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PROBLEM19.

1
Determine the maximum velocity and maximumaccelerationoI a particle
which moves in simple harmonic motion with an amplitude oI 400
and a period oI 1.4 s.
SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion
= sin + 4)
- 4.488
(1.4 s)
= Amplitude = 400 = 0.4 m
= (0.4 +
= cos +
= =
= (0.4
=1.795
2
= +
2
= =
=
= 8.06
= 8.06 4
I
PROBLEM19.2
Determine the amplitude and maximum velocity oI a particle which
moves in simple harmonic motion with a maximum acceleration oI
21.6 and a oI 8 Hz.
SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion
or
or
or
= 5.16
= sin +
= = (8 =
x +
=
2
x = = +
2
=
1.6 = (16n
= 0.00855
0.10259 in.
= 0.1026 in.
= = (0.00855
= 0.42977
5.1572
PROBLEM19.3
A particle moves in simple harmonic motion. Knowing that the amplitude
is 15 in. and the maximum acceleration is 15 determine the
maximumvelocity oI the particle and the Irequency oI its motion.
= +
= 15 in. = 1.25
x = v = + 4)
2
= a = +
2
=
= 15 = (1.25
= 3.4641
SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion
or
= 0.551
Hence, = 0.551 Hz
Finally, = = (1.25 rads)
= 4.3301
= 4.33
PROBLEM19.4
A simple pendulum consisting oI a bob attached to a cord oscillates in a
vertical plane with a period oI 1.3 s. Assuming simple harmonic motion
and knowing that the maximum velocity oI the bob is 0.4 determine
(a) the amplitude oI the motion in degrees, the maximum tangential
acceleration oI the bob.
SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion
=
= sin +
= 4.833
Thus,
For a simple pendulum
Thus,
From(1)
0.4
(0.42 rads)
= 0.197 rad
1
PROBLEM19.4 CONTINUED
Now
=
Hence, the maximum tangential acceleration occurs when is
maximum.
= sin +
2
=
= (0.42
= 1.9326
= 1.933 m/s
2
PROBLEM19.5
A simple pendulum consisting oI a bob attached to a cord oI length
I = 40 in. oscillates in a vertical plane. Assuming simple harmonic
motion and knowing that the bob is released Irom rest when =
determine the Irequency oI oscillation, the maximum velocity oI
the bob.
= 40 in. = 3.3333
= sin +
= +
=
= =
SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion
= 0.495
= 13.02 4
= (3.3333 (3.1801
1
PROBLEM19.6
A 10-kg block is initially held so that the vertical spring attached as
shown is undeIormed. Knowing that the block is suddenly released Irom
rest, determine ( a) the amplitudeand Irequency oI the resulting motion,
16
( h) the maximumvelocity and maximum acceleration oI the block.
SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion
0 1
k
=
= =
amplitude = = = 6.13 = 6.13 mm
40
I - 6.37
2
I = 6.37 Hz
= = (40 mm) = 245.2
= 245 4
2
= = (40 (6.13 = 9808
= 9.81
= 9.81
PROBLEM19.7
A 70-lb block is attached to a spring and can move without in a
slot as shown. The block is in its equilibrium position when it is struck by
a hammer which imparts to the block an initial velocity oI 10
Determine (a) the period and Irequency oI the resulting motion, (b) the
amplitudeoI the motion and the maximumacceleration oI the
SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion
x = sin +
70 lbls
2
)
= 64.343
0.90765 s
-=10.240 Hz
= 10.24 Hz 4
= = (0) =
Substituting 10 =
or = 0.1554 =1.865 in.
= = (0.15542
= 643.4
a, = 643 4
PROBLEM19.8
An instrument package A is bolted to a shaker table as shown. The table
moves vertically in simple motion at the same Irequency as the
variable-speed motor which drives it. The package is to be tested at a
peak acceleration oI 50 Knowing that the amplitude oI the shaker
table is 58 mm, determine the required speed oI the motor in (h)
the maximumvelocityoI the table.
SOLUTION
In Simple Harmonic Motion
=
Substituting 50 m/s
2
= (0.058
or =
= 29.361
Now
cycle
Then =
(1 60
I
and 280
= = (0.058 = 1.7029
= 1.703
A
PROBLEM19.9
A 5-kg block A rests on top oI a 20-kg plate B which is attached to an
unstretched spring oI constant k = 900 Plate B is slowly moved
60 to the and released Irom rest. Assuming that block A does not
slip on the plate, determine the amplitude and oI the
resulting motion, (b) the corresponding smallest required value oI the
coeIIicient oI static Iriction.
Simple Harmonic Motion:
= 0.06 m, = 0.955 Hz
2
= = (0.06
= 2.16
= =
PROBLEM19.10
The motion oI a particle is described by the equation
x = 10 +8 cos 2t, where x is expressed in Ieet and t in seconds.
Determine (a) the period oI the motion, (b) its amplitude, (c) its phase
angle.
SOLUTION
For Simple Harmonic Motion
x = +
From trigonometry = +
Let a = = 4
Then x = sin +
= sin cos4 + sin cos
= cos 4)sin + ( x, sin cos
Given x = +
Comparing: = 2
=10
= 8
= 3.14
(b) Squaring and (2) and adding, gives
+ sin
2
=164
(cos
2
+ sin
2
4) =164 =12.806 It
= 12.81 It
Divide (2) by (1)
8
= = 0.6747 rad = 38.66"
10
= 38.7"
PROBLEM19.11
The motion oI a particle is described by the equation = +
- where is expressed in Ieet and t in seconds.
Determine (a) the period oI the resulting motion, (b) its amplitude, (c) its
phase angle.
SOLUTION
Now
= sin cos + cos sin
Comparing(1) and (2) gives
= 0.7516 rad = 43.06"
PROBLEM19.12
A 70-lb block attached to a spring oI constant k = 9 can move
without Iriction in a slot as shown. The block is given an initial 15-in.
displacement downward its equilibrium position and released.
Determine 1.5 s aIter the block has been released (a) the total distance
traveled by the block, (b) the acceleration oI the block.
SOLUTION
With the initial conditions: = 15 in. = 1.25 =
1.25 = sin(0+
= 1.25
Then
I
i(1.5) = (1.25 s) + = -61.726
2
1.5 s, the block completes
I
1.5 s
=15.361 cycles
0.09765
PROBLEM19.12 CONTINUED
So, in one cycle, the block travels
ft) = 5 ft
Fifteencycles take
= 1.46477 s
Thus, the total distancetraveled is
ft) + 1.25 + (1.25 - 77.1 ft
Total = 77.1
PROBLEM19.13
A 1.4-kg block is supported as shown by a spring oI constant
k = 400 which can act in tension or compression. The block is in
its equilibrium position when it is struck Irom below by a hammer which
imparts to the block an upward velocity oI 2.5 Determinethe
time requiredIor the block to move 60 upward, (b) the corresponding
velocity and acceleration oI the block.
SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion, thus
x = sin +
=
= =16.903 radls
1.4 kg
Now = 0 = = 0
Then
= + 0)
Equilibrium
2.5 = = 0.14790 m
Then x = (0.14790 6.903
At x = 0.06 m: 0.06 m = (0.14790
sin-'
or = 0.02471 s
16.903
= 0.0247 s 4
(b) Now
=
= sin
Then, Ior = 0.024713 s
= (0.1479 s)|
= 2.285 = 2.29
And
s)|
= -17.143 m/s
2
I = 17.14 m/s
2
PROBLEM19.14
In Prob. 19.13, determine the position, velocity, and acceleration oI the
block0.90 aIter it has been struck by the hammer.
SOLUTION
ReIerringto the Iigure oI Problem19.13
= sin +
= +
2
= +
Using the data Problem19.13: 4 = = 0.1479 m, = 16.903
n are
And = (0.14790 m)sin 6.903 t
So, at t = 0.9
= (0.1479
= 0.0703m = 0.0703 m 4
= (0.1479
= -2.19957 = 2.19957 4
= (0.1479 s)|
= -20.083 = 20.083 4
PROBLEM 19.15
The bob oI a simple pendulum oI length = 40 in. is released rest
when = Assuming simple harmonic motion, determine 1.6 aIter
release the angle 8, the magnitudes oI the velocity and
accelerationoI the bob.
,
For simple harmonic motion and 1 = 40 in. = 3.333 It:
= = = 3.1082
3.333 It
Then, with
= sin +
And with
= = 0.08727 rad, and = 0:
SOLUTION
For
5"
2 180
Then
(3.1082 +-
180 2
= (0.08727 rad)sin (3.1082 +-
2
At = 1.6 s,
s) +- = 0.0224 =1.288"
180 2
e = 4
= +
= (3.1082 rads) cos (3.1082 rads)(1.6 s) +-
180 2
= 0.262074
v = r e =(3.3333 =
s) = 0.874 4
PROBLEM19.15 CONTINUED
= sin +
5"
= (3.1082 (1.6 s) +-
180 2
= -0.21733rad/s
2
Now
v
2
a, = -= = (3.3333 = 0.22894
I
= = (3.333 = -0.72443 m/s
2
a = 0.75974m/s
2
a = 0.759
I
PROBLEM19.16
A 10-lb collar rests on but is not attached to the spring shown. It is
observed that when the collar is pushed down 9 in. or more and released,
it loses contact with the spring. Determine (a) the spring constant, the
position, velocity, and acceleration oI the collar 0.16 s aIter it has been
pushed down 9 in. and released.
SOLUTION
= sin +
= sin + = 0.75 It
I
= 0 = -2
= 0.75
When the collar just leaves the spring, its acceleration is
g(downward) and v = 0.
Now
= (0.75
= v = = (0.75 +-2 = -2
I
I
And
= = sin
or =
0.75 =
Then
,(6.5524
32.2
=13.333
k =13.33
= 6.5524
PROBLEM19.16 CONTINUED
= -0.367 above equilibrium4
= =(0.75 (6.5524 s) +- = 4.2848
2
"1
PROBLEM19.17 CONTINUED
Solving Ior and
= -0.26975
= -0.25531 rad
So, Irom time oI impact, the 'time oI Ilight' is the time necessary Ior the
collar to come to rest on its downward motion. Thus, is the time such
that
Hence, = 0.15217
Thus, the periodoI the motion is
= + = + 0.1522 s)
= 0.94274 = 0.943
(b) AIter 0.4 seconds, the velocity is
(0.4) = cos (0.4 - ) + 4
= (12 - 0.3193 s)
-0.25531 rad|
PROBLEM 19.48
A 50-kg block is supported by the spring arrangement shown. The block
is moved verticallydownward Irom its equilibrium position and released.
Knowing that the amplitude oI the resulting motion is 60 determine
the period and Irequency oI the motion, the maximumvelocity and
maximumacceleration oI the block.
SOLUTION
First, calculate the spring constant
P = (24 6 + (12 6 + (12 6 = (48 6
k = 48
Then
-
= 30.984
Now
x = + 4)
And, since = 0.060 m
Hence = 1.859
= 57.6 mJs
2
PROBLEM19.19
A 50-kg block is supportedby the spring arrangement shown. The block
is moved verticallydownward its equilibrium position and released.
24
Knowing that the amplitude oI the resulting motion is 60 mm, determine
(a)the period and Irequency oI the motion, (b) the maximumvelocityand
=- maximumaccelerationoI the block.
24
Hence,
Then
(a) First, calculate the spring constant

