit 34:3-5).

Yoshiyyahu’s desecration of the idolatrous altars had been foretold 330 years earlier by an unnamed
prophet who had spoken out against Yarov'am I when he had first established his idolatrous twin-
temples at Dan and Beit-El:
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xxxix

Just then a man of God came from Y'hudah to Beit-El with Adonai’s Words. Yarov'am was standing by his
altar, about to offer incense; and [the Man of God] called out to the altar in Adona’s Name, "O Altar! Altar!
this is what Adonai says: A boy will be born from David’s House—his name will be Yoshiyyahu! he will
sacrifice on you the priests of the idolatrous shrines who burn incense on you; human bones will be burned on
you!" (M'lachim Alef 13:1-2)

In his 18th year (Ex854, 3301/02), Yoshiyyahu suddenly decided to renovate and repair the Temple

In King Yoshiyyahu’s 18th year, the king sent Shafan ben Azalyah ben M'shullam the Scribe to Adonai’s
Temple with these instructions: "Go to Hilkiyahu, the Chief Kohen, and have him collect all the money that is
brought to Adonai’s Temple, that the doorkeepers collect from the people—let him give it to the workers who
have been appointed to maintain Adonai’s Temple: they shall give it to the Temple craftsmen to repair the
deterioration of the building—the carpenters, the builders and the masons, and for the purchase of wood and
quarried stone, [whatever is needed] for the repairs to the Temple'…" (M'lachim Beit 22:3-6; see also Divrei
Hayamim Beit 34:8ff).

Now, the Temple buildings would certainly have been in need of some repair in Yoshiyyahu’s time, as
no major maintenance work had been carried out since the time of Yo'ash (see M'lachim Beit 12:7ff),
more than 200 years before. But what could have prompted Yoshiyyahu to do this specifically in his
18th—what was special about that year? Well, it so happens that 3302 was the last year of the sixteenth
Yovel cycle, and a Yovel year was due to begin halfway through Yoshiyyahu’s 18th. Is it too far-fetched
to suggest that the pious Yoshiyyahu wanted to restore the national shrine to its proper glory in time for
the Yovel celebrations later that year?

The end of Yoshiyyahu’s reign (and life) was rather unfortunate for such a righteous king. M'lachim tells
us:

In [Yoshiyyahu's] time, the Egyptian king Pharaoh N'cho was marching against the Assyrian king [who lived]
by the River Euphrates. King Yoshiyyahu went to confront him, but he killed him at M'giddo where he
confronted him… [Yoshiyyahu's] servants drove him, dead, from M'giddo and brought him to Y'rushalayim
where they buried him in his tomb. The common people chose Y'hoahaz ben Yoshiyyahu, anointed him, and
proclaimed him king as his father’s successor… (M'lachim Beit 23:29-30)

and the Chronicler elaborates:

After all this, when Yoshiyyahu had renovated the Temple, the Egyptian king N'cho was marching to make war
on Karch'mish by the Euphrates, and Yoshiyyahu went out to confront him. [The Egyptian king] sent
ambassadors to [Yoshiyyahu] bearing this message: "What quarrel is there between you and me, King of
Y'hudah? I am not attacking you but prosecuting my own war, and God has told me to hurry. Do not oppose
God, Who is with me, or you will be destroyed!" But Yoshiyyahu refused to back down, because he was
determined to fight, and he did not heed N'cho’s words, [which were] from God. The battle was joined in the
M'giddo Valley; and the archers shot at King Yoshiyyahu... the king said to his servants "Get me out of here, I
am badly wounded!" So his servants took him from his battle-chariot and drove him to Y'rushalayim in a
second carriage that he had… he died and was buried in his fathers' tombs—all of Y'hudah and Y'rushalayim
mourned for Yoshiyyahu… The common people chose Y'hoahaz ben Yoshiyyahu and anointed him in
Y'rushalayim to succeed his father… (Divrei Hayamim Beit 35:20-24; 36:1).

The "Egyptian king Necho" was Pharaoh Wehem-ib-ra Nekau II, who reigned ca.610-595 BCE:
Yoshiyyahu’s 31st year corresponds to ca.610 BCE, placing it right at the beginning of Nekau’s reign.

It should be noted that Y'hoahaz needed to be personally anointed because he was not the legal heir to
the throne: his brother Elyakim (Y'hoyakim) was actually two years older (compare M'lachim Beit 23:31
and 23:36).
xl Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Y'hoahaz, Ex868 (3315/16)


Y'hoahaz only reigned for three months (M'lachim Beit 23:31); he was deposed by Pharaoh Nekau, who
placed his brother Elyakim on the throne of Y'hudah, changing his name to Y'hoyakim (M'lachim Beit
23:33-34)

Y'hoyakim, Ex869-879 (3316/17-3326/27)


Y'hoyakim reigned in Y'hudah for 11 years (M'lachim Beit 23:36). It was in his 4th year that the
Chaldean king Nabopolassar died and his son Nabu-kudurri-utzur, better known as Nebuchadnezzar II,
became king of Babylonia—

…in the 4th year of Y'hoyakim ben Yoshiyyahu, king of Y'hudah, which was the first year of Nebuchadrezzar,
king of Babylonia… (Yirm'yahu 25:1)

Nebuchadnezzar’s succession is documented in a clay tablet, currently in the British Museum, London
(catalogue no. BM21946)—see Appendix II:

21st year [of Nabopolassar] — The king of Akkad stayed home while his eldest son, Nebuchadnezzar (the
crown prince) mustered the army. He took command of the troops and marched to Carchemish, which is on the
banks of the Euphrates. He crossed the river and confronted the Egyptian army which was encamped at
Carchemish… battle was joined and the Egyptian troops retreated before him… he inflicted a heavy defeat
upon them and eliminated them completely…
In the Hamath district, the army of Akkad overtook the remnants of the Egyptian troops which had escaped the
defeat: they inflicted a further defeat upon them and not a single Egyptian soldier returned home; at that time
Nebuchadnezzar conquered all of Hamath…
Nabopolassar died on 8th Av, having ruled Babylon for 21 years … Nebuchadnezzar returned to Babylon in the
month Elul and ascended the royal throne in Babylon on 1st Elul.
In his accession-year, Nebuchadnezzar returned to Hatti… he marched about victoriously in Hatti until the
month Sh'vat and in the month Sh'vat he brought the vast plunder from Hatti into Babylon. In the month Nisan
he took the hand of Bel and Bel’s son and celebrated the Akitu [New Year] feast…

The tablet then continues with Nebuchadnezzar’s "first year". The Battle of Carchemish is mentioned by
the prophet Yirm'yahu, who places it also in Y'hoyakim’s 4th year—

…concerning the army of Pharaoh N'cho, king of Egypt, which was [encamped] by the River Euphrates at
Carchemish, [and] which was defeated by the Babylonian king Nebuchadrezzar in the 4th year of
Y'hoyakim ben Yoshiyyahu, king of Y'hudah… (Yirm'yahu 46:2).

It is perhaps ironic that Nebuchadnezzar II, the most hated of all foreign kings in Hebrew history, who
overthrew the last remnant of the Hebrew Monarchy, destroyed Shlomoh’s Temple, and exiled our
people from our homeland, should provide the vital link between the Biblical dating systems and the
modern calendar. But this is the case, and it is so because the intensely superstitious Babylonians had a
deep belief in astrology and kept meticulous records of their observations of the heavens. One surviving
such diary (inscribed on a clay tablet known as VAT4956, owned by the Vorderasiatisches Museum in
East Berlin—see Appendix III) lists a large number of careful observations of astronomical phenomena
that occurred during months 1-3 and 10-12 of Nebuchadnezzar’s 37th year (the remainder of the tablet is
missing), and by means of modern computational techniques that year can be identified with absolute
certainty as the period corresponding to the 12 lunar months which began at sunset on 21st April, 568
BCE and ended at sunset on 10th April, 567 BCE.

Counting back 36 years before 568/7 BCE, we find that Nebuchadnezzar’s "first year" must have been
the Babylonian calendar year that ran from the spring of 604 BCE to the spring of 603 BCE, and this
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xli

unambiguously identifies the year that the Babylonian historian responsible for the Royal Diary tablet
BM21946 calls "Nabopolassar’s 21st year" and "Nebuchadnezzar’s accession-year" as the period from
the spring new-moon of 605 BCE to the spring new-moon of 604 BCE. The date of Nebuchadnezzar’s
accession, given by BM21946 as 1st Elul, corresponds to the Babylonian day that started at sunset on
6th September and ended at sunset on 7th September 605 BCE.

Our next task is to figure out how the Hebrew historians who authored the Biblical accounts would have
reckoned the years of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. The Talmud (Treatise Rosh Hashanah, folio 3a & folio
8a, and also Treatise Avodah Zarah, folio 10a) states that the Hebrew practice was to reckon the reigns
of Yisraelite kings and rulers (including Mosheh, Y'hoshua and the Judges) in spring-to-spring years, but
the reigns of gentile kings in autumn-to-autumn years—it is immaterial how the gentile nations reckoned
the reigns of their own kings, because the Scriptural accounts were written by Hebrew authors who
naturally would have adopted the Hebrew convention. The following, while not proving that the Biblical
writers consistently followed this practice throughout the Scriptural narratives, do provide evidence to
support these assertions:
1. Mosheh’s brother Aharon died at Mt. Hor "on the 1st day of the 5th month in the 40th
year of the Yisraelites' departure from Egypt" (B'midbar 33:38), before the Yisraelites
had arrived "on the other side of the [River] Yarden, in the land of Mo'av" (D'varim
1:5), where Mosheh made his farewell speech to Yisrael "on the 1st day of the 11th
month in the 40th year" (D'varim 1:3). It is clear from this that the "40th year of the
Yisraelites' departure from Egypt" was therefore being reckoned as a spring-to-spring
year, because if it had been an autumn-to-autumn year the "41st year" would have started
on the 1st day of the 7th month and the date given in D'varim 1:3 could not still have
been in the 40th year.

2. M'lachim Alef 6:1 equates the 4th year of Shlomoh’s reign to a year of the Exodus
calendar, the years of which (as just proved) are spring-to-spring years.

3. But the opposite is found in the case of the gentile king Artah-shasta (Darius I) in the
first two chapters of N'hemyah, because it is apparent from the context that the events of
Kislev in the 20th year of Artah-shas't (N'hemyah 1:1) took place before the events of
Nisan in the 20th year of King Artaxerxes (N'hemyah 2:1), showing that the author
considered this (gentile) king’s "20th year" to be an autumn-to-autumn year.

It follows that Nebuchadnezzar’s "first year", in Hebrew reckoning, began on 1st Tishri, a month after
his accession—that is, it was the period from the autumn new moon of 605 BCE to the autumn new moon
of 604 BCE, even though so far as the Babylonian historians were concerned, his "first year" did not
begin until six months later. Now we know from Yirm'yahu that half of this 12-month period overlapped
Y'hoyakim’s 4th year (which, as we shall soon see, was Ex872—corresponding to the second half of
3319 and the first half of 3320). But which half… in other words, was Nebuchadnezzar’s "1st year", in
Hebrew reckoning, 3319 or 3320?

Let’s examine Y'hoyakim’s reign in detail. He reigned for 11 years (M'lachim Beit 23:36, Divrei
Hayamim Beit 36:5), and during this time he was attacked twice by Nebuchadnezzar—once in the
latter’s "2nd year" (Talmud), when he made Y'hoyakim his vassal and was content to leave him on the
throne of Y'hudah provided he paid his annual tributes, and again in his (i.e. Nebuchadnezzar's) "8th
year" (M'lachim Beit 24:12), when he arrested him and bound him in chains for transport to Babylonia
(Divrei Hayamim Beit 36:6). But why did Nebuchadnezzar attack Y'hoyakim for a second time? Well,
after the first attack, Y'hoyakim had become his vassal for three years, but had then reneged and
xlii Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

rebelled against him (M'lachim Beit 24:1). That is to say, Y'hoyakim had accepted Babylonian
domination from Nebuchadnezzar’s 2nd year until his 5th, but from then on he had tried to free himself
from Babylonian domination. This continued for 3 years—from Nebuchadnezzar’s 5th year until his
8th—and it was then, in the third year of Y'hoyakim’s rebellion (see Dan. 1:1), but his 11th year actually
as king, that Nebuchadnezzar attacked him again.

The unfortunate Y'hoyakim was never taken to Babylonia, though. It is not clear what became of him (or,
indeed, how he came to be captured when Y'rushalayim had not in fact fallen), but he appears to have
died at that time (possibly at the hands of his Babylonian captors?). Even his burial is not recorded. But
it is recorded that he had reigned for 11 years (M'lachim Beit 23:36, Divrei Hayamim Beit 36:5), and that
his son Y'hoyachin succeeded him (M'lachim Beit 24:6, Divrei Hayamim Beit 36:8).

Y'hoyachin, Ex879 (3326/27)


Y'hoyachin (also known as Y'chonyah and as Konyah) had a very short reign: just 3 months (M'lachim
Beit 24:8) and 10 days (Divrei Hayamim Beit 36:9). The account in M'lachim says

"…at that time, Nebuchadnezzar’s servants had attacked Y'rushalayim and the city was under siege; then
Nebuchadnezzar himself came upon the city, while his servants were besieging it, and King Y'hoyachin of
Y'hudah surrendered to the king of Babylonia, together with his mother, his servants, his ministers-of-state and
his officials: the king of Babylonia arrested him in his eighth year…" (M'lachim Beit 24:10-12)

—that is to say, in Nebuchadnezzar’s 8th year—obviously not Y'hoyachin's, since he only reigned for a
few months! The Biblical account continues

…[Nebuchadnezzar] plundered all the treasuries of Adonai’s Temple and the treasuries of the king’s
palace, and also stripped off all the golden ornaments that King Shlomoh of Yisrael had decorated Adonai’s
Sanctuary with, as Adonai had instructed him… the king of Babylonia placed [Y'hoyachin's] uncle
Mattanyah on the throne in his place, changing his name to Tzid'kiyyahu… (M'lachim Beit 24:13-17)

The Babylonian Chronicle tablet BM21946, which I mentioned earlier, corroborates this account very
closely, even giving an exact date for Y'hoyachin’s arrest and deportation and the appointment of his
uncle as his replacement—

7th year [of Nebuchadnezzar]—In the month Kislev, the king of Akkad mustered his army and marched into
Hatti; he laid siege to the [capital] city of Y'hudah and on 2nd Adar he captured the city and arrested its king…
he appointed a king of his own choice in the city and returned to Babylonia bringing with him the vast plunder
that he had siezed.

The date given for the capture of Y'rushalayim and Y'hoyachin’s arrest—2nd Adar, Nebuchadnezzar’s
7th year (as reckoned by Babylonian historians)—corresponds to 16th March 597 BCE. Now, combining
the data from the Biblical narratives with the information from the Babylonian chronicle tablet, it
emerges that Y'hoyakim must have died around 20th Marheshvan, 597 BCE and his son Y'hoyachin then
reigned for the 3 months and 10 days from then until his arrest on 2nd Adar—i.e., right at the very end
of the Exodus year that ran from the spring of 598 BCE to the spring of 597 BCE—which was Y'hoyakim’s
11th year. This means that Y'hoyakim’s "1st year" (Ex869) was the year from the spring 608 BCE to the
spring of 607 BCE, and his "4th year" (Ex872)—during which Nebuchadnezzar came to power—was the
year from the spring of 605 BCE to the spring of 604 BCE.

We can now resolve the ambiguity concerning how Nebuchadnezzar’s "first year" was reckoned by the
Hebrew historians. The M'lachim author says that Y'hoyachin’s arrest occurred during
Nebuchadnezzar’s "8th year" (M'lachim Beit 24:12), and the Chronicler informs us that it happened at
the turn of the year (Divrei Hayamim Beit 36:10). This latter detail is confirmed by the Babylonian
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xliii

historian in BM21946, who records that it happened in Adar. This places Y'hoyachin’s removal from the
throne at the very end of the regnal year Ex879, which was also Y'hoyakim’s 11th, and half-way through
3327, which the M'lachim historian calls "Nebuchadnezzar’s 8th"… and that means that he was counting
3320, corresponding to the second half of Y'hoyakim’s 4th and the first half of his 5th, as
Nebuchadnezzar’s "first year".

Tzid'kiyyahu, Ex880-890 (3327/28-3337/38)


Tzid'kiyyahu, the last king of Y'hudah, reigned for 11 years (M'lachim Beit 24:18; Yirm'yahu 52:1;
Divrei Hayamim Beit 36:11). On the 10th day of Tevet in his 9th year, Nebuchadnezzar II again invaded
Y'hudah (the Chronicler informs us that Nebuchadnezzar had made Tzid'kiyyahu swear an oath of
allegiance to him in God’s Name, but Tzid'kiyyahu had reneged and "rebelled against him"—Divrei
Hayamim Beit 36:13) and laid siege to Y'rushalayim (M'lachim Beit 25:1, Yirm'yahu 52:4); this cannot
be confirmed from Babylonian sources because the Royal Diary tablet covering these years of
Nebuchadnezzar’s reign has so far not been found. The siege lasted for about 18 months, until the
summer of Tzid'kiyyahu’s 11th year, when, on 9th Tammuz, the city’s defences were overcome and Jeru-
salem fell (M'lachim Beit 25:2-4, Yirm'yahu 52:5-7). Tzid'kiyyahu was arrested and tried; his sons were
all killed; and he himself was blinded and chained for transport to Babylon where he was imprisoned for
the rest of his life (M'lachim Beit 25:5-7, Yirm'yahu 52:8-11). This was in the summer of 3337, or 587
BCE. It was in Av of the following year, i.e. 3338—Nebuchadnezzar’s 19th by Hebrew reckoning (the
summer of 586 BCE), that Nebuchadnezzar sent his army to Y'rushalayim once more under the command
of one Nebuzaradan (Nebū-shar-udān), and this is when Shlomoh’s Temple was destroyed. The Talmud
(Treatise Ta'anit, folio 29a) reports that

The heathens broke into the Santuary on the 7th of Av, and feasted and revelled in it on the 7th and on the 8th;
on the 9th, as it was getting dark, they set the building alight, and it continued to burn [all that night] and
throughout the following day [i.e. the 10th of Av].

This accounts for the apparent discrepancy between M'lachim Beit 25:8 which states that the destruction
occurred on the seventh of Av, and Yirm'yahu 52:12 which gives the date as the tenth.

The prophet Y'hezkel


As we have seen, Y'hoyachin was arrested by Nebuchadnezzar are deported to Babylonia (where he was
imprisoned until Nebuchadnezzar died 37 years later) in Adar of Nebuchadnezzar’s 7th year, as
reckoned by the Babylonian historian: this was the last month of the Exodus calendar year Ex879, and
halfway through Creation Calendar year 3327 (March 597 BCE) The first complete year "of Y'hoyachin’s
exile" was therefore Creation Calendar year 3328. Y'hezkel records that "on the 5th of the 10th month in
the 12th year of our exile, a refugee from Y'rushalayim came to me [and told me] that the city had been
stricken…" (33:21)—this was thus on the 5th Tevet 3339, some five months after the destruction of the
Temple. Similarly, when Y'hezkel dates his first Vision "in the 5th year of Y'hoyachin’s exile" (1:2), the
year he means is 3332 (which was the 30th year of the 17th Yovel, as we have already seen: compare
1:1); and when he refers to Yom Kippur of "the 25th year of our exile, and the 14th year after the city
was destroyed" (40:1), he means 10th Tishri 3352, because "the 1sy year after the city was destroyed"
would have been 3339.

The next historical event of interest recorded in the Bible is the death of Nebuchadnezzar and succession
of his son Amel-Mardûk (called Evil-M'rodach by the Biblical historians):

… on the 25th [or 27th] day of the 12th month in the 37th year of King Y'hoyachin of Y'hudah’s exile, King
Evil-Merodach of Babylonia, in his accession year, pardoned King Y'hoyachin of Y'hudah. He released him
from prison, ordered that he was to be well-treated, and accorded him greater dignity than any of the other
xliv Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

[captive] kings who were with him in Babylonia. [Y'hoyachin] changed out of his prison clothing and used
to dine frequently with [Evil-Merodach] for the rest of his life… he was provided with a daily allowance by
the king of Babylonia for the remainder of his life, until the day he died (M'lachim Beit 25:27-30,
Yirm'yahu 52:31-34).

The 37th year of Y'hoyachin’s exile, reckoned in the same way as before, was 3364, or 561/60 BCE: this
agrees well with secular history, which places Nebuchadnezzar’s death in 562/61 BCE. The book of
M'lachim and Yirm'yahu’s historical appendix (ch.52) both end at this point, and Divrei Hayamim adds
only an abridged version of the text of the Proclamation issued by Cyrus I ("Cyrus the Great") in 539
BCE, granting permission for the Judæan exiles to return to their shattered homeland and rebuild it (a
fuller version of the Cyrus Proclamation occurs at the beginning of Ezra-N'hemyah).
This clay cylinder is inscribed in Babylonian cuneiform with an account by Cyrus,
king of Persia (559-530BCE) of his conquest of Babylon in 539BCE and capture of
Nabonidus, the last Babylonian king. Cyrus claims to have achieved this with the aid
of Marduk, the god of Babylon. He then describes measures of relief he brought to
the inhabitants of the city, and tells how he returned a number of images of gods,
which Nabonidus had collected in Babylon, to their proper temples throughout
Mesopotamia and western Iran. At the same time he arranged for the restoration of
these temples, and organised the return to their homelands of a number of people who had been held in Babylonia by the
Babylonian kings. Although the Jews are not mentioned in this document, their return to Palestine following their deportation
by Nebuchadnezzar II, was part of this policy. This cylinder has sometimes been described as "the first charter of human
rights", but it in fact reflects a long tradition in Mesopotamia where, from as early as the third millennium BCE, kings began
their reigns with declarations of reforms. The cylinder is 22.9 cm long. [From the website of the British Museum, London.]
Unfortunately, the "traditional" Hebrew history parts company with reality at this point. The following
Talmudic passage (taken from Treatise M'gillah, folios 11b-12a) is interesting, but not historically
accurate:

It is written: At that time, when King Ahashvérosh ascended the throne of his kingdom… (Esther 1:2), but
the text immediately continues: in the THIRD year of his reign…!

Rava [mid-4th century CE Babylonian scholar] taught: "The word k'shevet [lit., 'when he sat'] in Esther 1:2
signifies 'when he felt secure on the throne', not 'when he ascended it'." Ahashvérosh said: "Bel-Shatzar
calculated and got it wrong; now I shall calculate correctly!" What is this referring to? It is written: "After
70 years have been completed for Babylonia, I shall visit you…" (Yirm'yahu 29:10); and it is also written
"…to complete 70 years of the desolation of Y'rushalayim" (Dan. 9:2). [Bel-Shatzar] counted 45 years for
the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, 23 years for Evil-M'rodach’s reign, and the first 2 years of his own—making
70 years; and that is why [in his 3rd year] he brought out the sacred utensils from the Temple and
desecrated them (Dan. 5:3-4).

But how do we know that Nebuchadnezzar reigned for 45 years? A Master taught: "They were exiled in the
7th year and they were exiled in the 8th year: they were exiled in the 18th year and they were exiled in the
19th year"—[meaning] Y'hoyachin’s exile occurred in the 7th year of Y'hoyakim’s subjugation, which was
Nebuchadnezzar’s 8th: Tzid'kiyyahu’s exile occurred in the 18th year of Y'hoyakim’s subjugation, which
was Nebuchadnezzar’s 19th—for a Master taught: "Nebuchadnezzar captured Nineveh in his first year, and
subjugated Y'hoyakim in his second"—and it is also written "on the 25th day of the 12th month in the 37th
year of King Y'hoyachin of Y'hudah’s exile, King Evil-Merodach of Babylonia, in his accession year,
pardoned King Y'hoyachin of Y'hudah and released him from prison…" (Yirm'yahu 52:31)… 8 and 37
make 45!

And 23 years for Evil-M'rodach’s reign?—that’s traditional.

So, when two years of his own reign had passed, Bel-Shatzar said "Now for sure [the Judæans] are not
going to be [miraculously] freed!"—so he brought out the sacred utensils from the Temple and desecrated
them. This is what Daniel meant when he told him: "You have challenged Adonai of Heaven, and have had
the utensils from His Temple brought before you…" (Dan. 5:23)
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xlv

It is written after that: That very night, Bel-Shatzar, king of the Chaldeans, was killed… (Dan. 5:30), and
the text continues …and the throne passed to Darius the Median, who was about 62 years old (Dan. 6:1).

"So he was in error," [Ahashvérosh] reasoned; "now let me calculate correctly! Did the prophet say '[After
70 years have been completed] for the Babylonian Dynasty?'—No! he said 'for Babylonia!' And what can
'for Babylonia' mean?—it must mean for the Judæans' exile in Babylonia!" The difference is 8 years [since
the exile began in Nebuchadnezzar’s 8th year], so Ahashvérosh substituted Bel-Shatzar’s last year, 5 years
for the combined reigns of Darius and Cyrus, and the first 2 years of his own reign to make up 70 years for
the exile. Then, when his 3rd year had begun, he thought the 70 years had been completed, and yet still the
Judæans had not been miraculously liberated, so he too said "Now for sure [the Judæans] are not going to
be [miraculously] freed!"—and he, too, brought out the sacred utensils from the Temple and desecrated
them [Midrashic interpretation of Esther 1:7 the cups were of an unusual kind]. Then the 'Satan' came and
danced among them, and killed Vashti!

How, then, should he have calculated? He also was in error, because he ought to have been reckoning from
the destruction of Y'rushalayim! And how many years is he still short?—eleven. How many years did
Ahashvérosh reign?—fourteen: so the Temple should have been rebuilt in his 14th year! Why, then, is it
written: Then work on the construction of God’s Temple in Y'rushalayim was halted [and it remained at a
standstill until the 2nd year of Darius, king of Persia]… (Ezra 4:24)? Rava explained: "Two of those regnal
years overlapped; consequently there was still one year to be completed, and the 70 years were not finished
until the first year of Darius [the Persian]."

Rava taught [further]: "Even Daniel erred in this matter, for it is written: [In the first year of Darius son of
Ahashvérosh of Median descent, who came to power over the Chaldean Empire], in the first year of his
reign, I—Daniel—was re-considering the Books to determine the number of years… (Dan. 9:1-2)—since he
says he was 're-considering', it follows that initially he had been in error!"

Sadly, for all the apparent accuracy of the calculations in this passage, they bear little resemblance to
actual history. Nebuchadnezzar’s son, Amel-Mardûk, who succeeded him in 561 BCE, in fact only
reigned for 2 years, before he was assassinated by his brother-in-law, Neriglissar (Chaldee: Nergal-
sharra-utzur), who then reigned from 559 BCE until 556 BCE (he is mentioned twice in Yirm'yahu 39:3,
where he is called Nergal-Saretzer and described as Nebuchadnezzar’s "chief officer"). Neriglissar was
succeeded by his son Labashi-Mardûk, who only survived for one month before he was deposed and
Nabonidus (Nabū-na'id) came to power. Surviving Babylonian inscriptions tell us that Nabonidus was
away from Babylon on military campaigns for most of his reign, leaving his son, the Crown Prince Bel-
sharra-utzur (i.e. the Biblical "Bel-Shatzar") reigning as regent in his absence. "Bel-Shatzar" was never
actually king, however, because Nabonidus was deposed when Cyrus the Great invaded and took control
of the Babylonian Empire in 539 BCE.

What is interesting is that Amel-Mardûk’s 2 years, Neriglissar’s 4 years, Labashi-Mardûk’s month and
Nabonidus’s 17 years together total 23 years, which is the number of years credited to "Evil-M'rodach"
by the Talmud—it seems that these four kings somehow became concatenated into one in the orally-
transmitted Talmudic "tradition". In any case, there is nothing either in actual history or even in the
Scriptural narrative to support the assertions that after the Biblical "Evil-M'rodach" (or the historical
Amel-Mardûk, Neriglissar, Labashi-Mardûk and Nabonidus) "Bel-Shatzar" reigned for 3 years, "Darius
the Median" and "Cyrus" reigned for 5 years between them, "Ahashvérosh" reigned for 14 years and
"Darius son of Ahashvérosh" reigned after him; in fact, Cyrus (Kūrush) reigned for 9 years (539-530
BCE) and was then succeeded by his son Cambyses (Kambužiya) who reigned for 8 years (530-522 BCE).
Towards the end of his reign, a revolt broke out and Cambyses was accidentally killed while on his way
to deal with the situation. The rebellion was eventually crushed by a group of seven conspirators and one
h
of them, Darius (Dārayava u) I, became the next king. He reigned for 36 years, from 521 until 486 BCE,
and it was in his 6th year—516 BCE, exactly 70 years after Shlomoh’s Temple had been destroyed in 586
BCE—that Ezra and his workers eventually completed the rebuilding of the Second Temple (Ezra 6:15).
xlvi Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

On Darius’s death in 486 BCE, he was succeeded by his son Xerxes (Khshayārshā) I, who reigned for 21
years (486-465 BCE); he is said to have been murdered at Persepolis by Artabanus, captain of the palace
guard; he was succeeded by his son Artaxerxes (Artakh-shathrā) I, who reigned for 41 years, from 465
BCE until 425 BCE. It is most likely that the dating of N'hemyah’s first chapters, the 20th year of King
Artaxerxes, refers to Darius I (as Rashi suggests), placing these events in 502 BCE.

