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India

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This article is about the Republic of India. For other uses, see India (disambiguation).
Republic of India
Bhrat Ganarjya
Flag Emblem
Motto: !atyame"a #ayate (!anskrit)
Truth $lone Triumphs
%&'
Anthem: Jana Gana Mana
Thou art the rulers of the minds of all people
%('%)'
*enu
+,++
National song:
Vande Mataram
I -o. to Thee, *other
%a'%&'%)'

*enu
+,++
$rea controlled by India sho.n in dark green/
claimed but uncontrolled regions sho.n in light green.
Capital
0e. 1elhi
(23)4.250 663&(.75E
Largest city *umbai
Official languages
8indi
English
%sho.'
Recognised regional languages 2th !chedule %sho.'
National language 0one
Demonym Indian
Goernment
Federal parliamentary
constitutional republic
%&'
9 :resident :ranab *ukher;ee
9 <ice :resident *ohammad 8amid $nsari
9 :rime *inister 0arendra *odi (-#:)
9 =hief #ustice 8. >. 1attu
%4'
9 !peaker of the 8ouse !umitra *aha;an (-#:)
Legislature :arliament of India
9 ?pper house Rajya Sabha
9 >o.er house Lok Sabha
Independence from the ?nited @ingdom
9 1ominion &7 $ugust &AB6
9 Republic (4 #anuary &A7+
Area
9 Total
),(26,7A+
%6'
km
(
%b'
(6th)
&,(4A,)B4 sC mi
9 Water (D) A.4
!opulation
9 (+&& census &,(&+,&A),B((
%2'
((nd)
9 1ensity
)2+.&Ekm
(
()&st)
A2B.7EsC mi
GD! (:::) (+&B estimate
9 Total F6.(66 trillion
%A'
()rd)
9 :er capita F7,666
%A'
(&))rd)
GD! (nominal) (+&B estimate
9 Total F(.+B6 trillion
%A'
(&+th)
9 :er capita F&,4(7
%A'
(&B)rd)
Gini ((+&+) )).A
%&+'
medium " 6Ath
#DI ((+&))
+.724
%&&'
medium " &)7th
Currency Indian rupee ( ) (I0R)
$ime %one I!T (?T=G+7,)+)
9 !ummer (1!T) not obser"ed (?T=G+7,)+)
Date format dd9mm9yyyy (=E)
Dries on the left
Calling code GA&
I&O '()) code I0
Internet $LD
.in
other T>1s%sho.'
India (
i
En d iH E), officially the Republic of India (Bhrat Ganarjya),
%&('%c'
is a country in !outh
$sia. It is the se"enth9largest country by area, the second9most populous country .ith o"er &.(
billion people, and the most populous democracy in the .orld. -ounded by the Indian Icean on the
south, the $rabian !ea on the south9.est, and the -ay of -engal on the south9east, it shares land
borders .ith :akistan to the .est/
%d'
=hina, 0epal, and -hutan to the north9east/ and -urma and
-angladesh to the east. In the Indian Icean, India is in the "icinity of !ri >anka and the *aldi"es/
in addition, IndiaJs $ndaman and 0icobar Islands share a maritime border .ith Thailand and
Indonesia.
8ome to the ancient Indus <alley =i"ilisation and a region of historic trade routes and "ast empires,
the Indian subcontinent .as identified .ith its commercial and cultural .ealth for much of its long
history.
%&)'
Four .orld religionsK8induism, -uddhism, #ainism, and !ikhismKoriginated here,
.hereas #udaism, Loroastrianism, =hristianity, and Islam arri"ed in the &st millennium =E and also
helped shape the regionJs di"erse culture. Mradually anneNed by and brought under the
administration of the -ritish East India =ompany from the early &2th century and administered
directly by the ?nited @ingdom from the mid9&Ath century, India became an independent nation in
&AB6 after a struggle for independence that .as marked by non9"iolent resistance led by *ahatma
Mandhi.
The Indian economy is the .orldJs tenth9largest by nominal M1: and third9largest by purchasing
po.er parity (:::).
%&B'
Follo.ing market9based economic reforms in &AA&, India became one of the
fastest9gro.ing ma;or economies/ it is considered a ne.ly industrialised country. 8o.e"er, it
continues to face the challenges of po"erty, corruption, malnutrition, inadeCuate public healthcare,
and terrorism. $ nuclear .eapons state and a regional po.er, it has the third9largest standing army
in the .orld and ranks ninth in military eNpenditure among nations. India is a federal constitutional
republic go"erned under a parliamentary system consisting of (A states and 6 union territories. India
is a pluralistic, multilingual, and a multi9ethnic society. It is also home to a di"ersity of .ildlife in a
"ariety of protected habitats.
Contents
& Etymology
( 8istory
o (.& $ncient India
o (.( *edie"al India
o (.) Early modern India
o (.B *odern India
) Meography
B -iodi"ersity
7 :olitics
o 7.& Mo"ernment
o 7.( !ubdi"isions
4 Foreign relations and military
6 Economy
2 1emographics
A =ulture
o A.& $rt and architecture
o A.( >iterature
o A.) :erforming arts
o A.B *otion pictures
o A.7 !ociety
o A.4 =lothing
o A.6 !port
&+ !ee also
&& 0otes
&( References
&) -ibliography
&B ENternal links
*tymology
*ain article, 0ames of India
The name India is deri"ed from Indus, .hich originates from the Ild :ersian .ord Hindu. The
latter term stems from the !anskrit .ord Sindhu, .hich .as the historical local appellation for the
Indus Ri"er.
%&7'
The ancient Mreeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (OPQRS), .hich translates as the
people of the Indus.
%&4'
The geographical term Bharat (pronounced % b a rHt ' ( listen)), .hich is recognised by the
=onstitution of India as an official name for the country,
%&6'
is used by many Indian languages in its
"ariations. The eponym of Bharat is -harata, a theological figure that 8indu scriptures describe as a
legendary emperor of ancient India.
Hindustan (% nd st a n' ( listen)) .as originally a :ersian .ord that meant >and of the 8indus/
prior to &AB6, it referred to a region that encompassed northern India and :akistan. It is occasionally
used to solely denote India in its entirety.
%&2'%&A'
#istory
*ain articles, 8istory of India and 8istory of the Republic of India
Ancient India
The earliest authenticated human remains in !outh $sia date to about )+,+++ years ago.
%(+'
0early
contemporaneous *esolithic rock art sites ha"e been found in many parts of the Indian
subcontinent, including at the -himbetka rock shelters in *adhya :radesh.
%(&'
$round 6+++ -=E,
the first kno.n 0eolithic settlements appeared on the subcontinent in *ehrgarh and other sites in
.estern :akistan.
%(('
These gradually de"eloped into the Indus <alley =i"ilisation,
%()'
the first urban
culture in !outh $sia/
%(B'
It flourished during (4++T&A++ -=E in :akistan and .estern India.
%(7'