24 .24 k
1 1 1
k 24 24
=0.40558 s
= 0.405
-1 = 2.4656 Hz = 2.47 Hz
= =15.492
= (0.060 m)sin 5.492 t +
= (0.060 +
= sin 5.492 +
Then = 0.92951
=14.400
PROBLEM19.20
A 13.6-kg block is supported by the spring arrangement shown. II the
block is moved Irom its equilibrium 44 mm vertically downward and
released, determine the period and Irequency oI the resulting motion,
.
(b) the maximum velocity and acceleration oI the block.
:
SOLUTION
Determine the constant k oI a single spring equivalent to the three springs shown.
Springs and 2:
=
P P P
and -
k' k, k,
Hence
Where k' is the spring constant oI a single spring equivalent oI springs 1 and 2.
Springs k'and 3 DeIlection in each spring is the same)
So P = + and P = = =
Now = +
And
PROBLEM19.20 CONTINUED
= +
= 44 = 0.044 m
= = 2.77 HZ) 17.384rads
And
= (0.044 m) sin t +
= (0.044 +
Then = (0.044 = 0.766
= +
Then = (0.044 = 13.3
= 0.765
= 13.31
PROBLEM 19.21
A 10-lb block, attached to the lower end oI a spring whose upper end is
Iixed, vibrates with a period oI 6.8 s. Knowing that the constant oI the
spring is inversely proportional to its length, determine the period oI a
6-lb block which is attached to the center oI the same spring iI the upper
and lower ends oI the spring are Iixed.
SOLUTION
Equivalent spring constant
= + =
(DeIlection oI each spring is the same.)
= s =
32 2

= 0.265 lblIt
32 2
=
=
PROBLEM19.22
A 10-lb block is supported as shown by three springs, each oI which has
a constant k. In the equilibrium position the tensions in springs A, B, and
C are 3 4 and 3 respectively. The block is moved vertically
downward 0.5 in. Irom its equilibrium position and released Irom rest.
Knowing that in the resulting motion the minimum tension in spring B is
zero, determine (a)the spring constant k, the Irequency oI the motion,
the maximum compression in spring A.
SOLUTION
For equilibrium
Equal stretch
= minimum when cos = -1
max
PROBLEM19.23
Two -- toa block A
that insimple harmonic with a of s. the
same two springs are in tothe same block, the block
vibrates withaperiodof 2s. Determine the ratio two spring
EquivaIent springs
Series:
Parallel:
PROBLEM19.24
The period oI vibration oI the system shown is observed to be 0.7 s. AIter
the spring oI constant = 900 is removed Irom the system, the
period is observed to be 0.9 s. Determine the constant k,, the
weight oI block A.
.
SOLUTION
Equivalent springs
+ = F =
+
+
(a) Both springs
Alone,
0.7 s 0.7 s
0.9 s + +
+ 900 = =1378.1
=1378
1378
m = 28.275
W = = (28.275 = 910.46
W =
The period oI small oscillations oI the system shown is observed to be
1.6 s. AIter a 14-lb collar is placed on top oI collar the period oI
oscillation is observed to be 2.1 s. Determine (a) the weight oI collar
(b) the spring constant k.
SOLUTION
Initially
-
AIter the 14 lb weight is added to
= 2.1 s
= + Note =
141b
32.2
= = 1.3838
= = ) =19.373
32.2
=19.37 lb
k =
k =
32.2
(1.6
k = 9.278
k = 9.28
PROBLEM1-9.26
The period oI vibration oI the system shown is observed to be 0.2 s. AIter
the spring oI constant = 3.5 is removed block A is
connected to the spring oI constant k,, the period is observed to be
3.5 0.12 s. Determine the constant oI the remaining spring, the
massoI block A.
SOLUTION
The equivalent spring constant Ior springs in series is:
For and
For alone
"'A
And with = 3.5
(3.5 = + 3.5
= 6.22
And with = 6.22 = 6.22 x 1
PROBLEM19.27
"-

The 50-kg block Dis supported as shown by three springs, each oI which
a has a constant k. The period oI vertical vibration is to remain unchanged
when the block is replaced by a 60-kg block, spring A is replaced by a
spring oI constant and the other two springs are unchanged.
Knowing that the period oI vibration is 0.4 s, determine the values oI k
and .
SOLUTION
The equivalent spring constant, accounting Ior the springs in series, is
k
= k +-
2
(a) It Iollows that k = 8.225
AIter the changes
60 kg
Thus =14.8044
Since
= k +
k +
or
= -
2k -
= 32.9
PROBLEM19.28
.
From mechanics oI materials it is known that when a static load P is
applied at the end BoI a metal rod Iixed at end A, the length oI
the rod will increase by an amount = AE, where L is the length oI
the rod, A is its cross-sectional area, and E is the modulus oI
elasticity oI the material. Knowing that L = 18 in. and
E = 29 x and that the diameter oI the rod is 0.32 in., and
neglecting the weight oI the rod, determine (a) the equivalent spring
constant oI the rod, ( b)the Irequency oI the vertical vibrations oI a block
oI weight W = 16 attached to end BoI the same rod.
SOLUTION

= 129.57 x
L 18 in.
= 129.6 4
PROBLEM19.29
From mechanics oI materials it is known that Ior a simply supported
beam oI uniIorm cross section a static load P applied at the center will
cause a deIlection = where L is the length oI the beam, E
is the modulus oI elasticity, and I is the moment oI inertia oI the cross-
sectional area oI the beam. Knowing that L = 5 m, E = 200 and
I = 20 x determine (a) the equivalent spring constant oI the
beam, (b) the Irequency oI vibration oI a 750 kg block attached to the
center oI the beam. Neglect the mass oI the beam and assume that the
load remains in contact with the beam.
SOLUTION
(20 m
4
)
= 1536
(125
45 25
PROBLEM19.30
A 2.4-in. deIlection oI the second Iloor oI a building is measured directly
under a newly installed 12.3-kips piece oI rotating machinery which has a
slightly unbalanced rotor. Assuming that the deIlection oI the Iloor is
proportional to the load it supports, determine (a) the equivalent spring
constant oI the Iloor system, (b) the speed in rpm oI the rotating
machinery that should be avoided iI it is not to coincide with the natural
Irequency oI the Iloor-machinery system.
SOLUTION
=
5
2.4 in.
= 130
5130 )
(12,300
= 2.0204 Hz
1 Hz = 1 = 60 rpm
Speed = (2.0204 HZ)(60 = 121.23 rprn
Speed = 121.2 rpm
PROBLEM19.31
The Iorce-deIlection equation Ior a nonlinear spring Iixed at one end is
= where is the Iorce, expressed in newtons, applied at the
other end and is the deIlection expressed in meters. Determine the
deIlection iI a 100-g block is suspended the spring and is at rest.
(b) Assuming that the slope oI the Iorce-deIlection curve at the point
corresponding to this loading can be used as an equivalent spring
constant, determine the Irequency oI vibration oI the block iI it is given a
very small downward displacement Irom its equilibrium position and
released.
SOLUTION
-(0.10 = 0.981 N

= = = ---
= 0.06015 m
= 60.1
4
= =
= 8.1549
= = 8.1549 Nlm
, / -
1.4372
=1.437
PROBLEM19.32
Rod AB is attached to a hinge at A and to two springs, each oI constant
k =1.35 (a) Determine the mass moI the block C Ior which the
period oI small oscillations is 4 s. II end B is depressed 60 mmand
released, determine the maximum velocity oI block Neglect the mass
oI the rod and assume that each spring can act in either tension or
compression.
SOLUTION
A
a
The equation oI motion is:
- = (1.2
=
+ = o
x
1054.69
8 = 0
m
1054.69
Then , and =-= 4s
m
1054.69
or =
4 m m
m = 427.45 kg
m= 427 kg
= sin +
= 0.03636
- 0.03636 rad
= cos +
= = 1.5708
- 0.03636 rad
= (0.03636 (1.5708 +-
2
= (0.03636 = 0.05712
= = 0.06854
PROBLEM19.32 CONTINUED
And
Then 0.03636 =
= cos + 4)
Thus =-, = 0.0363rad
2
Now
Then
PROBLEM19.33
Denoting by the static deflectionof a beam under a given load, show
that the frequency of vibrationof the load is
Neglect the mass of the beam, and assume that the load remains in
contact withthe beam.
SOLUTION

2 -
PROBLEM19.34
Expanding the integrand in Eq. (19.19) oI 19.4 into a series oI even
powers oI and integrating, show that the period oI a simple
pendulum oI length may be approximated by the Iormula
where is the amplitude oI the oscillations.
SOLUTION
Using the Binomial Theorem we write
1
2
sin
2
2
=1 -sin -sin
2 2
1
Neglecting terms oI order higher than 2 and setting sin
2
= -(1 - cos we have
2
= + -
- + -sin - 0
2 2
PROBLEM19.35
Using the Iormula given in Prob. 19.34, determine the amplitude Ior
3
which the period oI a simple pendulum is - percent longer that the
4
period oI the same pendulum Ior small oscillations.
SOLUTION
For small oscillations
We want = = (1.0075) =
Using the Iormula oI Problem 19.34, we write
sin -- - = 0.03
2
sin--
2
= 0.1741 rad = 9.9742"
2
=19.948"
=
PROBLEM19.36
Usingthe date of Table 19.1, determine the period of a simple pendulum
of length = 600 for small oscillations, for oscillations of
amplitude = for oscillations of amplitude =
SOLUTION
For large oscillations
For = = 1.598
For
PROBLEM19.37
Using the date of Table 19.1, determine the length in inches of a simple
pendulum which oscillates with a period of 3 s and an amplitude of
=
For
SOLUTION
FromEquation 19.20:
= = 1.686
(3 s) = 32.2
- 0.44484 = 0.19788
Thus 1 = 6.3718 = 76.462 in.
I = 76.5 in.
The 10-lb uniIorm rod ACis attached to springs oI constant = 50
at B and = at which can act in tension or compression. II
the end is depressed slightly and released, determine the
oI vibration, (b) the amplitude oI the motion oI point that the
maximumvelocity oI that point is
SOLUTION
A
A

+
=
But in equilibrium
= 0)
+
Substituting into
Kinematics (a=
Hence
=
1
I =

Now
PROBLEM19.38 CONTINUED
+ 719.670 = 0
= = 26.827 rads
= sin + = + 4)
Maximumangular velocity:
=
velocityat
(2.7
= = 0.017253rad
(70 rads)
Thus
= (5.8333 rad)
PROBLEM19.39
.-.
The uniIorm rod AB is attached to springs at A and B, each oI
constant 850 which can act in tension or compression. II the end A
.
oI the rod is depressed slightly and released, determine (a)the Irequency
--.
oI vibration, (b) the amplitude oI the angular motion oI the rod, knowing
that the maximum velocity oI point A is 1.1
SOLUTION
+ +
=
+ + 0. - + = +
Equilibrium position:
+ - =0
Substitute (2) into
+0. + +(0.41) = 0
+ + =
But , = = 8,
12
So +0.52118 0
or 0.093338 + =
+ =
850 Nlm
+

e + = o
-
PROBLEM 19.39 CONTINUED
= = = =
=
= + = +
=
=
=
= rad =
=
PROBLEM19.40
Two identical 3-kg uniIorm rods are hinged at point B and attached to a
spring oI constant k = 4 The rods are guided by small wheels oI
negligible mass and the system is in equilibrium when the rods are
horizontal as shown. Knowing that point B is depressed 20 and
released, determine (a) the Irequency oI the resulting vibration, (b) the
magnitude oI the maximumangular accelerationoI rod AB.
= +
.-
+ Non-linear terms
N =
2
= 1, = 8, sin8 = since 8 1
= 0.5 m, m = 3 kg, k =
SOLUTION
Kinematics
or, letting
For
(0.02)
= 80
0.5
PROBLEM19.41
A 1.2-kg uniIorm rod AB is attached to a hinge at A and to two springs,
each oI constant k = 450 . (a)Determine the mass moI block C Ior
which the period oI small oscillations is 0.6 s. (b) II end B is depressed
60 mmand released, determine the maximumvelocityoI block
I
SOLUTION