Other Calendars: the modern conventional "Creation Calendar"

The Biblical "Creation Calendar" should not be confused with the conventional "Creation Calendar" that
is in general use now among Hebrews. It is tempting to assume they are the same but this cannot be the
case, because it would give a date of about 424 BCE for the destruction of the First Temple, more than a
century after Nebuchadnezzar I died!

There is therefore a discrepancy of about 162 years between the two calendars, which arises because the
conventional "Creation Calendar" is based on the semi-mythical "traditional" history preserved in the
Talmud and other ancient Hebrew writings, to which I have already referred. The Second Temple period
is said to have started in 3408, i.e. 70 years after the First Temple was destroyed (based on Yirm'yahu’s
famous prophecy and also on actuall history), and to have lasted for 420 years (Talmud, Treatise Yoma,
folio 9a), broken down in Treatise Avodah Zarah (folio 9a) as follows: Persian Rule is said to have
lasted for 34 years after Cyrus’s Proclamation (see Divrei Hayamim Beit 36:23, Ezra 1:1-4), i.e. until
3442; the Persians were then supposedly ousted by the Greeks who ruled Yisrael for the next 180 years
(until 3622), when Mattityahu and his sons, the Hasmonæans (Hashmonayyim), or "Maccabees",
succeeded in achieving independence from Greece, founding a dynasty that held power for another 103
years (until 3725) when they were supplanted by the Roman-appointed Herodian Dynasty that governed
Yisrael for a further 103 years until the destruction of the Second Temple in Av 3828 (summer of 68 CE).

Now in spite of all the detail, this is not historically accurate: because although the exact date of the
destruction of the Second Temple by the Roman general (later emperor) Titus is debatable, it definitely
took place some time between 68 and 70 CE, and that would mean it should have been built in about 350
BCE. But Cyrus issued his Proclamation in 539 BCE and the Second Temple was actually completed in
the 6th year of Darius I’s reign (Ezra 6:15), i.e. 516 BCE; and, in any case, Nebuchadnezzar II couldn't
possibly have destroyed the First Temple and exiled the Y'hudim round about 422 BCE, because he died
in 561!

Furthermore, the Talmudic version places the Hasmonæans' overthrow of the rule of Antiochus IV
Epiphanes (Greek, "the Magnificent") and their subsequent seizure of power in about 138 BCE, which
cannot be right because that Antiochus reigned from 175 to 164 BCE; and it sets the start of the Herodian
Dynasty in about 35 BCE, but that dynasty’s founder, Herod Antipater, was actually appointed Rex
Iudæorum (i.e. "King of the Judæans") by Julius Cæsar, who was assassinated on 15th March (the "Ides
of March"), 44 BCE, so the Herodian Dynasty could not have started as late as 35. In fact, Herod
Antipater’s appointment took place in about 47 BCE.

The Seleucidæan Calendar

There was also another calendar was in use by Hebrew (and other) writers around 2000 years ago:
known as the "Seleucidæan Era" (SE), it counts years from the founding of the Seleucid Dynasty by
Seleucus I "Nicator" (Greek: "the conqueror"). He was a Macedonian general who served under
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible xlvii

Alexander the Great, and was king of Macedonia 336-323 BCE. Seleucus was made governor of Babylon
in the second partition of Alexander’s kingdom in 321 BCE, becoming king of Babylonia in 312 BCE.

The Seleucidæan Era is used consistently throughout the apocryphal books of the Hashmonayyim
(Hasmonæans), called "Maccabees" in christian versions. Antiochus IV Epiphanes (see above) is said to
have come to power in "the 137th year of the Greek kingdom" (1 Macc. 1:12-13, v.10 in the Greek
version) and the date of his death is given as "the 148th year" (1 Macc. 6:18, v.16 in the Greek version—
the Greek text has "the 149th year").

In Rabbinic writings (both Talmudic and later), the Seleucidæan Era is called minyan sh'tarot, "the Era
for [dating] contracts". The Talmud (Treatise Avodah Zarah, folios 9a-9b) provides a formula for
converting between the conventional "Creation Calendar", which was in general use, and the more
specialised Seleucidæan Era, which was normally only used by "scribes" for dating legal documents:

"If a scholar is unsure of the exact date, he should ask a scribe what date he is currently using for his legal
documents and add to it 48 years… the phrase "forty-eight cities" (B'midbar 35:7) is an aide-mémoire.
Conversely, if a scribe is unsure of the exact date, he should ask a scholar what his date is and subtract 48 years
from it—mnemonic: scholars add, scribes subtract".

(the meaning of the mnemonic "scholars add, scribes subtract" is that "scholars add" to our under-
standing by their teaching, while "scribes subtract" because the Hebrew text of the scriptures, the
preserve of the "scribes", mostly uses "short" spelling, omitting the vowel-letters vav and yod).

The formula refers only to the last two digits of the date; it is assumed that both scholar and scribe will
be in no doubt which century they are in! It works because Year 1 of the Seleucidæan Era corresponds
to 3449 of the conventional "Creation Calendar" so that, for example, in the year 3850 (i.e. 402 SE), a
scholar say his date was "50" and the scribe is then instructed to subtract 48, leaving him with "02"; and
a scribe would give his date as "02", to which the scholar adds 48, giving him "50".

Interestingly, Maimonides (or "RaMBaM", 1135-1204 CE), in the preface to the astronomical chapters of
Hilchot Kiddush Hahodesh in his magnum opus Mishneh Torah, equates the year 1489 SE to 4938 of the
conventional "Creation Calendar" (Kiddush Hahodesh 11:16), so he was counting 3450 as 1 SE; I am
unable to account for this discrepancy.

The same Talmud passage also says that after the Second Temple was destroyed, it became the general
practice to date events from the year of its destruction. Another formula, similar to the one just quoted,
is provided for conversion between this new "Temple Destruction" calendar and the Seleucidæan Era:

"If a scholar is unsure of the exact date, he should ask a scribe what date he is currently using for his legal
documents and add to it 20 years… the phrase "these twenty years that I have spent in your house" (B'réshit
31:41) is an aide-mémoire. Conversely, if a scribe is unsure of the exact date, he should ask a scholar what his
date is and subtract 20 years from it—mnemonic: scholars add, scribes subtract" (Avodah Zarah, folio 9a).

Here, the "scholar" is counting 381 SE (3829) as the 1st year "of the destruction of the Second Temple",
so he would tell the scribe that the date is "01" and the scribe would subtract 20 (having first added 100
to avoid dealing with negative numbers), leaving him with "81"; and a scribe would give his date as
"81", to which the scholar would add 20 (and discard the excess century), giving his date as "01".
xlviii Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

In this case, Maimonides (in the passage cited above) is in agreement with the Talmudic formula,
equating 4938 of the conventional "Creation Calendar"/1489 SE to 1109 "of the destruction of the
Second Temple" (89 + 20 = [1]09).

There is one other Talmudic passage that should be mentioned here: an obscure teaching in Treatise
Avodah Zarah (folio 9b) equates the year 4228 of the conventional "Creation Calendar" to the 400th
year "of the destruction of the Second Temple", making the "first year of the destruction" equal to 3829:
this is consistent with the "add/subtract 48" formula given above.

We therefore have:

Year 1 of the Biblical "Creation Calendar" = 3925/24 BCE


Year 1 of the conventional "Creation Calendar" = 3761/60 BCE
Year 1 of the Seleucidæan Era = 313/12 BCE (Talmud) or 312/11 BCE (Maimonides)
Year 1 "of the destruction of the Second Temple" = 68/69 (Talmud) or 69/70 (Maimonides)

(all running from autumn to autumn); and

Year 1 of the Exodus Era = 1476/75 BCE (spring to spring)

Note: when working with years "BCE", it is important to remember that the year after "1 BCE" is called "1
CE" without an intervening "year 0".
Chronological Timeline

of the T'nach
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 1

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3925 Creation of ADAM B'réshit 1:27, 5:1-2
0
3924

1
3923

2
3922

3
3921

4
3920

5
3919

6
3918

7
3917

8
3916

9
3915

10
3914

11
3913

12
3912

13
3911
Timeline: page 2 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3911
14
3910

15
3909

16
3908

17
3907

18
3906

19
3905

20
3904

21
3903

22
3902

23
3901

24
3900

25
3899

26
3898

27
3897
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 3

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3897
28
3896

29
3895

30
3894

31
3893

32
3892

33
3891

34
3890

35
3889

36
3888

37
3887

38
3886

39
3885

40
3884

41
3883
Timeline: page 4 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3883
42
3882

43
3881

44
3880

45
3879

46
3878

47
3877

48
3876

49
3875

50
3874

51
3873

52
3872

53
3871

54
3870

55
3869
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 5

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3869
56
3868

57
3867

58
3866

59
3865

60
3864

61
3863

62
3862

63
3861

64
3860

65
3859

66
3858

67
3857

68
3856

69
3855
Timeline: page 6 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3855
70
3854

71
3853

72
3852

73
3851

74
3850

75
3849

76
3848

77
3847

78
3846

79
3845

80
3844

81
3843

82
3842

83
3841
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 7

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3841
84
3840

85
3839

86
3838

87
3837

88
3836

89
3835

90
3834

91
3833

92
3832

93
3831

94
3830

95
3829

96
3828

97
3827
Timeline: page 8 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3827
98
3826

99
3825

100
3824

101
3823

102
3822

103
3821

104
3820

105
3819

106
3818

107
3817

108
3816

109
3815

110
3814

111
3813
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 9

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3813
112
3812

113
3811

114
3810

115
3809

116
3808

117
3807

118
3806

119
3805

120
3804

121
3803

122
3802

123
3801

124
3800

125
3799
Timeline: page 10 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3799
126
3798

127
3797

128
3796

129
3795
Birth of SHET B'réshit 5:3
130
3794

131
3793

132
3792

133
3791

134
3790

135
3789

136
3788

137
3787

138
3786

139
3785
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 11

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3785
140
3784

141
3783

142
3782

143
3781

144
3780

145
3779

146
3778

147
3777

148
3776

149
3775

150
3774

151
3773

152
3772

153
3771
Timeline: page 12 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3771
154
3770

155
3769

156
3768

157
3767

158
3766

159
3765

160
3764

161
3763

162
3762

163
3761

164
3760

165
3759

166
3758

167
3757
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 13

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3757
168
3756

169
3755

170
3754

171
3753

172
3752

173
3751

174
3750

175
3749

176
3748

177
3747

178
3746

179
3745

180
3744

181
3743
Timeline: page 14 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3743
182
3742

183
3741

184
3740

185
3739

186
3738

187
3737

188
3736

189
3735

190
3734

191
3733

192
3732

193
3731

194
3730

195
3729
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 15

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3729
196
3728

197
3727

198
3726

199
3725

200
3724

201
3723

202
3722

203
3721

204
3720

205
3719

206
3718

207
3717

208
3716

209
3715
Timeline: page 16 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3715
210
3714

211
3713

212
3712

213
3711

214
3710

215
3709

216
3708

217
3707

218
3706

219
3705

220
3704

221
3703

222
3702

223
3701
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 17

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3701
224
3700

225
3699

226
3698

227
3697

228
3696

229
3695

230
3694

231
3693

232
3692

233
3691

234
3690
Birth of ENOSH B'réshit 5:6
235
3689

236
3688

237
3687
Timeline: page 18 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3687
238
3686

239
3685

240
3684

241
3683

242
3682

243
3681

244
3680

245
3679

246
3678

247
3677

248
3676

249
3675

250
3674

251
3673
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 19

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3673
252
3672

253
3671

254
3670

255
3669

256
3668

257
3667

258
3666

259
3665

260
3664

261
3663

262
3662

263
3661

264
3660

265
3659
Timeline: page 20 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3659
266
3658

267
3657

268
3656

269
3655

270
3654

271
3653

272
3652

273
3651

274
3650

275
3649

276
3648

277
3647

278
3646

279
3645
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 21

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3645
280
3644

281
3643

282
3642

283
3641

284
3640

285
3639

286
3638

287
3637

288
3636

289
3635

290
3634

291
3633

292
3632

293
3631
Timeline: page 22 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3631
294
3630

295
3629

296
3628

297
3627

298
3626

299
3625

300
3624

301
3623

302
3622

303
3621

304
3620

305
3619

306
3618

307
3617
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 23

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3617
308
3616

309
3615

310
3614

311
3613

312
3612

313
3611

314
3610

315
3609

316
3608

317
3607

318
3606

319
3605

320
3604

321
3603
Timeline: page 24 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3603
322
3602

323
3601

324
3600
Birth of KEINAN B'réshit 5:9
325
3599

326
3598

327
3597

328
3596

329
3595

330
3594

331
3593

332
3592

333
3591

334
3590

335
3589
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 25

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3589
336
3588

337
3587

338
3586

339
3585

340
3584

341
3583

342
3582

343
3581

344
3580

345
3579

346
3578

347
3577

348
3576

349
3575
Timeline: page 26 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3575
350
3574

351
3573

352
3572

353
3571

354
3570

355
3569

356
3568

357
3567

358
3566

359
3565

360
3564

361
3563

362
3562

363
3561
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 27

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3561
364
3560

365
3559

366
3558

367
3557

368
3556

369
3555

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3551

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375
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377
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Timeline: page 28 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3547
378
3546

379
3545

380
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381
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3542

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3541

384
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391
3533
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 29

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3533
392
3532

393
3531

394
3530
Birth of MAHALAL'EL B'réshit 5:12
395
3529

396
3528

397
3527

398
3526

399
3525

400
3524

401
3523

402
3522

403
3521

404
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405
3519
Timeline: page 30 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
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Calendar
3519
406
3518

407
3517

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3514

411
3513

412
3512

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418
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419
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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 31

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3505
420
3504

421
3503

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425
3499

426
3498

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3497

428
3496

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3495

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432
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433
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Timeline: page 32 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3491
434
3490

435
3489

436
3488

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3485

440
3484

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447
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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 33

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3477
448
3476

449
3475

450
3474

451
3473

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3472

453
3471

454
3470

455
3469

456
3468

457
3467

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3466

459
3465
Birth of YERED B'réshit 5:15
460
3464

461
3463
Timeline: page 34 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3463
462
3462

463
3461

464
3460

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3457

468
3456

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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 35

Creation
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Calendar
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Timeline: page 36 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
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Calendar
3435
490
3434

491
3433

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3432

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3429

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3428

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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 37

Creation
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Calendar
3421
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3419

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3414

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3413

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Timeline: page 38 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3407
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3406

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3405

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3404

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531
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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 39

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3393
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3390

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545
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Timeline: page 40 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3379
546
3378

547
3377

548
3376

549
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3369

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559
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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 41

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3365
560
3364

561
3363

562
3362

563
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3360

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566
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569
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573
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Timeline: page 42 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3351
574
3350

575
3349

576
3348

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578
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579
3345

580
3344

581
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584
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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 43

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3337
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3336

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3335

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3334

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3329

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3328

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3325

600
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3323
Timeline: page 44 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
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Calendar
3323
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3322

603
3321

604
3320

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3319

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3318

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3317

608
3316

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3315

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3314

611
3313

612
3312

613
3311

614
3310

615
3309
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 45

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3309
616
3308

617
3307

618
3306

619
3305

620
3304

621
3303
Birth of HANOCH B'réshit 5:18
622
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629
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Timeline: page 46 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3295
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631
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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 47

Creation
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Calendar
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3279

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Timeline: page 48 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3267
658
3266

659
3265

660
3264

661
3263

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3262

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664
3260

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3259

666
3258

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3257

668
3256

669
3255

670
3254

671
3253
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 49

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3253
672
3252

673
3251

674
3250

675
3249

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3248

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3247

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3246

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3243

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3242

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3241

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3240

685
3239
Timeline: page 50 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3239
686
3238
Birth of M'TUSHELAH B'réshit 5:21
687
3237

688
3236

689
3235

690
3234

691
3233

692
3232

693
3231

694
3230

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3229

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3228

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3227

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699
3225
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 51

Creation
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Calendar
3225
700
3224

701
3223

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3222

703
3221

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3220

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3219

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3218

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3217

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3215

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3214

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3213

712
3212

713
3211
Timeline: page 52 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3211
714
3210

715
3209

716
3208

717
3207

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3206

719
3205

720
3204

721
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722
3202

723
3201

724
3200

725
3199

726
3198

727
3197
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 53

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3197
728
3196

729
3195

730
3194

731
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732
3192

733
3191

734
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735
3189

736
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737
3187

738
3186

739
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740
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741
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Timeline: page 54 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3183
742
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743
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744
3180

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748
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3174

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3173

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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 55

Creation
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Calendar
3169
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3168

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3167

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3166

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3162

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764
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766
3158

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768
3156

769
3155
Timeline: page 56 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3155
770
3154

771
3153

772
3152

773
3151

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3150

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3149

776
3148

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3147

778
3146

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3145

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3144

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3142

783
3141
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 57

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3141
784
3140

785
3139

786
3138

787
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3135

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Timeline: page 58 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
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Calendar
3127
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799
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3124

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3123

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3122

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3121

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3120

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3119

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811
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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 59

Creation
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Calendar
3113
812
3112

813
3111

814
3110

815
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825
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Timeline: page 60 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3099
826
3098

827
3097

828
3096

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830
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831
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832
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833
3091

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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 61

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3085
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Timeline: page 62 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3071
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3070

855
3069

856
3068

857
3067

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3066

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3065

860
3064

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3063

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3061

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865
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867
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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 63

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3057
868
3056

869
3055

870
3054

871
3053

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3051
Birth of LEMECH B'réshit 5:25
874
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Timeline: page 64 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3043
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3042

883
3041

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3038

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3037

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3036

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895
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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 65

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3029
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3028

897
3027

898
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899
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3024

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3023

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3022

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904
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3019

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3018

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3017

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Timeline: page 66 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3015
910
3014

911
3013

912
3012

913
3011

914
3010

915
3009

916
3008

917
3007

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3006

919
3005

920
3004

921
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3002

923
3001
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 67

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
3001
924
3000

925
2999

926
2998

927
2997

928
2996

929
2995
Death of ADAM B'réshit 5:5
930
2994

931
2993

932
2992

933
2991

934
2990

935
2989

936
2988

937
2987
Timeline: page 68 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
2987
938
2986

939
2985

940
2984

941
2983

942
2982

943
2981

944
2980

945
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2978

947
2977

948
2976

949
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950
2974

951
2973
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 69

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
2973
952
2972

953
2971

954
2970

955
2969

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2968

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2967

958
2966

959
2965

960
2964

961
2963

962
2962

963
2961

964
2960

965
2959
Timeline: page 70 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
2959
966
2958

967
2957

968
2956

969
2955

970
2954

971
2953

972
2952

973
2951

974
2950

975
2949

976
2948

977
2947

978
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979
2945
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 71

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
2945
980
2944

981
2943

982
2942

983
2941

984
2940

985
2939

986
2938
Death of HANOCH B'réshit 5:23-24 "...and he was no more, because God had taken him"
987
2937

988
2936

989
2935

990
2934

991
2933

992
2932

993
2931
Timeline: page 72 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
2931
994
2930

995
2929

996
2928

997
2927

998
2926

999
2925

1000
2924

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1002
2922

1003
2921

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2920

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2917
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 73

Creation
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Calendar
2917
1008
2916

1009
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1010
2914

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1013
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1014
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1017
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1018
2906

1019
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1020
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1021
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Timeline: page 74 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
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Calendar
2903
1022
2902

1023
2901

1024
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1025
2899

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1027
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1028
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1032
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1034
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1035
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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 75

Creation
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Calendar
2889
1036
2888

1037
2887

1038
2886

1039
2885

1040
2884

1041
2883
Death of SHET B'réshit 5:8
1042
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1043
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1044
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1045
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1046
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1047
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1048
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1049
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Timeline: page 76 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
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Calendar
2875
1050
2874

1051
2873

1052
2872

1053
2871

1054
2870

1055
2869
Birth of NO'AH B'réshit 5:28
1056
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1057
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1059
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1060
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1062
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1063
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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 77

Creation
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Calendar
2861
1064
2860

1065
2859

1066
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1067
2857

1068
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1069
2855

1070
2854

1071
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1073
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1074
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1076
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1077
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Timeline: page 78 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
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Calendar
2847
1078
2846

1079
2845

1080
2844

1081
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1082
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1083
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1084
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1091
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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 79

Creation
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Calendar
2833
1092
2832

1093
2831

1094
2830

1095
2829

1096
2828

1097
2827

1098
2826

1099
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1100
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1102
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1103
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1104
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Timeline: page 80 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
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Calendar
2819
1106
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1107
2817

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1110
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1111
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1112
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Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 81

Creation
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Calendar
2805
1120
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1121
2803

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1123
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1125
2799

1126
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1128
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1129
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1130
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1133
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Timeline: page 82 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
2791
1134
2790

1135
2789

1136
2788

1137
2787

1138
2786

1139
2785
Death of ENOSH B'réshit 5:11
1140
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1141
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1143
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1144
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2777
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 83

Creation
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Calendar
2777
1148
2776

1149
2775

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2774

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1152
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1153
2771

1154
2770

1155
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1157
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Timeline: page 84 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

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2763
1162
2762

1163
2761

1164
2760

1165
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1166
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1167
2757

1168
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1169
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1171
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1172
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1173
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1174
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1175
2749
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 85

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Calendar
2749
1176
2748

1177
2747

1178
2746

1179
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1180
2744

1181
2743

1182
2742

1183
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1184
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1185
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1186
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1187
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1188
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1189
2735
Timeline: page 86 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
2735
1190
2734

1191
2733

1192
2732

1193
2731

1194
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1195
2729

1196
2728

1197
2727

1198
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1199
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1200
2724

1201
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1203
2721
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 87

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Calendar
2721
1204
2720

1205
2719

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1211
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Timeline: page 106 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

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Timeline: page 110 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

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Timeline: page 112 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

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Birth of YEFET B'réshit 5:32
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Timeline: page 114 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

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Timeline: page 118 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

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Death of M'TUSHELAH B'réshit 5:27
THE FLOOD B'réshit 7:6, 7:11
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Timeline: page 120 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

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Timeline: page 122 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

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1911

2014
1910

2015
1909
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 145

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1909
2016
1908

2017
1907
"Agreement among the (Traditional)
Pieces" (B'réshit 15)
2018
1906

2019
1905

2020
1904

2021
1903

2022
1902
Migration of AVRAM to B'réshit 12:4
K'na'an
2023
1901

2024
1900

2025
1899
Death of R'U B'réshit 11:21
2026
1898

2027
1897

2028
1896

2029
1895
Timeline: page 146 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1895
2030
1894

2031
1893

2032
1892
Sarai persuades Avram B'réshit 16:3
to marry her Egyptian
2033
maid Hagar
1891
Hagar gives birth to B'réshit 16:16
YISHMA'EL
2034
1890

2035
1889

2036
1888

2037
1887

2038
1886

2039
1885

2040
1884

2041
1883

2042
1882

2043
1881
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 147

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1881
2044
1880

2045
1879

2046
1878
Avram is commanded B'réshit 17:1-14. Also: Sarai’s name is changed to SARAH (B'réshit 17:15);
to circumcise himself; YITZ'HAK’s birth is foretold (B'réshit 17:16, 17:19 & 17:21; 18:10, 18:14);
2047
his name is changed to Avraham circumcises himself, Yishma'el, and all his male servants (B'réshit
1877 AVRAHAM 17:23:27); S'dom, Amorah, Admah and Tz'voyyim are destroyed (B'réshit 19)
Sarah gives birth to B'réshit 21:5
YITZ'HAK
2048
1876
Death of S'RUG B'réshit 11:23
2049
1875

2050
1874

2051
1873

2052
1872

2053
1871

2054
1870

2055
1869

2056
1868

2057
1867
Timeline: page 148 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1867
2058
1866

2059
1865

2060
1864

2061
1863

2062
1862

2063
1861

2064
1860

2065
1859

2066
1858

2067
1857

2068
1856

2069
1855

2070
1854

2071
1853
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 149

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1853
2072
1852

2073
1851

2074
1850

2075
1849

2076
1848

2077
1847

2078
1846

2079
1845

2080
1844

2081
1843

2082
1842
Death of TERAH B'réshit 11:32
2083
1841

2084
1840
God tests Avraham’s
faith B'réshit 22:1-19
2085
1839 Birth of RIV'KAH B'réshit 22:20-23
Death of SARAH B'réshit 23:1-2
Timeline: page 150 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1839
2086
1838

2087
1837
Marriage of YITZ'HAK B'réshit 25:20
and RIV'KAH
2088
1836

2089
1835

2090
1834

2091
1833

2092
1832

2093
1831

2094
1830

2095
1829
Death of ARPACH'SHAD B'réshit 11:13
2096
1828

2097
1827

2098
1826

2099
1825
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 151

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1825
2100
1824

2101
1823

2102
1822

2103
1821

2104
1820

2105
1819

2106
1818

2107
1817
Rivkah gives birth to B'réshit 25:26
YA'AKOV and ÉSAV
2108
1816

2109
1815

2110
1814

2111
1813

2112
1812

2113
1811
Timeline: page 152 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1811
2114
1810

2115
1809

2116
1808

2117
1807

2118
1806

2119
1805

2120
1804

2121
1803

2122
1802
Death of AVRAHAM B'réshit 25:7
2123
1801

2124
1800

2125
1799
Death of SHELAH B'réshit 11:15
2126
1798

2127
1797
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 153

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1797
2128
1796

2129
1795

2130
1794

2131
1793

2132
1792

2133
1791

2134
1790

2135
1789

2136
1788

2137
1787

2138
1786

2139
1785

2140
1784

2141
1783
Timeline: page 154 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1783
2142
1782

2143
1781

2144
1780

2145
1779

2146
1778

2147
1777
Ésav marries two B'réshit 26:34
Hittite women
2148
1776

2149
1775

2150
1774

2151
1773

2152
1772

2153
1771

2154
1770

2155
1769
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 155

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1769
2156
1768

2157
1767
Death of SHEM B'réshit 11:11
2158
1766

2159
1765

2160
1764

2161
1763

2162
1762

2163
1761

2164
1760

2165
1759

2166
1758

2167
1757

2168
1756

2169
1755
Timeline: page 156 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1755
2170
1754
Death of YISHMA'EL B'réshit 25:17
Ya'akov "steals" Ésav’s B'réshit 27:1-40
2171
blessing and flees his B'réshit 27:41-28:5
1753 parents’ home Also: Ésav marries Yishmael’s daughter Mahalat (B'réshit 28:6-9)

2172
1752

2173
1751

2174
1750

2175
1749

2176
1748

2177
1747

2178
1746

2179
1745

2180
1744

2181
1743

2182
1742

2183
1741
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 157

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1741
2184
1740
Ya'akov arrives at (back-calculation based on B'réshit 30:25)
Haran Ya'akov agrees to work for Lavan for 7 years in return for his cousin Rahel,
2185
"…and he loved her so much that they seemed like just a few days to him"
1739
(B'réshit 29:20).