=entred on cities such as *ohen;o9daro, 8arappa, 1hola"ira, and @alibangan, and relying on
"aried forms of subsistence, the ci"ilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and .ide9ranging
trade.
%(B'
1uring the period (+++T7++ -=E, in terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinent
transitioned from the =halcolithic to the Iron $ge.
%(4'
The <edas, the oldest scriptures of 8induism,
%(6'
.ere composed during this period,
%(2'
and historians ha"e analysed these to posit a <edic culture
in the :un;ab region and the upper Mangetic :lain.
%(4'
*ost historians also consider this period to
ha"e encompassed se"eral .a"es of Indo9$ryan migration into the subcontinent from the north9
.est.
%(A'%(6'%)+'
The caste system arose during this period, .hich created a hierarchy of priests,
.arriors, free peasants and traders, and lastly the indigenous peoples .ho .ere regarded as impure/
and small tribal units gradually coalesced into monarchical, state9le"el polities.
%)&'%)('
In the 1eccan
:lateau, archaeological e"idence from this period suggests the eNistence of a chiefdom stage of
political organisation.
%(4'
In southern India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large
number of megalithic monuments dating from this period,
%))'
as .ell as by nearby traces of
agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions.
%))'
:aintings at the $;anta =a"es in $urangabad, *aharashtra, 4th century
In the late <edic period, around the 4th century -=E, the small states and chiefdoms of the Manges
:lain and the north9.estern regions had consolidated into &4 ma;or oligarchies and monarchies that
.ere kno.n as the mahajanapadas.
%)B'%)7'
The emerging urbanisation and the orthodoNies of this age
also created heterodoN religious mo"ements, t.o of .hich became independent religions.
-uddhism, based on the teachings of Mautama -uddha attracted follo.ers from all social classes
eNcepting the middle class/ chronicling the life of the -uddha .as central to the beginnings of
recorded history in India.
%)4'%)6'%)2'
#ainism came into prominence during the life of its eNemplar,
*aha"ira.
%)A'
In an age of increasing urban .ealth, both religions held up renunciation as an ideal,
%B+'
and both established long9lasting monastic traditions. :olitically, by the )rd century -=E, the
kingdom of *agadha had anneNed or reduced other states to emerge as the *auryan Empire.
%B&'
The
empire .as once thought to ha"e controlled most of the subcontinent eNcepting the far south, but its
core regions are no. thought to ha"e been separated by large autonomous areas.
%B('%B)'
The *auryan
kings are kno.n as much for their empire9building and determined management of public life as for
$shokaJs renunciation of militarism and far9flung ad"ocacy of the -uddhist dhamma.
%BB'%B7'
The !angam literature of the Tamil language re"eals that, bet.een (++ -=E and (++ =E, the
southern peninsula .as being ruled by the =heras, the =holas, and the :andyas, dynasties that
traded eNtensi"ely .ith the Roman Empire and .ith West and !outh9East $sia.
%B4'%B6'
In 0orth India,
8induism asserted patriarchal control .ithin the family, leading to increased subordination of
.omen.
%B2'%B&'
-y the Bth and 7th centuries, the Mupta Empire had created in the greater Manges
:lain a compleN system of administration and taNation that became a model for later Indian
kingdoms.
%BA'%7+'
?nder the Muptas, a rene.ed 8induism based on de"otion rather than the
management of ritual began to assert itself.
%7&'
The rene.al .as reflected in a flo.ering of sculpture
and architecture, .hich found patrons among an urban elite.
%7+'
=lassical !anskrit literature flo.ered
as .ell, and Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made significant ad"ances.
%7+'
Medieal India
The granite to.er of -rihadees.arar Temple in Than;a"ur .as completed in &+&+ =E by Ra;a Ra;a
=hola I.
The Indian early medie"al age, 4++ =E to &(++ =E, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural
di"ersity.
%7('
When 8arsha of @annau;, .ho ruled much of the Indo9Mangetic :lain from 4+4 to 4B6
=E, attempted to eNpand south.ards, he .as defeated by the =halukya ruler of the 1eccan.
%7)'

When his successor attempted to eNpand east.ards, he .as defeated by the :ala king of -engal.
%7)'

When the =halukyas attempted to eNpand south.ards, they .ere defeated by the :alla"as from
farther south, .ho in turn .ere opposed by the :andyas and the =holas from still farther south.
%7)'

0o ruler of this period .as able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond his
core region.
%7('
1uring this time, pastoral peoples .hose land had been cleared to make .ay for the
gro.ing agricultural economy .ere accommodated .ithin caste society, as .ere ne. non9
traditional ruling classes.
%7B'
The caste system conseCuently began to sho. regional differences.
%7B'
In the 4th and 6th centuries, the first de"otional hymns .ere created in the Tamil language.
%77'
They
.ere imitated all o"er India and led to both the resurgence of 8induism and the de"elopment of all
modern languages of the subcontinent.
%77'
Indian royalty, big and small, and the temples they
patronised, dre. citiUens in great numbers to the capital cities, .hich became economic hubs as
.ell.
%74'
Temple to.ns of "arious siUes began to appear e"ery.here as India under.ent another
urbanisation.
%74'
-y the 2th and Ath centuries, the effects .ere felt in !outh9East $sia, as !outh
Indian culture and political systems .ere eNported to lands that became part of modern9day
*yanmar, Thailand, >aos, =ambodia, <ietnam, :hilippines, *alaysia, and #a"a.
%76'
Indian
merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies .ere in"ol"ed in this transmission/ !outh9East $sians
took the initiati"e as .ell, .ith many so;ourning in Indian seminaries and translating -uddhist and
8indu teNts into their languages.
%76'
$fter the &+th century, *uslim =entral $sian nomadic clans, using s.ift9horse ca"alry and raising
"ast armies united by ethnicity and religion, repeatedly o"erran !outh $siaJs north9.estern plains,
leading e"entually to the establishment of the Islamic 1elhi !ultanate in &(+4.
%72'
The sultanate .as
to control much of 0orth India, and to make many forays into !outh India. $lthough at first
disrupti"e for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its "ast non9*uslim sub;ect population to
its o.n la.s and customs.
%7A'%4+'
-y repeatedly repulsing *ongol raiders in the &)th century, the
sultanate sa"ed India from the de"astation "isited on West and =entral $sia, setting the scene for
centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers, learned men, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from
that region into the subcontinent, thereby creating a syncretic Indo9Islamic culture in the north.
%4&'%4('
The sultanateJs raiding and .eakening of the regional kingdoms of !outh India pa"ed the .ay for
the indigenous <i;ayanagara Empire.
%4)'
Embracing a strong !hai"ite tradition and building upon the
military technology of the sultanate, the empire came to control much of peninsular India,
%4B'
and
.as to influence !outh Indian society for long after.ards.
%4)'
*arly modern India
Writing the .ill and testament of the *ughal king court in :ersian, &7A+T&7A7
In the early &4th century, northern India, being then under mainly *uslim rulers,
%47'
fell again to the
superior mobility and firepo.er of a ne. generation of =entral $sian .arriors.
%44'
The resulting
*ughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and
pacified them through ne. administrati"e practices
%46'%42'
and di"erse and inclusi"e ruling elites,
%4A'

leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule.
%6+'
Esche.ing tribal bonds and Islamic
identity, especially under $kbar, the *ughals united their far9flung realms through loyalty,
eNpressed through a :ersianised culture, to an emperor .ho had near9di"ine status.
%4A'
The *ughal
stateJs economic policies, deri"ing most re"enues from agriculture
%6&'
and mandating that taNes be
paid in the .ell9regulated sil"er currency,
%6('
caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets.
%6+'

The relati"e peace maintained by the empire during much of the &6th century .as a factor in IndiaJs
economic eNpansion,
%6+'
resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, teNtiles, and
architecture.
%6)'
0e.ly coherent social groups in northern and .estern India, such as the *arathas,
the Ra;puts, and the !ikhs, gained military and go"erning ambitions during *ughal rule, .hich,
through collaboration or ad"ersity, ga"e them both recognition and military eNperience.
%6B'