+ - = + +
Where = k(0.758 +
At =
And
= 0. + - =
Substitute (2)into
+ + =
a = (a, = (a, = I .2a
(1.2
= 0.2725 kg - m
2
12 12
+(0.825) + + = 0
+ + 506.258 = 0
506.25
8 = 0
1 +
PROBLEM19.41 CONTINUED
506.25
2
Now
2
=
= = = = 109.66
1.08925+
506.25 = 109.66 (1.08925 +
m = 2.4495
0 06
= =
=-= 0.03636 rad
1.65 1.65
= = (0.03636 = 0.38075
= = 0.45691
= 457 4
PROBLEM19.42
, A 12-lb uniIorm cylinder can without sliding on a horizontal surIace
and is attached by a pin at point Cto the 8-lb horizontal bar AB. The bar
is attached to two springs, each oI constant k = 30 as shown.
Knowing that the bar is moved 0.5 in. to the right oI the equilibrium
position and released, determine the period oI vibrationoI the system,
(h) the magnitude oI the maximumvelocity oI the bar.
SOLUTION

1
2
Eliminate Fand
)
+
= 29.861
- 0.21041
= -
o n
= 0.210 s 4
= =14.93 4
PROBLEM19.43
A 12-lb uniIorm cylinder is assumed to roll without sliding on a
horizontal surIace and is attached by a pin at point C to the 8-lb
horizontal bar AB. The bar is attached to two springs, each oI constant k =
20 as shown. Knowing that the oI static Iriction between
the cylinder and the surIace is 0.5, determine the maximumamplitude oI
the motionoI point Cwhich is compatible with the assumption oI rolling.
SOLUTION
From 19.42
= 24.382

=
2

A = Amplitude
20
0.5 = (24.382 A
40 lb(32.2
A = 0.090278
A =1.083 in.
PROBLEM 19.44
A 270-kg Ilywheel has a diameter oI 1.2 m and a radius oI gyration oI
0.5 m. A belt is placed over the rimand attached to two springs, each oI
constant k = 13 The initial tension in the belt is suIIicient to
prevent slipping. II the end oI the belt is pulled 25 to the right and
released, determine (a) the period oI vibration, (b) the
velocity oI the Ilywheel.
At equilibrium
Substitute (2) into (1)
Thus
SOLUTION
+ =
2
= = (270 m) = 67.5
= (0.72 rn
2
)(13000 == 9360 N . m
9360 N m
=
I 67.5
= 0.5335
4
= 0.534
=
+
-
- -
= o), = =
PROBLEM 19.44 CONTINUED
= sin + 4), = +
= = 11.776

0.6 m
= (0.04167 = 0.49067
= 0.491
PROBLEM19.45
For the uniform semicircular plate of radius determine the period of
small oscillations if the plate is suspended from point A as shown,
is suspended from a pin located at point B.
SOLUTION

-

or

-= =

= +

+ = - + +

=

- + =

or
=
PROBLEM19.46
A thinhomogeneouswire is bent into the shape of an isosceles triangle of
sides b, b, and Determine the period of small oscillations if the wire
( a) is suspended point A as shown, ( b) is suspended frompoint B.
1.6
SOLUTION
+
11
25
b
6
b 13
AG --
6 30
23
25
GB =
6
l mb
2
13b
8 + mg-8 = 0, = = 6.33 -
25 30
23mb
2
25 = 0, = 6.67 -
PROBLEM19.47
A semicircular hole is cut in a uniIormsquare plate which is attached to a
Irictionless pin at its geometric center Determine the period oI
small oscillations oI the plate. the length oI a simple pendulum which
has the same period.
10
SOLUTION
-
, , = 0.071467 A
=
+
= - =
+ = 0, =
2 9
-, I = 6.44

PROBLEM19.48
Two small weights w are attached at A and Bto the rim oI a uniIorm disk
oI radius r and weight W. Denoting by the period oI small oscillations
when = determine the angle Ior which the period oI small
oscillations is
SOLUTION
w
=
- 8)- -8) = rat +
=
sin6 a, =
+ + = o
= = =
= =-
4
=
PROBLEM19.49
Two 50-g weights are attached at A and B to the rim of a 1.5-kg uniform
disk of radius r = 80 mm. Determine the frequency o f small oscillations
when =
SOLUTION
From the derivation in Problem 19.48 (Equation
= 3.1939
= = 0.508
PROBLEM19.50
A uniIorm disk oI radius r =10 in. is attached at A to a 26-in. rod AB oI
negligible weight which can rotate Ireely in a vertical plane about B.
Determine the period oI small oscillations (a) iI the disk is to rotate
in a bearing at A, (b) iI the rod is riveted to the disk at A.
A
SOLUTION
2
= -mr = = 0.334722 m
2 2 12
(a) The disk is Iree to rotate and is in curvilinear translation.
= o
Then
= lma,, sin6
+ =
And
I
= 3.8551
- 1.6299 s
=1.630
PROBLEM19.50 CONTINUED
When the disk is riveted at it rotates at an angular acceleration a
1
= I =

2
Then
2 (32.2 It)
= = 13.838
PROBLEM19.51
A small collar of mass I-kg is rigidly attached to a 3-kg uniform rod of
length L = 1 m. Determine the period of small oscillations of the rod
when = m, =
SOLUTION
With
Then
Now
So
or
With
sin6 and
- -
= (if,), = = = =
2 2
Then
= l m
With = 0.7
PROBLEM19.52
A compoundpendulum is deIined as a rigid slab which oscillates about a
Iixed point called the center oI suspension. Show that the period oI
oscillation oI a compound pendulum is equal to the period oI a simple
pendulumoI length OA, where the distance Irom A to the mass center G
is GA = Point A is deIined as the center oI oscillation and
coincideswith the center oI percussion deIined in Prob. 17.57.
SOLUTION
+, = - =
= +
= o
+
For a simplependulumoI length OA = I

Comparing Equations ( and (2)


+
I =
r
GA I - -
r
PROBLEM19.53
A rigid slab oscillates about a Iixed point Show that the smallest
period oI oscillation occurs when the distance Irom point to the
mass center G is equal to

SOLUTION
See Solution to ProblemIor derivationoI
+
For small oscillations sin 8 8 and
For smallest we must have + a minimum

+
&
-

=
PROBLEM19.54
Show that iI the compound pendulum pI Prob. 19.52 is suspended Irom A
instead oI 0, the period oI oscillation is the same as beIore and the new
center oI oscillation is located at
SOLUTION
Same derivation as in Problem 19.52 with replaced by
R-
Length oI the equivalent simple pendulum is
+
L =
R R

Thus the length oI the equivalent simple pendulum is the same as in


Problem 19.52. It Iollows that the period is the same and that the new
center oI oscillation is at
The 16-lb uniform bar AB is hinged at and is attached at A to a spring
of constant = If end A is given a small displacement and
released, determine the frequency of small oscillations, the
smallest value of the spring constant for whichoscillations will occur.
SOLUTION
+ - =
For = + =
PROBLEM19.55 CONTINUED
For oscillations will occur
FromEquation( 1)

= =

=
PROBLEM19.56
A 10-kg uniIorm equilateral triangular plate is suspended Irom a pin
located at one oI its vertices and is attached to two springs, each oI
constant k 200 Nlm. Knowing that the plate is given a small angular
, displacement and released, determine the Irequency oI the resulting
vibration.
SOLUTION
3
+ mh
2
5
With
+ +
= 30.02
1.815 Hz 4
PROBLEM19.57
Two uniIorm rods, each oI weight W = 24 lb and length L = 40 in., are
welded together to Iormthe assembly shown. Knowing that the constant
oI each spring is k = 50 and that end A is given a small
displacement and released, determine the Irequency oI the resulting
motion.
= = m, I,, = = I =-mL
2
2
A) - 24 lb|
= = 68.908
32.2
PROBLEM19.58
A uniIorm disk oI radius and mass can roll without slipping on a
cylindrical surIace and is attached to bar ABC oI length L and negligible
mass. The bar is attached at point A to a spring oI constant and can
rotate Ireely about point B in the vertical plane. Knowing that end A is
given a small displacement and released, determine the Irequency oI the
resulting vibration in terms oI L, k, and
SOLUTION
A
I

=-

PROBLEM19.59
A uniIorm disk oI radius r = in. is attached at to a 26-in. rod oI
negligible weight which can rotate Freely in a vertical plane about B. II
\
the rod is displaced Irom the position shown and released, determine
the magnitude oI the maximum velocity oI point assuming that the
disk is Iree to rotate in a bearing at A, (b) is riveted to the rod at
A
\
\
SOLUTION
= = 0.6500
The disk is to rotate and is in translation
= o
=
sin =
From the solution to this Equation is
= sin +
= cos +
PROBLEM19.59 CONTINUED
Thus
With
= (2.1667 rad) 2.1667
For disk rivetedat A included)
= - sin = +
(32.2 ft/s
2
)(2.1667
(2.1667
+(
26 in.
12 12
PROBLEM19.60
Ahomogeneous rod of mass per unit length equal to 0. 4 is used to
form the assembly shown, which rotates freely about pivot A in a vertical
plane. Knowing that the assembly is displaced from its
equilibrium position and released, determine its angular velocity and
I angular acceleration 5 s later.
,
++ =
= 1.9253 = cos ,
= cos
-.-
PROBLEM19.61
B A homogeneous wire bent to Iorm the Iigure shown is attached to a pin
support at Knowing that =12 in. and that point B is pushed down
in. and released, determine the magnitude oI the velocity oI B, 8s later.
SOLUTION
Determine location oI the centroid G.
Let = mass per unit length
Then total mass = + = +
About
2r

+ =

+
=
+ + = + =
+
+ +

= = =
+
PROBLEM19.61 CONTINUED

+ = o
+ +
2
=
+ +
16.911 = 4.1123
= sin +4) =
1
= - 0.08333 0
12

o
2
= 0.08333 = sin , =
(
= + -
= cos = -0.083330, sin
t = s,
= -0.34134 = -4.0961
-4.10
PROBLEM19.62
A homogeneous wire bent to form the figure shown is attached to a pin
support at A. Knowing that = and that point B is pushed
down and released, determine the magnitude of the acceleration
SOLUTION
Determine location of the centroid
Let = mass per unit length
Then total mass = + = +
About C = + - =

+ =
+
= + sine
PROBLEM19.62 CONTINUED
2
But
+ =

+ +
+ +
=
= - + = +
=
=
PROBLEM19.63
A disk oI radius r =6 in. is welded at its center to two elastic
rods oI equal length with Iixed ends A and B. Knowing that the disk
rotates through an angle when a 0.375 couple is applied to the
disk and that it oscillates with a period oI 1.3 when the couple is
removed, determine (a) the weight oI the disk, the period oI vibration
iI one oI the rods is removed.
SOLUTION
(b) With one rod removed 1.34285
2
PROBLEM19.64
...
A 5-kg uniIormrod oI length = 0.7 mis welded at to two elastic
rods, which have Iixed ends at A and B and are known to have a
combined torsional spring constant K = 24 Determine the
period oI small oscillation, iI the equilibrium position oI is
(a)vertical as shown, (b) horizontal.
SOLUTION
=
- = +
2

2 2
o
2
= =
3
1
= = 0.817
3
0.817
+ 24) + (5 x
= 0.885 s
PROBLEM 19.64 CONTINUED

2
+ + = + =

But in equilibrium =

= =

Thus + =

PROBLEM19.65
A 60-kg uniIorm circular plate is welded to two elastic rods which have
Iixed ends at supports A and Bas shown. The spring constant oI
each rod is 200 and the systemis in equilibriumwhen the plate
is vertical. Knowing that the plate is rotated about axis AB and
released, determine the period oI oscillation, (b) the magnitude oI the
maximumvelocity oI the mass center GoI the plate.
SOLUTION
= -mr + mb'
4
+|2k = o
=
+
m= 60 kg, = 0.2 m, b = 0.16 m, k = 200
= = 0.413s
I6 m) = 85.0
PROBLEM19.66
A horizontal platIorm Pis held by several rigid bars which are connected
to a vertical wire. The period oI oscillation oI the platIorm is Iound to be
2.2 s when the platIormis empty and 3.8 s when an object A oI uniIorm
moment oI inertia is placed on the platIorm with its mass center directly
above the center oI the plate. Knowing that the wire has a torsional
constant = 27 determine the centroidal moment oI inertia
oI object A.
SOLUTION
=
Empty platIorm = centroidal oI platIorm
- (27 (2.2 s)'
= 3.31
PlatIorm with object A = oI
=- +
41r
2
- (27 s)'
3.31
= - 3.31 = 6.57
= 6.57 4
PROBLEM19.67
A uniIormequilateral triangular plate oI side b is suspended Irom three
vertical wires oI the same length I. Determine the period oI small
oscillations oI the plate when it is rotated a small angle about
a vertical axis through its mass center G, it is given a small horizontal
displacement in a direction perpendicular to AB.
SOLUTION
Geometry
Then
or
2
=-