2186
1738
Death of ÉVER B'réshit 11:17
2187
1737

2188
1736

2189
1735

2190
1734

2191
1733
Lavan tricks Ya'akov B'réshit 29:23-25
into marrying Lé'ah Ya'akov agrees to work for Lavan for a further 7 years
2192
instead of Rahel (B'réshit 29:26-30)
1732
Lé'ah gives birth to B'réshit 29:32
R'UVEN
2193
1731
Lé'ah gives birth to B'réshit 29:33
SHIM'ON; Rahel B'réshit 30:3
2194
persuades Ya'akov to
1730 marry her maid Bilhah
Lé'ah gives birth to B'réshit 29:34
LÉVI
2195
Bilhah gives birth to B'réshit 30:5
1729 DAN
Lé'ah gives birth to B'réshit 29:35
Y'HUDAH
2196
Bilhah gives birth to B'réshit 30:7
1728 NAFTALI Also: Lé'ah persuades Ya'akov to marry her maid Zilpah (B'réshit 30:9)
Zilpah gives birth to B'réshit 30:10
GAD
2197
1727 Lé'ah gives birth to B'réshit 30:17
YISSACHAR
Timeline: page 158 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1727 Zilpah gives birth to B'réshit 30:12
ASHER
2198
Lé'ah gives birth to B'réshit 30:19
1726 Z'VULUN
Lé'ah gives birth to B'réshit 30:21
DINAH
2199
Rahel gives birth to B'réshit 30:23-26
1725 YOSEF Ya'akov now wants to return home, but Lavan persuades him to stay on and
work for wages (B'réshit 30:26-34)
2200
1724

2201
1723

2202
1722

2203
1721

2204
1720
Ya'akov finally leaves B'réshit 31:38
Lacan He now has 4 wives and 11 sons and a daughter and has become very
2205
wealthy (B'réshit 31:1-18)
1719

2206
1718
BINYAMIN is born; Rahel
dies in childbirth B'réshit 35:16-19
2207
Ya'akov is reunited with
1717 his father, Yitz'hak B'réshit 35:27

2208
1716

2209
1715

2210
1714

2211
1713
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 159

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1713
2212
1712

2213
1711

2214
1710

2215
1709
Yosef’s brothers sell B'réshit 37:2—his father (Ya'akov) believes him dead and mourns for him
him—he is taken to (B'réshit 37:34); his father (Yitz'hak) weeps for Ya'akov’s needless grief
2216
Egypt and soon ends up (B'réshit 37:35)
1708 in prison

2217
1707

2218
1706

2219
1705

2220
1704

2221
1703

2222
1702

2223
1701

2224
1700

2225
1699
Timeline: page 160 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1699
2226
1698
Yosef meets the …he interprets their dreams (back-calculation based on B'réshit 41:1). Three
Pharaoh’s chief butler days later, one is executed and the other is released; Yosef remains in prison
2227
and chief baker in the for a further 2 years.
1697 prison…
Death of YITZ'HAK B'réshit 35:28
2228
1696
The Pharaoh has two …Yosef interprets them and predicts 7 years of abundance followed by 7
dreams… years of famine (B'réshit 41:46)…
2229
The "seven years of Yosef is made Viceroy of Egypt (B'réshit 41:38-45)
1695 abundance" begin B'réshit 41:47

2230
1694

2231
1693

2232
1692

2233
1691

2234
1690

2235
1689
The "seven years of B'réshit 41:54
famine" begin
2236
1688

2237
1687
Migration of Ya'akov B'réshit 47:9; 45:6
and his whole family to
2238
Egypt
1686

2239
1685
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 161

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1685
2240
1684

2241
1683

2242
1682

2243
1681

2244
1680

2245
1679

2246
1678

2247
1677

2248
1676

2249
1675

2250
1674

2251
1673

2252
1672

2253
1671
Timeline: page 162 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1671
2254
1670
Death of YA'AKOV B'réshit 47:28
2255
1669

2256
1668

2257
1667

2258
1666

2259
1665

2260
1664

2261
1663

2262
1662

2263
1661

2264
1660

2265
1659

2266
1658

2267
1657
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 163

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1657
2268
1656

2269
1655

2270
1654

2271
1653

2272
1652

2273
1651

2274
1650

2275
1649

2276
1648

2277
1647

2278
1646

2279
1645

2280
1644

2281
1643
Timeline: page 164 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1643
2282
1642

2283
1641

2284
1640

2285
1639

2286
1638

2287
1637

2288
1636

2289
1635

2290
1634

2291
1633

2292
1632

2293
1631

2294
1630

2295
1629
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 165

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1629
2296
1628

2297
1627

2298
1626

2299
1625

2300
1624

2301
1623

2302
1622

2303
1621

2304
1620

2305
1619

2306
1618

2307
1617

2308
1616
Death of YOSEF B'réshit 50:26
2309
1615
Timeline: page 166 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1615
2310
1614

2311
1613

2312
1612

2313
1611

2314
1610

2315
1609

2316
1608

2317
1607

2318
1606

2319
1605

2320
1604

2321
1603

2322
1602

2323
1601
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 167

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1601
2324
1600

2325
1599

2326
1598

2327
1597

2328
1596

2329
1595

2330
1594

2331
1593
Death of LÉVI (traditional); Sh'mot 6:16
Enslavement of the
2332
Hebrews begins
1592

2333
1591

2334
1590

2335
1589

2336
1588

2337
1587
Timeline: page 168 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1587
2338
1586

2339
1585

2340
1584

2341
1583

2342
1582

2343
1581

2344
1580

2345
1579

2346
1578

2347
1577

2348
1576

2349
1575

2350
1574

2351
1573
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 169

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1573
2352
1572

2353
1571

2354
1570

2355
1569

2356
1568

2357
1567

2358
1566

2359
1565

2360
1564

2361
1563

2362
1562

2363
1561

2364
1560
Birth of AHARON (back-calculation based on Sh'mot 7:7)
2365
1559
Timeline: page 170 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1559
2366
1558

2367
1557
Birth of MOSHEH (back-calculation based on Sh'mot 7:7)
He was the son of Amram (Sh'mot 6:20), the son of K'hat (Sh'mot 6:18), the
2368
son of Lévi (Sh'mot 6:16), Ya'akov and Lé'ah’s 3rd son
1556

2369
1555

2370
1554

2371
1553

2372
1552

2373
1551

2374
1550

2375
1549

2376
1548

2377
1547

2378
1546

2379
1545
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 171

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1545
2380
1544

2381
1543

2382
1542

2383
1541

2384
1540

2385
1539

2386
1538

2387
1537

2388
1536

2389
1535

2390
1534

2391
1533

2392
1532

2393
1531
Timeline: page 172 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1531
2394
1530

2395
1529

2396
1528

2397
1527

2398
1526

2399
1525

2400
1524

2401
1523

2402
1522

2403
1521

2404
1520

2405
1519
Birth of Y'HOSHUA (back-calculation based on Y'hoshua 24:29 & Shoftim 2:8)
He was the son of Nun [Non], the son of Elishama, the son of Ammihud, the
2406
son of La'adan, the son of Tahan, the son of Telah, the son of Refah, the son
1518
of B'riyah, the son of Efrayim, Yosef and Osnat’s younger son (Divrei
Hayamim Alef 7:23-27)
2407
1517
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 173

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1517
2408
1516

2409
1515

2410
1514

2411
1513

2412
1512

2413
1511

2414
1510

2415
1509

2416
1508

2417
1507

2418
1506

2419
1505

2420
1504

2421
1503
Timeline: page 174 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1503
2422
1502

2423
1501

2424
1500

2425
1499

2426
1498

2427
1497

2428
1496

2429
1495

2430
1494

2431
1493

2432
1492

2433
1491

2434
1490

2435
1489
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 175

Creation
BCE Details Notes
Calendar
1489
2436
1488

2437
1487

2438
1486

2439
1485

2440
1484

2441
1483

2442
1482

2443
1481

2444
1480

2445
1479

2446
1478

2447
1477

2448
1476
Timeline: page 176 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Exodus
BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar
THE EXODUS "He said to Avram, 'Know with certainty that your zera
2448
1476 1st year of MOSHEH will be strangers in lands that will not be their own for
Ex1
400 years… and they will serve them and they will
persecute them" (B'réshit 15:13)
2449
2nd year of Mosheh
1475
Ex2

2450
3rd year of Mosheh
1474
Ex3

2451
4th year of Mosheh
1473
Ex4

2452
5th year of Mosheh
1472
Ex5

2453
6th year of Mosheh
1471
Ex6

2454
7th year of Mosheh
1470
Ex7

2455
8th year of Mosheh
1469
Ex8

2456
9th year of Mosheh
1468
Ex9

2457
10th year of Mosheh
1467
Ex10

2458
11th year of Mosheh
1466
Ex11

2459
12th year of Mosheh
1465
Ex12

2460
13th year of Mosheh
1464
Ex13

2461
14th year of Mosheh
1463
Ex14
2462
1462
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 177

Creation Exodus
BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar
15th year of Mosheh
2462
1462
Ex15

2463
16th year of Mosheh
1461
Ex16

2464
17th year of Mosheh
1460
Ex17

2465
18th year of Mosheh
1459
Ex18

2466
19th year of Mosheh
1458
Ex19

2467
20th year of Mosheh
1457
Ex20

2468
21st year of Mosheh
1456
Ex21

2469
22nd year of Mosheh
1455
Ex22

2470
23rd year of Mosheh
1454
Ex23

2471
24th year of Mosheh
1453
Ex24

2472
25th year of Mosheh
1452
Ex25

2473
26th year of Mosheh
1451
Ex26

2474
27th year of Mosheh
1450
Ex27

2475
28th year of Mosheh
1449
Ex28
2476
1448
Timeline: page 178 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Exodus
BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar
29th year of Mosheh
2476
1448
Ex29

2477
30th year of Mosheh
1447
Ex30

2478
31st year of Mosheh
1446
Ex31

2479
32nd year of Mosheh
1445
Ex32

2480
33rd year of Mosheh
1444
Ex33

2481
34th year of Mosheh
1443
Ex34

2482
35th year of Mosheh
1442
Ex35

2483
36th year of Mosheh
1441
Ex36

2484
37th year of Mosheh
1440
Ex37

2485
38th year of Mosheh
1439
Ex38

2486
39th year of Mosheh
1438
Ex39

2487
40th year of Mosheh 1st Av 2487—Aharon dies (D'varim 33:38).
1437
7th Adar 2488—Mosheh transfers the leadership of
Ex40
Yisrael to Y'hoshua (B'midbar 27:18-23; D'varim 3:28,
34:9) and dies too (D'varim 34:5).
2488
1st year of Y'HOSHUA 10th Nisan 2488—Y'hoshua assumes the leadership and
1436
Yisrael crosses the River Yarden and enters K'na'an
Ex41
(Y'hoshua 4:19)
2489
2nd year of Y'hoshua
1435
Ex42
2490
1434
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 179

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
3rd year of Y'hoshua
2490
1434
Ex43

2491
4th year of Y'hoshua
1433
Ex44

2492
5th year of Y'hoshua
1432
Ex45

2493
6th year of Y'hoshua
1431
Ex46

2494
7th year of Y'hoshua
1430
Ex47
The Wars of Conquest end.
2495
8th year of Y'hoshua Allocation of the land begins. Kalev
1429
approaches Y'hoshua and claims the inheritance
Ex48
that was promised to him (Y'hoshua 14:6-10)
2496
9th year of Y'hoshua
1428
Ex49

2497
10th year of Y'hoshua
1427
Ex50

2498
11th year of Y'hoshua
1426
Ex51

2499
12th year of Y'hoshua
1425
Ex52

2500
13th year of Y'hoshua
1424
Ex53

2501
14th year of Y'hoshua
1423
Ex54

2502
15th year of Y'hoshua Allocation of the land ends.
1422
Ex55
The 7-year and 50-year Sh'mittah and Yovel
cycles begin.
2503 Y1/1
16th year of Y'hoshua
1421
Ex56
2504 Y1/2
1420
Timeline: page 180 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
17th year of Y'hoshua
2504 Y1/2
1420
Ex57

2505 Y1/3
18th year of Y'hoshua
1419
Ex58

2506 Y1/4
19th year of Y'hoshua
1418
Ex59

2507 Y1/5
20th year of Y'hoshua
1417
Ex60

2508 Y1/6
21st year of Y'hoshua
1416
Ex61

2509 Y1/7
22nd year of Y'hoshua
1415
Ex62

2510 Y1/8
23rd year of Y'hoshua
1414
Ex63

2511 Y1/9
24th year of Y'hoshua
1413
Ex64

2512 Y1/10
25th year of Y'hoshua
1412
Ex65

2513 Y1/11
26th year of Y'hoshua
1411
Ex66

2514 Y1/12
27th year of Y'hoshua
1410
Ex67

2515 Y1/13
28th year of Y'hoshua Y'hoshua dies after ruling Yisrael for 28 years
1409
(traditional)
Ex68

2516 Y1/14
1st year of OT'NIYEL The leadership passes to Judge OT'NIYEL ben
1408
1st year of Aramean K'naz, Kalev’s younger brother (Shoftim 3:9-10)
Ex69
domination Yisrael is dominated by Kushan-Rish'atayim,
king of Aram-Naharayim for 8 years (Shoftim
2517 Y1/15
2nd year of Ot'niyel 3:8)
1407
2nd year of Aramean
Ex70
domination
2518 Y1/16
1406
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 181

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
3rd year of Ot'niyel
2518 Y1/16
1406 3rd year of Aramean
Ex71
domination
2519 Y1/17
4th year of Ot'niyel
1405
4th year of Aramean
Ex72
domination
2520 Y1/18
5th year of Ot'niyel
1404
5th year of Aramean
Ex73
domination
2521 Y1/19
6th year of Ot'niyel
1403
6th year of Aramean
Ex74
domination
2522 Y1/20
7th year of Ot'niyel
1402
7th year of Aramean
Ex75
domination
2523 Y1/21
8th year of Ot'niyel
1401
8th year of Aramean
Ex76
domination
2524 Y1/22
9th year of Ot'niyel Ot'niyel liberates Yisrael from 8 years of
1400
Aramean domination (Shoftim 3:9-10)
Ex77

2525 Y1/23
10th year of Ot'niyel
1399
Ex78

2526 Y1/24
11th year of Ot'niyel
1398
Ex79

2527 Y1/25
12th year of Ot'niyel
1397
Ex80

2528 Y1/26
13th year of Ot'niyel
1396
Ex81

2529 Y1/27
14th year of Ot'niyel
1395
Ex82

2530 Y1/28
15th year of Ot'niyel
1394
Ex83

2531 Y1/29
16th year of Ot'niyel
1393
Ex84
2532 Y1/30
1392
Timeline: page 182 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
17th year of Ot'niyel
2532 Y1/30
1392
Ex85

2533 Y1/31
18th year of Ot'niyel
1391
Ex86

2534 Y1/32
19th year of Ot'niyel
1390
Ex87

2535 Y1/33
20th year of Ot'niyel
1389
Ex88

2536 Y1/34
21st year of Ot'niyel
1388
Ex89

2537 Y1/35
22nd year of Ot'niyel
1387
Ex90

2538 Y1/36
23rd year of Ot'niyel
1386
Ex91

2539 Y1/37
24th year of Ot'niyel
1385
Ex92

2540 Y1/38
25th year of Ot'niyel
1384
Ex93

2541 Y1/39
26th year of Ot'niyel
1383
Ex94

2542 Y1/40
27th year of Ot'niyel
1382
Ex95

2543 Y1/41
28th year of Ot'niyel
1381
Ex96

2544 Y1/42
29th year of Ot'niyel
1380
Ex97

2545 Y1/43
30th year of Ot'niyel
1379
Ex98
2546 Y1/44
1378
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 183

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
31st year of Ot'niyel
2546 Y1/44
1378
Ex99

2547 Y1/45
32nd year of Ot'niyel
1377
Ex100

2548 Y1/46
33rd year of Ot'niyel
1376
Ex101

2549 Y1/47
34th year of Ot'niyel
1375
Ex102

2550 Y1/48
35th year of Ot'niyel
1374
Ex103

2551 Y1/49
36th year of Ot'niyel
1373
Ex104

2552 Y1/50
37th year of Ot'niyel
1372
Ex105

2553 Y2/1
38th year of Ot'niyel
1371
Ex106

2554 Y2/2
39th year of Ot'niyel
1370
Ex107

2555 Y2/3
40th year of Ot'niyel Ot'niyel dies after ruling Yisrael for 40 years
1369
(Shoftim 3:11)
Ex108

2556 Y2/4
1st year of ÉHUD The leadership passes to Éhud son of Géra of
1368
1st year of Mo'avite Binyamin (Shoftim 3:16-29)
Ex109
domination Yisrael is dominated by Eglon, king of
Mo'av for 18 years (Shoftim 3:12-14)
2557 Y2/5
2nd year of Éhud
1367
2nd year of Mo'avite
Ex110
domination
2558 Y2/6
3rd year of Éhud
1366
3rd year of Mo'avite
Ex111
domination
2559 Y2/7
4th year of Éhud
1365
4th year of Mo'avite
Ex112
domination
2560 Y2/8
1364
Timeline: page 184 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
5th year of Éhud
2560 Y2/8
1364 5th year of Mo'avite
Ex113
domination
2561 Y2/9
6th year of Éhud
1363
6th year of Mo'avite
Ex114
domination
2562 Y2/10
7th year of Éhud
1362
7th year of Mo'avite
Ex115
domination
2563 Y2/11
8th year of Éhud
1361
8th year of Mo'avite
Ex116
domination
2564 Y2/12
9th year of Éhud
1360
9th year of Mo'avite
Ex117
domination
2565 Y2/13
10th year of Éhud
1359
10th year of Mo'avite
Ex118
domination
2566 Y2/14
11th year of Éhud
1358
11th year of Mo'avite
Ex119
domination
2567 Y2/15
12th year of Éhud
1357
12th year of Mo'avite
Ex120
domination
2568 Y2/16
13th year of Éhud
1356
13th year of Mo'avite
Ex121
domination
2569 Y2/17
14th year of Éhud
1355
14th year of Mo'avite
Ex122
domination
2570 Y2/18
15th year of Éhud
1354
15th year of Mo'avite
Ex123
domination
2571 Y2/19
16th year of Éhud
1353
16th year of Mo'avite
Ex124
domination
2572 Y2/20
17th year of Éhud
1352
17th year of Mo'avite
Ex125
domination
2573 Y2/21
18th year of Éhud
1351
18th year of Mo'avite
Ex126
domination
2574 Y2/22
1350
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 185

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
19th year of Éhud Éhud liberates Yisrael from Mo'avite
2574 Y2/22
1350 domination after 18 years (Shoftim 3:30)
Ex127

2575 Y2/23
20th year of Éhud
1349
Ex128

2576 Y2/24
21st year of Éhud
1348
Ex129

2577 Y2/25
22nd year of Éhud
1347
Ex130

2578 Y2/26
23rd year of Éhud
1346
Ex131

2579 Y2/27
24th year of Éhud
1345
Ex132

2580 Y2/28
25th year of Éhud
1344
Ex133

2581 Y2/29
26th year of Éhud
1343
Ex134

2582 Y2/30
27th year of Éhud
1342
Ex135

2583 Y2/31
28th year of Éhud
1341
Ex136

2584 Y2/32
29th year of Éhud
1340
Ex137

2585 Y2/33
30th year of Éhud
1339
Ex138

2586 Y2/34
31st year of Éhud
1338
Ex139

2587 Y2/35
32nd year of Éhud
1337
Ex140
2588 Y2/36
1336
Timeline: page 186 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
33rd year of Éhud
2588 Y2/36
1336
Ex141

2589 Y2/37
34th year of Éhud
1335
Ex142

2590 Y2/38
35th year of Éhud
1334
Ex143

2591 Y2/39
36th year of Éhud
1333
Ex144

2592 Y2/40
37th year of Éhud
1332
Ex145

2593 Y2/41
38th year of Éhud
1331
Ex146

2594 Y2/42
39th year of Éhud
1330
Ex147

2595 Y2/43
40th year of Éhud
1329
Ex148

2596 Y2/44
41st year of Éhud
1328
Ex149

2597 Y2/45
42nd year of Éhud
1327
Ex150

2598 Y2/46
43rd year of Éhud
1326
Ex151

2599 Y2/47
44th year of Éhud
1325
Ex152

2600 Y2/48
45th year of Éhud
1324
Ex153

2601 Y2/49
46th year of Éhud
1323
Ex154
2602 Y2/50
1322
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 187

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
47th year of Éhud
2602 Y2/50
1322
Ex155

2603 Y3/1
48th year of Éhud
1321
Ex156

2604 Y3/2
49th year of Éhud
1320
Ex157

2605 Y3/3
50th year of Éhud
1319
Ex158

2606 Y3/4
51st year of Éhud
1318
Ex159

2607 Y3/5
52nd year of Éhud
1317
Ex160

2608 Y3/6
53rd year of Éhud
1316
Ex161

2609 Y3/7
54th year of Éhud
1315
Ex162

2610 Y3/8
55th year of Éhud
1314
Ex163

2611 Y3/9
56th year of Éhud
1313
Ex164

2612 Y3/10
57th year of Éhud
1312
Ex165

2613 Y3/11
58th year of Éhud
1311
Ex166

2614 Y3/12
59th year of Éhud
1310
Ex167

2615 Y3/13
60th year of Éhud
1309
Ex168
2616 Y3/14
1308
Timeline: page 188 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
61st year of Éhud
2616 Y3/14
1308
Ex169

2617 Y3/15
62nd year of Éhud
1307
Ex170

2618 Y3/16
63rd year of Éhud
1306
Ex171

2619 Y3/17
64th year of Éhud
1305
Ex172

2620 Y3/18
65th year of Éhud
1304
Ex173

2621 Y3/19
66th year of Éhud
1303
Ex174

2622 Y3/20
67th year of Éhud
1302
Ex175

2623 Y3/21
68th year of Éhud
1301
Ex176

2624 Y3/22
69th year of Éhud
1300
Ex177

2625 Y3/23
70th year of Éhud
1299
Ex178

2626 Y3/24
71st year of Éhud
1298
Ex179

2627 Y3/25
72nd year of Éhud
1297
Ex180

2628 Y3/26
73rd year of Éhud
1296
Ex181

2629 Y3/27
74th year of Éhud
1295
Ex182
2630 Y3/28
1294
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 189

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
75th year of Éhud
2630 Y3/28
1294
Ex183

2631 Y3/29
76th year of Éhud
1293
Ex184

2632 Y3/30
77th year of Éhud
1292
Ex185

2633 Y3/31
78th year of Éhud
1291
Ex186

2634 Y3/32
79th year of Éhud
1290
Ex187

2635 Y3/33
80th year of Éhud Éhud dies after ruling Yisrael for 80 years
1289
SHAMGAR (Shoftim 3:30). The leadership passes briefly to
Ex188
Judge Shamgar son of Anat (Shoftim 3:31),
and then to Judge D'vorah
2636 Y3/34
1st year of D'VORAH Yisrael is dominated by Yavin, king of
1288
1st year of K'na'anite K'na'an for 20 years (Shoftim 4:1-3)
Ex189
domination
2637 Y3/35
2nd year of D'vorah
1287
2nd year of K'na'anite
Ex190
domination
2638 Y3/36
3rd year of D'vorah
1286
3rd year of K'na'anite
Ex191
domination
2639 Y3/37
4th year of D'vorah
1285
4th year of K'na'anite
Ex192
domination
2640 Y3/38
5th year of D'vorah
1284
5th year of K'na'anite
Ex193
domination
2641 Y3/39
6th year of D'vorah
1283
6th year of K'na'anite
Ex194
domination
2642 Y3/40
7th year of D'vorah
1282
7th year of K'na'anite
Ex195
domination
2643 Y3/41
8th year of D'vorah
1281
8th year of K'na'anite
Ex196
domination
2644 Y3/42
1280
Timeline: page 190 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
9th year of D'vorah
2644 Y3/42
1280 9th year of K'na'anite
Ex197
domination
2645 Y3/43
10th year of D'vorah
1279
10th year of K'na'anite
Ex198
domination
2646 Y3/44
11th year of D'vorah
1278
11th year of K'na'anite
Ex199
domination
2647 Y3/45
12th year of D'vorah
1277
12th year of K'na'anite
Ex200
domination
2648 Y3/46
13th year of D'vorah
1276
13th year of K'na'anite
Ex201
domination
2649 Y3/47
14th year of D'vorah
1275
14th year of K'na'anite
Ex202
domination
2650 Y3/48
15th year of D'vorah
1274
15th year of K'na'anite
Ex203
domination
2651 Y3/49
16th year of D'vorah
1273
16th year of K'na'anite
Ex204
domination
2652 Y3/50
17th year of D'vorah
1272
17th year of K'na'anite
Ex205
domination
2653 Y4/1
18th year of D'vorah
1271
18th year of K'na'anite
Ex206
domination
2654 Y4/2
19th year of D'vorah
1270
19th year of K'na'anite
Ex207
domination
2655 Y4/3
20th year of D'vorah
1269
20th year of K'na'anite
Ex208
domination
2656 Y4/4
21st year of D'vorah D'vorah inspires Barak son of Avino'am to
1268
liberate Yisrael from K'na'anite domination
Ex209
after 20 years (Shoftim 4:4-24)
2657 Y4/5
22nd year of D'vorah
1267
Ex210
2658 Y4/6
1266
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 191

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
23rd year of D'vorah
2658 Y4/6
1266
Ex211

2659 Y4/7
24th year of D'vorah
1265
Ex212

2660 Y4/8
25th year of D'vorah
1264
Ex213

2661 Y4/9
26th year of D'vorah
1263
Ex214

2662 Y4/10
27th year of D'vorah
1262
Ex215

2663 Y4/11
28th year of D'vorah
1261
Ex216

2664 Y4/12
29th year of D'vorah
1260
Ex217

2665 Y4/13
30th year of D'vorah
1259
Ex218

2666 Y4/14
31st year of D'vorah
1258
Ex219

2667 Y4/15
32nd year of D'vorah
1257
Ex220

2668 Y4/16
33rd year of D'vorah
1256
Ex221

2669 Y4/17
34th year of D'vorah
1255
Ex222

2670 Y4/18
35th year of D'vorah
1254
Ex223

2671 Y4/19
36th year of D'vorah
1253
Ex224
2672 Y4/20
1252
Timeline: page 192 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
37th year of D'vorah
2672 Y4/20
1252
Ex225

2673 Y4/21
38th year of D'vorah
1251
Ex226

2674 Y4/22
39th year of D'vorah
1250
Ex227

2675 Y4/23
40th year of D'vorah D'vorah dies after ruling Yisrael for 40 years
1249
(Shoftim 5:31)
Ex228
There is no immediate successor
2676 Y4/24
1st year of Midiyanite Yisrael is dominated by the Midiyanites for
1248
domination 7 years (Shoftim 6:1)
Ex229

2677 Y4/25
2nd year of Midiyanite
1247
domination
Ex230

2678 Y4/26
3rd year of Midiyanite
1246
domination
Ex231

2679 Y4/27
4th year of Midiyanite
1245
domination
Ex232

2680 Y4/28
5th year of Midiyanite
1244
domination
Ex233

2681 Y4/29
6th year of Midiyanite
1243
domination
Ex234

2682 Y4/30
7th year of Midiyanite
1242
domination
Ex235

2683 Y4/31
1st year of GID'ON Judge Gid'on liberates Yisrael from Midiyanite
1241
domination and assumes the leadership
Ex236
(Shoftim 7)
2684 Y4/32
2nd year of Gid'on
1240
Ex237

2685 Y4/33
3rd year of Gid'on
1239
Ex238
2686 Y4/34
1238
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 193

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
4th year of Gid'on
2686 Y4/34
1238
Ex239

2687 Y4/35
5th year of Gid'on
1237
Ex240

2688 Y4/36
6th year of Gid'on
1236
Ex241

2689 Y4/37
7th year of Gid'on
1235
Ex242

2690 Y4/38
8th year of Gid'on
1234
Ex243

2691 Y4/39
9th year of Gid'on
1233
Ex244

2692 Y4/40
10th year of Gid'on
1232
Ex245

2693 Y4/41
11th year of Gid'on
1231
Ex246

2694 Y4/42
12th year of Gid'on
1230
Ex247

2695 Y4/43
13th year of Gid'on
1229
Ex248

2696 Y4/44
14th year of Gid'on
1228
Ex249

2697 Y4/45
15th year of Gid'on
1227
Ex250

2698 Y4/46
16th year of Gid'on
1226
Ex251

2699 Y4/47
17th year of Gid'on
1225
Ex252
2700 Y4/48
1224
Timeline: page 194 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
18th year of Gid'on
2700 Y4/48
1224
Ex253

2701 Y4/49
19th year of Gid'on
1223
Ex254

2702 Y4/50
20th year of Gid'on
1222
Ex255

2703 Y5/1
21st year of Gid'on
1221
Ex256

2704 Y5/2
22nd year of Gid'on
1220
Ex257

2705 Y5/3
23rd year of Gid'on
1219
Ex258

2706 Y5/4
24th year of Gid'on
1218
Ex259

2707 Y5/5
25th year of Gid'on
1217
Ex260

2708 Y5/6
26th year of Gid'on
1216
Ex261

2709 Y5/7
27th year of Gid'on
1215
Ex262

2710 Y5/8
28th year of Gid'on
1214
Ex263

2711 Y5/9
29th year of Gid'on
1213
Ex264

2712 Y5/10
30th year of Gid'on
1212
Ex265

2713 Y5/11
31st year of Gid'on
1211
Ex266
2714 Y5/12
1210
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 195

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
32nd year of Gid'on
2714 Y5/12
1210
Ex267

2715 Y5/13
33rd year of Gid'on
1209
Ex268

2716 Y5/14
34th year of Gid'on
1208
Ex269

2717 Y5/15
35th year of Gid'on
1207
Ex270

2718 Y5/16
36th year of Gid'on
1206
Ex271

2719 Y5/17
37th year of Gid'on
1205
Ex272

2720 Y5/18
38th year of Gid'on
1204
Ex273

2721 Y5/19
39th year of Gid'on
1203
Ex274

2722 Y5/20
40th year of Gid'on Gid'on dies after ruling Yisrael for a full 40
1202
years (Shoftim 8:28)
Ex275

2723 Y5/21
1st year of AVIMELECH Gid'on’s son Avimelech usurps the leadership
1201
and proclaims himself king (Shoftim 9:6)
Ex276