ENpanding commerce during *ughal rule ga"e rise to ne. Indian commercial and political elites
along the coasts of southern and eastern India.
%6B'
$s the empire disintegrated, many among these
elites .ere able to seek and control their o.n affairs.
%67'
The single most important po.er that
emerged in the early modern period .as the *aratha confederacy.
%64'
-y the early &2th century, .ith the lines bet.een commercial and political dominance being
increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English East India
=ompany, had established coastal outposts.
%66'%62'
The East India =ompanyJs control of the seas,
greater resources, and more ad"anced military training and technology led it to increasingly fleN its
military muscle and caused it to become attracti"e to a portion of the Indian elite/ both these factors
.ere crucial in allo.ing the =ompany to gain control o"er the -engal region by &647 and sideline
the other European companies.
%6A'%66'%2+'%2&'
Its further access to the riches of -engal and the
subseCuent increased strength and siUe of its army enabled it to anneN or subdue most of India by
the &2(+s.
%2('
India .as then no longer eNporting manufactured goods as it long had, but .as instead
supplying the -ritish empire .ith ra. materials, and many historians consider this to be the onset
of IndiaJs colonial period.
%66'
-y this time, .ith its economic po.er se"erely curtailed by the -ritish
parliament and itself effecti"ely made an arm of -ritish administration, the =ompany began to more
consciously enter non9economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.
%2)'
Modern India
The -ritish Indian Empire, from the &A+A edition of The Imperia Ga!etteer o" India. $reas directly
go"erned by the -ritish are shaded pink/ the princely states under -ritish suUerainty are in yello..
8istorians consider IndiaJs modern age to ha"e begun sometime bet.een &2B2 and &227. The
appointment in &2B2 of >ord 1alhousie as Mo"ernor Meneral of the East India =ompany set the
stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of
so"ereignty, the sur"eillance of the population, and the education of citiUens. Technological changes
Kamong them, rail.ays, canals, and the telegraphK.ere introduced not long after their
introduction in Europe.
%2B'%27'%24'%26'
8o.e"er, disaffection .ith the =ompany also gre. during this
time, and set off the Indian Rebellion of &276. Fed by di"erse resentments and perceptions,
including in"asi"e -ritish9style social reforms, harsh land taNes, and summary treatment of some
rich lando.ners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and
shook the foundations of =ompany rule.
%22'%2A'
$lthough the rebellion .as suppressed by &272, it led
to the dissolution of the East India =ompany and to the direct administration of India by the -ritish
go"ernment. :roclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited -ritish9style parliamentary
system, the ne. rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future
unrest.
%A+'%A&'
In the decades follo.ing, public life gradually emerged all o"er India, leading
e"entually to the founding of the Indian 0ational =ongress in &227.
%A('%A)'%AB'%A7'
#a.aharlal 0ehru (left) became IndiaJs first prime minister in &AB6. *ahatma Mandhi (right) led the
independence mo"ement.
The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the &Ath
century .as marked by economic setbacksKmany small farmers became dependent on the .hims
of far9a.ay markets.
%A4'
There .as an increase in the number of large9scale famines,
%A6'
and, despite
the risks of infrastructure de"elopment borne by Indian taNpayers, little industrial employment .as
generated for Indians.
%A2'
There .ere also salutary effects, commercial cropping, especially in the
ne.ly canalled :un;ab, led to increased food production for internal consumption.
%AA'
The rail.ay
net.ork pro"ided critical famine relief,
%&++'
notably reduced the cost of mo"ing goods,
%&++'
and
helped nascent Indian9o.ned industry.
%AA'
$fter World War I, in .hich some one million Indians
ser"ed,
%&+&'
a ne. period began. It .as marked by -ritish reforms but also repressi"e legislation, by
more strident Indian calls for self9rule, and by the beginnings of a non9"iolent mo"ement of non9
cooperation, of .hich *ohandas @aramchand Mandhi .ould become the leader and enduring
symbol.
%&+('
1uring the &A)+s, slo. legislati"e reform .as enacted by the -ritish/ the Indian
0ational =ongress .on "ictories in the resulting elections.
%&+)'
The neNt decade .as beset .ith
crises, Indian participation in World War II, the =ongressJs final push for non9cooperation, and an
upsurge of *uslim nationalism. $ll .ere capped by the ad"ent of independence in &AB6, but
tempered by the partition of India into t.o states, India and :akistan.
%&+B'
<ital to IndiaJs self9image as an independent nation .as its constitution, completed in &A7+, .hich
put in place a secular and democratic republic.
%&+7'
In the 4+ years since, India has had a miNed
record of successes and failures.
%&+4'
It has remained a democracy .ith ci"il liberties, an acti"e
!upreme =ourt, and a largely independent press.
%&+4'
Economic liberalisation, .hich .as begun in
the &AA+s, has created a large urban middle class, transformed India into one of the .orldJs fastest9
gro.ing economies,
%&+6'
and increased its geopolitical clout. Indian mo"ies, music, and spiritual
teachings play an increasing role in global culture.
%&+4'
Vet, India is also shaped by seemingly
unyielding po"erty, both rural and urban/
%&+4'
by religious and caste9related "iolence/
%&+2'
by *aoist9
inspired 0aNalite insurgencies/
%&+A'
and by separatism in #ammu and @ashmir and in 0ortheast India.
%&&+'
It has unresol"ed territorial disputes .ith =hina,
%&&&'
and .ith :akistan.
%&&&'
The IndiaT:akistan
nuclear ri"alry came to a head in &AA2.
%&&('
IndiaJs sustained democratic freedoms are uniCue among
the .orldJs ne. nations/ ho.e"er, in spite of its recent economic successes, freedom from .ant for
its disad"antaged population remains a goal yet to be achie"ed.
%&&)'
Geography
*ain article, Meography of India
!ee also, Meology of India
$ topographic map of India
India comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate, and part of
the Indo9$ustralian :late.
%&&B'
IndiaJs defining geological processes began 67 million years ago .hen
the Indian plate, then part of the southern supercontinent Mond.ana, began a north9east.ard drift
caused by seafloor spreading to its south9.est, and later, south and south9east.
%&&B'
!imultaneously,
the "ast Tethyn oceanic crust, to its northeast, began to subduct under the Eurasian plate.
%&&B'
These
dual processes, dri"en by con"ection in the EarthJs mantle, both created the Indian Icean and
caused the Indian continental crust e"entually to under9thrust Eurasia and to uplift the 8imalayas.
%&&B'
Immediately south of the emerging 8imalayas, plate mo"ement created a "ast trough that
rapidly filled .ith ri"er9borne sediment
%&&7'
and no. constitutes the Indo9Mangetic :lain.
%&&4'
=ut off
from the plain by the ancient $ra"alli Range lies the Thar 1esert.
%&&6'
The original Indian plate sur"i"es as peninsular India, the oldest and geologically most stable part
of India. It eNtends as far north as the !atpura and <indhya ranges in central India. These parallel
chains run from the $rabian !ea coast in Mu;arat in the .est to the coal9rich =hota 0agpur :lateau
in #harkhand in the east.
%&&2'
To the south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the 1eccan :lateau, is
flanked on the .est and east by coastal ranges kno.n as the Western and Eastern Mhats/
%&&A'
the
plateau contains the countryJs oldest rock formations, some o"er one billion years old. =onstituted
in such fashion, India lies to the north of the eCuator bet.een 43 BBJ and )73 )+J north latitude
%e'
and
423 6J and A63 (7J east longitude.
%&(+'
The @edar Range of the Mreater 8imalayas rises behind @edarnath Temple (Indian state of
?ttarakhand), .hich is one of the t.el"e jyotirin#a shrines.
IndiaJs coastline measures 6,7&6 kilometres (B,6++ mi) in length/ of this distance, 7,B() kilometres
(),B++ mi) belong to peninsular India and (,+AB kilometres (&,)++ mi) to the $ndaman, 0icobar,
and >akshad.eep island chains.
%&(&'
$ccording to the Indian na"al hydrographic charts, the
mainland coastline consists of the follo.ing, B)D sandy beaches/ &&D rocky shores, including
cliffs/ and B4D mudflats or marshy shores.
%&(&'
*a;or 8imalayan9origin ri"ers that substantially flo. through India include the Manges and the
-rahmaputra, both of .hich drain into the -ay of -engal.
%&(('
Important tributaries of the Manges
include the Vamuna and the @osi/ the latterJs eNtremely lo. gradient often leads to se"ere floods
and course changes.
%&()'
*a;or peninsular ri"ers, .hose steeper gradients pre"ent their .aters from
flooding, include the Moda"ari, the *ahanadi, the @a"eri, and the @rishna, .hich also drain into
the -ay of -engal/
%&(B'
and the 0armada and the Tapti, .hich drain into the $rabian !ea.
%&(7'
=oastal
features include the marshy Rann of @utch of .estern India and the allu"ial !undarbans delta of
eastern India/ the latter is shared .ith -angladesh.
%&(4'
India has t.o archipelagos, the >akshad.eep,
coral atolls off IndiaJs south9.estern coast/ and the $ndaman and 0icobar Islands, a "olcanic chain
in the $ndaman !ea.
%&(6'
The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the 8imalayas and the Thar 1esert, both of .hich
dri"e the economically and culturally pi"otal summer and .inter monsoons.
%&(2'
The 8imalayas
pre"ent cold =entral $sian katabatic .inds from blo.ing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian
subcontinent .armer than most locations at similar latitudes.
%&(A'%&)+'
The Thar 1esert plays a crucial
role in attracting the moisture9laden south9.est summer monsoon .inds that, bet.een #une and
Ictober, pro"ide the ma;ority of IndiaJs rainfall.
%&(2'
Four ma;or climatic groupings predominate in
India, tropical .et, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.
%&)&'
+iodiersity
*ain article, Wildlife of India
!hola highlands are found in @udremukh 0ational :ark, =hikmagalur .hich is part of the Western
Mhats.
India lies .ithin the Indomalaya ecoUone and contains three biodi"ersity hotspots.
%&)('
Ine of &6
megadi"erse countries, it hosts 2.4D of all mammalian, &).6D of all a"ian, 6.AD of all reptilian,
4D of all amphibian, &(.(D of all piscine, and 4.+D of all flo.ering plant species.
%&))'%&)B'
Endemism
is high among plants, ))D, and among ecoregions such as the shola forests.
%&)7'
8abitat ranges from
the tropical rainforest of the $ndaman Islands, Western Mhats, and 0orth9East India to the
coniferous forest of the 8imalaya. -et.een these eNtremes lie the moist deciduous sal forest of
eastern India/ the dry deciduous teak forest of central and southern India/ and the babul9dominated
thorn forest of the central 1eccan and .estern Mangetic plain.
%&)4'
?nder &(D of IndiaJs landmass
bears thick ;ungle.
%&)6'
The medicinal neem, .idely used in rural Indian herbal remedies, is a key
Indian tree. The luNuriant pipal fig tree, sho.n on the seals of *ohen;o9daro, shaded Mautama
-uddha as he sought enlightenment.
*any Indian species descend from taNa originating in Mond.ana, from .hich the Indian plate
separated more than &+7 million years before present.
%&)2'
:eninsular IndiaJs subseCuent mo"ement
to.ards and collision .ith the >aurasian landmass set off a mass eNchange of species. Epochal
"olcanism and climatic changes (+ million years ago forced a mass eNtinction.
%&)A'
*ammals then
entered India from $sia through t.o Uoogeographical passes flanking the rising 8imalaya.
%&)4'
Thus,
.hile B7.2D of reptiles and 77.2D of amphibians are endemic, only &(.4D of mammals and B.7D
of birds are.
%&)B'
$mong them are the 0ilgiri leaf monkey and -eddomeJs toad of the Western Mhats.
India contains &6( I?=09designated threatened animal species, or (.AD of endangered forms.
%&B+'