PROBLEM19.67 CONTINUED

--
I
2
= -
PROBLEM19.68
A4-lb circular disk of radius r = 40 in. is suspended at its center from
wires and BCsoldered together at The torsional spring constants of
the wires are 3 for and = 1.5 for
Determine the period of oscillation of the disk about the axis AC.
. a
SOLUTION
,.
Equivalent torsional spring constant

= +
=
+

+
=
+
Newton's Law
=
=
2
+ =

= 5.2197 s
= 5.22 s
PROBLEM19.69
Two small spheres, A and C, each oI mass are attached to rod AB,
which is supported by a pin and bracket at B and by a spring CD oI
constant k. Knowing that the mass oI the rod is negligible and that the
system is in equilibrium when the rod is horizontal, determine the
the small oscillations system.
SOLUTION
2
2
8
=
8

PROBLEM19.70 CONTINUED
A
PROBLEM19.71
Two blocks, each oI weight 3 are attached to links which are pin-
-
connected to bar BC as shown. The weights oI the links and bar are
negligible and the blocks can slide without Block D is attached
to a spring oI constant =4 Knowing that block A is moved 0.5 in.
its equilibrium position and released, determine the magnitude oI
the maximumvelocity oI block Dduring the resulting motion.
SOLUTION
1
= +
be
2

2
= +
k = 48 =
3
32.2
= 18.158
in.
= 0.0277 rad
1.5
= = 1.009
12.1
PROBLEM19.72
Two blocks, each oI weight 3 lb, are attached to links which are pin-
- I
connected to bar BC as shown. The weights oI the links and bar-are
negligible and the blocks can slide without Iriction. Block Dis attached
to a spring oI constant k 4 Knowingthat block A is at rest when it
is struck horizontally with a mallet and given an initial velocity oI
in. 10 the magnitude oI the maximumdisplacement oI block
Dduring the resulting motion.
SOLUTION
From Problem 19.71
= 18.158
(10
= = 0.5555
1.5
=-= 0.0612 A = 0.734 i n.4
PROBLEM19.73
Auniform rod AB can rotate in a vertical plane about a horizontal axis at
C located at a distance above the mass center G of the rod. For small
oscillations determine the value of c for which the of the
motion will be maximum.
Position
=

SOLUTION
Find as a function of
Datumat
Position

=

=

=
+
PROBLEM19.73 CONTINUED
Maximumc, when
PROBLEM19.74
A thin uniformplate cut into the shape of a quarter circle can rotate in a
vertical plane about a horizontal axis at point Determine the period of
the small oscillations of the plate.
SOLUTION
= = = m
= - +
=
= , =

2
=

=
=

PROBLEM19.75
The inner rim oI a 38-kg Ilywheel is placed on a kniIe edge, and the
period oI its small oscillations is Iound to be 1.26 s. the
moment oI inertia oI the Ilywheel.
SOLUTION
Datumat
Position
= 0
=
h = =
2
2
=
ConservationoI energy
1
2 2
2 2 2
= =
2
4z
2
J mr
2

-
(1.26 (38 175 m) - (38 175
= 2.62345 -1.16375 = 1.4597
= 1.460
PROBLEM19.76
A connectingrod is supported by a kniIe edge at point A; the period oI its
small oscillations is observed to be 0.895 s. The rod is then inverted and
supported by a kniIe edge at point B and the period oI its small
oscillations is observed to be 0.805 s. Knowing that + = 10.5 in.,
determine the location oI the mass center G, (b) the centroidal radius
oI gyration k.
SOLUTION

Consider a general pendulumoI centroidal radius oI gyration


Datumat
Position
= -

Position
= =

= - = -
2
=
1
- +0 = 0 +
2 2
=
=

=
+ +
PROBLEM19.76 CONTINUED
k
2
+
For a roa suspenaea at A.
= 0.895 = ,
For a roa suspenaea at B.
0.805 2
+ = 10.5 in. = 0.875
From ana (2)
+ =
2
47r
2
2
k
2
+ =
Taking the aifference :
- = -
(r, - + = -
-
(0.875)
- = -
= =
+ = 0.875 = 0.533605
= 6.4033 in. = 6.40 in.
-2 0.895 2
= (32.2 f t ) (0.895 -(0.533605
0.34863 ft
2
-0.28473 = 0.0639 ft
2
k = 0.25278 = 3.0334
k = 3.03 in.
t
,
PROBLEM19.77
A uniIorm disk oI radius and mass can roll without slipping on a
cylindrical surIace and is attached to bar ABC oI lengthL and negligible
mass. The bar is attached toa spring oI constant and can rotate Freely in
the vertical plane about point B. Knowing that end A is given a small
displacement and released, determine the Irequency oI the resulting
oscillations in terms oI L, and
-.-
SOLUTION

A

16

X
=

=
PROBLEM19.78
A uniIorm cylinder can roll without sliding on an incline and is
attached to a spring AB as shown. II the center oI the cylinder is moved
10 down the incline and released, determine (a) the period oI
vibration, (b) the maximumvelocity oI the center oI the cylinder.
(a) Position
Position
SOLUTION

4 0
1

1 1 1
+ + = + + +-

+ + = + + +
When the disk is in equilibrium
= = -
=
- =
+
= +
Also
Thus
Substitute into
PROBLEM19.78 CONTINUED
=
=
=
=
PROBLEM19.79
Two uniIorm rods, each oI mass m = 0.6 kgand length I = 160
are welded together to Iorm the assembly shown. Knowing that the
constant oI each spring is k = 120 and that end A is given a small
displacement and released, determine the oI the resulting
motion.
SOLUTION
si ne
1- = 2sin - -
2 2
Position
+
2 2
Conservation oI Energy
1 1
+ + o = - +
2 2 4 2 2 4
=
J
PROBLEM19.79 CONTINUED
A
PROBLEM19.80
A slender 20-lb bar AB oI length I = 2 A is connected to two collars oI
negligible mass. Collar A is attached to a spring oI constant k= 100
and can slide on a horizontal rod, while collar B can slide on a
vertical rod. Knowing that the system is in equilibriumwhen bar AB is
vertical and that collar A is given a small displacement and released,
determine the period oI the resulting vibrations.
SOLUTION
1
2
+
= +
= -
6
2
m 21
With
20
32.2
= 507.15
0.279 s
PROBLEM19.81
A slender 10-lb bar AB oI length =2 is connected totwo collars, each
oI weight 5 Ib. Collar A is attached to a spring oI constant = 100
and can slide on a horizontal rod, while collar B can slide on a
vertical rod. Knowing that the system is in equilibriumwhen bar AB is
vertical and that collar A is given a small displacement and released,
determine the period oI the resulting vibrations.
SOLUTION
Let be the mass oI rod and be mass oI each collar
Then
+
2

= +
2 2
=
+

2

7
)

I
+
= 405.72
- 0.312 s
PROBLEM19.82
A 6-lb slender rod AB is bolted to a 10-lb uniIorm disk. A spring oI
constant 25 is attached to the disk and is in the position
shown. II end B oI the rod is given a small displacement and released,
determine the period oI vibrationoI the system.
in.
Position
Position
SOLUTION
= 4 in. = 0.33333
I = =
- 1
= - +
2
4 = =
2
I
=
3
2
= + - )
2 2
,
1- = -
2 2
-
2 2
PROBLEM19.82 CONTINUED
(32.2 + A)]
A)' +
A0.7-kg sphere A and a 0.5-kg sphere are attached to the ends of a
1-kg rod AC which can rotate in a vertical plane about an axis at B.
Determine the periodof small oscillationsof the rod.
Position
SOLUTION
.
C
= = 6.87 N
= = 4.91 N
9.81 N
1 1 1
1 2
(0.26)
12
1
= - + + +
2 12
1
=
2
Position
= = - + - + - )
PROBLEM19.83 CONTINUED
With -

2
= + + =

+ = + + = +

=
=

= -
=
PROBLEM19.84
Spheres A and C, each oI weight W, are attached to the ends oI a
homogeneous rod oI the same weight Wand oI length which is bent
as shown. The system is allowed to oscillate about a Frictionless pin at B.
Knowingthat = and I = 25 in., the Irequency oI small
oscillations.
SOLUTION
Position
2
= +
+ +

= = =

= + + =


= cos - mg-cos = cos

Position
PROBLEM19.84CONTINUED
5
=
2
--- -
2
5
=
2
7 5 5
- = -
6 2 2
=
7
-
6

=
14
32.2

= 12.686
= 3.5617
= = 0.56686

= 0.567
PROBLEM19.85
Three identical 8-lb uniformslender bars are connectedby pins as shown
and can move in a vertical plane. Knowing that bar BCis given a small
displacement and released, determine the period of vibration of the
system.
SOLUTION
= 0, =
=


= : =-

= 1.598
PROBLEM19.86
Two uniform rods AB and CD, each of length I and mass m, are attached
to gears as shown. Knowing that the mass of gear is m and that the
mass of gear A is 4m, determine the period of small oscillations of the
system.
SOLUTION

Kinematics = =
=
Let = =
=
Position
1
2
1
2
1 - . 1 - 1 -
1 2
- = 8mr
2
1
-mr
2 2
1
=
1
=
12 12
= +
2
PROBLEM19.86 CONTINUED
Position
For small angles

= - + -
2 2
- = - -
2 2

- cos = sin
2
=


2 2 2

=
+ +
PROBLEM19.87
Two uniform rods AB and each of length I and mass are attached
to gears as shown. Knowing that the mass of gear is m and that the
mass of gear A is determine the period of small oscillations of the
system.
SOLUTION
Kinematics = =
=
Let = =
=
Position
1
2
1
2
1 2
= = 8mr
2
2
1
= -(m)( r
2
)=
2 2
1
=-m1
2
1
= -m1
2
12 12
- m
2 [
12 4
PROBLEM 19.87 CONTINUED
Position
For small angles

= + =

PROBLEM19.88
A 5-kg uniform rod CD is welded at C to a of negligible mass
which is welded to the centers of two 10-kg uniform disks A and B.
Knowing that the disks roll without sliding, determine the periodof small
,
oscillationsof the system.
SOLUTION
Position
Position
For small angles
PROBLEM19.88 CONTINUED
0, = -
2
PROBLEM19.89
Three collars, each oI mass m, are connected by pins to bars AC and BC,
each oI length and negligible mass. Collars A and B can slide without
Iriction on a horizontal rod and are connected by a spring oI constant
Collar can slide without Iriction on a vertical rod and the system is in
equilibrium in the position shown. Knowing that collar is given a small
displacement and released, determine the Irequency oI the resulting
motion oI the system.
Where
Then
SOLUTION

EquilibriumoI BC:
-

= natural length = +

= - - = +
D
where
And + +

- = 0, =

V = + + constant - mg-+

+
=

6
PROBLEM19.90
A
Two 6-lb uniform semicircular plates are attached to the 4-lb rod ABas
shown. Knowing that the plates roll without sliding, determine the period
of small oscillations of the system.
SOLUTION
. .
Position

= + - +
For one disk

=
- = =

=
+ +
= +
But = ,


So = +

Position
PROBLEM19.90 CONTINUED
PROBLEM19.91
An inverted pendulumconsisting oI a sphere oI weight Wand a bar
oI length I and negligible weight is supported by a pin and bracket at
spring oI constant k is attached to the bar at and is undeIormed when
the bar is in the vertical position shown. Determine (a) the Irequency oI
small oscillations, (h) the smallest value oI a Ior which the oscillations
will occur.
SOLUTION
I -
(a) Position
1
= =
2 2
Position
1
2
For small angles sine,
- = -
2 2
1 1
-- -
- 2 2 2 2
1
+ = +
2
PROBLEM19.91 CONTINUED
PROBLEM19.92
For the inverted pendulum oI Prob. 19.91 and Ior given values oI k,
and I, it is observed that = 1.5 when m = 0.9 kg and that
I = 0.8 when m= 1.8 kg. the largest value oI m Ior
which small oscillationswill occur.
SOLUTION
See solution oI Problem 19.91 Ior the Irequency in terms oI a and I
m =
Divide by (2) and square
or
17.6581 8.8291
Then -= 29.3088
I
,
=
29.3088

W 29.3088 N or m 2.9876 kg
m 2.99 kg
PROBLEM19.93

Asection of pipe is suspended from two vertical cables attached


at A and Determine the frequency of oscillation when the pipe is given
a small rotation about the centroidal axis 00'and released.