2724 Y5/22
2nd year of Avimelech
1200
Ex277

2725 Y5/23
3rd year of Avimelech Avimelech is deposed and killed after ruling
1199
for 3 years (Shoftim 9:22)
Ex278

2726 Y5/24
1st year of TOLA The leadership passes to Judge Tola ben
1198
Pu'ah of Yissachar (Shoftim 10:1-2)
Ex279

2727 Y5/25
2nd year of Tola
1197
Ex280
2728 Y5/26
1196
Timeline: page 196 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
3rd year of Tola
2728 Y5/26
1196
Ex281

2729 Y5/27
4th year of Tola
1195
Ex282

2730 Y5/28
5th year of Tola
1194
Ex283

2731 Y5/29
6th year of Tola
1193
Ex284

2732 Y5/30
7th year of Tola
1192
Ex285

2733 Y5/31
8th year of Tola
1191
Ex286

2734 Y5/32
9th year of Tola
1190
Ex287

2735 Y5/33
10th year of Tola
1189
Ex288

2736 Y5/34
11th year of Tola
1188
Ex289

2737 Y5/35
12th year of Tola
1187
Ex290

2738 Y5/36
13th year of Tola
1186
Ex291

2739 Y5/37
14th year of Tola
1185
Ex292

2740 Y5/38
15th year of Tola
1184
Ex293

2741 Y5/39
16th year of Tola
1183
Ex294
2742 Y5/40
1182
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 197

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
17th year of Tola
2742 Y5/40
1182
Ex295

2743 Y5/41
18th year of Tola
1181
Ex296

2744 Y5/42
19th year of Tola
1180
Ex297

2745 Y5/43
20th year of Tola
1179
Ex298

2746 Y5/44
21st year of Tola
1178
Ex299

2747 Y5/45
22nd year of Tola
1177
Ex300

2748 Y5/46
23rd year of Tola Tola dies after ruling Yisrael for 23 years
1176
(Shoftim 10:1-2)
Ex301

2749 Y5/47
1st year of YA'IR The leadership passes to Judge Ya'ir of
1175
Gil'ad (Shoftim 10:3)
Ex302

2750 Y5/48
2nd year of Ya'ir
1174
Ex303

2751 Y5/49
3rd year of Ya'ir
1173
Ex304

2752 Y5/50
4th year of Ya'ir
1172
Ex305

2753 Y6/1
5th year of Ya'ir
1171
Ex306

2754 Y6/2
6th year of Ya'ir
1170
Ex307

2755 Y6/3
7th year of Ya'ir
1169
Ex308
2756 Y6/4
1168
Timeline: page 198 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
8th year of Ya'ir
2756 Y6/4
1168
Ex309

2757 Y6/5
9th year of Ya'ir
1167
Ex310

2758 Y6/6
10th year of Ya'ir
1166
Ex311

2759 Y6/7
11th year of Ya'ir
1165
Ex312

2760 Y6/8
12th year of Ya'ir
1164
Ex313

2761 Y6/9
13th year of Ya'ir
1163
Ex314

2762 Y6/10
14th year of Ya'ir
1162
Ex315

2763 Y6/11
15th year of Ya'ir
1161
Ex316

2764 Y6/12
16th year of Ya'ir
1160
Ex317

2765 Y6/13
17th year of Ya'ir
1159
Ex318

2766 Y6/14
18th year of Ya'ir
1158
Ex319

2767 Y6/15
19th year of Ya'ir
1157
Ex320

2768 Y6/16
20th year of Ya'ir
1156
Ex321

2769 Y6/17
21st year of Ya'ir
1155
Ex322
2770 Y6/18
1154
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 199

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
22nd year of Ya'ir Ya'ir dies after ruling Yisrael for 22 years
2770 Y6/18
1154 1st year of P'lishtian- (Shoftim 10:3); there is no immediate successor
Ex323
Ammonite domination Yisrael is dominated by the P'lishtians and
Ammonites for 18 years, "starting that same
2771 Y6/19
2nd year of P'lishtian- year" (Shoftim 10:7-8)
1153
Ammonite domination
Ex324

2772 Y6/20
3rd year of P'lishtian-
1152
Ammonite domination
Ex325

2773 Y6/21
4th year of P'lishtian-
1151
Ammonite domination
Ex326

2774 Y6/22
5th year of P'lishtian-
1150
Ammonite domination
Ex327

2775 Y6/23
6th year of P'lishtian-
1149
Ammonite domination
Ex328

2776 Y6/24
7th year of P'lishtian-
1148
Ammonite domination
Ex329

2777 Y6/25
8th year of P'lishtian-
1147
Ammonite domination
Ex330

2778 Y6/26
9th year of P'lishtian-
1146
Ammonite domination
Ex331

2779 Y6/27
10th year of P'lishtian-
1145
Ammonite domination
Ex332

2780 Y6/28
11th year of P'lishtian-
1144
Ammonite domination
Ex333

2781 Y6/29
12th year of P'lishtian-
1143
Ammonite domination
Ex334

2782 Y6/30
13th year of P'lishtian-
1142
Ammonite domination
Ex335

2783 Y6/31
14th year of P'lishtian-
1141
Ammonite domination
Ex336
2784 Y6/32
1140
Timeline: page 200 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
15th year of P'lishtian-
2784 Y6/32
1140 Ammonite domination
Ex337

2785 Y6/33
16th year of P'lishtian-
1139
Ammonite domination
Ex338

2786 Y6/34
17th year of P'lishtian-
1138
Ammonite domination
Ex339

2787 Y6/35
18th year of P'lishtian- Judge Yiftah of Gil'ad liberates Yisrael
1137
Ammonite domination from P'lishtian-Ammonite domination and
Ex340
1st year of YIFTAH assumes the leadership (Shoftim 11:32-33)
It is exactly 300 years since Yisrael entered the
2788 Y6/36
2nd year of Yiftah land, as Yiftah tells the Ammonite king
1136
(Shoftim 11:26)
Ex341

2789 Y6/37
3rd year of Yiftah
1135
Ex342

2790 Y6/38
4th year of Yiftah
1134
Ex343

2791 Y6/39
5th year of Yiftah
1133
Ex344

2792 Y6/40
6th year of Yiftah Yiftah dies after ruling Yisrael for 6 years
1132
1st year of IV'TZAN (Shoftim 12:7)
Ex345
(BO'AZ) The leadership passes to Judge Iv'tzan of
Beit Lehem (Shoftim 12:8)
2793 Y6/41
2nd year of Iv'tzan
1131
(Bo'az)
Ex346

2794 Y6/42
3rd year of Iv'tzan
1130
(Bo'az)
Ex347

2795 Y6/43
4th year of Iv'tzan
1129
(Bo'az)
Ex348

2796 Y6/44
5th year of Iv'tzan
1128
(Bo'az)
Ex349

2797 Y6/45
6th year of Iv'tzan
1127
(Bo'az)
Ex350
2798 Y6/46
1126
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 201

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
7th year of Iv'tzan Iv'tzan dies after ruling Yisrael for 7 years
2798 Y6/46
1126 (Bo'az) (Shoftim 12:9-10)
Ex351
1st year of EILON The leadership passes to Judge Eilon of
Z'vulun (Shoftim 12:11)
2799 Y6/47
2nd year of Eilon
1125
Ex352

2800 Y6/48
3rd year of Eilon
1124
Ex353

2801 Y6/49
4th year of Eilon
1123
Ex354

2802 Y6/50
5th year of Eilon
1122
Ex355

2803 Y7/1
6th year of Eilon
1121
Ex356

2804 Y7/2
7th year of Eilon
1120
Ex357

2805 Y7/3
8th year of Eilon
1119
Ex358

2806 Y7/4
9th year of Eilon
1118
Ex359

2807 Y7/5
10th year of Eilon Eilon dies after ruling Yisrael for 10 years
1117
1st year of AVDON (Shoftim 12:11)
Ex360
The leadership passes to Judge Avdon ben Hillel
of Pir'aton (Shoftim 12:13)
2808 Y7/6
2nd year of Avdon
1116
Ex361

2809 Y7/7
3rd year of Avdon
1115
Ex362

2810 Y7/8
4th year of Avdon
1114
Ex363

2811 Y7/9
5th year of Avdon
1113
Ex364
2812 Y7/10
1112
Timeline: page 202 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
6th year of Avdon
2812 Y7/10
1112
Ex365

2813 Y7/11
7th year of Avdon
1111
Ex366

2814 Y7/12
8th year of Avdon Avdon dies after ruling Yisrael for 8 years
1110
1st year of SHIMSHON (Shoftim 12:14-15)
Ex367
The leadership passes to Judge Shimshon ben
Mano'ah (Shoftim 12:13)
2815 Y7/13
2nd year of Shimshon 40 years of P'lishtian domination begin
1109
(Shoftim 13:1), which continue throughout
Ex368
Shimshon’s Judgeship (compare Shoftim 15:20)
and extend into that of Éli
2816 Y7/14
3rd year of Shimshon
1108
Ex369

2817 Y7/15
4th year of Shimshon
1107
Ex370

2818 Y7/16
5th year of Shimshon
1106
Ex371

2819 Y7/17
6th year of Shimshon
1105
Ex372

2820 Y7/18
7th year of Shimshon
1104
Ex373

2821 Y7/19
8th year of Shimshon
1103
Ex374

2822 Y7/20
9th year of Shimshon
1102
Ex375

2823 Y7/21
10th year of Shimshon
1101
Ex376

2824 Y7/22
11th year of Shimshon
1100
Ex377

2825 Y7/23
12th year of Shimshon
1099
Ex378
2826 Y7/24
1098
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 203

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
13th year of Shimshon
2826 Y7/24
1098
Ex379

2827 Y7/25
14th year of Shimshon
1097
Ex380

2828 Y7/26
15th year of Shimshon
1096
Ex381

2829 Y7/27
16th year of Shimshon
1095
Ex382

2830 Y7/28
17th year of Shimshon
1094
Ex383

2831 Y7/29
18th year of Shimshon
1093
Ex384

2832 Y7/30
19th year of Shimshon
1092
Ex385

2833 Y7/31
20th year of Shimshon Shimshon dies at the hands of the P'lishtians
1091
1st year of ÉLI after ruling Yisrael for 20 years (Shoftim 15:20,
Ex386
16:31)
The leadership passes to Judge Éli (Sh'muel Alef
2834 Y7/32
2nd year of Éli 4:18), Chief Kohen at the Shiloh Sanctuary
1090
Ex387

2835 Y7/33
3rd year of Éli
1089
Ex388

2836 Y7/34
4th year of Éli
1088
Ex389

2837 Y7/35
5th year of Éli
1087
Ex390

2838 Y7/36
6th year of Éli
1086
Ex391

2839 Y7/37
7th year of Éli
1085
Ex392
2840 Y7/38
1084
Timeline: page 204 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
8th year of Éli
2840 Y7/38
1084
Ex393

2841 Y7/39
9th year of Éli
1083
Ex394

2842 Y7/40
10th year of Éli
1082
Ex395

2843 Y7/41
11th year of Éli
1081
Ex396

2844 Y7/42
12th year of Éli
1080
Ex397

2845 Y7/43
13th year of Éli
1079
Ex398

2846 Y7/44
14th year of Éli
1078
Ex399

2847 Y7/45
15th year of Éli
1077
Ex400

2848 Y7/46
16th year of Éli
1076
Ex401

2849 Y7/47
17th year of Éli
1075
Ex402

2850 Y7/48
18th year of Éli
1074
Ex403

2851 Y7/49
19th year of Éli
1073
Ex404

2852 Y7/50
20th year of Éli
1072
Ex405

2853 Y8/1
21st year of Éli
1071
Ex406
2854 Y8/2
1070
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 205

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
22nd year of Éli Birth of David (back-calculation based on
2854 Y8/2
1070 Sh'muel Beit 5:4)
Ex407

2855 Y8/3
23rd year of Éli
1069
Ex408

2856 Y8/4
24th year of Éli
1068
Ex409

2857 Y8/5
25th year of Éli
1067
Ex410

2858 Y8/6
26th year of Éli
1066
Ex411

2859 Y8/7
27th year of Éli
1065
Ex412

2860 Y8/8
28th year of Éli
1064
Ex413

2861 Y8/9
29th year of Éli
1063
Ex414

2862 Y8/10
30th year of Éli
1062
Ex415

2863 Y8/11
31st year of Éli
1061
Ex416

2864 Y8/12
32nd year of Éli
1060
Ex417

2865 Y8/13
33rd year of Éli
1059
Ex418

2866 Y8/14
34th year of Éli
1058
Ex419

2867 Y8/15
35th year of Éli
1057
Ex420
2868 Y8/16
1056
Timeline: page 206 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
36th year of Éli
2868 Y8/16
1056
Ex421

2869 Y8/17
37th year of Éli
1055
Ex422

2870 Y8/18
38th year of Éli
1054
Ex423

2871 Y8/19
39th year of Éli
1053
Ex424

2872 Y8/20
40th year of Éli Éli dies after ruling Yisrael for 40 years
1052
1st year of SH'MUEL (Sh'muel Alef 4:18)
Ex425
The leadership passes to Judge Sh'muel of
Ramah the prophet (Sh'muel Alef 7:6, 7:15)
2873 Y8/21
2nd year of Sh'muel
1051
Ex426

2874 Y8/22
3rd year of Sh'muel
1050
Ex427

2875 Y8/23
4th year of Sh'muel
1049
Ex428

2876 Y8/24
5th year of Sh'muel
1048
Ex429

2877 Y8/25
6th year of Sh'muel
1047
Ex430

2878 Y8/26
7th year of Sh'muel
1046
Ex431

2879 Y8/27
8th year of Sh'muel
1045
Ex432

2880 Y8/28
9th year of Sh'muel
1044
Ex433

2881 Y8/29
10th year of Sh'muel
1043
Ex434
2882 Y8/30
1042
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 207

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
11th year of Sh'muel Sh'muel anoints Sha'ul; they rule jointly for one
2882 Y8/30
1042 1st year of SHA'UL year (Talmud, Z'vahim 118b)
Ex435
Sh'muel dies after ruling Yisrael for 11 years
(the last year jointly with Sha'ul)—traditional
2883 Y8/31
2nd year of Sha'ul
1041
Ex436

2884 Y8/32
3rd year of Sha'ul Sha'ul is killed by the P'lishtians at the Battle of
1040
1st year of DAVID Mt. Gilbo'a, after reigning one year jointly with
Ex437
Sh'muel and two years alone after Sh'muel's
death (Sh'muel Alef 13:1). David becomes king.
2885 Y8/33
2nd year of David
1039
Ex438

2886 Y8/34
3rd year of David
1038
Ex439

2887 Y8/35
4th year of David
1037
Ex440

2888 Y8/36
5th year of David
1036
Ex441

2889 Y8/37
6th year of David
1035
Ex442

2890 Y8/38
7th year of David
1034
Ex443

2891 Y8/39
8th year of David After reigning in Hevron for 7 years [and 6
1033
months], David captures Y'rushalayim and
Ex444
makes it his capital (Sh'muel Beit 2:11, 5:5;
M'lachim Alef 2:11; Divrei Hayamim Alef 3:4,
2892 Y8/40
9th year of David 29:27). He brings the Aron there...
1032
Ex445

2893 Y8/41
10th year of David
1031
Ex446

2894 Y8/42
11th year of David
1030
Ex447

2895 Y8/43
12th year of David
1029
Ex448
2896 Y8/44
1028
Timeline: page 208 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
13th year of David
2896 Y8/44
1028
Ex449

2897 Y8/45
14th year of David
1027
Ex450

2898 Y8/46
15th year of David
1026
Ex451

2899 Y8/47
16th year of David
1025
Ex452

2900 Y8/48
17th year of David
1024
Ex453

2901 Y8/49
18th year of David
1023
Ex454

2902 Y8/50
19th year of David
1022
Ex455

2903 Y9/1
20th year of David
1021
Ex456

2904 Y9/2
21st year of David
1020
Ex457

2905 Y9/3
22nd year of David
1019
Ex458

2906 Y9/4
23rd year of David
1018
Ex459

2907 Y9/5
24th year of David
1017
Ex460

2908 Y9/6
25th year of David
1016
Ex461

2909 Y9/7
26th year of David
1015
Ex462
2910 Y9/8
1014
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 209

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
27th year of David
2910 Y9/8
1014
Ex463

2911 Y9/9
28th year of David
1013
Ex464

2912 Y9/10
29th year of David
1012
Ex465

2913 Y9/11
30th year of David
1011
Ex466

2914 Y9/12
31st year of David
1010
Ex467

2915 Y9/13
32nd year of David
1009
Ex468

2916 Y9/14
33rd year of David
1008
Ex469

2917 Y9/15
34th year of David
1007
Ex470

2918 Y9/16
35th year of David
1006
Ex471

2919 Y9/17
36th year of David
1005
Ex472

2920 Y9/18
37th year of David
1004
Ex473

2921 Y9/19
38th year of David
1003
Ex474

2922 Y9/20
39th year of David
1002
Ex475

2923 Y9/21
40th year of David David dies after reigning for a total of 40 years;
1001
he is succeeded by his son Shlomoh; Birth
Ex476
of Shlomoh’s son R'hav'am (based on M'lachim
2924 Y9/22
1000 Alef 14:21 & Divrei Hayamim Beit 12:13)
Timeline: page 210 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
1st year of SHLOMOH
2924 Y9/22
1000
Ex477

2925 Y9/23
2nd year of Shlomoh
999
Ex478

2926 Y9/24
3rd year of Shlomoh
998
Ex479

2927 Y9/25
4th year of Shlomoh Shlomoh begins building the Temple
997
(1 M'lachim 6:1 & Divrei Hayamim Beit 3:2)
Ex480

2928 Y9/26
5th year of Shlomoh
996
Ex481

2929 Y9/27
6th year of Shlomoh
995
Ex482

2930 Y9/28
7th year of Shlomoh
994
Ex483

2931 Y9/29
8th year of Shlomoh
993
Ex484

2932 Y9/30
9th year of Shlomoh
992
Ex485

2933 Y9/31
10th year of Shlomoh
991
Ex486

2934 Y9/32
11th year of Shlomoh
990
Ex487

2935 Y9/33
12th year of Shlomoh
989
Ex488

2936 Y9/34
13th year of Shlomoh
988
Ex489

2937 Y9/35
14th year of Shlomoh
987
Ex490
2938 Y9/36
986
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 211

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Details Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
15th year of Shlomoh
2938 Y9/36
986
Ex491

2939 Y9/37
16th year of Shlomoh
985
Ex492

2940 Y9/38
17th year of Shlomoh
984
Ex493

2941 Y9/39
18th year of Shlomoh
983
Ex494

2942 Y9/40
19th year of Shlomoh
982
Ex495

2943 Y9/41
20th year of Shlomoh
981
Ex496

2944 Y9/42
21st year of Shlomoh
980
Ex497

2945 Y9/43
22nd year of Shlomoh
979
Ex498

2946 Y9/44
23rd year of Shlomoh
978
Ex499

2947 Y9/45
24th year of Shlomoh
977
Ex500

2948 Y9/46
25th year of Shlomoh
976
Ex501

2949 Y9/47
26th year of Shlomoh
975
Ex502

2950 Y9/48
27th year of Shlomoh
974
Ex503

2951 Y9/49
28th year of Shlomoh
973
Ex504
2952 Y9/50
972
Timeline: page 212 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
29th year of Shlomoh
2952 Y9/50
972
Ex505

2953 Y10/1
30th year of Shlomoh
971
Ex506

2954 Y10/2
31st year of Shlomoh
970
Ex507

2955 Y10/3
32nd year of Shlomoh
969
Ex508

2956 Y10/4
33rd year of Shlomoh
968
Ex509

2957 Y10/5
34th year of Shlomoh
967
Ex510

2958 Y10/6
35th year of Shlomoh
966
Ex511

2959 Y10/7
36th year of Shlomoh
965
Ex512

2960 Y10/8
37th year of Shlomoh
964
Ex513

2961 Y10/9
38th year of Shlomoh
963
Ex514

2962 Y10/10
39th year of Shlomoh
962
Ex515

2963 Y10/11
40th year of Shlomoh Shlomoh dies after reigning
961
for 40 years and is succeeded
Ex516
1st yr. of YAROV'AM I by his son R'hav'am
(M'lachim Alef 11:42-3)
2964 Y10/12
1st yr. of R'HAV'AM The ten northern tribes secede
960
under Yarov'am ben N'vat and
Ex517
2nd yr. of Yarov'am I form the breakaway northern
kingdom of Yisrael (M'lachim
2965 Y10/13
2nd yr. of R'hav'am Alef 12)
959
Ex518
3rd yr. of Yarov'am I
2966 Y10/14
958
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 213

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
3rd yr. of R'hav'am
2966 Y10/14
958
Ex519
4th yr. of Yarov'am I
2967 Y10/15
4th yr. of R'hav'am
957
Ex520
5th yr. of Yarov'am I
2968 Y10/16
5th yr. of R'hav'am R'hav'am is attacked by "the
956
Egyptian king Shishak"
Ex521
6th yr. of Yarov'am I (M'lachim Alef 14:25, Divrei
Hayamim Beit 12:2)
2969 Y10/17
6th yr. of R'hav'am
955
Ex522
7th yr. of Yarov'am I
2970 Y10/18
7th yr. of R'hav'am
954
Ex523
8th yr. of Yarov'am I
2971 Y10/19
8th yr. of R'hav'am
953
Ex524
9th yr. of Yarov'am I
2972 Y10/20
9th yr. of R'hav'am
952
Ex525
10th yr. of Yarov'am I
2973 Y10/21
10th yr. of R'hav'am
951
Ex526
11th yr. of Yarov'am I
2974 Y10/22
11th yr. of R'hav'am
950
Ex527
12th yr. of Yarov'am I
2975 Y10/23
12th yr. of R'hav'am
949
Ex528
13th yr. of Yarov'am I
2976 Y10/24
13th yr. of R'hav'am
948
Ex529
14th yr. of Yarov'am I
2977 Y10/25
14th yr. of R'hav'am
947
Ex530
15th yr. of Yarov'am I
2978 Y10/26
15th yr. of R'hav'am
946
Ex531
16th yr. of Yarov'am I
2979 Y10/27
16th yr. of R'hav'am
945
Ex532
17th yr. of Yarov'am I
2980 Y10/28
944
Timeline: page 214 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
17th yr. of R'hav'am Death of R'hav'am (M'lachim
944 Alef 14:21)
Ex533
18th yr. of Yarov'am I
2981 Y10/29
1st year of AVIYYAM Accession of Aviyyam (M'lachim
943
Alef 14:31-15:1)
Ex534
19th yr. of Yarov'am I
2982 Y10/30
2nd year of Aviyyam
942
Ex535
20th yr. of Yarov'am I
2983 Y10/31
3rd year of Aviyyam Death of Aviyyam (M'lachim
941
Alef 15:2)
Ex536
21st yr. of Yarov'am I
2984 Y10/32
1st year of ASA Accession of Asa (M'lachim Alef
940
15:9)
Ex537
22nd yr. of Yarov'am I Death of Yarov'am I (M'lachim c
1st year of NADAV Alef 14:20)
2985 Y10/33
2nd year of Asa Accession of Nadav (M'achim
939
Alef 15:25)
Ex538
2nd year of Nadav Death of Nadav (M'lachim Alef
1st year of BA'ASHA 15:25)
2986 Y10/34
3rd year of Asa Accession of Ba'asha (M'lachim
938
Alef 15:28, 15:33)
Ex539
2nd year of Ba'asha
2987 Y10/35
4th year of Asa
937
Ex540
3rd year of Ba'asha
2988 Y10/36
5th year of Asa
936
Ex541
4th year of Ba'asha
2989 Y10/37
6th year of Asa
935
Ex542
5th year of Ba'asha
2990 Y10/38
7th year of Asa Birth of Asa’s son Y'hoshafat
934
(back-calculation based on
Ex543
6th year of Ba'asha 1 M'lachim 22:42, Divrei
Hayamim Beit 20:31)
2991 Y10/39
8th year of Asa
933
Ex544
7th year of Ba'asha
2992 Y10/40
9th year of Asa
932
Ex545
8th year of Ba'asha
2993 Y10/41
10th year of Asa
931
Ex546
9th year of Ba'asha
2994 Y10/42
930
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 215

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
11th year of Asa
2994 Y10/42
930
Ex547
10th year of Ba'asha
2995 Y10/43
12th year of Asa
929
Ex548
11th year of Ba'asha
2996 Y10/44
13th year of Asa
928
Ex549
12th year of Ba'asha
2997 Y10/45
14th year of Asa
927
Ex550
13th year of Ba'asha
2998 Y10/46
15th year of Asa
926
Ex551
14th year of Ba'asha
2999 Y10/47
16th year of Asa
925
Ex552
15th year of Ba'asha
3000 Y10/48
17th year of Asa
924
Ex553
16th year of Ba'asha
3001 Y10/49
18th year of Asa
923
Ex554
17th year of Ba'asha
3002 Y10/50
19th year of Asa
922
Ex555
18th year of Ba'asha
3003 Y11/1
20th year of Asa
921
Ex556
19th year of Ba'asha
3004 Y11/2
21st year of Asa
920
Ex557
20th year of Ba'asha
3005 Y11/3
22nd year of Asa
919
Ex558
21st year of Ba'asha
3006 Y11/4
23rd year of Asa
918
Ex559
22nd year of Ba'asha
3007 Y11/5
24th year of Asa
917
Ex560
23rd year of Ba'asha
3008 Y11/6
916
Timeline: page 216 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
25th year of Asa
3008 Y11/6
916
Ex561
24th year of Ba'asha Death of Ba'asha (M'lachim Alef
1st year of ÉLAH 15:33, 16:6)
3009 Y11/7
26th year of Asa Accession of Élah (M'lachim
915
Alef 16:6, 16:8)
Ex562
2nd year of Élah Death of Élah (M'lachim Alef
ZIMRI 16:8), Zimri (M'lachim Alef
3010 Y11/8
27th year of Asa 1st year of OMRI 16:10); Accession of Omri
914 Civil War begins (M'lachim Alef 16:16-18); Civil
Ex563
2nd year of Omri War (M'lachim Alef 16:21-22)
3011 Y11/9
28th year of Asa
913
Ex564
3rd year of Omri
3012 Y11/10
29th year of Asa
912
Ex565
4th year of Omri
3013 Y11/11
30th year of Asa
911
Ex566
5th year of Omri
Tivni dies, Civil War
3014 Y11/12
31st year of Asa ends End of the Civil War (M'lachim
910
Alef 16:23)
Ex567
6th year of Omri
3015 Y11/13
32nd year of Asa Birth of Y'hoshafat’s son
909
Y'horam (based on M'lachim
Ex568
7th year of Omri Beit 8:17 and Divrei Hayamim
Omri moves his Beit 21:5, 21:20)
3016 Y11/14
33rd year of Asa capital from Tir'tzah
908 to Shomron
Ex569
8th year of Omri
3017 Y11/15
34th year of Asa
907
Ex570
9th year of Omri
3018 Y11/16
35th year of Asa
906
Ex571
10th year of Omri
3019 Y11/17
36th year of Asa
905
Ex572
11th year of Omri
3020 Y11/18
37th year of Asa
904
Ex573
12th year of Omri Death of Omri (M'lachim Alef
1st year of AH'AV 16:23)
3021 Y11/19
38th year of Asa Accession of Ah'av (M'lachim
903
Alef 16:29)
Ex574
2nd year of Ah'av
3022 Y11/20
902
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 217