These include the $siatic lion, the -engal tiger, and the Indian White9rumped "ulture, .hich, by
ingesting the carrion of diclofenac9laced cattle, nearly .ent eNtinct.
The per"asi"e and ecologically de"astating human encroachment of recent decades has critically
endangered Indian .ildlife. In response the system of national parks and protected areas, first
established in &A)7, .as substantially eNpanded. In &A6(, India enacted the Wildlife :rotection
$ct
%&B&'
and :ro;ect Tiger to safeguard crucial .ilderness/ the Forest =onser"ation $ct .as enacted
in &A2+ and amendments added in &A22.
%&B('
India hosts more than fi"e hundred .ildlife sanctuaries
and thirteen biosphere reser"es,
%&B)'
four of .hich are part of the World 0et.ork of -iosphere
Reser"es/ t.enty9fi"e .etlands are registered under the Ramsar =on"ention.
%&BB'
!olitics
*ain article, :olitics of India
$ parliamentary ;oint session being held in the !ansad -ha"an.
The Rashtrapati -ha"an is the official residence of the president of India.
India is the .orldJs most populous democracy.
%&B7'
$ parliamentary republic .ith a multi9party
system,
%&B4'
it has siN recognised national parties, including the Indian 0ational =ongress and the
-haratiya #anata :arty (-#:), and more than B+ regional parties.
%&B6'
The =ongress is considered
centre9left or liberal in Indian political culture, and the -#: centre9right or conser"ati"e. For
most of the period bet.een &A7+K.hen India first became a republicKand the late &A2+s, the
=ongress held a ma;ority in the parliament. !ince then, ho.e"er, it has increasingly shared the
political stage .ith the -#:,
%&B2'
as .ell as .ith po.erful regional parties .hich ha"e often forced
the creation of multi9party coalitions at the centre.
%&BA'
In the Republic of IndiaJs first three general elections, in &A7&, &A76, and &A4(, the #a.aharlal
0ehru9led =ongress .on easy "ictories. In 0ehruJs death in &A4B, >al -ahadur !hastri briefly
became prime minister/ he .as succeeded, after his o.n uneNpected death in &A44, by Indira
Mandhi, .ho .ent on to lead the =ongress to election "ictories in &A46 and &A6&. Follo.ing public
discontent .ith the state of emergency she declared in &A67, the =ongress .as "oted out of po.er
in &A66/ the then9ne. #anata :arty, .hich had opposed the emergency, .as "oted in. Its
go"ernment lasted ;ust o"er three years. <oted back into po.er in &A2+, the =ongress sa. a change
in leadership in &A2B, .hen Indira Mandhi .as assassinated/ she .as succeeded by her son Ra;i"
Mandhi, .ho .on an easy "ictory in the general elections later that year. The =ongress .as "oted
out again in &A2A .hen a 0ational Front coalition, led by the ne.ly formed #anata 1al in alliance
.ith the >eft Front, .on the elections/ that go"ernment too pro"ed relati"ely short9li"ed, it lasted
;ust under t.o years.
%&7+'
Elections .ere held again in &AA&/ no party .on an absolute ma;ority. -ut
the =ongress, as the largest single party, .as able to form a minority go"ernment led by :. <.
0arasimha Rao.
%&7&'
$ t.o9year period of political turmoil follo.ed the general election of &AA4. !e"eral short9li"ed
alliances shared po.er at the centre. The -#: formed a go"ernment briefly in &AA4/ it .as follo.ed
by t.o comparati"ely long9lasting ?nited Front coalitions, .hich depended on eNternal support. In
&AA2, the -#: .as able to form a successful coalition, the 0ational 1emocratic $lliance (01$).
>ed by $tal -ihari <a;payee, the 01$ became the first non9=ongress, coalition go"ernment to
complete a fi"e9year term.
%&7('
In the (++B Indian general elections, again no party .on an absolute
ma;ority, but the =ongress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition,
the ?nited :rogressi"e $lliance (?:$). It had the support of left9leaning parties and *:s .ho
opposed the -#:. The ?:$ returned to po.er in the (++A general election .ith increased numbers,
and it no longer reCuired eNternal support from IndiaJs communist parties.
%&7)'
That year, *anmohan
!ingh became the first prime minister since #a.aharlal 0ehru in &A76 and &A4( to be re9elected to a
consecuti"e fi"e9year term.
%&7B'
In the (+&B general election, -haratiya #anata :arty became the first
political party since &A2B to .in a ma;ority and go"ern .ithout the support of other parties.
%&77'
Goernment
*ain article, Mo"ernment of India
!ee also, Elections in India
India is a federation .ith a parliamentary system go"erned under the =onstitution of India, .hich
ser"es as the countryJs supreme legal document. It is a constitutional republic and representati"e
democracy, in .hich ma;ority rule is tempered by minority
rights protected by la.. Federalism in India defines the
po.er distribution bet.een the federal go"ernment and the
states. The go"ernment abides by constitutional checks and
balances. The =onstitution of India, .hich came into effect on
(4 #anuary &A7+,
%&74'
states in its preamble that India is a
so"ereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.
%&76'
IndiaJs
form of go"ernment, traditionally described as Cuasi9federal
.ith a strong centre and .eak states,
%&72'
has gro.n
increasingly federal since the late &AA+s as a result of
political, economic, and social changes.
%&7A'%&4+'
The federal go"ernment comprises three branches,
ENecuti"e, The :resident of India is the head of
state
%&4('
and is elected indirectly by a national electoral
college
%&4)'
for a fi"e9year term.
%&4B'
The :rime *inister
of India is the head of go"ernment and eNercises most eNecuti"e po.er.
%&47'
$ppointed by the
president,
%&44'
the prime minister is by con"ention supported by the party or political alliance
holding the ma;ority of seats in the lo.er house of parliament.
%&47'
The eNecuti"e branch of
the Indian go"ernment consists of the president, the "ice9president, and the =ouncil of
*inistersKthe cabinet being its eNecuti"e committeeKheaded by the prime minister. $ny
minister holding a portfolio must be a member of one of the houses of parliament.
%&4('
In the
Indian parliamentary system, the eNecuti"e is subordinate to the legislature/ the prime
minister and his council are directly responsible to the lo.er house of the parliament.
%&46'
>egislati"e, The legislature of India is the bicameral parliament. It operates under a
Westminster9style parliamentary system and comprises the upper house called the Ra;ya
!abha (=ouncil of !tates) and the lo.er called the >ok !abha (8ouse of the :eople).
%&42'