SOLUTION
V

2
Position
For small angles
Position
= PROBLEM19.94
A 4-lb uniIorm rod is supported by a pin at and is attached to a
spring at C. It is connected at A to a 4-lb block DEwhich is attachedto a
spring and can roll without Iriction. Knowing that each spring can act in
tension or compression, determine the Irequency oI small oscillations oI
the system when the rod is rotated through a small angle and released.
=
SOLUTION

Position
= +
2 2
1 41b
2
1 45 in.
-m
R
2
= 0.14557
12 32.2 12
4
2
= ( = 0.04852
32.2 12
30 in. 2 2
= = =
12 (32.2
1
= + + =
2
Position
1 2 1 2
= - + - -
2
15 in.
= - = -
12 2 2
SO + -
Then
Now
PROBLEM19.94 CONTINUED
So
Then
PROBLEM19.95
A uniIorm3-kg disk can roll without slippingon a cylindrical surIace and
is attached to a 2-kg uniIorm slender bar AB. The bar is attached to a
spring oI constant k = 300 and can rotate Ireely in the vertical plane
about point A. Knowing that end B is given a small displacement and
released, determine the periodoI the resultingvibration.
SOLUTION
With l m
And Ior small
2 + +
2
=
+
=
PROBLEM19.96
As a submerged body moves through a Iluid, the particles oI the Iluid
Ilow around the body and thus acquire kinetic energy. In the case oI a
sphere moving in an ideal Iluid, the total kinetic energy acquired by the
1
Iluid is wherey is the speciIic weight oI the Iluid, Vis the
4
volume oI the sphere, and v is the velocity oI the sphere. Consider a
hollowspherical shell oI radius4 in. which is held submerged in a tank oI
water by a spring oI constant 40 (a) Neglecting Iluid Iriction,
determine the period oI vibration oI the shell when it is displaced
vertically and then released. (b) Solve part a, assuming that the tank is
accelerated upward at the constant rate oI 24
SOLUTION
This is not a damped vibration. However, the kinetic energy oI the Iluid
must be included
Position = 0
1

Position
= + =
2
=
40
+ 0.15032
=
= = 0.4231
= 0.423
(b) The accelerationdoes not change mass
= 0.423
PROBLEM19.97
A thin plate of length rests on a half cylinder of radius Derive an
expression for the period of small oscillations of the plate.
SOLUTION
sin sin
-
2
Position maximum deflection
0
,
Position =

=
,
+- =

=
PROBLEM19.98
A 64-lb block is attached to a spring oI constant k = and can
F !
move without in a vertical slot as shown. It is acted upon by a
periodic Iorce oI magnitude P = sin where = 10
Knowing that the amplitude oI the motion is 0.75 in., determine
!
SOLUTION
=

-
32.2
12 22.43 = 50.077
= 50.1
PROBLEM19.99
I
A collar can slide on a Irictionless horizontal rod and is attached to a
spring oI constant 450 It is acted upon by a periodic Iorce oI
magnitude P= sin where = 13 N. Determine the amplitude
oI the motion oI the collar iI (a) = 5 (b) = 10
SOLUTION
Equation(19.33)
k 450
(In Phase) = 37.1
Phase) = 260 4
PROBLEM19.100
A 4-kg collar can slide on a horizontal rod and is attached toa
spring oI constant k. It is acted upon by a periodic Iorce oI magnitude
P = sin where = 9 and = 5 Determine the
value oI the spring constant k knowing that the motion oI the collar has
an amplitude oI 150 and is (a) in phase with the applied Iorce, (b) out
oI phase with the applied Iorce.
SOLUTION
Equation(19.33)
(a) In Phase
(b) Out oI Phase
=
9 N
= 40.0 4
-0.15 m+(4 (5 )
=
9 N
=160.0 4
0.15 m + (4
= -0.15 m
PROBLEM 19.101
A collar oI mass m which slides on a Irictionless horizontal rod is
attachedto a spring oI constant k and is acted upon by a periodic Iorce oI
magnitude P = sin Determine the range oI values oI Ior
which the amplitude vibration exceeds three times the static
deIlection caused by a constant Iorce oI magnitude
SOLUTION
Equation (19.33)
Also
PROBLEM19.102
A small 20-kg blockA is attached to the rod BCoI negligible mass which
is supported at B by a pin and bracket and at C by a spring oI constant
k = 2 The system can move in a vertical plane and is in
equilibrium when the rod is horizontal. The rod is acted upon at C by a
periodic Iorce P oI magnitude P= t, where = 6 N.
Knowingthat b = 200 mm, determinethe range o values oI Ior which
the amplitude oI vibration oI block A exceeds 3.5 mm.
SOLUTION
+
+ =
= 40 =
= = = , =
6
b
Lower Irequency: 6 = - = 35.5
Upper Irequency:
6 = - = 44.1
35.5 44.1
PROBLEM19.103
Asmall 20-kg blockA is attached to the rod oI negligible mass which
is supported at by a pin and bracket and at by a spring oI constant
k = The system can move in a vertical plane and is in
equilibrium when the rod is horizontal. The rod is acted upon at by a
periodic Iorce P oI magnitude P = sin where =
Knowing that = determine the range oI values oI Ior
whichthe amplitude oI vibration oI blockA exceeds mm.
P
Lower Irequency
Upper Irequency
SOLUTION
ReIerring to the Iigure and solutionProblem


-
- -

= -

+ - =
=
= +

- - =
=

SOLUTION
FromEquation 9.33') =
-
k
2
= 58.5
m
= = 0.17463 m
-
=174.6 4
Since and in phase and net spring deIlection is
- and = -
.
i
.
= (117 m-0.10 m)
:
=
PROBLEM19.104
A 2-kg block A slides in a vertical Irictionless slot and is connected to a
moving support B by means oI a spring AB oI constant =117
Knowing that the displacement oI the support is = sin where
=100 and = 5 determine the amplitude oI the
motion oI the block, the amplitude oI the Iluctuating Iorce exerted by
the spring on the block.
SOLUTION
, PROBLEM19.105
A 16-lb block A slides in a vertical slot and is connected to a
moving support B by means oI a spring AB oI constant k = 130
Knowing that the displacement oI the support is 6 = sin where
= 6 in., determine the range oI values oI Ior which the amplitude
oI the Iluctuating Iorce exerted by the spnng on the block is less
than 30 Ib.
.
PROBLEM 19.105 CONTINUED
Out
= - = (
There is no valueof for which
when and are out of Phase
PROBLEM19.106
. A cantilever beamABsupports a block which causes a static deIlection oI
40 mmat B. Assuming that the support at A undergoes a vertical periodic
displacement = sin where = 10 determine the range
oI values oI Ior which the amplitude oI the motion oI the block will
be less than Neglect the mass oI the beam and assume that the
block does not leave the beam.
SOLUTION
-
+ = sin
Thus, Irom Equation(19.31) and (19.33')
In phase
Out of phase
PROBLEM19.106 CONTINUED
PROBLEM19.107
A small 4-lb sphere B is attached to the bar AB oI negligible weight
which is supported at A by a pin and bracket and connected at to a
moving support D by meansoI a spring oI constant k =20 Knowing
that support D undergoes a vertical displacement 6 = where
= 0.1 in. and = 15 determine (a) the magnitude oI the
maximumangular oI bar AB, (h) the magnitude oI the maximum
acceleration oI sphere B.
SOLUTION
2
+-8 = 8 =
4 2
(20
= 483
4m
32.2
(240
- (483 -
= 0.0234 = 1
= 0.351
= 7.02
SOLUTION
(a) Support motion
a = =
=
4.5

=
FromEquation (19.31 and 19.33')
=
k 10
--- 16
32.2
= = 0.74308 It 20.125
-
= 8.9169 in.
= 8.92 in.
(b) x is out oI phase with Ior = 5
Thus
+ =10 + 0.18 A)
= 9.2308
= 9.23
PROBLEM19.108
A 16-Ib block A slides in a vertical slot and is connected to a
moving Iixed support B by means oI a spring oI constant k = 10
Knowing that the acceleration oI the support is a = sin where
= 4.5 and = determine (a) the maximum
displacement oI block A, (b) the amplitude oI the Iluctuating Iorce
exerted by the springon the block.
-
PROBLEM19.109
-- A ball is connected to a paddle by means oI an elastic cord ABoI
constant k = 70 Knowing that the paddle is moved vertically
according to the relation = with an amplitude
= 200 and a Irequency = 0.5 Hz, the steady-state
amplitude oI the motionoI the ball.

SOLUTION
FromEquation 9.31 and 19.33')
=
-
, k (70
= 194.44
(0.36 kg)
= 0.2 m
= 0.21070 m (In Phase)
Checkto see whether cord goes slack
Static deIlection
= -
k 5
PROBLEM19.109 CONTINUED
Since and are in phase the maximum
Deflectionof the cord is - = 0.21070 - 0.20 = 0.01070
Which is less thanthe static deflectionof 50.5
=
PROBLEM19.110
Cord becomes slack when the net deIlection oI the cord is greater than the static deIlection,
OF
(0.36 1
0.0505
k 70
k 70
-= = 194.44
m 0.36 kg
FromEquation (19.31 and 19.33') =
(I -
- SO
or
1 0.0505
0.2
So , 1.2525
94.44
1
1.2525 194.44
-1)
A 360-g ball is connected to a paddle by means oI an elastic cordABoI
constant k = 70 Knowing that the paddle is moved vertically
according to the relation 6 = sin where = 200
determine the maximum allowable circular Frequency iI the cord is
not to become slack
PROBLEM19.110 CONTINUED
39.198
6.2609
,,
PROBLEM19.111
The 2.4-lb bob oI a simple pendulum oI length =30in. is suspended
a 2.8-lb collar C. The collar is Iorced to move according to the
relation = sin with an amplitude = 0.5 in. and a
I
Irequency = 0.5 Hz. Determine (a) the amplitude oI the motion oI
the bob, (b) the Iorce that must be applied to collar C to maintain the
motion.
SOLUTION
= ma,
=
For small angles 1. Acceleration in they direction is second order and is neglected
T = mg
mi =
X -
sin0 =
I
mi + = =

2
=-
I
2 2
x + =
From Equation (19.33')
Sm
=-
1 -
So
2 2
= = (0.5) =

PROBLEM19.111CONTINUED
=
= 0.17827 A =
= 2.14 in.