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
39th year of Asa
3022 Y11/20
902
Ex575
3rd year of Ah'av
3023 Y11/21
40th year of Asa
901
Ex576
4th year of Ah'av
3024 Y11/22
41st year of Asa Death of Asa (M'lachim Alef
900
15:10)
Ex577
5th year of Ah'av
3025 Y11/23
1st yr. of Y'HOSHAFAT Accession of Y'hoshafat
899
(M'lachim Alef 15:24)
Ex578
6th year of Ah'av
3026 Y11/24
2nd yr. of Y'hoshafat
898
Ex579
7th year of Ah'av
3027 Y11/25
3rd yr. of Y'hoshafat
897
Ex580
8th year of Ah'av
3028 Y11/26
4th yr. of Y'hoshafat
896
Ex581
9th year of Ah'av
3029 Y11/27
5th yr. of Y'hoshafat
895
Ex582
10th year of Ah'av
3030 Y11/28
6th yr. of Y'hoshafat
894
Ex583
11th year of Ah'av
3031 Y11/29
7th yr. of Y'hoshafat Birth of Y'horam’s son Ahazyah
893
(back-calculation based on
Ex584
12th year of Ah'av M'lachim Beit 8:26... Divrei
Hayamim Beit 22:2 makes him
3032 Y11/30
8th yr. of Y'hoshafat 20 years older, which is
892
impossible and must be an error
Ex585
13th year of Ah'av as it would mean he was older
than his own father!)
3033 Y11/31
9th yr. of Y'hoshafat
891
Ex586
14th year of Ah'av
3034 Y11/32
10th yr. of Y'hoshafat
890
Ex587
15th year of Ah'av
3035 Y11/33
11th yr. of Y'hoshafat
889
Ex588
16th year of Ah'av
3036 Y11/34
888
Timeline: page 218 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
12th yr. of Y'hoshafat
3036 Y11/34
888
Ex589
17th year of Ah'av
3037 Y11/35
13th yr. of Y'hoshafat
887
Ex590
18th year of Ah'av
3038 Y11/36
14th yr. of Y'hoshafat
886
Ex591
19th year of Ah'av
3039 Y11/37
15th yr. of Y'hoshafat
885
Ex592
20th year of Ah'av
3040 Y11/38
16th yr. of Y'hoshafat
884
Ex593
21st year of Ah'av
3041 Y11/39
17th yr. of Y'hoshafat
883
1st yr. of Y'HORAM as
Ex594
regent 22nd year of Ah'av
1st year of AHAZYAH
3042 Y11/40
18th yr. of Y'hoshafat
882
2nd yr. of Y'horam as
Ex595
regent 2nd year of Ahazyah
1st year of YORAM
3043 Y11/41
19th yr. of Y'hoshafat
881
Ex596
2nd year of Yoram
3044 Y11/42
20th yr. of Y'hoshafat
880
Ex597
3rd year of Yoram
3045 Y11/43
21st yr. of Y'hoshafat
879
Ex598
4th year of Yoram
3046 Y11/44
22nd yr. of Y'hoshafat
878
Ex599
5th year of Yoram
3047 Y11/45
23rd yr. of Y'hoshafat
877
& 1st yr. of Y'HORAM
Ex600
6th year of Yoram
3048 Y11/46
24th yr. of Y'hoshafat
876
& 2nd yr. of Y'horam
Ex601
7th year of Yoram
3049 Y11/47
25th yr. of Y'hoshafat
875
& 3rd yr. of Y'horam
Ex602
8th year of Yoram
3050 Y11/48
874
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 219

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
4th yr. of Y'horam
3050 Y11/48
874
Ex603
5th yr. of Y'horam 9th year of Yoram
3051 Y11/49
873
Ex604
6th yr. of Y'horam 10th year of Yoram
3052 Y11/50
872
Ex605
7th yr. of Y'horam 11th year of Yoram
AHAZYAHU co-regent
3053 Y12/1
Birth of Ahazyahu’s son Yo'ash
871
(back calculation based on
Ex606
8th yr. of Y'horam 12th year of Yoram M'lachim Beit 12:1, Divrei
AHAZYAHU Hayamim Beit 24:1)
3054 Y12/2
870
Ex607
1st year of ATALYAH 1st year of YÉHU
3055 Y12/3
869
Ex608
2nd year of Atalyah 2nd year of Yéhu
3056 Y12/4
868
Ex609
3rd year of Atalyah 3rd year of Yéhu
3057 Y12/5
867
Ex610
4th year of Atalyah 4th year of Yéhu
3058 Y12/6
866
Ex611
5th year of Atalyah 5th year of Yéhu
3059 Y12/7
865
Ex612
6th year of Atalyah 6th year of Yéhu
3060 Y12/8
864
Ex613
7th year of Atalyah 7th year of Yéhu
1st year of Yo'ash
3061 Y12/9
2nd year of Yo'ash
863
Ex614
8th year of Yéhu
3062 Y12/10
3rd year of Yo'ash
862
Ex615
9th year of Yéhu
3063 Y12/11
4th year of Yo'ash
861
Ex616
10th year of Yéhu
3064 Y12/12
860
Timeline: page 220 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
5th year of Yo'ash
3064 Y12/12
860
Ex617
11th year of Yéhu
3065 Y12/13
6th year of Yo'ash
859
Ex618
12th year of Yéhu
3066 Y12/14
7th year of Yo'ash
858
Ex619
13th year of Yéhu
3067 Y12/15
8th year of Yo'ash
857
Ex620
14th year of Yéhu
3068 Y12/16
9th year of Yo'ash
856
Ex621
15th year of Yéhu
3069 Y12/17
10th year of Yo'ash
855
Ex622
16th year of Yéhu
3070 Y12/18
11th year of Yo'ash
854
Ex623
17th year of Yéhu
3071 Y12/19
12th year of Yo'ash
853
Ex624
18th year of Yéhu
3072 Y12/20
13th year of Yo'ash
852
Ex625
19th year of Yéhu
3073 Y12/21
14th year of Yo'ash
851
Ex626
20th year of Yéhu
3074 Y12/22
15th year of Yo'ash
850
Ex627
21st year of Yéhu
3075 Y12/23
16th year of Yo'ash Birth of Yo'ash’s son
849
Amatz'yahu (back-calculation
Ex628
22nd year of Yéhu based on M'lachim Beit 14:2)
3076 Y12/24
17th year of Yo'ash
848
Ex629
23rd year of Yéhu
3077 Y12/25
18th year of Yo'ash
847
Ex630
24th year of Yéhu
3078 Y12/26
846
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 221

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
19th year of Yo'ash
3078 Y12/26
846
Ex631
25th year of Yéhu
3079 Y12/27
20th year of Yo'ash
845
Ex632
26th year of Yéhu
3080 Y12/28
21st year of Yo'ash
844
Ex633
27th year of Yéhu
3081 Y12/29
22nd year of Yo'ash
843
Ex634
28th year of Yéhu
1st year of Y'HOAHAZ
3082 Y12/30
23rd year of Yo'ash
842
Ex635
2nd year of Y'hoahaz
3083 Y12/31
24th year of Yo'ash
841
Ex636
3rd year of Y'hoahaz
3084 Y12/32
25th year of Yo'ash
840
Ex637
4th year of Y'hoahaz
3085 Y12/33
26th year of Yo'ash
839
Ex638
5th year of Y'hoahaz
3086 Y12/34
27th year of Yo'ash
838
Ex639
6th year of Y'hoahaz
3087 Y12/35
28th year of Yo'ash
837
Ex640
7th year of Y'hoahaz
3088 Y12/36
29th year of Yo'ash
836
Ex641
8th year of Y'hoahaz
3089 Y12/37
30th year of Yo'ash
835
Ex642
9th year of Y'hoahaz
3090 Y12/38
31st year of Yo'ash
834
Ex643
10th year of Y'hoahaz
3091 Y12/39
32nd year of Yo'ash
833
Ex644
11th year of Y'hoahaz
3092 Y12/40
832
Timeline: page 222 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
33rd year of Yo'ash
3092 Y12/40
832
Ex645
12th year of Y'hoahaz
3093 Y12/41
34th year of Yo'ash
831
Ex646
13th year of Y'hoahaz
3094 Y12/42
35th year of Yo'ash
830
Ex647
14th year of Y'hoahaz
3095 Y12/43
36th year of Yo'ash
829
Ex648
15th year of Y'hoahaz
Y'HOASH regent
3096 Y12/44
37th year of Yo'ash
828
Ex649
16th year of Y'hoahaz
Y'hoash regent
3097 Y12/45
38th year of Yo'ash
827
Ex650
17th year of Y'hoahaz
Y'hoash regent
3098 Y12/46
39th year of Yo'ash Birth of Amatz'yahu’s son
826
Azaryah/Uzziyahu (back-
Ex651
1st year of Y'HOASH calculation based on M'lachim
Beit 14:21, 15:2 and Divrei
3099 Y12/47
40th year of Yo'ash Hayamim Beit 26:3)
825
Ex652
2nd year of Y'hoash
3100 Y12/48
1st yr. of AMATZ'YAHU
824
Ex653
3rd year of Y'hoash
3101 Y12/49
2nd yr. of Amatz'yahu
823
Ex654
4th year of Y'hoash
3102 Y12/50
3rd yr. of Amatz'yahu
822
Ex655
5th year of Y'hoash
3103 Y13/1
4th yr. of Amatz'yahu
821
Ex656
6th year of Y'hoash
3104 Y13/2
5th yr. of Amatz'yahu
820
Ex657
7th year of Y'hoash
3105 Y13/3
6th yr. of Amatz'yahu
819
Ex658
8th year of Y'hoash
3106 Y13/4
818
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 223

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
7th yr. of Amatz'yahu
3106 Y13/4
818
Ex659
9th year of Y'hoash
3107 Y13/5
8th yr. of Amatz'yahu
817
Ex660
10th year of Y'hoash
3108 Y13/6
9th yr. of Amatz'yahu
816
Ex661
11th year of Y'hoash
3109 Y13/7
10th yr. of Amatz'yahu
815
Ex662
12th year of Y'hoash
3110 Y13/8
11th yr. of Amatz'yahu
814
Ex663
13th year of Y'hoash
3111 Y13/9
12th yr. of Amatz'yahu
813
Ex664
14th year of Y'hoash
& 1st of YAROV'AM II
3112 Y13/10
13th yr. of Amatz'yahu
812
Ex665
15th year of Y'hoash
& 2nd of Yarov'am II
3113 Y13/11
14th yr. of Amatz'yahu
811
Ex666
16th year of Y'hoash
& 3rd of Yarov'am II
3114 Y13/12
15th yr. of Amatz'yahu
810
& 1st yr. of AZARYAH
Ex667
(UZZIYAHU) 4th of Yarov'am II
(1st as sole ruler)
3115 Y13/13
16th yr. of Amatz'yahu
809
& 2nd year of
Ex668
Azaryah (Uzziyahu) 5th of Yarov'am II
(2nd as sole ruler)
3116 Y13/14
17th yr. of Amatz'yahu Birth of Azaryah/Uzziyahu’s son
808
& 3rd year of Azaryah Yotam (based on M'lachim Beit
Ex669
(Uzziyahu) 6th of Yarov'am II 15:33 and Divrei Hayamim Beit
(3rd as sole ruler) 27:1, 27:8)
3117 Y13/15
18th yr. of Amatz'yahu
807
& 4th year of Azaryah
Ex670
(Uzziyahu) 7th of Yarov'am II
(4th as sole ruler)
3118 Y13/16
19th yr. of Amatz'yahu
806
& 5th year of Azaryah
Ex671
(Uzziyahu) 8th of Yarov'am II
(5th as sole ruler)
3119 Y13/17
20th yr. of Amatz'yahu
805
& 6th year of Azaryah
Ex672
(Uzziyahu) 9th of Yarov'am II
3120 Y13/18
804 (6th as sole ruler)
Timeline: page 224 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
21st yr. of Amatz'yahu
3120 Y13/18
804 & 7th year of Azaryah
Ex673
(Uzziyahu) 10th of Yarov'am II
(7th as sole ruler)
3121 Y13/19
22nd yr. of
803
Amatz'yahu
Ex674
& 8th year of Azaryah 11th of Yarov'am II
(Uzziyahu) (8th as sole ruler)
3122 Y13/20
23rd yr. of Amatz'yahu
802
& 9th year of Azaryah
Ex675
(Uzziyahu) 12th of Yarov'am II
(9th as sole ruler)
3123 Y13/21
24th yr. of Amatz'yahu
801
& 10th yr. of Azaryah
Ex676
(Uzziyahu) 13th of Yarov'am II
(10th as sole ruler)
3124 Y13/22
25th yr. of Amatz'yahu
800
& 11th yr. of Azaryah
Ex677
(Uzziyahu) 14th of Yarov'am II
(11th as sole ruler)
3125 Y13/23
26th yr. of Amatz'yahu
799
& 12th yr. of Azaryah
Ex678
(Uzziyahu) 15th of Yarov'am II
(12th as sole ruler)
3126 Y13/24
27th yr. of Amatz'yahu
798
& 13th yr. of Azaryah
Ex679
(Uzziyahu) 16th of Yarov'am II
(13th as sole ruler)
3127 Y13/25
28th yr. of Amatz'yahu
797
& 14th yr. of Azaryah
Ex680
(Uzziyahu) 17th of Yarov'am II
(14th as sole ruler)
3128 Y13/26
29th yr. of Amatz'yahu
796
& 15th yr. of Azaryah
Ex681
(Uzziyahu) 18th of Yarov'am II
(15th as sole ruler)
3129 Y13/27
16th year of Azaryah
795
(Uzziyahu)
Ex682
19th of Yarov'am II
(16th as sole ruler)
3130 Y13/28
17th year of Azaryah
794
(Uzziyahu)
Ex683
20th of Yarov'am II
(17th as sole ruler)
3131 Y13/29
18th year of Azaryah
793
(Uzziyahu)
Ex684
21st of Yarov'am II
(18th as sole ruler)
3132 Y13/30
19th year of Azaryah
792
(Uzziyahu)
Ex685
22nd of Yarov'am II
(19th as sole ruler)
3133 Y13/31
20th year of Azaryah
791
(Uzziyahu)
Ex686
23rd of Yarov'am II
3134 Y13/32
790
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 225

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
21st year of Azaryah (20th as sole ruler)
3134 Y13/32
790 (Uzziyahu)
Ex687
24th of Yarov'am II
(21st as sole ruler)
3135 Y13/33
22nd year of Azaryah
789
(Uzziyahu)
Ex688
25th of Yarov'am II
(22nd as sole ruler)
3136 Y13/34
23rd year of Azaryah
788
(Uzziyahu)
Ex689
26th of Yarov'am II
(23rd as sole ruler)
3137 Y13/35
24th year of Azaryah
787
(Uzziyahu)
Ex690
27th of Yarov'am II
(24th as sole ruler)
3138 Y13/36
25th year of Azaryah
786
(Uzziyahu)
Ex691
28th of Yarov'am II Amos prophesies the end of
(25th as sole ruler) the Northern Kingdom
3139 Y13/37
26th year of Azaryah
785
(Uzziyahu)
Ex692
29th of Yarov'am II 2nd year of Amos’s prophecy
(26th as sole ruler)
3140 Y13/38
27th year of Azaryah
784
(Uzziyahu).
Ex693
30th of Yarov'am II 3rd year of Amos’s prophecy
(27th as sole ruler) Azaryah/Uzziyahu is stricken
3141 Y13/39
28th year of Azaryah with tzara'at (levitical leprosy)
783
(Uzziyahu) The Earthquake
Ex694
YOTAM regent 31st of Yarov'am II 4th year of Amos’s prophecy
3142 Y13/40
29th year of Azaryah
782
(Uzziyahu)
Ex695
Yotam regent 32nd of Yarov'am II 5th year of Amos’s prophecy
3143 Y13/41
30th year of Azaryah
781
(Uzziyahu)
Ex696
Yotam regent 33th of Yarov'am II 6th year of Amos’s prophecy
3144 Y13/42
31st year of Azaryah
780
(Uzziyahu)
Ex697
Yotam regent 34th of Yarov'am II 7th year of Amos’s prophecy
3145 Y13/43
32nd year of Azaryah
779
(Uzziyahu)
Ex698
Yotam regent 35th of Yarov'am II 8th year of Amos’s prophecy
3146 Y13/44
33rd year of Azaryah
778
(Uzziyahu)
Ex699
Yotam regent 36th of Yarov'am II 9th year of Amos’s prophecy
3147 Y13/45
34th year of Azaryah
777
(Uzziyahu)
Ex700
Yotam regent 37th of Yarov'am II 10th year of Amos’s prophecy
3148 Y13/46
776
Timeline: page 226 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
35th year of Azaryah
3148 Y13/46
776 (Uzziyahu)
Ex701
Yotam regent 38th of Yarov'am II 11th year of Amos’s prophecy
3149 Y13/47
36th year of Azaryah
775
(Uzziyahu)
Ex702
Yotam regent 39th of Yarov'am II 12th year of Amos’s prophecy
3150 Y13/48
37th year of Azaryah
774
(Uzziyahu)
Ex703
Yotam regent 40th of Yarov'am II 13th year of Amos’s prophecy
3151 Y13/49
38th year of Azaryah
773
(Uzziyahu)
Ex704
Yotam regent 41st of Yarov'am II 14th year of Amos’s prophecy
Z'CHARYAH
3152 Y13/50
39th year of Azaryah
772
(Uzziyahu)
Ex705
Yotam regent (Z'charyah) 15th year of Amos’s prophecy
SHALLUM
3153 Y14/1
40th year of Azaryah
771
(Uzziyahu)
Ex706
Yotam regent 1st year of M'NAHEM 16th year of Amos’s prophecy
3154 Y14/2
41st year of Azaryah
770
(Uzziyahu)
Ex707
Yotam regent 2nd year of M'nahem 17th year of Amos’s prophecy
3155 Y14/3
42nd year of Azaryah
769
(Uzziyahu)
Ex708
Yotam regent 3rd year of Menahem 18th year of Amos’s prophecy
3156 Y14/4
43rd year of Azaryah
768
(Uzziyahu)
Ex709
Yotam regent 4th year of M'nahem 19th year of Amos’s prophecy
3157 Y14/5
44th year of Azaryah
767
(Uzziyahu)
Ex710
Yotam regent 5th year of M'nahem 20th year of Amos’s prophecy
3158 Y14/6
45th year of Azaryah
766
(Uzziyahu)
Ex711
Yotam regent 6th year of M'nahem 21st year of Amos’s prophecy
3159 Y14/7
46th year of Azaryah
765
(Uzziyahu)
Ex712
Yotam regent 7th year of M'nahem 22nd year of Amos’s prophecy
3160 Y14/8
47th year of Azaryah
764
(Uzziyahu)
Ex713
Yotam regent 8th year of M'nahem 23rd year of Amos’s prophecy
3161 Y14/9
48th year of Azaryah
763
(Uzziyahu)
Ex714
Yotam regent 9th year of M'nahem 24th year of Amos’s prophecy
3162 Y14/10
762
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 227

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
49th year of Azaryah Birth of Yotam’s son Ahaz
3162 Y14/10
762 (Uzziyahu) (based on M'lachim Beit 16:2
Ex715
Yotam regent 10th year of M'nahem and Divrei Hayamim Beit 28:1)
25th year of Amos’s prophecy
3163 Y14/11
50th year of Azaryah
761
(Uzziyahu)
Ex716
Yotam regent 1st year of P'KAHYAH 26th year of Amos’s prophecy
3164 Y14/12
51st year of Azaryah
760
(Uzziyahu)
Ex717
Yotam regent 2nd year of P'kahyah 27th year of Amos’s prophecy
3165 Y14/13
52nd year of Azaryah
759
(Uzziyahu)
Ex718
Yotam regent 1st year of PEKAH 28th year of Amos’s prophecy
3166 Y14/14
1st year of YOTAM
758
Ex719
2nd year of Pekah 29th year of Amos’s prophecy
3167 Y14/15
2nd year of Yotam
757
Ex720
3rd year of Pekah 30th year of Amos’s prophecy
3168 Y14/16
3rd year of Yotam
756
Ex721
4th year of Pekah 31st year of Amos’s prophecy
3169 Y14/17
4th year of Yotam
755
Ex722
5th year of Pekah 32nd year of Amos’s prophecy
3170 Y14/18
5th year of Yotam
754
Ex723
6th year of Pekah 33rd year of Amos’s prophecy
3171 Y14/19
6th year of Yotam
753
Ex724
7th year of Pekah 34th year of Amos’s prophecy
3172 Y14/20
7th year of Yotam
752
Ex725
8th year of Pekah 35th year of Amos’s prophecy
3173 Y14/21
8th year of Yotam Birth of Ahaz’s son Hiz'kiyahu
751
(based on M'lachim Beit 18:2)
Ex726
9th year of Pekah 36th year of Amos’s prophecy
3174 Y14/22
9th year of Yotam
750
Ex727
10th year of Pekah 37th year of Amos’s prophecy
3175 Y14/23
10th year of Yotam
749
Ex728
11th year of Pekah 38th year of Amos’s prophecy
3176 Y14/24
748
Timeline: page 228 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
11th year of Yotam
3176 Y14/24
748
Ex729
12th year of Pekah 39th year of Amos’s prophecy
3177 Y14/25
12th year of Yotam
747
Ex730
13th year of Pekah 40th year of Amos’s prophecy
3178 Y14/26
13th year of Yotam
746
Ex731
14th year of Pekah 41st year of Amos’s prophecy
3179 Y14/27
14th year of Yotam
745
Ex732
15th year of Pekah 42nd year of Amos’s prophecy
3180 Y14/28
15th year of Yotam
744
Ex733
16th year of Pekah 43rd year of Amos’s prophecy
3181 Y14/29
16th year of Yotam
743
Ex734
17th year of Pekah 44th year of Amos’s prophecy
3182 Y14/30
1st year of AHAZ
742
("17th yr. of Yotam")
Ex735
18th year of Pekah 45th year of Amos’s prophecy
3183 Y14/31
2nd year of Ahaz
741
("18th yr. of Yotam")
Ex736
19th year of Pekah 46th year of Amos’s prophecy
3184 Y14/32
3rd year of Ahaz
740
("19th yr. of Yotam")
Ex737
20th year of Pekah 47th year of Amos’s prophecy
3185 Y14/33
4th year of Ahaz
739
("20th yr. of Yotam")
Ex738
1st year of HOSHÉ'A 48th year of Amos’s prophecy
(as vassal of Assyria)
3186 Y14/34
5th year of Ahaz
738
Ex739
2nd year of Hoshé'a 49th year of Amos’s prophecy
(as vassal of Assyria)
3187 Y14/35
6th year of Ahaz
737
Ex740
3rd year of Hoshé'a 50th year of Amos’s prophecy
(as vassal of Assyria)
3188 Y14/36
7th year of Ahaz
736
Ex741
4th year of Hoshé'a 51st year of Amos’s prophecy
(as vassal of Assyria)
3189 Y14/37
8th year of Ahaz
735
Ex742
5th year of Hoshé'a 52nd year of Amos’s prophecy
3190 Y14/38
734 (as vassal of Assyria)
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 229

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Kings of Yisrael Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
9th year of Ahaz
3190 Y14/38
734
Ex743
6th year of Hoshé'a 53rd year of Amos’s prophecy
(as vassal of Assyria)
3191 Y14/39
10th year of Ahaz
733
Ex744
7th year of Hoshé'a 54th year of Amos’s prophecy
(as vassal of Assyria)
3192 Y14/40
11th year of Ahaz
732
Ex745
8th year of Hoshé'a 55th year of Amos’s prophecy
(as vassal of Assyria)
3193 Y14/41
12th year of Ahaz
731
Ex746
9th year of Hoshé'a 56th year of Amos’s prophecy
(as vassal of Assyria)
3194 Y14/42
13th year of Ahaz
730
Ex747
1st year of Hoshé'a 57th year of Amos’s prophecy
(independent)
3195 Y14/43
14th year of Ahaz
729
Ex748
2nd year of Hoshé'a 58th year of Amos’s prophecy
(independent)
3196 Y14/44
15th year of Ahaz
728
Ex749
3rd year of Hoshé'a 59th year of Amos’s prophecy
(independent)
3197 Y14/45
16th year of Ahaz
727
Ex750
4th year of Hoshé'a 60th year of Amos’s prophecy
(independent)
3198 Y14/46
1st year of HIZ'KIYAHU
726
Ex751
5th year of Hoshé'a 61st year of Amos’s prophecy
(independent)
3199 Y14/47
2nd year of Hiz'kiyahu
725
Ex752
6th year of Hoshé'a 62nd year of Amos’s prophecy
(independent)
3200 Y14/48
3rd year of Hiz'kiyahu
724
Ex753
7th year of Hoshé'a 63rd year of Amos’s prophecy
(independent) The Assyrians lay siege to
3201 Y14/49
4th year of Hiz'kiyahu Shomron
723
Ex754
8th year of Hoshé'a 64th year of Amos’s prophecy
(independent)
3202 Y14/50
5th year of Hiz'kiyahu
722
Ex755
9th year of Hoshé'a 65th year of Amos’s prophecy
(independent) Fall of Shomron
3203 Y15/1
6th year of Hiz'kiyahu
721
Ex756
END OF THE
3204 Y15/2
720 NORTHERN KINGDOM
Timeline: page 230 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
7th year of Hiz'kiyahu
3204 Y15/2
720
Ex757

3205 Y15/3
8th year of Hiz'kiyahu
719
Ex758

3206 Y15/4
9th year of Hiz'kiyahu
718
Ex759

3207 Y15/5
10th year of
717
Hiz'kiyahu
Ex760

3208 Y15/6
11th year of
716
Hiz'kiyahu
Ex761

3209 Y15/7
12th year of
715
Hiz'kiyahu
Ex762

3210 Y15/8
13th year of
714
Hiz'kiyahu
E763

3211 Y15/9
14th year of Y'rushalayim attacked by the armies of the Assyrian king
713
Hiz'kiyahu Sargon II, commanded by Crown Prince Sennacherib
Ex764
(M'lachim Beit 18:13ff)
3212 Y15/10
15th year of
712
Hiz'kiyahu
Ex765

3213 Y15/11
16th year of
711
Hiz'kiyahu
Ex766

3214 Y15/12
17th year of
710
Hiz'kiyahu
Ex767

3215 Y15/13
18th year of Birth of Hiz'kiyahu’s son M'nasheh (back-calculation
709
Hiz'kiyahu based on M'lachim Beit 21:1 and Divrei Hayamim Beit
Ex768
33:1)
3216 Y15/14
19th year of
708
Hiz'kiyahu
Ex769

3217 Y15/15
20th year of
707
Hiz'kiyahu
Ex770
3218 Y15/16
706
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 231

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
21st year of Hiz'kiyahu
3218 Y15/16
706
Ex771

3219 Y15/17
22nd year of Hiz'kiyahu
705
Ex772

3220 Y15/18
23rd year of Hiz'kiyahu
704
Ex773

3221 Y15/19
24th year of Hiz'kiyahu
703
Ex774

3222 Y15/20
25th year of Hiz'kiyahu
702
Ex775

3223 Y15/21
26th year of Hiz'kiyahu
701
Ex776

3224 Y15/22
27th year of Hiz'kiyahu
700
Ex777

3225 Y15/23
28th year of Hiz'kiyahu
699
Ex778

3226 Y15/24
29th year of Hiz'kiyahu
698
Ex779

3227 Y15/25
1st year of M'NASHEH
697
Ex780

3228 Y15/26
2nd year of M'nasheh
696
Ex781

3229 Y15/27
3rd year of M'nasheh
695
Ex782

3230 Y15/28
4th year of M'nasheh
694
Ex783

3231 Y15/29
5th year of M'nasheh
693
Ex784
3232 Y15/30
692
Timeline: page 232 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
6th year of M'nasheh
3232 Y15/30
692
Ex785

3233 Y15/31
7th year of M'nasheh
691
Ex786

3234 Y15/32
8th year of M'nasheh
690
Ex787

3235 Y15/33
9th year of M'nasheh
689
Ex788

3236 Y15/34
10th year of M'nasheh
688
Ex789

3237 Y15/35
11th year of M'nasheh
687
Ex790

3238 Y15/36
12th year of M'nasheh
686
Ex791

3239 Y15/37
13th year of M'nasheh
685
Ex792

3240 Y15/38
14th year of M'nasheh
684
Ex793

3241 Y15/39
15th year of M'nasheh
683
Ex794

3242 Y15/40
16th year of M'nasheh
682
Ex795

3243 Y15/41
17th year of M'nasheh
681
Ex796

3244 Y15/42
18th year of M'nasheh
680
Ex797

3245 Y15/43
19th year of M'nasheh
679
Ex798
3246 Y15/44
678
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 233

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
20th year of M'nasheh
3246 Y15/44
678
Ex799

3247 Y15/45
21st year of M'nasheh
677
Ex800

3248 Y15/46
22nd year of M'nasheh
676
Ex801

3249 Y15/47
23rd year of M'nasheh
675
Ex802

3250 Y15/48
24th year of M'nasheh
674
Ex803

3251 Y15/49
25th year of M'nasheh
673
Ex804

3252 Y15/50
26th year of M'nasheh
672
Ex805

3253 Y16/1
27th year of M'nasheh
671
Ex806

3254 Y16/2
28th year of M'nasheh
670
Ex807

3255 Y16/3
29th year of M'nasheh
669
Ex808

3256 Y16/4
30th year of M'nasheh
668
Ex809

3257 Y16/5
31st year of M'nasheh
667
Ex810

3258 Y16/6
32nd year of M'nasheh
666
Ex811

3259 Y16/7
33rd year of M'nasheh
665
Ex812
3260 Y16/8
664
Timeline: page 234 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
34th year of M'nasheh Birth of M'nasheh’s son Amon (based on
3260 Y16/8
664 2 M'lachim 21:19 and Divrei Hayamim Beit
Ex813
33:21)
3261 Y16/9
35th year of M'nasheh
663
Ex814