The Ra;ya !abha is a permanent body that has (B7 members .ho ser"e in staggered siN9year
terms.
%&4A'
*ost are elected indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures in numbers
proportional to their stateJs share of the national population.
%&44'
$ll but t.o of the >ok
!abhaJs 7B7 members are directly elected by popular "ote/ they represent indi"idual
constituencies "ia fi"e9year terms.
%&6+'
The remaining t.o members are nominated by the
president from among the $nglo9Indian community, in case the president decides that they
are not adeCuately represented.
%&6&'
#udicial, India has a unitary three9tier independent ;udiciary
%&6('
that comprises the !upreme
=ourt, headed by the =hief #ustice of India, (B 8igh =ourts, and a large number of trial
courts.
%&6('
The !upreme =ourt has original ;urisdiction o"er cases in"ol"ing fundamental
rights and o"er disputes bet.een states and the centre/ it has appellate ;urisdiction o"er the
8igh =ourts.
%&6)'
It has the po.er both to declare the la. and to strike do.n union or state
la.s .hich contra"ene the constitution.
%&6B'
The !upreme =ourt is also the ultimate
interpreter of the constitution.
%&67'
&ubdiisions
National symbols
%&'
Flag Tricolour
Emblem !arnath >ion =apital
$nthem Jana Gana Mana
!ong Vande Mataram
=urrency (Indian rupee)
=alendar !aka
Mame 0ot declared
%&4&'
Flo.er >otus
Fruit *ango
Tree -anyan
-ird Indian :eafo.l
>and animal Tiger
$Cuatic animal Ri"er 1olphin
Ri"er Manga or Manges
$ clickable map of the (A states and 6 union territories of India
*ain article, $dministrati"e di"isions of India
!ee also, :olitical integration of India
India is a federation composed of (A states and 6 union territories.
%&64'
$ll states, as .ell as the union
territories of :uducherry and the 0ational =apital Territory of 1elhi, ha"e elected legislatures and
go"ernments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining fi"e union territories are
directly ruled by the centre through appointed administrators. In &A74, under the !tates
Reorganisation $ct, states .ere reorganised on a linguistic basis.
%&66'
!ince then, their structure has
remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further di"ided into administrati"e
districts. The districts in turn are further di"ided into tehsils and ultimately into "illages.
&tates
&. $ndhra :radesh
(. $runachal :radesh
). $ssam
B. -ihar
7. =hhattisgarh
4. Moa
6. Mu;arat
2. 8aryana
A. 8imachal :radesh
&+. #ammu and @ashmir
&&. #harkhand
&(. @arnataka
&). @erala
&B. *adhya :radesh
&7. *aharashtra
&4. *anipur
&6. *eghalaya
&2. *iUoram
&A. 0agaland
(+. Idisha
(&. :un;ab
((. Ra;asthan
(). !ikkim
(B. Tamil 0adu
(7. Telangana
(4. Tripura
(6. ?ttar :radesh
(2. ?ttarakhand
(A. West -engal
,nion territories
$. $ndaman and 0icobar Islands
-. =handigarh
=. 1adra and 0agar 8a"eli
1. 1aman and 1iu
E. >akshad.eep
F. 0ational =apital Territory of 1elhi
M. :uducherry
-oreign relations and military
*ain articles, Foreign relations of India and Indian $rmed Forces
0arendra *odi meets <ladimir :utin at the 4th -RI=! summit. India and Russia share eNtensi"e
economic, defence, and technological ties.
!ince its independence in &AB6, India has maintained cordial relations .ith most nations. In the
&A7+s, it strongly supported decolonisation in $frica and $sia and played a lead role in the 0on9
$ligned *o"ement.
%&62'
In the late &A2+s, the Indian military t.ice inter"ened abroad at the
in"itation of neighbouring countries, a peace9keeping operation in !ri >anka bet.een &A26 and
&AA+/ and an armed inter"ention to pre"ent a coup dJWtat attempt in *aldi"es. India has tense
relations .ith neighbouring :akistan/ the t.o nations ha"e gone to .ar four times, in &AB6, &A47,
&A6&, and &AAA. Three of these .ars .ere fought o"er the disputed territory of @ashmir, .hile the
fourth, the &A6& .ar, follo.ed from IndiaJs support for the independence of -angladesh.
%&6A'
$fter
.aging the &A4( !ino9Indian War and the &A47 .ar .ith :akistan, India pursued close military and
economic ties .ith the !o"iet ?nion/ by the late &A4+s, the !o"iet ?nion .as its largest arms
supplier.
%&2+'
$side from ongoing strategic relations .ith Russia, India has .ide9ranging defence relations .ith
Israel and France. In recent years, it has played key roles in the !outh $sian $ssociation for
Regional =ooperation and the World Trade Irganisation. The nation has pro"ided &++,+++ military
and police personnel to ser"e in )7 ?0 peacekeeping operations across four continents. It
participates in the East $sia !ummit, the M2G7, and other multilateral forums.
%&2&'
India has close
economic ties .ith !outh $merica,
%&2('
$sia, and $frica/ it pursues a >ook East policy that seeks
to strengthen partnerships .ith the $!E$0 nations, #apan, and !outh @orea that re"ol"e around
many issues, but especially those in"ol"ing economic in"estment and regional security.
%&2)'%&2B'
I0! <ikramaditya, the Indian 0a"yXs biggest .arship.
=hinaJs nuclear test of &A4B, as .ell as its repeated threats to inter"ene in support of :akistan in the
&A47 .ar, con"inced India to de"elop nuclear .eapons.
%&27'
India conducted its first nuclear
.eapons test in &A6B and carried out further underground testing in &AA2. 1espite criticism and
military sanctions, India has signed neither the =omprehensi"e 0uclear9Test9-an Treaty nor the
0uclear 0on9:roliferation Treaty, considering both to be fla.ed and discriminatory.
%&24'
India
maintains a no first use nuclear policy and is de"eloping a nuclear triad capability as a part of its
minimum credible deterrence doctrine.
%&26'%&22'
It is de"eloping a ballistic missile defence shield
and, in collaboration .ith Russia, a fifth9generation fighter ;et.
%&2A'
Ither indigenous military
pro;ects in"ol"e the design and implementation of Vikrant 9class aircraft carriers and $rihant 9class
nuclear submarines.
%&2A'
!ince the end of the =old War, India has increased its economic, strategic, and military cooperation
.ith the ?nited !tates and the European ?nion.
%&A+'
In (++2, a ci"ilian nuclear agreement .as
signed bet.een India and the ?nited !tates. $lthough India possessed nuclear .eapons at the time
and .as not party to the 0uclear 0on9:roliferation Treaty, it recei"ed .ai"ers from the
International $tomic Energy $gency and the 0uclear !uppliers Mroup, ending earlier restrictions on
IndiaJs nuclear technology and commerce. $s a conseCuence, India became the siNth de "a%to
nuclear .eapons state.
%&A&'
India subseCuently signed cooperation agreements in"ol"ing ci"ilian
nuclear energy .ith Russia,
%&A('
France,
%&A)'
the ?nited @ingdom,
%&AB'
and =anada.
%&A7'
The :resident of India is the supreme commander of the nationJs armed forces/ .ith &.)(7 million
acti"e troops, they compose the .orldJs third9largest military.
%&A4'
It comprises the Indian $rmy, the
Indian 0a"y, and the Indian $ir Force/ auNiliary organisations include the !trategic Forces
=ommand and three paramilitary groups, the $ssam Rifles, the !pecial Frontier Force, and the
Indian =oast Muard.
%&A6'
The official Indian defence budget for (+&& .as ?!F)4.+) billion, or &.2)D
of M1:.
%&A2'
For the fiscal year spanning (+&(T(+&), ?!FB+.BB billion .as budgeted.
%&AA'
$ccording
to a (++2 !I:RI report, IndiaJs annual military eNpenditure in terms of purchasing po.er stood at
?!F6(.6 billion,
%(++'
In (+&&, the annual defence budget increased by &&.4D,
%(+&'
although this does
not include funds that reach the military through other branches of go"ernment.
%(+('
$s of (+&(,
India is the .orldJs largest arms importer/ bet.een (++6 and (+&&, it accounted for &+D of funds
spent on international arms purchases.
%(+)'
*uch of the military eNpenditure .as focused on defence
against :akistan and countering gro.ing =hinese influence in the Indian Icean.
%(+&'
*conomy
*ain article, Economy of India
!ee also, Economic history of India, Economic de"elopment in India, Tourism in India and
Transport in India
Fishermen on the =hinese fishing nets of =ochin. Fisheries in India is a ma;or industry in its coastal
states, employing o"er &B million people. The annual catch doubled bet.een &AA+ and (+&+.
$ccording to the International *onetary Fund (I*F), as of (+&B, the Indian economy is nominally
.orth ?!F(.+B6 trillion/ it is the ele"enth9largest economy by market eNchange rates, and is, at
?!F6.(66 trillion, the third9largest by purchasing po.er parity, or :::.
%A'
With its a"erage annual
M1: gro.th rate of 7.2D o"er the past t.o decades, and reaching 4.&D during (+&&T&(,
%(+B'
India is
one of the .orldJs fastest9gro.ing economies.
%(+7'
8o.e"er, the country ranks &B+th in the .orld in
nominal M1: per capita and &(Ath in M1: per capita at :::.
%(+4'
?ntil &AA&, all Indian go"ernments
follo.ed protectionist policies that .ere influenced by socialist economics. Widespread state
inter"ention and regulation largely .alled the economy off from the outside .orld. $n acute
balance of payments crisis in &AA& forced the nation to liberalise its economy/
%(+6'
since then it has
slo.ly mo"ed to.ards a free9market system
%(+2'%(+A'
by emphasising both foreign trade and direct
in"estment inflo.s.
%(&+'
IndiaJs recent economic model is largely capitalist.
%(+A'
India has been a
member of WTI since & #anuary &AA7.
%(&&'
The B24.49million .orker Indian labour force is the .orldJs second9largest, as of (+&&.
%&A6'
The
ser"ice sector makes up 77.4D of M1:, the industrial sector (4.)D and the agricultural sector
&2.&D. *a;or agricultural products include rice, .heat, oilseed, cotton, ;ute, tea, sugarcane, and
potatoes.
%&64'
*a;or industries include teNtiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals,
biotechnology, food processing, steel, transport eCuipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery,
and soft.are.
%&64'
In (++4, the share of eNternal trade in IndiaJs M1: stood at (BD, up from 4D in
&A27.
%(+2'
In (++2, IndiaJs share of .orld trade .as &.42D/
%(&('
In (+&&, India .as the .orldJs tenth9
largest importer and the nineteenth9largest eNporter.
%(&)'
*a;or eNports include petroleum products,
teNtile goods, ;e.ellery, soft.are, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather manufactures.
%&64'