-
-sin =

=
2
= + +
= - + -
F= -0.1- 4
I
PROBLEM19.112
A motor oI mass M is supported by springs with an equivalent spring
constant k. The unbalance oI its rotor is equivalent to a mass mlocated at
a distance Irom the axis oI rotation. Show that when the angular
velocity oI the rotor is the amplitude oI the motion oI the motor
is
,
where =
SOLUTION
Rotor Motor
+ = sin
x + =
2
m
FromEquation (19.33)

=

2
2
But

k =

Thus
PROBLEM39.113
As the rotational speed oI a spring-supported 200-lb motor is increased,
the amplitude oI the vibration due to the unbalance oI its 30-lb rotor Iirst
increases and then decreases. It is observed that as very high speeds are
reached, the amplitude oI the vibration approaches 0.165 in. Determine
the distance between the mass center oI the rotor and its axis oI rotation
Use the Iormula derived in Prob. 19.1 12.)
SOLUTION
Use the Equation derived in Problem 19.1 12 (above)
=
1
0
For very high speeds and
M
Thus 0.165 in. =
so = l . l i n . 4
PROBLEM19.114
As the rotational speed oI a spring-supported motor is slowly increased
Iromto rpm, the amplitude oI the vibration due to the unbalance
oI its rotor is observed to increase continuously Irom to in.
Determine the speed at whichresonance will occur.

FromProblem
2
=
2
-
=

-
2
And =
-
Dividing by
=
= rpm
Resonance when
=
PROBLEM19.115
A 200-kg motor is supported by springs having a total constant oI
215 The unbalance oI the rotor is equivalent to a 30-g mass
located 200 mm Irom the axis oI rotation. Determine the range oI
allowable values oI the motor speed iI the amplitude oI the vibration is
not to exceed 1.5 mm.
SOLUTION
From Problem19.1 12
2
=
2
-
I
k = 215000
m 200 kg

M
2
=1.5 mm: 0.0015 2
-
So
5 1
-I 0.99015
PROBLEM19.115 CONTINUED
5(1 = 32.464
PROBLEM19.116
A 100-kg motor is bolted to a light horizontal beam. The unbalance oI its
rotor is equivalent to a 57-g mass located 100 mm the axis oI
rotation. Knowing that resonance occurs at a motor speed oI 400 rpm,
determine the amplitude oI the steady-state vibration at (a)
(b) 200 (c)425 rpm.
SOLUTION
FromProblem19.113
Resonance at 400 means that = 400rpm
PROBLEM19.117
A 360-lbmotor is bolted to a light horizontal beam. The unbalance oI its
rotor is equivalent to a 0.9-oz weight located 7.5 in. Irom the axis oI
rotation, and the static deIlection oI the beam due to the weight oI the
motor is 0.6 in. The amplitude oI the vibration due to the unbalance can
be decreased by adding a plate to the base oI the motor. II the amplitude
oI vibration is to be less than 2.16 x in. Ior motor speeds above
300 determine the required weight oI the plate.
Since =
BeIore plate is added
SOLUTION
FromProblem19.112
2
=
0.6
32.2
= = 0.0017469
32.2
0.0017469
k 7200
AIter plate is added
changes since changes

Since amplitude oI vibration is to be lessthan 2.16 I in. Ior motor speeds above 300
2
2.16 x (151.64 x
-
PROBLEM19.117 CONTINUED
Solve for -0.18 x =
149.663 x 10"
986.96
2
= 538.89 =-
M'
7200
13.361
538.89
W' = = = 430.22
AW 430.2 lb - 360 70.22 lb
= 70.2 lb
PROBLEM
Acounter-rotatingeccentricmass exciter consisting oI two rotating 100-g
masses describing circles oI radius at the same speed but in opposite
senses is placed on a machine element to induce a steady-state vibration
oI the element. The total mass oI the systemis 300 kg, the constant oI
each spring is k = 600 and the rotational speed oI the exciter is
1200 Knowing that the amplitude oI the total Iluctuating Iorce
exerted on the Ioundation is 160 N, determine the radius r.
SOLUTION
2
w2 =-
-
2
With =
2k
SolvingIor
= 149.3
PROBLEM 19.119
A 360-lb motor is supported by springs oI total constant 12.5 The
unbalance oI the rotor is equivalent to a 0.9-oz weight located 7.5 in.
the axis oI rotation. Determine the range oI speeds oI the motor Ior
which the amplitude oI the Iluctuating Iorce exerted on the Ioundation is
less than 5 lb.
Then
SOLUTION
2
From Problem 19.1 12
=
2
-(a)
2
2
=
M
Then
32.2
360
32.2
= (0.0010918
1118.1
2
= (0.0010918
= + (0.0010918)
1118.1
2
=
m
+1.2207
= 5: = = 898.69
5 +1.2207
29.978
I 286.26 rpm
= -5: = = 1479.2
-5 +1.2207
38.461
367.27 rpm
PROBLEM19.120
A vibrometer used t o measure the amplitude oI vibrations consist s oI a
box containing a mass-spring system with a known natural Irequency oI
Hz. The box is rigidly attached to a surIace which is moving
according t o the equation y = sin II the amplitude oI the
motion oI the mass relative t o the box is used as a measure oI the
amplitude oI the vibration oI the surIace, determine the percent
error when the Irequency oI the vibration is 750 Hz, the Irequency at
which the error is zero.
SOLUTION
x =
y = sin
= relative motion
Error = 4.17
= 106.07
2
= 106.1 Hz
PROBLEM19.121
A certain accelerometer consists essentially oI a box containing a mass-
spring system with a known natural Irequency oI 1760 Hz. The box is
rigidly attached to a surIace which is moving according to the equation
y = sin II the amplitude oI the motion oI the mass relative to
the box times a scale Iactor is used as a measure oI the maximum
acceleration = oI the vibrating surIace, determine the percent
error when the Irequency oI the vibration is 480 Hz.
SOLUTION
FromProblem 19.120
= or =-
1
-
Now so
m
1760
Then
z 1
= 1.0803
a, -0.07438
Error = 8.03
PROBLEM19.122
- Figures (1) and (2) show how springs can be used to support a block in
two diIIerent situations. In Fig. ( 1 ) they help decrease the amplitude oI
the Iluctuating Iorce transmitted by the block to the Ioundation. In
Fig. (2) they help decrease the amplitude oI the Iluctuating displacement
. .
transmitted by the Ioundation to the block. The ratio oI the transmitted
.
.
Iorce to the impressed Iorce or the ratio oI the transmitted displacement
to the impressed displacement is called the --- Derive an
equation Ior the transmissibility Ior each situation. Give your answer in
terms oI the ratio oI the Irequency oI the impressed Iorce or
impressed displacement to the natural Irequency oI the spring-mass
system. Show that in order to cause any reduction in transmissibility, the
ratio must be greater than
SOLUTION
From Equation ( 1 9.33)
=

Force transmitted,
= =
Thus
Transmissibility =--
2
-
(2) FromEquation ( 1 9.33')
Displacement transmitted =
Transmissibility = =
1 -
PROBLEM19.122 CONTINUED
For or tobe lessthan 1
PROBLEM19.123
A 27-kg disk is attached with an eccentricity e = 150 to the
midpoint oI a vertical shaIt AB which revolves at a constant angular
' I
velocity Knowing that the spring constant k Ior horizontal movement
oI the disk is 580 kN/m, determine the angular velocity at which
= 1200 rpm.
resonance will occur, (h) the deIlection oI the s aIt when

SOLUTION
describesA circle about the axis ABoI radius + e.
Thus
= +
DeIlectionoI the shaIt is.
Thus
=
= +

2
= +
e
Resonanceoccurs when =
=
= =
= = 1400 rpm
PROBLEM19.123 CONTINUED
1200
2
x
= 416.28 x m
1-
= 0.416
PROBLEM19.124
A small trailer and its load have a total weight oI 500-lb. The trailer is
supported by two springs, each oI constant 350 and is pulled over a
mad. the surIace oI which can be approximated by a sine with an
amplitude oI 2 in. and a wavelength oI 15 (that is, the distance between
successive crests is 15 A and the vertical distance Iromcrest to trough is
4 in.). Determine (a) the speed at which resonance will occur, the
amplitude oI the vibrationoI the trailer at a speed oI 30
SOLUTION
Total springconstant k = = 700
k 700
- -
32.2
= 15 A, = 2 in. = 0.16667
X
y = x =
and =
so y = where =-=-
15
From Equation (19.33') , =
-
Resonance: = =
15
v = 16.029 = 10.93 mph 4
= 18.43 1
= = -0.0255 A
-
8.43
45.08
Block B
PROBLEM19.125
m-
Block A can move without Iriction in the slot as shown and is acted upon
by a vertical periodic Iorce oI magnitude = sin where
= 2 and = A spring oI constant k is attached to the
bottomoI blockA and to a 44-lb block B. Determine the value oI the
From
SOLUTION
In steady state vibration, block A does not move and thereIore remains in
its original equilibrium position
= sin
=
+ =
2
= sin =
=
= = =
k ) =
32.2
k = 4

=
constant k which will prevent a steady-state vibrationoI block A, the
corresponding amplitude oI the vibration oI blockB.
I
PROBLEM19.126
I
Show that in the case oI heavy damping ( c ), a body never passes
through its position oI equilibrium iI it is released with no initial
velocity an arbitrary position or iI it is started Irom with an
arbitrary initial velocity.
SOLUTION
Since we use equation where

From and = +
=
Solving Ior and
= = -4
Substituting Ior and in
4 - 4
x = When t we must have
4
Recall that

Choosing and so that we have


4
and
4
Thus a positive solution Ior t Ior Equation (3) cannot exist since it would require that e raised to a
positive power be less than which is impossible. Thus x is never
The x -t curve Ior
this case is shown
PROBLEM19.126 CONTINUED
= = v = Equations and yield
Solving for and ,
4 - 4 4 - 4
Substituting into
4 - 4 I
For = 0,
For Thus no solution canexist for and is never
The - curve
for this motion
is as shown
I
PROBLEM 19.127
Show that in the case oI heavy damping ( c ), a body released
an arbitrary position with an arbitrary initial velocity cannot pass more
than once through its equilibrium position.
SOLUTION
Substitute the initial conditions, t = = v = in Equations ( 1 ) and (2)oI Problem19.127
= +
= +
Solving Ior and = -
-
, =
And substituting in ( 1 )
1
= - - -
4 - 4
- = -
-
,
This deIines one value oIt only Ior = which will exist iI the natural log is positive,
iI 1. Assuming
-
This occurs iI
PROBLEM19.128
In the case oI light damping, the displacements , , shown in
Fig. 19.11 may be assumed equal to the maximumdisplacements. Show
that the ratio oI any two successive maximum displacements and
is constant and that the natural logarithm oI this ratio, called the
logarithmicdecrement, is
(c
SOLUTION
For light damping,
Equation(1 9.46) = +
At given maximumdisplacement,
+ = =
At next maximum displacement,
But
Ratio oI successive displacements:
Thus
, FromEquations(19.45) and (19.41)
PROBLEM 19.128 CONTINUED
Thus
=
PROBLEM19.129
In practice, it is oIten diIIicult to determine the logarithmic decrement oI
a system with light damping deIined in Prob. by measuring two
successive maximum displacements. Show that the logarithmic
decrement can also be expressed as where is the
number oI cycles between readings oI the maximum displacement.
SOLUTION
As in Problem Ior maximumdisplacements and at and + =
and + =
=
+
Ratio oI maximumdisplacements
Thus
But Problem Equation
log decrement = =
Comparing with Equation
log decrement = Q.E.D.
PROBLEM19.130
In a system with light damping ( c the period oI vibration
is commonly deIined as the interval = corresponding
to two successive points where the displacement-time curve touches
one oI the limiting curves shown in Fig. 19.11. Show that the
interval oI time (a) between a maximum positive displacement and the
1
Iollowing negative displacement is (b) between two successive
1
2
zero displ acements i s bet ween a maximum posi t i ve
1
displacement and the Iollowing zero displacement is greater than -
4
SOLUTION
Fig 19.11
Equation 9.46)
= +
(a) Maxima (positive or negative) when =
= sin + + cos +
2m
Thus zero velocities occur at times when
or
The time to the Iirst zero velocity, is
-
=
PROBLEM19.130 CONTINUED
The time to the next zero velocity where the displacement is negative is
Subtracting
(b) Zero displacements occur when
+ = or at intervals oI
Thus,