3262 Y16/10
36th year of M'nasheh
662
Ex815

3263 Y16/11
37th year of M'nasheh
661
Ex816

3264 Y16/12
38th year of M'nasheh
660
Ex817

3265 Y16/13
39th year of M'nasheh
659
Ex818

3266 Y16/14
40th year of M'nasheh
658
Ex819

3267 Y16/15
41st year of M'nasheh
657
Ex820

3268 Y16/16
42nd year of M'nasheh
656
Ex821

3269 Y16/17
43rd year of M'nasheh
655
Ex822

3270 Y16/18
44th year of M'nasheh
654
Ex823

3271 Y16/19
45th year of M'nasheh
653
Ex824

3272 Y16/20
46th year of M'nasheh
652
Ex825

3273 Y16/21
47th year of M'nasheh
651
Ex826
3274 Y16/22
650
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 235

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
48th year of M'nasheh
3274 Y16/22
650
Ex827

3275 Y16/23
49th year of M'nasheh
649
Ex828

3276 Y16/24
50th year of M'nasheh Birth of Amon’s son Yoshiyyahu (back-
648
calculation based on 2 M'lachim 22:1 & Divrei
Ex829
Hayamim Beit 34:1)
3277 Y16/25
51st year of M'nasheh
647
Ex830

3278 Y16/26
52nd year of M'nasheh
646
Ex831

3279 Y16/27
53rd year of M'nasheh
645
Ex832

3280 Y16/28
54th year of M'nasheh
644
Ex833

3281 Y16/29
55th year of M'nasheh
643
Ex834

3282 Y16/30
1st year of AMON
642
Ex835

3283 Y16/31
2nd year of Amon
641
Ex836

3284 Y16/32
1st year of YOSHIYYAHU
640
Ex837

3285 Y16/33
2nd year of Yoshiyyahu
639
Ex838

3286 Y16/34
3rd year of Yoshiyyahu
638
Ex839

3287 Y16/35
4th year of Yoshiyyahu
637
Ex840
3288 Y16/36
636
Timeline: page 236 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
5th year of Yoshiyyahu
3288 Y16/36
636
Ex841

3289 Y16/37
6th year of Yoshiyyahu
635
Ex842

3290 Y16/38
7th year of Yoshiyyahu
634
Ex843

3291 Y16/39
8th year of Yoshiyyahu Birth of Yoshiyyahu’s son Y'hoyakim [Elyakim]
633
(based on M'lachim Beit 23:36, Divrei
Ex844
Hayamim Beit 36:2)
3292 Y16/40
9th year of Yoshiyyahu Birth of Yoshiyyahu’s son Y'hoahaz (back-
632
calculation based on M'lachim Beit 23:31,
Ex845
Divrei Hayamim Beit 36:5)
3293 Y16/41
10th year of Yoshiyyahu
631
Ex846

3294 Y16/42
11th year of Yoshiyyahu
630
Ex847

3295 Y16/43
12th year of Yoshiyyahu
629
Ex848

3296 Y16/44
13th year of Yoshiyyahu
628
Ex849

3297 Y16/45
14th year of Yoshiyyahu
627
Ex850

3298 Y16/46
15th year of Yoshiyyahu
626
Ex851

3299 Y16/47
16th year of Yoshiyyahu
625
Ex852

3300 Y16/48
17th year of Yoshiyyahu
624
Ex853

3301 Y16/49
18th year of Yoshiyyahu
623
Ex854
3302 Y16/50
622
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 237

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
19th year of Yoshiyyahu
3302 Y16/50
622
Ex855

3303 Y17/1
20th year of Yoshiyyahu
621
Ex856

3304 Y17/2
21st year of Yoshiyyahu
620
Ex857

3305 Y17/3
22nd year of
619
Yoshiyyahu
Ex858

3306 Y17/4
23rd year of Birth of Yoshiyyahu’s son Tzid'kiyyahu
618
Yoshiyyahu [Mattanyah]
Ex859
(back-calculation based on M'lachim Beit 24:18.
Yirm'yahu 52:1 and Divrei Hayamim Beit
3307 Y17/5
24th year of Yoshiyyahu 36:11)
617
Ex860

3308 Y17/6
25th year of Yoshiyyahu Birth of Y'hoyakim’s son Y'hoyachin (back-
616
calculation based on M'lachim Beit 24:8...
Ex861
according to Divrei Hayamim Beit 36:9, he was
10 years younger but this is most likely an
3309 Y17/7
26th year of Yoshiyyahu error)
615
Ex862

3310 Y17/8
27th year of Yoshiyyahu
614
Ex863

3311 Y17/9
28th year of Yoshiyyahu
613
Ex864

3312 Y17/10
29th year of Yoshiyyahu
612
Ex865

3313 Y17/11
30th year of Yoshiyyahu
611
Ex866

3314 Y17/12
31st year of Yoshiyyahu
610
Ex867

3315 Y17/13
Y'HOAHAZ
609
Ex868
3316 Y17/14
608
Timeline: page 238 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus


BCE Kings of Y'hudah Notes
Calendar Calendar Calendar
1st year of Y'HOYAKIM
3316 Y17/14
608
Ex869

3317 Y17/15
2nd year of Y'hoyakim
607
Ex870

3318 Y17/16
3rd year of Y'hoyakim
606
Ex871
Babylonian kings
3319 Y17/17
4th year of Y'hoyakim as reckoned by as reckoned by
605
Hebrew historians secular historians
Ex872
1st year of accession-year of
Nebuchadnezzar Nebuchadnezzar
3320 Y17/18
5th year of Y'hoyakim 1st year of
604
Nebuchadnezzar
Ex873
2nd year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3321 Y17/19
6th year of Y'hoyakim 2nd year of
603
Nebuchadnezzar
Ex874
3rd year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3322 Y17/20
7th year of Y'hoyakim 3rd year of
602
Nebuchadnezzar
Ex875
4th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3323 Y17/21
8th year of Y'hoyakim 4th year of
601
Nebuchadnezzar
Ex876
5th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3324 Y17/22
9th year of Y'hoyakim 5th year of
600
Nebuchadnezzar
Ex877
6th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3325 Y17/23
10th year of Y'hoyakim 6th year of
599
Nebuchadnezzar
Ex878
7th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3326 Y17/24
11th year of Y'hoyakim 7th year of
598
Y'HOYACHIN Nebuchadnezzar
Ex879
8th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3327 Y17/25
1st yr. of TZID'KIYYAHU captures and exiles 8th year of
597 Y'hoyachin Nebuchadnezzar
Ex880
9th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3328 Y17/26
2nd yr. of Tzid'kiyyahu 1st year of 9th year of
596 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex881
10th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3329 Y17/27
3rd yr. of Tzid'kiyyahu 2nd year of 10th year of
595 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex882
11th year of
3330 Y17/28
594 Nebuchadnezzar
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 239

Creation Yovel Exodus Babylonian kings


BCE Kings of Y'hudah
Calendar Calendar Calendar Hebrew reckoning Secular reckoning
3rd yr. of Tzid'kiyyahu 3rd year of 10th year of
3330 Y17/28
594 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex882
11th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3331 Y17/29
5th yr. of Tzid'kiyyahu 12th year of
593
Nebuchadnezzar
Ex884
13th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3332 Y17/30
6th yr. of Tzid'kiyyahu 5th year of 13th year of
592 Y'hoyachin’s exile
Y'hezkel’s Vision of the Nebuchadnezzar
Ex885
Merkavah (Divine 14th year of
Chariot), 5th Tammuz Nebuchadnezzar
3333 Y17/31
7th yr. of Tzid'kiyyahu 6th year of 14th year of
591
Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex886
15th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3334 Y17/32
8th yr. of Tzid'kiyyahu 7th year of 15th year of
590
Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex887
16th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3335 Y17/33
9th yr. of Tzid'kiyyahu 8th year of 16th year of
589
Siege of Y'rushalayim Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex888
begins, 10th Tevet 17th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3336 Y17/34
10th yr. of Tzid'kiyyahu 9th year of 17th year of
588 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex889
18th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3337 Y17/35
11th yr. of Tzid'kiyyahu 10th year of 18th year of
587
Y'rushalayim’s defences Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex890
are overcome (9th 19th year of
Tammuz) Nebuchadnezzar
3338 Y17/36
Temple destroyed, 11th year of 19th year of
586
7th to 10th Av Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex891
1st year after the fall of 20th year of
Y'rushalayim; Y'hezkel Nebuchadnezzar
3339 Y17/37
receives news of the 12th year of 20th year of
585
calamity, 5th Tevet Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex892
2nd year after the fall 21st year of
of Y'rushalayim Nebuchadnezzar
3340 Y17/38
13th year of 21st year of
584 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex893
3rd year after the fall of 22nd year of
Y'rushalayim Nebuchadnezzar
3341 Y17/39
14th year of 22nd year of
583 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex894
4th year after the fall of 23rd year of
Y'rushalayim Nebuchadnezzar
3342 Y17/40
15th year of 23rd year of
582 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex895
5th year after the fall of 24th year of
Y'rushalayim Nebuchadnezzar
3343 Y17/41
16th year of 24th year of
581 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex896
6th year after the fall of 25th year of
3344 Y17/42
580 Y'rushalayim Nebuchadnezzar
Timeline: page 240 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Yovel Exodus Babylonian kings


BCE Kings of Y'hudah
Calendar Calendar Calendar Hebrew reckoning Secular reckoning
17th year of 25th year of
3344 Y17/42
580 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex897
7th year after the fall of 26th year of
Y'rushalayim Nebuchadnezzar
3345 Y17/43
18th year of 26th year of
579 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex898
8th year after the fall of 27th year of
Y'rushalayim Nebuchadnezzar
3346 Y17/44
19th year of 27th year of
578 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex899
9th year after the fall of 28th year of
Y'rushalayim Nebuchadnezzar
3347 Y17/45
20th year of 28th year of
577 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex900
10th year after the fall 29th year of
of Y'rushalayim Nebuchadnezzar
3348 Y17/46
21st year of 29th year of
576 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex901
11th year after the fall 30th year of
of Y'rushalayim Nebuchadnezzar
3349 Y17/47
22nd year of 30th year of
575 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex902
12th year after the fall 31st year of
of Y'rushalayim Nebuchadnezzar
3350 Y17/48
23rd year of 31st year of
574 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex903
13th year after the fall 32nd year of
of Y'rushalayim Nebuchadnezzar
3351 Y17/49
24th year of 32nd year of
573 Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex904
14th year after the fall 33rd year of
of Y'rushalayim; Nebuchadnezzar
3352 Y17/50
Y'hezkel’s Vision of the 25th year of 33rd year of
572 3rd Temple, 10th Tishri Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex905
34th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3353
26th year of 34th year of
571
Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex906
35th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3354
27th year of 35th year of
570
Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex907
36th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3355
28th year of 36th year of
569
Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex908
37th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3356
29th year of 37th year of
568
Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex909
38th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3357
30th year of 38th year of
567
Y'hoyachin’s exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex910
39th year of
3358
566 Nebuchadnezzar
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 241

Creation Exodus Babylonian kings


BCE Notes
Calendar Calendar Hebrew reckoning secular reckoning
31st year of Y'hoyachin’s 39th year of
3358
566 exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex911
40th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3359
32nd year of Y'hoyachin’s 40th year of
565 exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex912
41st year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3360
33rd year of Y'hoyachin’s 41st year of
564 exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex913
42nd year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3361
34th year of Y'hoyachin’s 42nd year of
563 exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex914
43rd year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3362
35th year of Y'hoyachin’s 43rd year of
562 exile Nebuchadnezzar
Ex915
44th year of
Nebuchadnezzar
3363
36th year of Y'hoyachin’s 1st year of AMEL-MARDÛK
561 exile
Ex916
1st year of
"EVIL-M'RODACH"
3364
37th year of Y'hoyachin’s 2nd year of Amel-Mardûk
560 exile
Ex917
2nd year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3365
1st year of NERIGLISSAR
559
Ex918
3rd year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3366
2nd year of Neriglissar
558
Ex919
4th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3367
3rd year of Neriglissar
557
Ex920
5th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3368
4th year of Neriglissar
556
Ex921
6th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3369
1st year of NABU-NA'ID
555
Ex922
7th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3370
2nd year of Nabu-na'id
554
Ex923
8th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3371
3rd year of Nabu-na'id
553
Ex924
9th year of
3372
552 "Evil-M'rodach"
Timeline: page 242 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Exodus Babylonian & Persian kings


BCE Notes
Calendar Calendar Hebrew reckoning Secular reckoning
4th year of Nabu-na'id
3372
552
Ex925
10th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3373
5th year of Nabu-na'id
551
Ex926
11th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3374
6th year of Nabu-na'id
550
Ex927
12th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3375
7th year of Nabu-na'id
549
Ex928
13th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3376
8th year of Nabu-na'id
548
Ex929
14th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3377
9th year of Nabu-na'id
547
Ex930
15th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3378
10th year of Nabu-na'id
546
Ex931
16th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3379
11th year of Nabu-na'id
545
Ex932
17th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3380
12th year of Nabu-na'id
544
Ex933
18th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3381
13th year of Nabu-na'id
543
Ex934
19th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3382
14th year of Nabu-na'id
542
Ex935
20th year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3383
15th year of Nabu-na'id
541
Ex936
21st year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3384
16th year of Nabu-na'id
540
Ex937
22nd year of
"Evil-M'rodach"
3385
17th year of Nabu-na'id
539
Ex938
23rd year of
3386
538 "Evil-M'rodach"
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Timeline: page 243

Creation Exodus Babylonian & Persian kings


BCE Notes
Calendar Calendar Hebrew reckoning secular reckoning
1st year of CYRUS
3386
538
Ex939
1st year of "BELSHATZAR"
3387
2nd year of Cyrus
537
Ex940
2nd yr. of "Belshatzar"
3388
3rd year of Cyrus
536
Ex941
3rd year of "Belshatzar"
3389
4th year of Cyrus
535
Ex942
1st year of "DARIUS THE
MEDE" & "CYRUS THE
3390
PERSIAN" 5th year of Cyrus
534
Ex943
2nd year of "Darius the
Mede" & "Cyrus the
3391
Persian" 6th year of Cyrus
533
Ex944
3rd year of "Darius the
Mede" & "Cyrus the
3392
Persian" 7th year of Cyrus
532
Ex945
4th year of "Darius the
Mede" & "Cyrus the
3393
Persian" 8th year of Cyrus
531
Ex946
5th year of "Darius the
Mede" & "Cyrus the
3394
Persian" 9th year of Cyrus
530
Ex947
1st yr. of "AHASHVÉROSH"
3395
1st year of CAMBYSES
529
Ex948
2nd year of "Ahashvérosh"
3396
2nd year of Cambyses
528
Ex949
3rd year of "Ahashvérosh"
3397
3rd year of Cambyses
527
Ex950
4th year of "Ahashvérosh"
3398
4th year of Cambyses
526
Ex951
5th year of "Ahashvérosh"
3399
5th year of Cambyses
525
Ex952
6th year of "Ahashvérosh"
3400
524
Timeline: page 244 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Creation Exodus Persian kings


BCE Notes
Calendar Calendar Hebrew reckoning secular reckoning
6th year of Cambyses
3400
524
Ex953
7th year of "Ahashvérosh"
3401
7th year of Cambyses
523
Ex954
8th year of "Ahashvérosh"
3402
8th year of Cambyses
522
Ex955
9th year of "Ahashvérosh"
3403
1st year of DARIUS I
521
Ex956
10th yr. of "Ahashvérosh"
3404
2nd year of Darius I
520
Ex957
11th yr. of "Ahashvérosh"
3405
3rd year of Darius I
519
Ex958
12th yr. of "Ahashvérosh"
3406
4th year of Darius I
518
Ex959
13th yr. of "Ahashvérosh"
3407
5th year of Darius I
517
Ex960
14th yr. of "Ahashvérosh"
3408
6th year of Darius I Second Temple
516
completed (Ezra 6:15)
Ex961
1st year of "DARIUS SON OF note: it is exactly 70 yrs.
AHASHVÉROSH" since the First Temple
3409
(Dan. 9:1) 7th year of Darius I was destroyed by
515
Nebuchadnezzar
Ex962

3410
8th year of Darius I
514
Ex963

3411
9th year of Darius I
513
Ex964

3412
10th year of Darius I
512
Ex965

3413
11th year of Darius I
511
Ex966
3414
510
Appendix I
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix I: page 1

Appendix I
Secular dating of the Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Greek & Roman Kings

Our primary source for the chronologies of the Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Greek and Roman kings
is Claudius Ptolemæus ("Ptolemy"). Very little is known about Ptolemy: he was born, probably in
Greece, around the year 100 CE, but, according to ancient sources, spent most of his life in Alexandria,
Egypt; yet the name "Claudius" indicates that he held Roman citizenship. He died in about 170 CE.
Ptolemy made significant contributions to mathematics, optics and geography, but it is in the field of
astronomy that his influence was the greatest, and his theories and methods dominated scientific thought
for 1,500 years. His earliest and most famous work, originally written in Greek and titled Μαθηµατικη
ουνταξις ("Mathematical Composition"), was translated into Arabic at an early date as al-Majisti ("Great
Work"): mediæval Latin translations in Europe reproduced this title in the form "Almagesti", and it has
since become known simply as the "Almagest". In this work, Ptolemy proposed a geometric theory to
account mathematically for the apparent motions and positions of the planets, Sun, and Moon against a
background of unmoving stars. This work did not include any physical descriptions of objects in space.

The Almagest contains numerous tables for calculating the positions of the various celestial bodies, and
Ptolemy later collected these together into a separate work, Προχειροι κανονες ("Handy Tables"), to
which he added a number of auxillary tables, including one to facilitate the determination of the number
of days between two specified historical dates, a vital step in all astronomical calculations. Since it was
usual in antiquity to quote dates by reference to the regnal years of kings, this necessitated the provision
of a list of kings and the dates of their reigns, and this table has become known as κανον βασιλεων (the
"Canon of the Kings", or "Royal Canon")—although in his introduction to the "Handy Tables", Ptolemy
himself called it προκανονιον ("little introductory canon") and βασιλεων χρονογραφια ("chronography
of [the] kings"). This text, whose importance to the chronology of antiquity cannot be understated,
remained unknown in the Latin west until the early 17th century: the French Calvinist Joseph Scaliger,
who has been called the founder of the modern study of chronology, had access only to faulty copies of
it towards the end of his life. When the first reliable manuscript of the "Canon" first came to light in
christian Europe soon after Scaliger’s death in 1609, the German chronologer Sethus Calvisius (1556-
1615) described it as omni auro pretiosior! ("more valuable than all gold!").

The "Canon" begins with the first year of the Chaldean king Nabû-nāsir ("Nabonassar"), who came to
power in 747 BCE, and lists 20 "kings of Assyria & Babylonia" (including two brief periods described as
"kingless"), followed by 11 "kings of the Persians", 12 "kings of the Macedonians", and 12 "kings of the
Romans", leading up to Ptolemy’s own time and ending with Ælius Antoninus (137-160 CE). For each of
the kings in the list, Ptolemy gives the length of the king’s reign, expressed as an integer number of
Egyptian civil years, together with a cumulative total of years from the beginning of the table (i.e. from
the 1st year of Nabonassar) to the end of that king’s reign. Table 1 on the following page gives
Ptolemy’s raw data.

Ample documents from the 1st and 2nd centuries CE exist to provide exact and unambiguous dates for
the Roman emperors at the end of the Canon, from which it is a relatively simple (if tedious) matter to
calculate the dates in the proleptic Julian calendar of the beginning of each of the 907 years covered by
the Canon: these are given in Table 2, together with the regnal year assigned by Ptolemy corresponding
to each Egyptian year. The notes that follow are, in part, excerpted and adapted from the excellent paper
"More Valuable than all Gold": Ptolemy’s Royal Canon and Babylonian Chronology by Leo Depuydt
of Brown University, published in the Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 47 (1995), pages 97-118.
Appendix I: page 2 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Table 1: Ptolemy’s Canon

Years Cumulative
Kings Nationality
reigned total of years
1. Nabonassar Babylonian 14 14
2. Nabu-nadin-zeri Babylonian 2 16
3. Mukin-zeri & Pul Chaldæan & Assyrian 5 21
4. Ululayu (Shalman-Éser V) Assyrian 5 26
5. Merodach-baladan Chaldæan 12 38
6. Sargon II Assyrian 5 43
7. (first interregnum) 2 45
8. Bel-ibni Babylonian 3 48
9. Ashur-nadin-shumi Assyrian 6 54
10. Nergal-ushezib Babylonian 1 55
11. Mushezib-Mardûk Chaldæan 4 59
12. (second interregnum) 8 67
13. Ésar-haddon Assyrian 13 80
14. Shamāsh-shūma-ūkin Assyrian 20 100
15. Kandalānū Chaldæan? 22 122
16. Nabopolassar Chaldæan? 21 143
17. Nebuchadnezzar II Chaldæan? 43 186
18. Amel-Mardûk Chaldæan? 2 188
19. Neriglissar Chaldæan? 4 192
20. Nabonidus Chaldæan? 17 209
21. Cyrus Persian 9 218
22. Cambyses Persian 8 226
23. Darius I Persian 36 262
24. Xerxes I Persian 21 283
25. Artaxerxes I Persian 41 324
26. Darius II Persian 19 343
27. Artaxerxes II Persian 46 389
28. Artaxerxes III (Ochus) Persian 21 410
29. Arses (Arogos) Persian 2 412
30. Darius III Persian 4 416
31. Alexander the Great Macedonian 8 424
32. Philip Arrhidæus Macedonian 7 431
33. Alexander II Macedonian 12 443
34. Ptolemy I Soter Egyptian-Macedonian 20 463
35. Ptolemy II Philadephus Egyptian-Macedonian 38 501
36. Ptolemy III Euergetes Egyptian-Macedonian 25 526
37. Ptolemy IV Phliopator Egyptian-Macedonian 17 543
38. Ptolemy V Epiphanes Egyptian-Macedonian 24 567
39. Ptolemy VI Philometor Egyptian-Macedonian 35 602
40. Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Egyptian-Macedonian 29 631
41. Ptolemy IX Soter II Egyptian-Macedonian 36 667
42. Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysus Egyptian-Macedonian 29 696
43. Cleopatra VII Philopator Egyptian-Macedonian 22 718
44. Augustus Roman 43 761
45. Tiberius Roman 22 783
46. Gaius Roman 4 787
47. Claudius Roman 14 801
48. Nero Roman 14 815
49. Vespasianus (Vespasian) Roman 10 825
50. Titus Roman 3 828
51. Domitianus (Domitian) Roman 15 843
52. Nerva Roman 1 844
53. Traianus (Trajan) Roman 19 863
54. Hadrianus (Hadrian) Roman 21 884
55. Ælius Antoninus Roman 23 907
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix I: page 3

Table 2: Ptolemy’s Canon—Regnal years and proleptic Julian equivalents

Proleptic Proleptic
Regnal years Regnal years
Julian Date Julian Date
1st of Nabonassar 26 Feb. 747 BCE 1st of Mushezib-Marduk 12 Feb. 692 BCE
2nd of Nabonassar 26 Feb. 746 BCE 2nd of Mushezib-Marduk 12 Feb. 691 BCE
3rd of Nabonassar 26 Feb. 745 BCE 3rd of Mushezib-Marduk 12 Feb. 690 BCE
4th of Nabonassar 25 Feb. 744 BCE 4th of Mushezib-Marduk 12 Feb. 689 BCE
5th of Nabonassar 25 Feb. 743 BCE 1st of Interregnum 2 11 Feb. 688 BCE
6th of Nabonassar 25 Feb. 742 BCE 2nd of Interregnum 2 11 Feb. 687 BCE
7th of Nabonassar 25 Feb. 741 BCE 3rd of Interregnum 2 11 Feb. 686 BCE
8th of Nabonassar 24 Feb. 740 BCE 4th of Interregnum 2 11 Feb. 685 BCE
9th of Nabonassar 24 Feb. 739 BCE 5th of Interregnum 2 10 Feb. 684 BCE
10th of Nabonassar 24 Feb. 738 BCE 6th of Interregnum 2 10 Feb. 683 BCE
11th of Nabonassar 24 Feb. 737 BCE 7th of Interregnum 2 10 Feb. 682 BCE
12th of Nabonassar 23 Feb. 736 BCE 8th of Interregnum 2 10 Feb. 681 BCE
13th of Nabonassar 23 Feb. 735 BCE 1st of Esarhaddon 9 Feb. 680 BCE
14th of Nabonassar 23 Feb. 734 BCE 2nd of Esarhaddon 9 Feb. 679 BCE
1st of Nabu-nadin-zeri 23 Feb. 733 BCE 3rd of Esarhaddon 9 Feb. 678 BCE
2nd of Nabu-nadin-zeri 22 Feb. 732 BCE 4th of Esarhaddon 9 Feb. 677 BCE
1st of Mukin-zeri & Pul 22 Feb. 731 BCE 5th of Esarhaddon 8 Feb. 676 BCE
2nd of Mukin-zeri & Pul 22 Feb. 730 BCE 6th of Esarhaddon 8 Feb. 675 BCE
3rd of Mukin-zeri & Pul 22 Feb. 729 BCE 7th of Esarhaddon 8 Feb. 674 BCE
4th of Mukin-zeri & Pul 21 Feb. 728 BCE 8th of Esarhaddon 8 Feb. 673 BCE
5th of Mukin-zeri & Pul 21 Feb. 727 BCE 9th of Esarhaddon 7 Feb. 672 BCE
1st of Ululayu 21 Feb. 726 BCE 10th of Esarhaddon 7 Feb. 671 BCE
2nd of Ululayu 21 Feb. 725 BCE 11th of Esarhaddon 7 Feb. 670 BCE
3rd of Ululayu 20 Feb. 724 BCE 12th of Esarhaddon 7 Feb. 669 BCE
4th of Ululayu 20 Feb. 723 BCE 13th of Esarhaddon 6 Feb. 668 BCE
5th of Ululayu 20 Feb. 722 BCE 1st of Shamash-shuma-ukin 6 Feb. 667 BCE
1st of Merodach-baladan 20 Feb. 721 BCE 2nd of Shamash-shuma-ukin 6 Feb. 666 BCE
2nd of Merodach-baladan 19 Feb. 720 BCE 3rd of Shamash-shuma-ukin 6 Feb. 665 BCE
3rd of Merodach-baladan 19 Feb. 719 BCE 4th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 5 Feb. 664 BCE
4th of Merodach-baladan 19 Feb. 718 BCE 5th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 5 Feb. 663 BCE
5th of Merodach-baladan 19 Feb. 717 BCE 6th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 5 Feb. 662 BCE
6th of Merodach-baladan 18 Feb. 716 BCE 7th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 5 Feb. 661 BCE
7th of Merodach-baladan 18 Feb. 715 BCE 8th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 4 Feb. 660 BCE
8th of Merodach-baladan 18 Feb. 714 BCE 9th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 4 Feb. 659 BCE
9th of Merodach-baladan 18 Feb. 713 BCE 10th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 4 Feb. 658 BCE
10th of Merodach-baladan 17 Feb. 712 BCE 11th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 4 Feb. 657 BCE
11th of Merodach-baladan 17 Feb. 711 BCE 12th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 3 Feb. 656 BCE
12th of Merodach-baladan 17 Feb. 710 BCE 13th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 3 Feb. 655 BCE
1st of Sargon II 17 Feb. 709 BCE 14th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 3 Feb. 654 BCE
2nd of Sargon II 16 Feb. 708 BCE 15th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 3 Feb. 653 BCE
3rd of Sargon II 16 Feb. 707 BCE 16th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 2 Feb. 652 BCE
4th of Sargon II 16 Feb. 706 BCE 17th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 2 Feb. 651 BCE
5th of Sargon II 16 Feb. 705 BCE 18th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 2 Feb. 650 BCE
1st of Interregnum 1 15 Feb. 704 BCE 19th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 2 Feb. 649 BCE
2nd of Interregnum 1 15 Feb. 703 BCE 20th of Shamash-shuma-ukin 1 Feb. 648 BCE
1st of Bel-ibni 15 Feb. 702 BCE 1st of Kandalanu 1 Feb. 647 BCE
2nd of Bel-ibni 15 Feb. 701 BCE 2nd of Kandalanu 1 Feb. 646 BCE
3rd of Bel-ibni 14 Feb. 700 BCE 3rd of Kandalanu 1 Feb. 645 BCE
1st of Ashur-nadin-shumi 14 Feb. 699 BCE 4th of Kandalanu 31 Jan. 644 BCE
2nd of Ashur-nadin-shumi 14 Feb. 698 BCE 5th of Kandalanu 31 Jan. 643 BCE
3rd of Ashur-nadin-shumi 14 Feb. 697 BCE 6th of Kandalanu 31 Jan. 642 BCE
4th of Ashur-nadin-shumi 13 Feb. 696 BCE 7th of Kandalanu 31 Jan. 641 BCE
5th of Ashur-nadin-shumi 13 Feb. 695 BCE 8th of Kandalanu 30 Jan. 640 BCE
6th of Ashur-nadin-shumi 13 Feb. 694 BCE 9th of Kandalanu 30 Jan. 639 BCE
1st of Nergal-ushezib 13 Feb. 693 BCE 10th of Kandalanu 30 Jan. 638 BCE
Appendix I: page 4 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Table 2 (contd.): Ptolemy’s Canon—Regnal years and proleptic Julian equivalents