*a;or imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals.
%&64'
-et.een (++& and
(+&&, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total eNports gre. from &BD to
B(D.
%(&B'
$"eraging an economic gro.th rate of 6.7D for se"eral years prior to (++6,
%(+2'
India has more than
doubled its hourly .age rates during the first decade of the (&st century.
%(&7'
!ome B)& million
Indians ha"e left po"erty since &A27/ IndiaJs middle classes are pro;ected to number around 72+
million by (+)+.
%(&4'
Though ranking 7&st in global competiti"eness, India ranks &6th in financial
market sophistication, (Bth in the banking sector, BBth in business sophistication, and )Ath in
inno"ation, ahead of se"eral ad"anced economies, as of (+&+.
%(&6'
With 6 of the .orldJs top &7
information technology outsourcing companies based in India, the country is "ie.ed as the second9
most fa"ourable outsourcing destination after the ?nited !tates, as of (++A.
%(&2'
IndiaJs consumer
market, currently the .orldJs ele"enth9largest, is eNpected to become fifth9largest by (+)+.
%(&4'
IndiaJs telecommunication industry, the .orldJs fastest9gro.ing, added ((6 million subscribers
during the period (+&+T&&,
%(&A'
and after the first Cuarter of (+&), India surpassed #apan to become
the third largest smartphone market in the .orld after =hina and the ?.!.
%((+'
:o.er >oom used inside a house in a "illage near !alem, Tamil 0adu. :o.er loom accounts for
more than 4+D of teNtile production in India.
Its automoti"e industry, the .orldJs second fastest gro.ing, increased domestic sales by (4D during
(++AT&+,
%((&'
and eNports by )4D during (++2T+A.
%((('
:o.er capacity is (7+ giga.atts, of .hich 2D
is rene.able. $t the end of (+&&, Indian IT Industry employed (.2 million professionals, generated
re"enues close to ?!F&++ billion eCualling 6.7D of Indian M1: and contributed (4D of IndiaJs
merchandise eNports.
%(()'
The :harmaceutical industry in India is among the significant emerging markets for global pharma
industry. The Indian pharmaceutical market is eNpected to reach FB2.7 billion by (+(+. IndiaJs R Y
1 spending constitutes 4+D of -iopharmaceutical industry.
%((B'%((7'
India is among the top &( -iotech
destinations of the .orld.
%((4'

%((6'
The Indian biotech industry gre. by &7.&D in (+&(T&), increasing
its re"enues from (+B.B -illion I0R (Indian Rupees) to ()7.(B -illion I0R ().AB - ?!F 9 eNchange
rate #une (+&), & ?!F approN. 4+ I0R)
%((2'
$lthough hardly (D of Indians pay income taNes.
%((A'
1espite impressi"e economic gro.th during recent decades, India continues to face socio9economic
challenges. India contains the largest concentration of people li"ing belo. the World -ankJs
international po"erty line of ?!F&.(7 per day,
%()+'
the proportion ha"ing decreased from 4+D in
&A2& to B(D in (++7, and (7D in (+&&
%()&'
)+.6D of IndiaJs children under the age of fi"e are
under.eight,
%()('
half the children under fi"e suffer from chronic malnutrition, and in the states of
*adhya :radesh, $ndhra :radesh, -ihar, =hhattisgarh, 8aryana, #harkhand, @arnataka, and ?ttar
:radesh, .hich account for 7+.+BD of IndiaJs population, 6+D of the children bet.een the ages of
siN months and 7A months are anaemic.
%())'
The *id91ay *eal !cheme attempts to lo.er these
rates.
%()B'
!ince &AA&, economic ineCuality bet.een IndiaJs states has consistently gro.n, the per9
capita net state domestic product of the richest states in (++6 .as ).( times that of the poorest.
%()7'