Time between - = -
-
Plot oI Equation(1)
(c) The Iirst maxima occurs at 1,
The Iirst zero occurs at
Fromthe above plot

Similar prooIs can be made Ior subsequent max and min


PROBLEM 19.131
The block shown in depressed mm Irom its equilibrium position and
released. Knowing that aIter cycles the maximum displacement oI the
block is mm, determine the damping Iactor c (b) the value oI
the coeIIicient oI viscous damping. See Probs. and
SOLUTION
FromProblem and
Where k = number oI cycles =
First maximum is, = in.
Thus,
PROBLEM19.132
Successive maximum displacements of a spring-mass-dashpot system
similar to that shown in Fig. 19.10 are 1.25, 0.75, and 0.45 in. Knowing
that W = 36 lb and = 175 determine (a) the damping factor
(b) the value of the coefficient of viscous damping See
Probs. 19.128and 19.129.)
SOLUTION
(a) From Problem 19.128,
For = 1.25 in. and = 0.75
1.25
0.5108 =
0.75
=
= 0.006566
151.3 +1

-= 0.0810
= -=
25.022
c = = 2.037
c = 2.04
PROBLEM19.133
A 2-lb block B is connected by a cord to a 5-lb block A which is
suspended as shown Irom two springs, each oI constant k= 12.5 and
a oI damping coeIIicient =0.5 Knowing that the system
is at rest when the cord connecting A and B is cut, determine the
minimum tension that will occur in each spring during the resulting
motion.
SOLUTION
Fromthe given data
=
= = = 3.94055
Stretch at equilibrium =
5
= 0.2
Initial stretch =
7
= 0.28 It
lblIt)
With
From Figure 19.11
Minimum = -0.053525
MinimumIorce in one spring = (12.5 - 0.053525) = 1.831 lb
PROBLEM19.134
A 2-lb block B is connected by a cord to a 5-lb block A which is
suspended as shown Irom two springs, each oI constant k = 12.5 and
a oI damping c = 4 Knowing that the system
is at rest when the cord connectingA and B is cut, determine the velocity
oI block A aIter 0.1 s.
SOLUTION
Fromthe given data
= = 3.94055
Stretch at equilibrium =
5
= 0.2
Initial stretch =
7
= 0.28
c = +
So + 4 25 = 0
(32.2
=
32.2
-10.6677, -15.0923
solve Ior
x = 0 =
t = s, = +
= 0.35816
= 0.358
PROBLEM19.135
The barrel oI a Iield gun weighs 1800 and is returned into Iiring
position aIter recoil by a recuperator oI constant c = 1320
the constant which should be used Ior the recuperator to
return the barrel into Iiring position in the shortest possible time without
any oscillation, the time needed Ior the barrel to move back two-thirds
oI the way Irom its maximum-recoil positionto its Iiring position.
critically damped system regains its equilibrium position in the
shortest time.
c = = 1320 =
2
1320
Then
m ---

For a critically damped system: Equation (19.43):


x = (c, +
We take = at maximumdeIlection
Thus
Usingthe initial conditions
And
Thus x = +
For ( I + with
3
We obtain
7790
= 1.807
I ROO
And, since = 2.289
I
PROBLEM19.136
I
A uniIorm rod oI mass m is supported by a pin at and a spring oI
constant k at B and is connected at D to a oI damping
coeIIicient c. Determine in terms oI m, k, and c, Ior small oscillations,
(a) the diIIerential equation oI motion, (b) the critical damping
. ,
coeIIicient
C
SOLUTION
In equilibriumthe Iorce in the spring is mg
For small angles
1
(a) Newton's Law
I
Kinematics

(b) Substituting = into the diIIerential equation obtained in (a),


we obtain the characteristic equation,
PROBLEM19.136 CONTINUED
And obtainthe roots
The critical damping coefficient, is the value of c, for whichthe
radicandis zero.
Thus
111111
PROBLEM19.137
A 1.8-kg uniIorm is supported by a pin at and a spring at A and is
connected to a at B. Determine (a) the diIIerential equation oI
motion Ior oscillations, (b) the angle that the rod will Iorm with the
.
2.2 horizontal 2.5 s end Bhas been pushed 23 down and released.
SOLUTION
For small angles:
sin6
0.456, 0.156
=
+) + - = +
(' IT
I -ml = =
12 12
Kinematics a = a, = = 0.150
From (1 )
m+0.0225 + (0.45)' + + - 2.6487 =
In the equilibrium position
k (0.15) - = 0
= 2.6487
PROBLEM19.137 CONTINUED
Equation (2) becomes
+ + = o
With m = = = 73
Have
+ 0.4468 + = o
(b) Substituting into the diIIerential equation, we obtain
0.0945R
2
+ +1.6425 =
-2.3571 3.43873
Since the roots are complex conjugates (light damping) the solution oI the diIIerential equation is:
Equation(19.46)
= sin +
Initial conditions: = 0.023m
= = 0.05 rad
0.45 m
And =
From(3): = 0.05111 =
= = +
3.4387
= = 1.45887
2.3571
= 0.96989 rad
0.0511 1
And
=-= 0.061965 rad
Thus
= + 0.96989)
Hence = -2.4183 x rad
= (24.2
Above horizontal
PROBLEM19.138
A 500-kg machine element is supported by two springs, each oI constant
4.4 A periodic Iorce oI 135-N amplitude is applied to the element
with a oI 2.8 Hz. Knowing that the coeIIicient oI damping is
1.6 determine the amplitude oI the steady-state vibration oI the
element.
SOLUTION
Equation(19.52)
Total spring constant =
= 8800
= = =
m = 500 kg
=
- (500) +1600
=
135 N
x +0.792 x
= 0.908 m
= 0.908
PROBLEM19.139
In Prob. 19.138, determine the required value of the constant of each spring
if the amplitude of the steady-state vibration is to be 1.3
=
k - +
(k - + =
= = = = 500 kg
k + (500
0.0013 m
k = x - 0.79235 x +
= 254.714
k
- = 127.357
2
SOLUTION
Equation(19.52)
k
-= 127.4
2
PROBLEM19.140
In the case oI the Iorced vibration oI a system, determine the range oI
values oI the damping Iactor Ior which the magniIication Iactor will
always decrease as the Irequency ratio increases.
SOLUTION
Equation (19.53)'
MagniIication Factor

Find value oI -Ior which there is no maximum Ior as increases

1
For - - there is no maximumIor and the magniIication Iactor will decrease as increases
-
PROBLEM19.141
Show that for a small value of the damping factor the maximum
amplitude of a forced vibration occurs when and that the
1
corresponding value of the magnificationfactor is -( c ).
2
Magnificationfactor = =
1
SOLUTION
Equation( 19.53')
Find value of for which amaximum

0 =
2
C
For small -
For
1
2
PROBLEM19.142
A 30-lb motor is supported by Iour springs, each oI constant 3.75
The unbalance oI the motor is equivalent to a weight oI 0.64 oz located
5 in. the axis oI rotation. Knowing that the motor is constrained to
move vertically, determine the amplitude oI the steady-state vibration oI
the motor at a speed oI assuming (a) that no damping is
present, (b) that the damping Iactor is equal to 1.3.
SOLUTION
Equation (1 9.52)
- +
k = =
SO = =
32.2 12
= 12.771
= 0: =
12.771
|I 5,000 -
= -0.0015987
= -0.01918
C
= 1.3, = =
= 236.43
Then = = 307.36
So
=
12.771
(30736)' (24674)
= 2.60972 x
= 3.13 in.
PROBLEM19.143
A 36-lb motor is bolted to a light horizontal beam which has a static
deIlection oI 0.075 in. due to the weight oI the motor. Knowing that the
unbalance oI the rotor is equivalent to a weight oI 0.64 located6.25 in.
Iromthe axis oI rotation, determine the amplitude oI the vibration oI the
motor at a speed oI 900 assuming (a) that no damping is present,
(h) that the damping Iactor isequal to 0.005.
SOLUTION
Equation 9.52)

= 480 = 5760
0.075 in.
= =
= 5.7470
(a) c =
=
5.747
-
5.747 Ib
- 4170.9
-0.0013779 It
= 0.01653 in.
(out oI phase)
(b)
= = 2 (5760 = 160.496
= = 8.8273
= 0.0013513
= 0.01622 in.
I
PROBLEM19.144
A 45-kg motor is bolted to a light horizontal beam which has a static
deIlection oI 6 mm due to the weight oI the motor. The unbalance oI the
motor is equivalent to a mass oI 110 g located 75 mm the axis oI
rotation. Knowing that the amplitude oI the vibration oI the motor is
0.25 mm at a speed oI 300 determine (a) the damping Iactor
(b) the coeIIicient oI damping c.
or
Then
SOLUTION
FromEquation(19.53')
=
0.06 m
- 0.60365
= = |(o. = 8.1424 N
k = = (45 = 73.575
= 0.11067 mm

Then, Equation(1)
0.25 x m =
0.11067 x m
2
(1 - +
2
0.19597 0.15707 + 2.4147
0.1269
I
= = = 3639.2
= = 462
PROBLEM19.145
A 200-lb motor is supported by Iour springs, each oI constant 7.5 kipslIt,
and is connected to the ground by a having a coeIIicient oI
damping c = 490 The motor is constrained to move vertically,
and the amplitude oI its motion is observed to be 0.10 in. at a speed oI
1200 Knowing that the weight oI the rotor is 30 determine the
distance between the mass center oI the rotor and the axis oI the
SOLUTION
Equation 9.52)
= 15791
k = = 30
= =( 5791 = 2e
32.2
0.10
- + (490)' (15791)
= 0.1
e = 0.051995 = 0.62395 in.
e = 0.624 in.
PROBLEM 19.146
The unbalance oI the rotor oI a 400-lb motor is equivalent to a
weight located 6 in. Irom the axis oI rotation. The pad which is placed
between the motor and the Ioundation is equivalent to a spring oI
constant k = 500 in parallel with a oI constant c. Knowing
that the magnitude oI the maximum acceleration oI the motor is
0.03 a speed oI 100 determine the damping Iactor
SOLUTION
3
500
=
32.2
32.2
Then
2
( ,- = 0.03 = sin
So 0.03 =
2
So
C
- 0.477

PROBLEM19.147
A machine element is supported by springs and is connected to a
as shown. Show that iI a periodic Iorce oI magnitude P = sin is
applied to the element, the amplitude oI the Iluctuating Iorce transmitted
to the Ioundation is
SOLUTION
FromEquation the motion oI the machine is, x = sin -
The Iorce transmitted to the Ioundation is,
springs = = sin -
= [ ksin - + cos -
or recalling the identity,
y + Bcos y = + 4 )
Thus the amplitude oI is
FromEquation (19.53)
PROBLEM19.147 CONTINUED
Substitutingfor in Equation
=
2
= -

And Equation =

Substituting in
=
Q.E.D.
PROBLEM19.148
A 91-kg machine element supported by Iour springs, each oI constant
175 is subjected to a periodic Iorce oI Irequency 0.8 Hz and
amplitude 89 N. the amplitude oI the Iluctuating Iorce
transmitted to the Ioundation iI (a) a with a coeIIicient oI
damping c = 365 N is connected to the machine and to the ground,
(b) the is removed.
SOLUTION
= = HZ) =
k
= 7.6923 = 2.7735
m 91 kg
2.7735
365
= 0.72309
)
= 0.52286
(89
=
-
= 70.9689 N
= 71.0 N4
c = 0, = 38.956
=
= 39.0 N
PROBLEM19.149
For a steady-state vibration with damping under a harmonic Iorce, show
that the mechanical energy dissipated per cycle by the is
E = where is the coeIIicient oI damping, is the amplitude
oI the motion, and is the circular oI the harmonic Iorce.
SOLUTION
Energy is dissipated by the
FromEquation (19.48) the deIlection oI the systemis
The Iorce on the =
The work done in a complete cycle with
= Force x Distance)
1- 2cos -

=
2
= Q.E.D.
PROBLEM19.150
The suspension oI an automobile can be approximated by the simpliIied
spring-dashpot system shown. (a) Write the diIIerential equation deIining
.._ the vertical displacement oI the mass m when the system moves at a
speed v over a road with a sinusoidal cross section oI amplitude and
wavelength L. (b) Derive an expression Ior the amplitude oI the vertical
displacement oI the mass m.
SOLUTION
Recalling that W = we write
dt
2
dt
Motion oI wheel is a sine curve, = the interval oI time needed to travel a distance L at a

speed v, is = -, which is the period oI the road surIace.