Proleptic Proleptic
Regnal years Regnal years
Julian Date Julian Date
11th of Kandalanu 30 Jan. 637 BCE 23rd of Nebuchadnezzar II 16 Jan. 582 BCE
12th of Kandalanu 29 Jan. 636 BCE 24th of Nebuchadnezzar II 16 Jan. 581 BCE
13th of Kandalanu 29 Jan. 635 BCE 25th of Nebuchadnezzar II 15 Jan. 580 BCE
14th of Kandalanu 29 Jan. 634 BCE 26th of Nebuchadnezzar II 15 Jan. 579 BCE
15th of Kandalanu 29 Jan. 633 BCE 27th of Nebuchadnezzar II 15 Jan. 578 BCE
16th of Kandalanu 28 Jan. 632 BCE 28th of Nebuchadnezzar II 15 Jan. 577 BCE
17th of Kandalanu 28 Jan. 631 BCE 29th of Nebuchadnezzar II 14 Jan. 576 BCE
18th of Kandalanu 28 Jan. 630 BCE 30th of Nebuchadnezzar II 14 Jan. 575 BCE
19th of Kandalanu 28 Jan. 629 BCE 31st of Nebuchadnezzar II 14 Jan. 574 BCE
20th of Kandalanu 27 Jan. 628 BCE 32nd of Nebuchadnezzar II 14 Jan. 573 BCE
21st of Kandalanu 27 Jan. 627 BCE 33rd of Nebuchadnezzar II 13 Jan. 572 BCE
22nd of Kandalanu 27 Jan. 626 BCE 34th of Nebuchadnezzar II 13 Jan. 571 BCE
1st of Nabopolassar 27 Jan. 625 BCE 35th of Nebuchadnezzar II 13 Jan. 570 BCE
2nd of Nabopolassar 26 Jan. 624 BCE 36th of Nebuchadnezzar II 13 Jan. 569 BCE
3rd of Nabopolassar 26 Jan. 623 BCE 37th of Nebuchadnezzar II 12 Jan. 568 BCE
4th of Nabopolassar 26 Jan. 622 BCE 38th of Nebuchadnezzar II 12 Jan. 567 BCE
5th of Nabopolassar 26 Jan. 621 BCE 39th of Nebuchadnezzar II 12 Jan. 566 BCE
6th of Nabopolassar 25 Jan. 620 BCE 40th of Nebuchadnezzar II 12 Jan. 565 BCE
7th of Nabopolassar 25 Jan. 619 BCE 41st of Nebuchadnezzar II 11 Jan. 564 BCE
8th of Nabopolassar 25 Jan. 618 BCE 42nd of Nebuchadnezzar II 11 Jan. 563 BCE
9th of Nabopolassar 25 Jan. 617 BCE 43rd of Nebuchadnezzar II 11 Jan. 562 BCE
10th of Nabopolassar 24 Jan. 616 BCE 1st of Amel-Marduk 11 Jan. 561 BCE
11th of Nabopolassar 24 Jan. 615 BCE 2nd of Amel-Marduk 10 Jan. 560 BCE
12th of Nabopolassar 24 Jan. 614 BCE 1st of Neriglissar 10 Jan. 559 BCE
13th of Nabopolassar 24 Jan. 613 BCE 2nd of Neriglissar 10 Jan. 558 BCE
14th of Nabopolassar 23 Jan. 612 BCE 3rd of Neriglissar 10 Jan. 557 BCE
15th of Nabopolassar 23 Jan. 611 BCE 4th of Neriglissar 9 Jan. 556 BCE
16th of Nabopolassar 23 Jan. 610 BCE 1st of Nabonidus 9 Jan. 555 BCE
17th of Nabopolassar 23 Jan. 609 BCE 2nd of Nabonidus 9 Jan. 554 BCE
18th of Nabopolassar 22 Jan. 608 BCE 3rd of Nabonidus 9 Jan. 553 BCE
19th of Nabopolassar 22 Jan. 607 BCE 4th of Nabonidus 8 Jan. 552 BCE
20th of Nabopolassar 22 Jan. 606 BCE 5th of Nabonidus 8 Jan. 551 BCE
21st of Nabopolassar 22 Jan. 605 BCE 6th of Nabonidus 8 Jan. 550 BCE
1st of Nebuchadnezzar II 21 Jan. 604 BCE 7th of Nabonidus 8 Jan. 549 BCE
2nd of Nebuchadnezzar II 21 Jan. 603 BCE 8th of Nabonidus 7 Jan. 548 BCE
3rd of Nebuchadnezzar II 21 Jan. 602 BCE 9th of Nabonidus 7 Jan. 547 BCE
4th of Nebuchadnezzar II 21 Jan. 601 BCE 10th of Nabonidus 7 Jan. 546 BCE
5th of Nebuchadnezzar II 20 Jan. 600 BCE 11th of Nabonidus 7 Jan. 545 BCE
6th of Nebuchadnezzar II 20 Jan. 599 BCE 12th of Nabonidus 6 Jan. 544 BCE
7th of Nebuchadnezzar II 20 Jan. 598 BCE 13th of Nabonidus 6 Jan. 543 BCE
8th of Nebuchadnezzar II 20 Jan. 597 BCE 14th of Nabonidus 6 Jan. 542 BCE
9th of Nebuchadnezzar II 19 Jan. 596 BCE 15th of Nabonidus 6 Jan. 541 BCE
10th of Nebuchadnezzar II 19 Jan. 595 BCE 16th of Nabonidus 5 Jan. 540 BCE
11th of Nebuchadnezzar II 19 Jan. 594 BCE 17th of Nabonidus 5 Jan. 539 BCE
12th of Nebuchadnezzar II 19 Jan. 593 BCE 1st of Cyrus 5 Jan. 538 BCE
13th of Nebuchadnezzar II 18 Jan. 592 BCE 2nd of Cyrus 5 Jan. 537 BCE
14th of Nebuchadnezzar II 18 Jan. 591 BCE 3rd of Cyrus 4 Jan. 536 BCE
15th of Nebuchadnezzar II 18 Jan. 590 BCE 4th of Cyrus 4 Jan. 535 BCE
16th of Nebuchadnezzar II 18 Jan. 589 BCE 5th of Cyrus 4 Jan. 534 BCE
17th of Nebuchadnezzar II 17 Jan. 588 BCE 6th of Cyrus 4 Jan. 533 BCE
18th of Nebuchadnezzar II 17 Jan. 587 BCE 7th of Cyrus 3 Jan. 532 BCE
19th of Nebuchadnezzar II 17 Jan. 586 BCE 8th of Cyrus 3 Jan. 531 BCE
20th of Nebuchadnezzar II 17 Jan. 585 BCE 9th of Cyrus 3 Jan. 530 BCE
21st of Nebuchadnezzar II 16 Jan. 584 BCE 1st of Cambyses 3 Jan. 529 BCE
22nd of Nebuchadnezzar II 16 Jan. 583 BCE 2nd of Cambyses 2 Jan. 528 BCE
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix I: page 5

Table 2 (contd.): Ptolemy’s Canon—Regnal years and proleptic Julian equivalents

Proleptic Proleptic
Regnal years Regnal years
Julian Date Julian Date
3rd of Cambyses 2 Jan. 527 BCE 14th of Xerxes I 19 Dec. 473 BCE
4th of Cambyses 2 Jan. 526 BCE 15th of Xerxes I 19 Dec. 472 BCE
5th of Cambyses 2 Jan. 525 BCE 16th of Xerxes I 19 Dec. 471 BCE
6th of Cambyses 1 Jan. 524 BCE 17th of Xerxes I 19 Dec. 470 BCE
7th of Cambyses 1 Jan. 523 BCE 18th of Xerxes I 18 Dec. 469 BCE
8th of Cambyses 1 Jan. 522 BCE 19th of Xerxes I 18 Dec. 468 BCE
1st of Darius I 1 Jan. 521 BCE 20th of Xerxes I 18 Dec. 467 BCE
2nd of Darius I 31 Dec. 521 BCE 21st of Xerxes I 18 Dec. 466 BCE
3rd of Darius I 31 Dec. 520 BCE 1st of Artaxerxes I 17 Dec. 465 BCE
4th of Darius I 31 Dec. 519 BCE 2nd of Artaxerxes I 17 Dec. 464 BCE
5th of Darius I 31 Dec. 518 BCE 3rd of Artaxerxes I 17 Dec. 463 BCE
6th of Darius I 30 Dec. 517 BCE 4th of Artaxerxes I 17 Dec. 462 BCE
7th of Darius I 30 Dec. 516 BCE 5th of Artaxerxes I 16 Dec. 461 BCE
8th of Darius I 30 Dec. 515 BCE 6th of Artaxerxes I 16 Dec. 460 BCE
9th of Darius I 30 Dec. 514 BCE 7th of Artaxerxes I 16 Dec. 459 BCE
10th of Darius I 29 Dec. 513 BCE 8th of Artaxerxes I 16 Dec. 458 BCE
11th of Darius I 29 Dec. 512 BCE 9th of Artaxerxes I 15 Dec. 457 BCE
12th of Darius I 29 Dec. 511 BCE 10th of Artaxerxes I 15 Dec. 456 BCE
13th of Darius I 29 Dec. 510 BCE 11th of Artaxerxes I 15 Dec. 455 BCE
14th of Darius I 28 Dec. 509 BCE 12th of Artaxerxes I 15 Dec. 454 BCE
15th of Darius I 28 Dec. 508 BCE 13th of Artaxerxes I 14 Dec. 453 BCE
16th of Darius I 28 Dec. 507 BCE 14th of Artaxerxes I 14 Dec. 452 BCE
17th of Darius I 28 Dec. 506 BCE 15th of Artaxerxes I 14 Dec. 451 BCE
18th of Darius I 27 Dec. 505 BCE 16th of Artaxerxes I 14 Dec. 450 BCE
19th of Darius I 27 Dec. 504 BCE 17th of Artaxerxes I 13 Dec. 449 BCE
20th of Darius I 27 Dec. 503 BCE 18th of Artaxerxes I 13 Dec. 448 BCE
21st of Darius I 27 Dec. 502 BCE 19th of Artaxerxes I 13 Dec. 447 BCE
22nd of Darius I 26 Dec. 501 BCE 20th of Artaxerxes I 13 Dec. 446 BCE
23rd of Darius I 26 Dec. 500 BCE 21st of Artaxerxes I 12 Dec. 445 BCE
24th of Darius I 26 Dec. 499 BCE 22nd of Artaxerxes I 12 Dec. 444 BCE
25th of Darius I 26 Dec. 498 BCE 23rd of Artaxerxes I 12 Dec. 443 BCE
26th of Darius I 25 Dec. 497 BCE 24th of Artaxerxes I 12 Dec. 442 BCE
27th of Darius I 25 Dec. 496 BCE 25th of Artaxerxes I 11 Dec. 441 BCE
28th of Darius I 25 Dec. 495 BCE 26th of Artaxerxes I 11 Dec. 440 BCE
29th of Darius I 25 Dec. 494 BCE 27th of Artaxerxes I 11 Dec. 439 BCE
30th of Darius I 24 Dec. 493 BCE 28th of Artaxerxes I 11 Dec. 438 BCE
31st of Darius I 24 Dec. 492 BCE 29th of Artaxerxes I 10 Dec. 437 BCE
32nd of Darius I 24 Dec. 491 BCE 30th of Artaxerxes I 10 Dec. 436 BCE
33rd of Darius I 24 Dec. 490 BCE 31st of Artaxerxes I 10 Dec. 435 BCE
34th of Darius I 23 Dec. 489 BCE 32nd of Artaxerxes I 10 Dec. 434 BCE
35th of Darius I 23 Dec. 488 BCE 33rd of Artaxerxes I 9 Dec. 433 BCE
36th of Darius I 23 Dec. 487 BCE 34th of Artaxerxes I 9 Dec. 432 BCE
1st of Xerxes I 23 Dec. 486 BCE 35th of Artaxerxes I 9 Dec. 431 BCE
2nd of Xerxes I 22 Dec. 485 BCE 36th of Artaxerxes I 9 Dec. 430 BCE
3rd of Xerxes I 22 Dec. 484 BCE 37th of Artaxerxes I 8 Dec. 429 BCE
4th of Xerxes I 22 Dec. 483 BCE 38th of Artaxerxes I 8 Dec. 428 BCE
5th of Xerxes I 22 Dec. 482 BCE 39th of Artaxerxes I 8 Dec. 427 BCE
6th of Xerxes I 21 Dec. 481 BCE 40th of Artaxerxes I 8 Dec. 426 BCE
7th of Xerxes I 21 Dec. 480 BCE 41st of Artaxerxes I 7 Dec. 425 BCE
8th of Xerxes I 21 Dec. 479 BCE 1st of Darius II 7 Dec. 424 BCE
9th of Xerxes I 21 Dec. 478 BCE 2nd of Darius II 7 Dec. 423 BCE
10th of Xerxes I 20 Dec. 477 BCE 3rd of Darius II 7 Dec. 422 BCE
11th of Xerxes I 20 Dec. 476 BCE 4th of Darius II 6 Dec. 421 BCE
12th of Xerxes I 20 Dec. 475 BCE 5th of Darius II 6 Dec. 420 BCE
13th of Xerxes I 20 Dec. 474 BCE 6th of Darius II 6 Dec. 419 BCE
Appendix I: page 6 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Table 2 (contd.): Ptolemy’s Canon—Regnal years and proleptic Julian equivalents

Proleptic Proleptic
Regnal years Regnal years
Julian Date Julian Date
7th of Darius II 6 Dec. 418 BCE 43rd of Artaxerxes II 22 Nov. 363 BCE
8th of Darius II 5 Dec. 417 BCE 44th of Artaxerxes II 22 Nov. 362 BCE
9th of Darius II 5 Dec. 416 BCE 45th of Artaxerxes II 21 Nov. 361 BCE
10th of Darius II 5 Dec. 415 BCE 46th of Artaxerxes II 21 Nov. 360 BCE
11th of Darius II 5 Dec. 414 BCE 1st of Artaxerxes III 21 Nov. 359 BCE
12th of Darius II 4 Dec. 413 BCE 2nd of Artaxerxes III 21 Nov. 358 BCE
13th of Darius II 4 Dec. 412 BCE 3rd of Artaxerxes III 20 Nov. 357 BCE
14th of Darius II 4 Dec. 411 BCE 4th of Artaxerxes III 20 Nov. 356 BCE
15th of Darius II 4 Dec. 410 BCE 5th of Artaxerxes III 20 Nov. 355 BCE
16th of Darius II 3 Dec. 409 BCE 6th of Artaxerxes III 20 Nov. 354 BCE
17th of Darius II 3 Dec. 408 BCE 7th of Artaxerxes III 19 Nov. 353 BCE
18th of Darius II 3 Dec. 407 BCE 8th of Artaxerxes III 19 Nov. 352 BCE
19th of Darius II 3 Dec. 406 BCE 9th of Artaxerxes III 19 Nov. 351 BCE
1st of Artaxerxes II 2 Dec. 405 BCE 10th of Artaxerxes III 19 Nov. 350 BCE
2nd of Artaxerxes II 2 Dec. 404 BCE 11th of Artaxerxes III 18 Nov. 349 BCE
3rd of Artaxerxes II 2 Dec. 403 BCE 12th of Artaxerxes III 18 Nov. 348 BCE
4th of Artaxerxes II 2 Dec. 402 BCE 13th of Artaxerxes III 18 Nov. 347 BCE
5th of Artaxerxes II 1 Dec. 401 BCE 14th of Artaxerxes III 18 Nov. 346 BCE
6th of Artaxerxes II 1 Dec. 400 BCE 15th of Artaxerxes III 17 Nov. 345 BCE
7th of Artaxerxes II 1 Dec. 399 BCE 16th of Artaxerxes III 17 Nov. 344 BCE
8th of Artaxerxes II 1 Dec. 398 BCE 17th of Artaxerxes III 17 Nov. 343 BCE
9th of Artaxerxes II 30 Nov. 397 BCE 18th of Artaxerxes III 17 Nov. 342 BCE
10th of Artaxerxes II 30 Nov. 396 BCE 19th of Artaxerxes III 16 Nov. 341 BCE
11th of Artaxerxes II 30 Nov. 395 BCE 20th of Artaxerxes III 16 Nov. 340 BCE
12th of Artaxerxes II 30 Nov. 394 BCE 21st of Artaxerxes III 16 Nov. 339 BCE
13th of Artaxerxes II 29 Nov. 393 BCE 1st of Arses 16 Nov. 338 BCE
14th of Artaxerxes II 29 Nov. 392 BCE 2nd of Arses 15 Nov. 337 BCE
15th of Artaxerxes II 29 Nov. 391 BCE 1st of Darius III 15 Nov. 336 BCE
16th of Artaxerxes II 29 Nov. 390 BCE 2nd of Darius III 15 Nov. 335 BCE
17th of Artaxerxes II 28 Nov. 389 BCE 3rd of Darius III 15 Nov. 334 BCE
18th of Artaxerxes II 28 Nov. 388 BCE 4th of Darius III 14 Nov. 333 BCE
19th of Artaxerxes II 28 Nov. 387 BCE 1st of Alexander the Great 14 Nov. 332 BCE
20th of Artaxerxes II 28 Nov. 386 BCE 2nd of Alexander the Great 14 Nov. 331 BCE
21st of Artaxerxes II 27 Nov. 385 BCE 3rd of Alexander the Great 14 Nov. 330 BCE
22nd of Artaxerxes II 27 Nov. 384 BCE 4th of Alexander the Great 13 Nov. 329 BCE
23rd of Artaxerxes II 27 Nov. 383 BCE 5th of Alexander the Great 13 Nov. 328 BCE
24th of Artaxerxes II 27 Nov. 382 BCE 6th of Alexander the Great 13 Nov. 327 BCE
25th of Artaxerxes II 26 Nov. 381 BCE 7th of Alexander the Great 13 Nov. 326 BCE
26th of Artaxerxes II 26 Nov. 380 BCE 8th of Alexander the Great 12 Nov. 325 BCE
27th of Artaxerxes II 26 Nov. 379 BCE 1st of Philip Arrhidæus 12 Nov. 324 BCE
28th of Artaxerxes II 26 Nov. 378 BCE 2nd of Philip Arrhidæus 12 Nov. 323 BCE
29th of Artaxerxes II 25 Nov. 377 BCE 3rd of Philip Arrhidæus 12 Nov. 322 BCE
30th of Artaxerxes II 25 Nov. 376 BCE 4th of Philip Arrhidæus 11 Nov. 321 BCE
31st of Artaxerxes II 25 Nov. 375 BCE 5th of Philip Arrhidæus 11 Nov. 320 BCE
32nd of Artaxerxes II 25 Nov. 374 BCE 6th of Philip Arrhidæus 11 Nov. 319 BCE
33rd of Artaxerxes II 24 Nov. 373 BCE 7th of Philip Arrhidæus 11 Nov. 318 BCE
34th of Artaxerxes II 24 Nov. 372 BCE 1st of Alexander II 10 Nov. 317 BCE
35th of Artaxerxes II 24 Nov. 371 BCE 2nd of Alexander II 10 Nov. 316 BCE
36th of Artaxerxes II 24 Nov. 370 BCE 3rd of Alexander II 10 Nov. 315 BCE
37th of Artaxerxes II 23 Nov. 369 BCE 4th of Alexander II 10 Nov. 314 BCE
38th of Artaxerxes II 23 Nov. 368 BCE 5th of Alexander II 9 Nov. 313 BCE
39th of Artaxerxes II 23 Nov. 367 BCE 6th of Alexander II 9 Nov. 312 BCE
40th of Artaxerxes II 23 Nov. 366 BCE 7th of Alexander II 9 Nov. 311 BCE
41st of Artaxerxes II 22 Nov. 365 BCE 8th of Alexander II 9 Nov. 310 BCE
42nd of Artaxerxes II 22 Nov. 364 BCE 9th of Alexander II 8 Nov. 309 BCE
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix I: page 7

Table 2 (contd.): Ptolemy’s Canon—Regnal years and proleptic Julian equivalents

Proleptic Proleptic
Regnal years Regnal years
Julian Date Julian Date
10th of Alexander II 8 Nov. 308 BCE 33rd of Ptolemy Philadephus 25 Oct. 253 BCE
11th of Alexander II 8 Nov. 307 BCE 34th of Ptolemy Philadephus 25 Oct. 252 BCE
12th of Alexander II 8 Nov. 306 BCE 35th of Ptolemy Philadephus 25 Oct. 251 BCE
1st of Ptolemy Soter I 7 Nov. 305 BCE 36th of Ptolemy Philadephus 25 Oct. 250 BCE
2nd of Ptolemy Soter I 7 Nov. 304 BCE 37th of Ptolemy Philadephus 24 Oct. 249 BCE
3rd of Ptolemy Soter I 7 Nov. 303 BCE 38th of Ptolemy Philadephus 24 Oct. 248 BCE
4th of Ptolemy Soter I 7 Nov. 302 BCE 1st of Ptolemy Euergetes I 24 Oct. 247 BCE
5th of Ptolemy Soter I 6 Nov. 301 BCE 2nd of Ptolemy Euergetes I 24 Oct. 246 BCE
6th of Ptolemy Soter I 6 Nov. 300 BCE 3rd of Ptolemy Euergetes I 23 Oct. 245 BCE
7th of Ptolemy Soter I 6 Nov. 299 BCE 4th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 23 Oct. 244 BCE
8th of Ptolemy Soter I 6 Nov. 298 BCE 5th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 23 Oct. 243 BCE
9th of Ptolemy Soter I 5 Nov. 297 BCE 6th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 23 Oct. 242 BCE
10th of Ptolemy Soter I 5 Nov. 296 BCE 7th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 22 Oct. 241 BCE
11th of Ptolemy Soter I 5 Nov. 295 BCE 8th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 22 Oct. 240 BCE
12th of Ptolemy Soter I 5 Nov. 294 BCE 9th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 22 Oct. 239 BCE
13th of Ptolemy Soter I 4 Nov. 293 BCE 10th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 22 Oct. 238 BCE
14th of Ptolemy Soter I 4 Nov. 292 BCE 11th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 21 Oct. 237 BCE
15th of Ptolemy Soter I 4 Nov. 291 BCE 12th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 21 Oct. 236 BCE
16th of Ptolemy Soter I 4 Nov. 290 BCE 13th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 21 Oct. 235 BCE
17th of Ptolemy Soter I 3 Nov. 289 BCE 14th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 21 Oct. 234 BCE
18th of Ptolemy Soter I 3 Nov. 288 BCE 15th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 20 Oct. 233 BCE
19th of Ptolemy Soter I 3 Nov. 287 BCE 16th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 20 Oct. 232 BCE
20th of Ptolemy Soter I 3 Nov. 286 BCE 17th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 20 Oct. 231 BCE
1st of Ptolemy Philadephus 2 Nov. 285 BCE 18th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 20 Oct. 230 BCE
2nd of Ptolemy Philadephus 2 Nov. 284 BCE 19th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 19 Oct. 229 BCE
3rd of Ptolemy Philadephus 2 Nov. 283 BCE 20th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 19 Oct. 228 BCE
4th of Ptolemy Philadephus 2 Nov. 282 BCE 21st of Ptolemy Euergetes I 19 Oct. 227 BCE
5th of Ptolemy Philadephus 1 Nov. 281 BCE 22nd of Ptolemy Euergetes I 19 Oct. 226 BCE
6th of Ptolemy Philadephus 1 Nov. 280 BCE 23rd of Ptolemy Euergetes I 18 Oct. 225 BCE
7th of Ptolemy Philadephus 1 Nov. 279 BCE 24th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 18 Oct. 224 BCE
8th of Ptolemy Philadephus 1 Nov. 278 BCE 25th of Ptolemy Euergetes I 18 Oct. 223 BCE
9th of Ptolemy Philadephus 31 Oct. 277 BCE 1st of Ptolemy Phliopator 18 Oct. 222 BCE
10th of Ptolemy Philadephus 31 Oct. 276 BCE 2nd of Ptolemy Phliopator 17 Oct. 221 BCE
11th of Ptolemy Philadephus 31 Oct. 275 BCE 3rd of Ptolemy Phliopator 17 Oct. 220 BCE
12th of Ptolemy Philadephus 31 Oct. 274 BCE 4th of Ptolemy Phliopator 17 Oct. 219 BCE
13th of Ptolemy Philadephus 30 Oct. 273 BCE 5th of Ptolemy Phliopator 17 Oct. 218 BCE
14th of Ptolemy Philadephus 30 Oct. 272 BCE 6th of Ptolemy Phliopator 16 Oct. 217 BCE
15th of Ptolemy Philadephus 30 Oct. 271 BCE 7th of Ptolemy Phliopator 16 Oct. 216 BCE
16th of Ptolemy Philadephus 30 Oct. 270 BCE 8th of Ptolemy Phliopator 16 Oct. 215 BCE
17th of Ptolemy Philadephus 29 Oct. 269 BCE 9th of Ptolemy Phliopator 16 Oct. 214 BCE
18th of Ptolemy Philadephus 29 Oct. 268 BCE 10th of Ptolemy Phliopator 15 Oct. 213 BCE
19th of Ptolemy Philadephus 29 Oct. 267 BCE 11th of Ptolemy Phliopator 15 Oct. 212 BCE
20th of Ptolemy Philadephus 29 Oct. 266 BCE 12th of Ptolemy Phliopator 15 Oct. 211 BCE
21st of Ptolemy Philadephus 28 Oct. 265 BCE 13th of Ptolemy Phliopator 15 Oct. 210 BCE
22nd of Ptolemy Philadephus 28 Oct. 264 BCE 14th of Ptolemy Phliopator 14 Oct. 209 BCE
23rd of Ptolemy Philadephus 28 Oct. 263 BCE 15th of Ptolemy Phliopator 14 Oct. 208 BCE
24th of Ptolemy Philadephus 28 Oct. 262 BCE 16th of Ptolemy Phliopator 14 Oct. 207 BCE
25th of Ptolemy Philadephus 27 Oct. 261 BCE 17th of Ptolemy Phliopator 14 Oct. 206 BCE
26th of Ptolemy Philadephus 27 Oct. 260 BCE 1st of Ptolemy Epiphanes 13 Oct. 205 BCE
27th of Ptolemy Philadephus 27 Oct. 259 BCE 2nd of Ptolemy Epiphanes 13 Oct. 204 BCE
28th of Ptolemy Philadephus 27 Oct. 258 BCE 3rd of Ptolemy Epiphanes 13 Oct. 203 BCE
29th of Ptolemy Philadephus 26 Oct. 257 BCE 4th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 13 Oct. 202 BCE
30th of Ptolemy Philadephus 26 Oct. 256 BCE 5th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 12 Oct. 201 BCE
31st of Ptolemy Philadephus 26 Oct. 255 BCE 6th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 12 Oct. 200 BCE
32nd of Ptolemy Philadephus 26 Oct. 254 BCE 7th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 12 Oct. 199 BCE
Appendix I: page 8 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Table 2 (contd.): Ptolemy’s Canon—Regnal years and proleptic Julian equivalents