=orruption in India is percei"ed to ha"e increased significantly,
%()4'
.ith one report estimating the
illegal capital flo.s since independence to be ?!FB4( billion.
%()6'
1ri"en by gro.th, IndiaJs nominal M1: per capita has steadily increased from ?!F)(A in &AA&,
.hen economic liberalisation began, to ?!F&,(47 in (+&+, and is estimated to increase to ?!F(,&&+
by (+&4/ ho.e"er, it has remained lo.er than those of other $sian de"eloping countries such as
Indonesia, Iran, *alaysia, :hilippines, !ri >anka, and Thailand, and is eNpected to remain so in the
near future. While it is currently higher than :akistan, 0epal, -angladesh and others.
%()2'
$ccording to a (+&& :rice.aterhouse=oopers report, IndiaJs M1: at purchasing po.er parity could
o"ertake that of the ?nited !tates by (+B7.
%()A'
1uring the neNt four decades, Indian M1: is
eNpected to gro. at an annualised a"erage of 2D, making it potentially the .orldJs fastest9gro.ing
ma;or economy until (+7+.
%()A'
The report highlights key gro.th factors, a young and rapidly
gro.ing .orking9age population/ gro.th in the manufacturing sector because of rising education
and engineering skill le"els/ and sustained gro.th of the consumer market dri"en by a rapidly
gro.ing middle class.
%()A'
The World -ank cautions that, for India to achie"e its economic potential,
it must continue to focus on public sector reform, transport infrastructure, agricultural and rural
de"elopment, remo"al of labour regulations, education, energy security, and public health and
nutrition.
%(B+'
=iting persistent inflation pressures, .eak public finances, limited progress on fiscal consolidation
and ineffecti"eness of the go"ernment, rating agency Fitch re"ised IndiaJs Iutlook to 0egati"e from
!table on &2 #une (+&(.
%(B&'
$nother credit rating agency !Y: had .arned pre"iously that a slo.ing
M1: gro.th and political roadblocks to economic policy9making could put India at the risk of
losing its in"estment grade rating.
%(B('
8o.e"er, *oody did not re"ise its outlook on India keeping it
stable,
%(B)'
but termed the national go"ernment as the single biggest drag on business acti"ity.
%(BB'
Demographics
*ain articles, 1emographics of India and >ist of most populous cities in India
$ population density and Indian Rail.ays connecti"ity map. The already densely settled Indo9
Mangetic :lain is the main dri"er of Indian population gro.th.
With &,(&+,&A),B(( residents reported in the (+&& pro"isional census,
%2'
India is the .orldJs second9
most populous country. Its population gre. at &.64D per annum during (++&T(+&&,
%2'
do.n from
(.&)D per annum in the pre"ious decade (&AA&T(++&).
%(B7'
The human seN ratio, according to the
(+&& census, is AB+ females per &,+++ males.
%2'
The median age .as (B.A in the (++& census.
%&A6'
The
first post9colonial census, conducted in &A7&, counted )4&.& million people.
%(B4'
*edical ad"ances
made in the last 7+ years as .ell as increased agricultural producti"ity brought about by the Mreen
Re"olution ha"e caused IndiaJs population to gro. rapidly.
%(B6'
India continues to face se"eral
public health9related challenges.
%(B2'%(BA'
>ife eNpectancy in India is at 42 years .ith life eNpectancy
for .omen being 4A.4 years and for men being 46.).
%(7+'
There are around 7+ physicians per &++,+++
Indians.
%(7&'
The number of Indians li"ing in urban areas has gro.n by )&.(D bet.een &AA& and
(++&.
%(7('
Vet, in (++&, o"er 6+D li"ed in rural areas.
%(7)'%(7B'
$ccording to the (++& census, there are
(6 million9plus cities in India/
%(7('
among them 1elhi, *umbai, @olkata, =hennai, -angalore,
8yderabad, $hmedabad and :une are the most populous metropolitan areas. The literacy rate in
(+&& .as 6B.+BD, 47.B4D among females and 2(.&BD among males.
%2'
@erala is the most literate
state .ith A7.7D literacy/
%(77'
.hile -ihar the least .ith 46.2D.
%(74'
$ handicraft seller in 8yderabad, $ndhra :radesh
India is home to t.o ma;or language families, Indo9$ryan (spoken by about 6BD of the population)
and 1ra"idian ((BD). Ither languages spoken in India come from the $ustroasiatic and Tibeto9
-urman language families. India has no national language.
%(76'
8indi, .ith the largest number of
speakers, is the official language of the go"ernment.
%(72'%(7A'
English is used eNtensi"ely in business
and administration and has the status of a subsidiary official language/
%(4+'
it is important in
education, especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory has one or
more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular (& scheduled languages. The
=onstitution of India recognises (&( scheduled tribal groups .hich together constitute about 6.7D
of the countryJs population.
%(4&'
The (++& census reported that 8induism, .ith o"er 2++ million
adherents (2+.7D of the population), .as the largest religion in India/ it is follo.ed by Islam
(&).BD), =hristianity ((.)D), !ikhism (&.AD), -uddhism (+.2D), #ainism (+.BD), #udaism,
Loroastrianism, and the -ahZJ[ Faith.
%(4('
India has the .orldJs largest 8indu, !ikh, #ain, Loroastrian,
and -ahZJ[ populations, and has the third9largest *uslim population and the largest *uslim
population for a non9*uslim ma;ority country.
%(4)'%(4B'
Culture
*ain article, =ulture of India
$ =hola bronUe depicting 0atara;a, .ho is seen as a cosmic >ord of the 1ance and representati"e
of !hi"a
Indian cultural history spans more than B,7++ years.
%(47'
1uring the <edic period (c. &6++ T 7++
-=E), the foundations of 8indu philosophy, mythology, theology and literature .ere laid, and
many beliefs and practices .hich still eNist today, such as dh&rma, k&rma, y'#a, and mok a, .ere
established.
%&4'
India is notable for its religious di"ersity, .ith 8induism, !ikhism, Islam,
=hristianity, and #ainism among the nationJs ma;or religions.
%(44'
The predominant religion,
8induism, has been shaped by "arious historical schools of thought, including those of the
(panishads,
%(46'
the )o#a Sutras, the Bhakti mo"ement,
%(44'
and by -uddhist philosophy.
%(42'
Art and architecture
*uch of Indian architecture, including the Ta; *ahal, other .orks of *ughal architecture, and
!outh Indian architecture, blends ancient local traditions .ith imported styles.
%(4A'
<ernacular
architecture is also highly regional in it fla"ours. Vastu shastra, literally science of construction or
architecture and ascribed to *amuni *ayan,
%(6+'
eNplores ho. the la.s of nature affect human
d.ellings/
%(6&'
it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect percei"ed cosmic
constructs.
%(6('
$s applied in 8indu temple architecture, it is influenced by the Shipa Shastras, a
series of foundational teNts .hose basic mythological form is the Vastu*+urusha mandaa, a sCuare
that embodied the absolute.
%(6)'
The Ta; *ahal, built in $gra bet.een &4)& and &4B2 by orders of
Emperor !hah #ahan in memory of his .ife, has been described in the ?0E!=I World 8eritage
>ist as the ;e.el of *uslim art in India and one of the uni"ersally admired masterpieces of the
.orldJs heritage.
%(6B'
Indo9!aracenic Re"i"al architecture, de"eloped by the -ritish in the late &Ath
century, dre. on Indo9Islamic architecture.
%(67'
Literature
The earliest literary .ritings in India, composed bet.een &B++ -=E and &(++ =E, .ere in the
!anskrit language.
%(64'%(66'
:rominent .orks of this !anskrit literature include epics such as the
Mahbhrata and the Ramayana, the dramas of @\lid\sa such as the $bhij,na-kuntaam (The
Re%o#nition o" .akunta), and poetry such as the Mahk/ya.
%(62'%(6A'%(2+'
@amasutra, the famous
book about seNual intercourse also originated in India. 1e"eloped bet.een 4++ -=E and )++ =E in
!outh India, the San#am literature, consisting of (,)2& poems, is regarded as a predecessor of Tamil
literature.
%(2&'%(2('%(2)'%(2B'
From the &Bth to the &2th centuries, IndiaJs literary traditions .ent through a
period of drastic change because of the emergence of de"otional poets such as @ab]r, Tuls]d\s, and
Muru 0\nak. This period .as characterised by a "aried and .ide spectrum of thought and
eNpression/ as a conseCuence, medie"al Indian literary .orks differed significantly from classical
traditions.
%(27'
In the &Ath century, Indian .riters took a ne. interest in social Cuestions and
psychological descriptions. In the (+th century, Indian literature .as influenced by the .orks of
-engali poet and no"elist Rabindranath Tagore.
%(24'
!erforming arts
!arod performance at the *usWe Muimet, :aris
Indian music ranges o"er "arious traditions and regional styles. =lassical music encompasses t.o
genres and their "arious folk offshoots, the northern 8industani and southern =arnatic schools.
%(26'