Thus ----
m
y
L
And = -= t
I.
Thus Equation is,
m-+ c-+ = + 4
PROBLEM19.150 CONTINUED
Fromthe identity
Bcosy + +
A
=
We can write the differential equation
+ + = + +
dt
2
dt
k
The solution to this equationis (analogous to Equations 19.47 and 19.48, with
= - + ), (where analogous to Equations(19.52))
PROBLEM19.151
Two blocks A and B, each oI mass m, are supported as shown by three
springs oI the same constant k. Blocks A and B are connected by a
dashpot and block B is connected to the ground by two dashpots, each
dashpot having the same coeIIicient oI damping c. BlockA is subjected to
a Iorce oI magnitude P = sin Write the diIIerential equations
deIining the displacements x, and oI the two blocks Irom their
equilibriumpositions.
SOLUTION
A
I
.
Since the origins oI coordinates are chosen Irom the equilibrium position, we may omit the initial spring
compressionsand the eIIect oI gravity
For load A
ZF ma,; + - + - =
For load B
= ma,; - - - -
RearrangingEquations and we Iind:
+ - + - = 4
PROBLEM19.152

Expressin terms oI L, and Ethe range oI values oI the resistance R Ior


which oscillations will take place in the circuit shown when switch is
closed.

SOLUTION
For a mechanical system oscillations take place iI (lightly damped)
But Irom Equation
= -=
ThereIore
From table 19.2:
1
Substitutingin (1) the analogous electrical values in we Iind that oscillations will take place iI,
PROBLEM19.153
Consider the circuit oI Prob. 19.152 when the capacitor is removed. II
switch S is closed at time t = determine (a) the Iinal value oI the
current in the circuit, (b) the time t at which the current will have reached
(1- l l e ) times its Iinal value. (The desired value oI t is known as the
time constant oI the circuit.)
SOLUTION
-- --

The mechanical analogue oI closing a switch is the sudden application oI a constant Iorce oI magnitudePto
the mass.
(a) Final value oI the current corresponds to the Iinal velocity oI the mass, and since the capacitance is zero,
the spring constant is also zero
=
-
dt dt
2
dt
2
-
Iinal
P
Fromtable 19.2: v L , P E , C R
E
R
.
Final velocity occurs when
PROBLEM19.153 CONTINUED
(b) Rearranging Equation we have

Substitute

+


C

+
c

c
From 19.2: v L

For
L

PROBLEM19.154
Draw the electrical analogue oI the mechanical system shown.
Drawthe loops correspondingto the Iree bodies m and A.)
k
, . , ,
SOLUTION
We note that both the spring and the aIIect the motion oI point A.
Thus one loop in the electrical circuit should consist oI a capacitor
(k a resistance ( c .
The other loop consists oI sin ,an inductor
(m L) and the resistor ( c
Since the resistor is common to both loops, the circuit is
,
PROBLEM 19.155
Draw the electrical analogue of the mechanical system shown.
Drawthe loops correspondingtothe free bodies andA.)
SOLUTION
Loop 1 (Point A)
Loop2 (Mass
1
With -commontobothloops

PROBLEM19.156
Write the differential equations defining the displacements of the
mass and of the point A, the charges on the capacitors of the
electrical analogue.
SOLUTION
=
Mechanical system
Point A

Mass


+ - =

Electrical Analogue
Fromtable 19.2


PROBLEM19.156CONTINUED
Substituting into the results part (a),the analogous electrical
These can aIso summingthe dropsthe loops inthe
of Problem
PROBLEM19.157
I ,
Write the differential equations defining (a) the displacements of the
mass m and of the point A, (b) the charges on the capacitors of the
electrical analogue.
1
SOLUTION
(a) Mechanical system:
Point A
Mass m
Electrical analogue
Substituting into the results part (a) using the analogous electrical characteristics from table 19.2
(see
PROBLEM19.158
A 75-mm-radius hole is cut in a 200-mm-radius uniIorm disk which is
attached to a Irictionless pin at its geometric center A. Determinethe
period oI small oscillations oI the disk, (b) the length oI a simple
pendulumwhich has the same period.
SOLUTION

=
6 = - -(0.1)'
= = =
m,, = = =
I
I, = = = 800 x
2 2
I,, = = = 15.82 x
2
Small angles sin6
x I 15.82 x I (0. (0.0056252) + (9.8 = 0
x + x o
= 7.581
727.9 x
= 2.753
- 2.28 s
2.753
PROBLEM19.158 CONTINUED
Periodof a simplependulum
2
= m/s
2
)
= 1.294 m
PROBLEM19.159
An instrument package B is placed on table as shown. The table is
made to move horizontally in simple harmonic motion with an amplitude
oI 3 in. Knowing that the coeIIicient oI static Iriction is 0.65, determine
the largest allowable Irequency oI the motion iI the package is not to slide
on the table.
SOLUTION
Newton's Law
=
Block Bmoves in simple harmonic motion with the same Irequency as
when there is nosliding
x = sin +
x = sin +
Maximumacceleration
2
a =
=
For no sliding
or
= 83.72
9.150
- (9.150)
I
PROBLEM19.160
A 16-lb uniIorm disk oI radius in. is welded to a vertical with a
Iixed end at B. The disk rotates through an angle oI when a static
couple oI magnitude 3.5 is applied to it. II the disk is acted upon by
a periodic torsional couple oI magnitude = sin where
= determine the range oI values oI Ior which the
amplitude oI the vibration is less than the angle oI rotation caused by a
static couple oI magnitude
.
SOLUTION
I--- ; -
(*,; <*,;

where = K is the torsional spring constant and is the centroidal


I
moment oI inertiaoI the disk
= 66.845 oI the disk
= 0.17253
2
66.845
0.7253
<
=
= 27.836
Note: is independent oI 27.8
PROBLEM19.161
For the disk of Prob. 19.160 determine the range of values of u, for
whichthe amplitude of the vibrationwill be less
.
SOLUTION
From Problem 19.160
= 0.17253 k = 66.845
= 387.44
= 0.062832
k 66.845
= = 0.061087 rad
PROBLEM19.162
A beam is supported by a pin connection at and by rollers at B. A
120-kg block placed on the end oI the beamcauses a static deIlection oI
15 at Assuming that the support at A undergoes a vertical periodic
displacement = sin t, where = 10 and = 18
and the support at does not move, determine the maximumacceleration
oI the block at C. Neglect the weight oI the beam and assume that the
block does not leave the beam.
SOLUTION
= ma
6
2
k 6
+ -k-=
m 2 2
--
= -
A
1-,
2 2 9.81
=
1--
0.015 m
654
= -0.009909 m = 654
= t
2
2
= (0.00909
(a,), = 3.21
From Equation (19.31 and 19.33')
Thus
PROBLEM19.163
A rod of mass and length rests on two pulleys A and B which rotate
in opposite directions as shown. Denoting by the coefficient of
kinetic friction between the rod and the pulleys, determine the frequency
of vibration if the rod is given a small displacement to the right and
released.
SOLUTION
1
= =

= -
= =
- =

2
=
I

PROBLEM19.164
A 4-kg block A is dropped a height oI 800 mm onto a 9-kg block B
which is at rest. Block B is supported by a spring oI constant
! k = 1500 is attached to a oI damping coeIIicient
c = 230 Knowing that there is no rebound, determine the
maximumdistance the blocks will move the impact.
SOLUTION
Velocity oI Block A just beIore impact
= = = 3.962
Velocity oI Blocks A and Bimmediately impact.
Conservation oI momentum
V' 1.219
= =
I
I
Static deIlection (Block A)
k 1500
x = Equil. position Ior both blocks
= = = N
Since c Equation (19.44)
From top oI page 122
x = e sin +
PROBLEM19.164 CONTINUED
Initial conditions = -0.02619 m
= -0.02619 = e
O
(0) + (1)|
-0.02619
= |c, (0) +(-0.026
+ + (0)| = 1.2 19
1.219 +
= 0.16202
= -
MaximumdeIlection occurs when =
(0.16202 - 0.02619
+ cos 0.02619sin
0 = + (6.094) (0.026 sin
+ (6.094) cos
= +
Time at maximum deIlection = =
6.094
-
= - 0.0189) = 0.307 m
Blocks move, static deIlection +
Total distance = 0.02619 + 0.307 = 0.0569 m = 56.9
PROBLEM 19.165
Solve Prob. assuming that the damping of the
is =
SOLUTION
Velocity of Block A just before impact

Velocity of Blocks A and B immediately after impact.


Conservation of momentum
+ = +
+ = +
1 - - - 1
= =
I
=
I
Static deflection (Block A)

= Equil. position for both blocks
= =
=
Since = system is heavily damped and
(Equation
= +



+
Equation
PROBLEM19.165CONTINUED
Initial conditions = =
= == +

+
Solvingsimultaneously
= +
when =
= = +
Total deflection = static deflection+
=+ =0.0475 =
PROBLEM19.166
A 30-lb uniIorm cylinder can roll without sliding on a incline. A belt
. .
is attached to the rim oI the cylinder, and a spring holds the cylinder at
, .
rest in the position shown. II the center oI the cylinder is moved 2 in.
down the incline and released, determine (a) the period oI vibration,
the maximum acceleration oI the center oI the cylinder.
SOLUTION
Spring deIlection,
= + = +
=
+ + = +
But in equilibrium, =
= = +
Substitute into ( I ) and noting that ,


3
- +

+
PROBLEM19.166 CONTINUED
Thus
= sin +
1
=
= - sin +
= 171.7
= 171.7
PROBLEM19.167
An 800-g rod AB is bolted to a 1.2-kg disk A spring of constant
k = 12 is attachedto the centerof the disk at A andtothe wall at
Knowingthat the disk rolls without sliding, determine the period of small
oscillations of the system.
SOLUTION
Position
Position
PROBLEM19.167 CONTINUED
1 0 6 m
= 2 + (8
2 2
1 1
= + =
2 2
2 2
1 1
+ o = o +
2 2
= = 22.41
(0.1385
=--
o
n
1.327
SOLUTION
Datum at
Position
2
Position
2
=
I .
2 2
k 800
- - = -=
2 2 m
= 444.4 = 21.08
= = (21.08 m) = 1.476 4
= ( 21.08 m) = 31.1 4
PROBLEM19.168
A 1.8-kg collar A is attached to a spring oI constant 800 and can
slide without Iriction on a horizontal rod. II the collar is moved 70 to
the leIt Irom its equilibrium position and released, determine the
maximum velocity and maximum acceleration oI the collar during the
resulting motion.
PROBLEM19.169
A 30-lb block is supported by the spring arrangement shown. The block
is moved its equilibrium position 0.8 in. vertically downward and
released. Knowing that the period oI the resulting motion is 1.5 s,
determine (a) the constant k, (b) the maximum velocity and maximum
acceleration oI the block.
SOLUTION
Since the Iorce in each spring is the same, the constant k' oI a single equivalent spring is
1 1 1 1
+- +- Problem19.19)
2.5
1.5 s -;
k =
k = = 40.868
32.2
k = 40.9
0.279
=1.170
x = sin + 4)
= cos +
=
= 4.189
1.5s
= 0.8 in. = 0.06667
= (0.06667 rads)