Proleptic Proleptic
Regnal years Regnal years
Julian Date Julian Date
8th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 12 Oct. 198 BCE 4th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 28 Sept. 143 BCE
9th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 11 Oct. 197 BCE 5th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 28 Sept. 142 BCE
10th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 11 Oct. 196 BCE 6th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 27 Sept. 141 BCE
11th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 11 Oct. 195 BCE 7th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 27 Sept. 140 BCE
12th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 11 Oct. 194 BCE 8th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 27 Sept. 139 BCE
13th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 10 Oct. 193 BCE 9th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 27 Sept. 138 BCE
14th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 10 Oct. 192 BCE 10th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 26 Sept. 137 BCE
15th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 10 Oct. 191 BCE 11th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 26 Sept. 136 BCE
16th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 10 Oct. 190 BCE 12th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 26 Sept. 135 BCE
17th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 9 Oct. 189 BCE 13th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 26 Sept. 134 BCE
18th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 9 Oct. 188 BCE 14th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 25 Sept. 133 BCE
19th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 9 Oct. 187 BCE 15th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 25 Sept. 132 BCE
20th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 9 Oct. 186 BCE 16th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 25 Sept. 131 BCE
21st of Ptolemy Epiphanes 8 Oct. 185 BCE 17th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 25 Sept. 130 BCE
22nd of Ptolemy Epiphanes 8 Oct. 184 BCE 18th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 24 Sept. 129 BCE
23rd of Ptolemy Epiphanes 8 Oct. 183 BCE 19th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 24 Sept. 128 BCE
24th of Ptolemy Epiphanes 8 Oct. 182 BCE 20th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 24 Sept. 127 BCE
1st of Ptolemy Philometor 7 Oct. 181 BCE 21st of Ptolemy Euergetes II 24 Sept. 126 BCE
2nd of Ptolemy Philometor 7 Oct. 180 BCE 22nd of Ptolemy Euergetes II 23 Sept. 125 BCE
3rd of Ptolemy Philometor 7 Oct. 179 BCE 23rd of Ptolemy Euergetes II 23 Sept. 124 BCE
4th of Ptolemy Philometor 7 Oct. 178 BCE 24th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 23 Sept. 123 BCE
5th of Ptolemy Philometor 6 Oct. 177 BCE 25th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 23 Sept. 122 BCE
6th of Ptolemy Philometor 6 Oct. 176 BCE 26th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 22 Sept. 121 BCE
7th of Ptolemy Philometor 6 Oct. 175 BCE 27th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 22 Sept. 120 BCE
8th of Ptolemy Philometor 6 Oct. 174 BCE 28th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 22 Sept. 119 BCE
9th of Ptolemy Philometor 5 Oct. 173 BCE 29th of Ptolemy Euergetes II 22 Sept. 118 BCE
10th of Ptolemy Philometor 5 Oct. 172 BCE 1st of Ptolemy Soter II 21 Sept. 117 BCE
11th of Ptolemy Philometor 5 Oct. 171 BCE 2nd of Ptolemy Soter II 21 Sept. 116 BCE
12th of Ptolemy Philometor 5 Oct. 170 BCE 3rd of Ptolemy Soter II 21 Sept. 115 BCE
13th of Ptolemy Philometor 4 Oct. 169 BCE 4th of Ptolemy Soter II 21 Sept. 114 BCE
14th of Ptolemy Philometor 4 Oct. 168 BCE 5th of Ptolemy Soter II 20 Sept. 113 BCE
15th of Ptolemy Philometor 4 Oct. 167 BCE 6th of Ptolemy Soter II 20 Sept. 112 BCE
16th of Ptolemy Philometor 4 Oct. 166 BCE 7th of Ptolemy Soter II 20 Sept. 111 BCE
17th of Ptolemy Philometor 3 Oct. 165 BCE 8th of Ptolemy Soter II 20 Sept. 110 BCE
18th of Ptolemy Philometor 3 Oct. 164 BCE 9th of Ptolemy Soter II 19 Sept. 109 BCE
19th of Ptolemy Philometor 3 Oct. 163 BCE 10th of Ptolemy Soter II 19 Sept. 108 BCE
20th of Ptolemy Philometor 3 Oct. 162 BCE 11th of Ptolemy Soter II 19 Sept. 107 BCE
21st of Ptolemy Philometor 2 Oct. 161 BCE 12th of Ptolemy Soter II 19 Sept. 106 BCE
22nd of Ptolemy Philometor 2 Oct. 160 BCE 13th of Ptolemy Soter II 18 Sept. 105 BCE
23rd of Ptolemy Philometor 2 Oct. 159 BCE 14th of Ptolemy Soter II 18 Sept. 104 BCE
24th of Ptolemy Philometor 2 Oct. 158 BCE 15th of Ptolemy Soter II 18 Sept. 103 BCE
25th of Ptolemy Philometor 1 Oct. 157 BCE 16th of Ptolemy Soter II 18 Sept. 102 BCE
26th of Ptolemy Philometor 1 Oct. 156 BCE 17th of Ptolemy Soter II 17 Sept. 101 BCE
27th of Ptolemy Philometor 1 Oct. 155 BCE 18th of Ptolemy Soter II 17 Sept. 100 BCE
28th of Ptolemy Philometor 1 Oct. 154 BCE 19th of Ptolemy Soter II 17 Sept. 99 BCE
29th of Ptolemy Philometor 30 Sept. 153 BCE 20th of Ptolemy Soter II 17 Sept. 98 BCE
30th of Ptolemy Philometor 30 Sept. 152 BCE 21st of Ptolemy Soter II 16 Sept. 97 BCE
31st of Ptolemy Philometor 30 Sept. 151 BCE 22nd of Ptolemy Soter II 16 Sept. 96 BCE
32nd of Ptolemy Philometor 30 Sept. 150 BCE 23rd of Ptolemy Soter II 16 Sept. 95 BCE
33rd of Ptolemy Philometor 29 Sept. 149 BCE 24th of Ptolemy Soter II 16 Sept. 94 BCE
34th of Ptolemy Philometor 29 Sept. 148 BCE 25th of Ptolemy Soter II 15 Sept. 93 BCE
35th of Ptolemy Philometor 29 Sept. 147 BCE 26th of Ptolemy Soter II 15 Sept. 92 BCE
1st of Ptolemy Euergetes II 29 Sept. 146 BCE 27th of Ptolemy Soter II 15 Sept. 91 BCE
2nd of Ptolemy Euergetes II 28 Sept. 145 BCE 28th of Ptolemy Soter II 15 Sept. 90 BCE
3rd of Ptolemy Euergetes II 28 Sept. 144 BCE 29th of Ptolemy Soter II 14 Sept. 89 BCE
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix I: page 9

Table 2 (contd.): Ptolemy’s Canon—Regnal years and proleptic Julian equivalents

Proleptic Proleptic
Regnal years Regnal years
Julian Date Julian Date
30th of Ptolemy Soter II 14 Sept. 88 BCE 20th of Cleopatra VII 31 Aug. 33 BCE
31st of Ptolemy Soter II 14 Sept. 87 BCE 21st of Cleopatra VII 31 Aug. 32 BCE
32nd of Ptolemy Soter II 14 Sept. 86 BCE 22nd of Cleopatra VII 31 Aug. 31 BCE
33rd of Ptolemy Soter II 13 Sept. 85 BCE 1st of Augustus 31 Aug. 30 BCE
34th of Ptolemy Soter II 13 Sept. 84 BCE 2nd of Augustus 30 Aug. 29 BCE
35th of Ptolemy Soter II 13 Sept. 83 BCE 3rd of Augustus 30 Aug. 28 BCE
36th of Ptolemy Soter II 13 Sept. 82 BCE 4th of Augustus 30 Aug. 27 BCE
1st of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 12 Sept. 81 BCE 5th of Augustus 30 Aug. 26 BCE
2nd of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 12 Sept. 80 BCE 6th of Augustus 29 Aug. 25 BCE
3rd of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 12 Sept. 79 BCE 7th of Augustus 29 Aug. 24 BCE
4th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 12 Sept. 78 BCE 8th of Augustus 29 Aug. 23 BCE
5th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 11 Sept. 77 BCE 9th of Augustus 29 Aug. 22 BCE
6th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 11 Sept. 76 BCE 10th of Augustus 28 Aug. 21 BCE
7th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 11 Sept. 75 BCE 11th of Augustus 28 Aug. 20 BCE
8th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 11 Sept. 74 BCE 12th of Augustus 28 Aug. 19 BCE
9th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 10 Sept. 73 BCE 13th of Augustus 28 Aug. 18 BCE
10th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 10 Sept. 72 BCE 14th of Augustus 27 Aug. 17 BCE
11th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 10 Sept. 71 BCE 15th of Augustus 27 Aug. 16 BCE
12th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 10 Sept. 70 BCE 16th of Augustus 27 Aug. 15 BCE
13th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 9 Sept. 69 BCE 17th of Augustus 27 Aug. 14 BCE
14th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 9 Sept. 68 BCE 18th of Augustus 26 Aug. 13 BCE
15th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 9 Sept. 67 BCE 19th of Augustus 26 Aug. 12 BCE
16th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 9 Sept. 66 BCE 20th of Augustus 26 Aug. 11 BCE
17th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 8 Sept. 65 BCE 21st of Augustus 26 Aug. 10 BCE
18th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 8 Sept. 64 BCE 22nd of Augustus 25 Aug. 9 BCE
19th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 8 Sept. 63 BCE 23rd of Augustus 25 Aug. 8 BCE
20th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 8 Sept. 62 BCE 24th of Augustus 25 Aug. 7 BCE
21st of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 7 Sept. 61 BCE 25th of Augustus 25 Aug. 6 BCE
22nd of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 7 Sept. 60 BCE 26th of Augustus 24 Aug. 5 BCE
23rd of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 7 Sept. 59 BCE 27th of Augustus 24 Aug. 4 BCE
24th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 7 Sept. 58 BCE 28th of Augustus 24 Aug. 3 BCE
25th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 6 Sept. 57 BCE 29th of Augustus 24 Aug. 2 BCE
26th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 6 Sept. 56 BCE 30th of Augustus 23 Aug. 1 BCE
27th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 6 Sept. 55 BCE 31st of Augustus 23 Aug. 1 CE
28th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 6 Sept. 54 BCE 32nd of Augustus 23 Aug. 2 CE
29th of Ptolemy Neos Dionysus 5 Sept. 53 BCE 33rd of Augustus 23 Aug. 3 CE
1st of Cleopatra VII 5 Sept. 52 BCE 34th of Augustus 22 Aug. 4 CE
2nd of Cleopatra VII 5 Sept. 51 BCE 35th of Augustus 22 Aug. 5 CE
3rd of Cleopatra VII 5 Sept. 50 BCE 36th of Augustus 22 Aug. 6 CE
4th of Cleopatra VII 4 Sept. 49 BCE 37th of Augustus 22 Aug. 7 CE
5th of Cleopatra VII 4 Sept. 48 BCE 38th of Augustus 21 Aug. 8 CE
6th of Cleopatra VII 4 Sept. 47 BCE 39th of Augustus 21 Aug. 9 CE
7th of Cleopatra VII 4 Sept. 46 BCE 40th of Augustus 21 Aug. 10 CE
8th of Cleopatra VII 3 Sept. 45 BCE 41st of Augustus 21 Aug. 11 CE
9th of Cleopatra VII 3 Sept. 44 BCE 42nd of Augustus 20 Aug. 12 CE
10th of Cleopatra VII 3 Sept. 43 BCE 43rd of Augustus 20 Aug. 13 CE
11th of Cleopatra VII 3 Sept. 42 BCE 1st of Tiberius 20 Aug. 14 CE
12th of Cleopatra VII 2 Sept. 41 BCE 2nd of Tiberius 20 Aug. 15 CE
13th of Cleopatra VII 2 Sept. 40 BCE 3rd of Tiberius 19 Aug. 16 CE
14th of Cleopatra VII 2 Sept. 39 BCE 4th of Tiberius 19 Aug. 17 CE
15th of Cleopatra VII 2 Sept. 38 BCE 5th of Tiberius 19 Aug. 18 CE
16th of Cleopatra VII 1 Sept. 37 BCE 6th of Tiberius 19 Aug. 19 CE
17th of Cleopatra VII 1 Sept. 36 BCE 7th of Tiberius 18 Aug. 20 CE
18th of Cleopatra VII 1 Sept. 35 BCE 8th of Tiberius 18 Aug. 21 CE
19th of Cleopatra VII 1 Sept. 34 BCE 9th of Tiberius 18 Aug. 22 CE
Appendix I: page 10 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Table 2 (contd.): Ptolemy’s Canon—Regnal years and proleptic Julian equivalents

Proleptic Proleptic
Regnal years Regnal years
Julian Date Julian Date
10th of Tiberius 18 Aug. 23 CE 1st of Titus 4 Aug. 78 CE
11th of Tiberius 17 Aug. 24 CE 2nd of Titus 4 Aug. 79 CE
12th of Tiberius 17 Aug. 25 CE 3rd of Titus 3 Aug. 80 CE
13th of Tiberius 17 Aug. 26 CE 1st of Domitian 3 Aug. 81 CE
14th of Tiberius 17 Aug. 27 CE 2nd of Domitian 3 Aug. 82 CE
15th of Tiberius 16 Aug. 28 CE 3rd of Domitian 3 Aug. 83 CE
16th of Tiberius 16 Aug. 29 CE 4th of Domitian 2 Aug. 84 CE
17th of Tiberius 16 Aug. 30 CE 5th of Domitian 2 Aug. 85 CE
18th of Tiberius 16 Aug. 31 CE 6th of Domitian 2 Aug. 86 CE
19th of Tiberius 15 Aug. 32 CE 7th of Domitian 2 Aug. 87 CE
20th of Tiberius 15 Aug. 33 CE 8th of Domitian 1 Aug. 88 CE
21st of Tiberius 15 Aug. 34 CE 9th of Domitian 1 Aug. 89 CE
22nd of Tiberius 15 Aug. 35 CE 10th of Domitian 1 Aug. 90 CE
1st of Gaius 14 Aug. 36 CE 11th of Domitian 1 Aug. 91 CE
2nd of Gaius 14 Aug. 37 CE 12th of Domitian 31 July 92 CE
3rd of Gaius 14 Aug. 38 CE 13th of Domitian 31 July 93 CE
4th of Gaius 14 Aug. 39 CE 14th of Domitian 31 July 94 CE
1st of Claudius 13 Aug. 40 CE 15th of Domitian 31 July 95 CE
2nd of Claudius 13 Aug. 41 CE 1st of Nerva 30 July 96 CE
3rd of Claudius 13 Aug. 42 CE 1st of Trajan 30 July 97 CE
4th of Claudius 13 Aug. 43 CE 2nd of Trajan 30 July 98 CE
5th of Claudius 12 Aug. 44 CE 3rd of Trajan 30 July 99 CE
6th of Claudius 12 Aug. 45 CE 4th of Trajan 29 July 100 CE
7th of Claudius 12 Aug. 46 CE 5th of Trajan 29 July 101 CE
8th of Claudius 12 Aug. 47 CE 6th of Trajan 29 July 102 CE
9th of Claudius 11 Aug. 48 CE 7th of Trajan 29 July 103 CE
10th of Claudius 11 Aug. 49 CE 8th of Trajan 28 July 104 CE
11th of Claudius 11 Aug. 50 CE 9th of Trajan 28 July 105 CE
12th of Claudius 11 Aug. 51 CE 10th of Trajan 28 July 106 CE
13th of Claudius 10 Aug. 52 CE 11th of Trajan 28 July 107 CE
14th of Claudius 10 Aug. 53 CE 12th of Trajan 27 July 108 CE
1st of Nero 10 Aug. 54 CE 13th of Trajan 27 July 109 CE
2nd of Nero 10 Aug. 55 CE 14th of Trajan 27 July 110 CE
3rd of Nero 9 Aug. 56 CE 15th of Trajan 27 July 111 CE
4th of Nero 9 Aug. 57 CE 16th of Trajan 26 July 112 CE
5th of Nero 9 Aug. 58 CE 17th of Trajan 26 July 113 CE
6th of Nero 9 Aug. 59 CE 18th of Trajan 26 July 114 CE
7th of Nero 8 Aug. 60 CE 19th of Trajan 26 July 115 CE
8th of Nero 8 Aug. 61 CE 1st of Hadrian 25 July 116 CE
9th of Nero 8 Aug. 62 CE 2nd of Hadrian 25 July 117 CE
10th of Nero 8 Aug. 63 CE 3rd of Hadrian 25 July 118 CE
11th of Nero 7 Aug. 64 CE 4th of Hadrian 25 July 119 CE
12th of Nero 7 Aug. 65 CE 5th of Hadrian 24 July 120 CE
13th of Nero 7 Aug. 66 CE 6th of Hadrian 24 July 121 CE
14th of Nero 7 Aug. 67 CE 7th of Hadrian 24 July 122 CE
1st of Vespasian 6 Aug. 68 CE 8th of Hadrian 24 July 123 CE
2nd of Vespasian 6 Aug. 69 CE 9th of Hadrian 23 July 124 CE
3rd of Vespasian 6 Aug. 70 CE 10th of Hadrian 23 July 125 CE
4th of Vespasian 6 Aug. 71 CE 11th of Hadrian 23 July 126 CE
5th of Vespasian 5 Aug. 72 CE 12th of Hadrian 23 July 127 CE
6th of Vespasian 5 Aug. 73 CE 13th of Hadrian 22 July 128 CE
7th of Vespasian 5 Aug. 74 CE 14th of Hadrian 22 July 129 CE
8th of Vespasian 5 Aug. 75 CE 15th of Hadrian 22 July 130 CE
9th of Vespasian 4 Aug. 76 CE 16th of Hadrian 22 July 131 CE
10th of Vespasian 4 Aug. 77 CE 17th of Hadrian 21 July 132 CE
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix I: page 11

Table 2 (contd.): Ptolemy’s Canon—Regnal years and proleptic Julian equivalents

Proleptic Proleptic
Regnal years Regnal years
Julian Date Julian Date
18th of Hadrian 21 July 133 CE 11th of Antoninus 18 July 147 CE
19th of Hadrian 21 July 134 CE 12th of Antoninus 17 July 148 CE
20th of Hadrian 21 July 135 CE 13th of Antoninus 17 July 149 CE
21st of Hadrian 20 July 136 CE 14th of Antoninus 17 July 150 CE
1st of Antoninus 20 July 137 CE 15th of Antoninus 17 July 151 CE
2nd of Antoninus 20 July 138 CE 16th of Antoninus 16 July 152 CE
3rd of Antoninus 20 July 139 CE 17th of Antoninus 16 July 153 CE
4th of Antoninus 19 July 140 CE 18th of Antoninus 16 July 154 CE
5th of Antoninus 19 July 141 CE 19th of Antoninus 16 July 155 CE
6th of Antoninus 19 July 142 CE 20th of Antoninus 15 July 156 CE
7th of Antoninus 19 July 143 CE 21st of Antoninus 15 July 157 CE
8th of Antoninus 18 July 144 CE 22nd of Antoninus 15 July 158 CE
9th of Antoninus 18 July 145 CE 23rd of Antoninus 15 July 159 CE
10th of Antoninus 18 July 146 CE

The "Egyptian years" that Ptolemy uses are particularly convenient for calculation purposes, as they are
all precisely the same length: the Egyptian civil calendar had no leap years and every year had 365 days
(twelve months of thirty days each and an additional five days). The Julian calendar date of the Egyptian
New Year therefore slips back one day every four years, where the Julian calendar has an intercalary day
and "wanders" backwards slowly through the months; the Egyptian year is therefore sometimes called
the annus vagus, or "wandering year".

What, precisely, is the significance of the Julian calendar dates given in Table 2? Consider, for example,
the first year of Nebuchadnezzar II, which according to the table began on 21st Jan. 604 BCE One thing
we must not assume is that Nebuchadnezzar ascended the throne and began his reign on that day; it
would have been pure coincidence if this had been the case and, indeed, we know from Royal Diary
tablet BM21946 (see page xl of the Introductory Notes and Appendix II) that this actually happened on
1st Elul (late summer), on the Babylonian day corresponding to 6/7th Sept. 605 BCE So what, if
anything, did happen on 21st Jan. 604 BCE? To answer this, we must look at Babylonia and Egypt
separately.

There is no reason to think that 21st Jan. 604 BCE had any special significance in Babylonia. The lunar
month Kislev (Month 9), had begun some two and one-half weeks earlier with the first evening sighting
of the lunar crescent soon after the New Moon (which occurred late in the evening of 1st Jan. 604 BCE)
and so the Babylonian day that began at sunset on 20th Jan. and ended at sunset on 21st Jan. would have
been 18th or 19th Kislev. It is certain that Nebuchadnezzar II did not celebrate his accession to the
throne on that day: for one thing, his reign had already begun on the previous 1st Elul, some 3½ months
before. On the other hand, his "Year 1" did not begin until the first Babylonian New Year after his
ascent of the throne, on the following 1st Nisan, which fell on about 30th April in 604 BCE On 21st Jan.
604 BCE, he was in his "accession year", the period from his accession to the first New Year after it in
the spring.

In Egypt, however, 21st Jan. 604 BCE did have some particular significance: it was the first day of the
month Thoth, and was New Year’s Day. Now unlike Babylonian days, which began in the evening at
sunset and consisted of the hours of darkness and the following hours of daylight, Egyptian days began
in the morning at sunrise and consisted of the hours of daylight and the following hours of darkness. The
Egyptian New Year of Jan. 604 BCE thus began at sunrise on 21st Jan. and lasted until sunrise on 22nd
Appendix I: page 12 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible

Jan. But how did this Egyptian New Year of 21st/22nd Jan. 604 BCE come to mark the start of the reign
of Nebuchadnezzar II in Ptolemy’s Canon?
First, remember that the Canon only records whole numbers of Egyptian years. The reign of any of the
Babylonian kings, when converted into Canon years, must therefore begin on an Egyptian New Year.
Table 2 gives the Julian dates of all the Egyptian New Years for the period covered by the Canon. It
appears that Ptolemy chose the Egyptian New Year of 21st Jan. 604 BCE to represent the beginning of
Nebuchadnezzar II’s reign because it was the Egyptian New Year that preceeded the start of his "first
regnal year", i.e. the first Babylonian New Year after his actual accession.

The Canon’s dating technique therefore employs a rather curious combination of Egyptian pre-dating
and Babylonian post-dating: "pre-dating" means counting the period from a king’s accession until the
next New Year as his "first year", and "post-dating" means reckoning that period as his "accession year"
and not starting to count his regnal years until the first full year after his accession. Ptolemy first post-
dates each king’s accession according to the Babylonian calendar, and then pre-dates the Babylonian
New Years according to the Egyptian calendar. Depuydt, in his paper cited above (p.114), gives three
examples, namely Xerxes I, Darius II and Artaxerxes II, to illustrate this:

(1) Xerxes I’s reign actually began in late November 486 BCE: post-dating to the following Babylonian New
Year brings us to 3rd/4th Apr. 485 BCE, and then pre-dating this to the preceding Egyptian New Year
produces the Canon date 23rd/24th Dec. 486 BCE as the artificial start of his reign;

(2) Darius II’s reign actually began between 24th Dec. 424 BCE and 13th Feb. 423 BCE: post-dating to the
following Babylonian New Year brings us to 10th/11th Apr. 423 BCE, and then pre-dating this to the
preceding Egyptian New Year produces the Canon date 7th/8th Dec. 424 BCE as the artificial start of his
reign;

(3) Artaxerxes II’s reign actually began between 17th Sept. 405 BCE and 9th/10th Apr. 404 BCE: post-dating to
the following Babylonian New Year brings us to 9th/10th Apr. 404 BCE, and then pre-dating this to the
preceding Egyptian New Year produces the Canon date 2nd/3rd Dec. 405 BCE as the artificial start of his
reign.

On the basis of these three examples, Depuydt notes that (i) in the case of Xerxes I, the Canon’s
artificial start-date for his reign (23rd Dec. 486 BCE) is later than the actual date (late November); (ii) in
the case of Darius II, the Canon’s artificial start-date for his reign (7th Dec. 424 BCE) is earlier than the
actual date (between 24th Dec. 424 BCE and 13th Feb. 423 BCE); and (iii) in Artaxerxes II’s case, the
Canon’s artificial start-date for his reign (2nd Dec. 405 BCE) could be either earlier or later than the
actual date (between 17th Sept. 405 BCE and 9th/10th Apr. 404 BCE).

Confused yet? it gets worse. Here, I quote Depuydt verbatim, from pages 114-5:

"It should be noted that the post-dating system was abandoned from Alexander onwards. This affects numbers
31, 32 and 33 in the Canon [Alexander the Great, Philip Arrhidæus and Alexander II].For example, Year 1 of
Philip begins, according to the Canon, on 12th Nov. 324 BCE As with all the other rulers of Babylon in the
Canon, the beginning of Philip’s reign is pre-dated in Egyptian fashion from the beginning of the Babylonian
Year 1. But in the case of Philip, the beginning of Year 1 was itself not post-dated: it coincided with the actual
beginning of his reign and Year 2, not Year 1 as with most other rulers of Babylon mentioned in the Canon,
began on the first New Year of the reign. For Philip Arrhidæus and Alexander II, and it would seem also for
Alexander the Great, does not pre-date after post-dating, but only pre-dates."

In conclusion: the Canon dates tell us nothing about the actual dates of the kings' reigns. They were not
intended to; Ptolemy constructed them for the purpose of astronomical calsulations only. The only thing
we can safely derive from each is the year corresponding to each year of each king’s reign.
Appendix II
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix II: page 1

Appendix II
Babylonian Royal Diary Tablet BM21946

On the following pages, I reproduce the transcribed text and most recent translation of the Babylonian
Royal Diary tablet BM21946 referred to several times in this book, taken from Albert Kirk Grayson’s
Assyrian & Babylonian Chronicles (Eisenbrauns, 2000), pages 99-102.

OBVERSE REVERSE

Babylonian "Royal Diary" Tablet BM21946


Appendix III: page 2 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix II: page 3
Appendix III: page 4 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix II: page 5
Appendix III
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix III: page 1

Appendix III
Babylonian Astronomical Diary Tablet VAT4956

The transcription & translation, with commentary, of Babylonian Astronomical Diary Tablet VAT4946,
which are reproduced on the following pages, are by A. J. Sachs & H. Hunger, and were published as
Astronomical diaries and related texts from Babylon, Volume I: diaries from 652 BC to 262 BC (Verlag
der Österreichischen Akademie der Wißenschaften, Wien, 1988), pages 46-53. An earlier study of the
same tablet, with a detailed analysis (in German) of the astronomical data, can be found in Ein astro-
nomischer Beobachtungstext aus dem 37te Jahre Nebukadnezars II (–567/66)" by P. V. Neugebauer &
E. Weidner (Berichte über die Wißenschaften, philologisch-historische Klaße 67/II, Leipzig, 1915).

Obverse

Reverse
Appendix III: page 2 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix III: page 3
Appendix III: page 4 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix III: page 5
Appendix III: page 6 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix III: page 7
Appendix III: page 8 Chronology of the Hebrew Bible
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix III: page 9
Appendix IV
Chronology of the Hebrew Bible Appendix IV: page 1

Appendix IV
Leaders, "Judges" & Kings of Ancient Yisrael

Mosheh 1476-1437 BCE


Y'hoshua 1436-1409 BCE
Judge Ot'niyel 1408-1369 BCE
Judge Éhud 1368-1289 BCE
Judge Shamgar 1289 BCE
Judge D'vorah 1288-1249 BCE
Midiyanite domination (no Yisraelite ruler) 1248-1242 BCE
Judge Gid'on 1241-1202 BCE
Avimelech 1201-1199 BCE
Judge Tola 1198-1176 BCE
Judge Ya'ir 1175-1154 BCE
P'lishtian-Ammonite domination (no Yisraelite ruler) 1154-1137 BCE
Judge Yiftah 1137-1132 BCE
Judge Iv'tzan 1132-1126 BCE
Judge Eilon 1126-1117 BCE
Judge Avdon 1117-1110 BCE
Judge Shimshon 1110-1091 BCE
Judge Éli 1091-1052 BCE
Judge Sh'muel 1052-1042 BCE
Sha'ul 1042-1040 BCE
David 1040-1001 BCE
Shlomoh 1000-961 BCE
Y'HUDAH (SOUTHERN KINGDOM) YISRAEL (NORTHERN KINGDOM)
R'hav'am 960-944 BCE Yarov'am I 960-939 BCE
Aviyyam 943-941 BCE
Asa 940-900 BCE Nadav 939-938 BCE
Ba'asha 938-915 BCE
Élah 915-914 BCE
Zimri 914 BCE
Omri 914-903 BCE
Ah'av 903-882 BCE
Y'hoshafat 899-875 BCE Ahaz'yah 882-881 BCE
Yoram 881-870 BCE
Y'horam 877-870 BCE
Ahazyah 870 BCE
Atalyah 869-864 BCE Yéhu 869-842 BCE
Yo'ash 863-825 BCE Y'hoahaz 842-826 BCE
Y'hoash 825-812 BCE
Amatz'yahu 824-796 BCE Yarov'am II 812-772 BCE
Azaryah/Uzziyahu 810-759 BCE Z'charyah 772-771 BCE
Shallum 771 BCE
M'nahem 770-761 BCE
P'kahyah 760-759 BCE
Yotam 758-743 BCE Pekah 758-739 BCE
Ahaz 742-727 BCE
Hoshé'a 738-721 BCE
Hiz'kiyyahu 726-698 BCE
M'nasheh 697-643 BCE
Amon 642-641 BCE
Yoshiyyahu 640-610 BCE
Y'hoahaz 609 BCE
Y'hoyakim 608-598 BCE
Y'hoyachin 597 BCE
Tzid'kiyyahu 597-587 BCE