Regionalised popular forms include filmi and folk music/ the syncretic tradition of the baus is a
.ell9kno.n form of the latter. Indian dance also features di"erse folk and classical forms. $mong
the better9kno.n folk dances are the bhan#ra of the :un;ab, the bihu of $ssam, the %hhau of
Idisha, West -engal and #harkhand,Garba and 0andiya of Mu;arat, sambapuri of Idisha,
#hoomar of Ra;asthan, and the a/ani of *aharashtra. Eight dance forms, many .ith narrati"e
forms and mythological elements, ha"e been accorded classical dance status by IndiaJs 0ational
$cademy of *usic, 1ance, and 1rama. These are, bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil 0adu,
kathak of ?ttar :radesh, kathakai and mohiniyattam of @erala, ku%hipudi of $ndhra :radesh,
manipuri of *anipur, odissi of Idisha, and the sattriya of $ssam.
%(22'
Theatre in India melds music,
dance, and impro"ised or .ritten dialogue.
%(2A'
Iften based on 8indu mythology, but also borro.ing
from medie"al romances or social and political e"ents, Indian theatre includes the bha/ai of
Mu;arat, the jatra of West -engal, the nautanki and ramia of 0orth India, tamasha of *aharashtra,
burrakatha of $ndhra :radesh, terukkuttu of Tamil 0adu, and the yaksha#ana of @arnataka.
%(A+'
Motion pictures
The Indian film industry produces the .orldJs most9.atched cinema.
%(A&'
Established regional
cinematic traditions eNist in the $ssamese, -engali, 8indi, @annada, *alayalam, :un;abi, Mu;arati,
*arathi, Iriya, Tamil, and Telugu languages.
%(A('
!outh Indian cinema attracts more than 67D of
national film re"enue.
%(A)'
Tele"ision broadcasting began in India in &A7A as a state9run medium of
communication, and had slo. eNpansion for more than t.o decades.
%(AB'
The state monopoly on
tele"ision broadcast ended in the &AA+s and, since then, satellite channels ha"e increasingly shaped
popular culture of Indian society.
%(A7'
Today, tele"ision is the most penetrati"e media in India/
industry estimates indicate that as of (+&( there are o"er 77B million T< consumers, B4( million
.ith satellite andEor cable connections, compared to other forms of mass media such as press ()7+
million), radio (&74 million) or internet ()6 million).
%(A4'
&ociety
$ =hristian .edding in *adurai, Tamil 0adu. =hristianity is belie"ed to ha"e been introduced to
India by the late (nd century by !yriac9speaking =hristians.
Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system
embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian
subcontinent. !ocial classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often
termed as jtis, or castes.
%(A6'
India declared untouchability to be illegal
%(A2'
in &AB6 and has since
enacted other anti9discriminatory la.s and social .elfare initiati"es. $t the .orkplace in urban
India and in international or leading Indian companies, the caste related identification has pretty
much lost its importance.
%(AA'%)++'
Family "alues are important in the Indian tradition, and multi9
generational patriarchal ;oint families ha"e been the norm in India, though nuclear families are
becoming common in urban areas.
%)+&'
$n o"er.helming ma;ority of Indians, .ith their consent,
ha"e their marriages arranged by their parents or other family members.
%)+('
*arriage is thought to
be for life,
%)+('
and the di"orce rate is eNtremely lo..
%)+)'
=hild marriages are common, especially in
rural areas/ many .omen in India .ed before reaching &2, .hich is their legal marriageable age.
%)+B'

Female infanticide in India and female foeticide in India ha"e caused a discrepancy in the seN ratio,
as of (++7 it .as estimated that there .ere 7+ million more males than females in the nation.
%)+7'%)+4'

8o.e"er the recent report from (+&& sho.n impro"ement among the gender ratio.
%)+6'
The payment
of 1o.ry, although illegal, remains .idespread across class lines.
%)+2'
1eaths resulting from do.ry,
mostly from bride burning, is on the rise.
%)+A'
*any Indian festi"als are religious in origin/ among them are =hhath, =hristmas, 1i.ali, 1urga
:u;a, -akr9Id, Eid ul9Fitr, Manesh =haturthi, 8oli, *akar !ankranti or ?ttarayan, 0a"ratri, Thai
:ongal, and <aisakhi. India has three national holidays .hich are obser"ed in all states and union
territories, Republic 1ay, Independence 1ay, and Mandhi #ayanti. Ither sets of holidays, "arying
bet.een nine and t.el"e, are officially obser"ed in indi"idual states.
Throughout India, many people practice customs and religious rituals, such as !a sk\ra, .hich
is a series of personal sacraments and rites conducted at "arious stages throughout life.
%)&+'
Clothing
*ain article, =lothing in India
=otton .as domesticated in India by B+++ -.=.E. Traditional Indian dress "aries in colour and style
across regions and depends on "arious factors, including climate and faith. :opular styles of dress
include draped garments such as the sari for .omen and the dhoti or un#i for men. !titched
clothes, such as the sha1ar kamee! for .omen and kurtaTpyjama combinations or European9style
trousers and shirts for men, are also popular.
%)&&'
?se of delicate ;e.ellery, modelled on real flo.ers
.orn in ancient India, is part of a tradition dating back some 7,+++ years/ gemstones are also .orn
in India as talismans.
%)&('
&port
*ain article, !port in India
=ricket is the most popular game among IndiaJs masses. !ho.n here is an instance of street cricket.
In India, se"eral traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddi, kho kho,
peh1ani and #ii*danda. !ome of the earliest forms of $sian martial arts, such as kaarippayattu,
musti yuddha, siambam, and marma adi, originated in India. =hess, commonly held to ha"e
originated in India as %hatura #a, is regaining .idespread popularity .ith the rise in the number of
Indian grandmasters.
%)&)'%)&B'
+a%hisi, from .hich parcheesi deri"es, .as played on a giant marble
court by $kbar.
%)&7'
Indian chess grandmaster and former .orld champion <ish.anathan $nand competes at a chess
tournament in (++7. =hess is commonly belie"ed to ha"e originated in India in the 7th century.
The impro"ed results garnered by the Indian 1a"is =up team and other Indian tennis players in the
early (+&+s ha"e made tennis increasingly popular in the country.
%)&4'
India has a comparati"ely
strong presence in shooting sports, and has .on se"eral medals at the Ilympics, the World
!hooting =hampionships, and the =ommon.ealth Mames.
%)&6'%)&2'
Ither sports in .hich Indians
ha"e succeeded internationally include badminton,
%)&A'
boNing,
%)(+'
and .restling.
%)(&'
Football is
popular in West -engal, Moa, Tamil 0adu, @erala, and the north9eastern states.
%)(('
Field hockey in India is administered by 8ockey India. The Indian national hockey team .on the
&A67 8ockey World =up and ha"e, as of (+&(, taken eight gold, one sil"er, and t.o bronUe
Ilympic medals, making it the sportJs most successful team in the Ilympics.
In a career of t.enty four9year span, !achin Tendulkar has created almost all batting records,
including most runs in both tests and I1Is and most number of centuries in both tests and I1Is,
thus making him the most successful cricketer e"er.
India has also played a ma;or role in popularising cricket. Thus, cricket is, by far, the most popular
sport of India. The Indian national cricket team .on the &A2) and (+&& =ricket World =up e"ents,
the (++6 I== World T.enty(+, shared the (++( I== =hampions Trophy .ith !ri >anka, and .on
(+&) I== =hampions Trophy. =ricket in India is administered by the -oard of =ontrol for =ricket
in India (-==I)/ the Ran;i Trophy, the 1uleep Trophy, the 1eodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy, and
the 0@: !al"e =hallenger Trophy are domestic competitions. The -==I is also responsible for
conducting an annual T.enty(+ competition kno.n as the Indian :remier >eague.
India has hosted or co9hosted se"eral international sporting e"ents, the &A7& and &A2( $sian
Mames/ the &A26, &AA4, and (+&& =ricket World =up tournaments/ the (++) $fro9$sian Mames/ the
(++4 I== =hampions Trophy/ the (+&+ 8ockey World =up/ and the (+&+ =ommon.ealth Mames.
*a;or international sporting e"ents held annually in India include the =hennai Ipen, the *umbai
*arathon, the 1elhi 8alf *arathon, and the Indian *asters. The first Indian Mrand :riN featured in
late (+&&.
%)()'
India has traditionally been the dominant country at the !outh $sian Mames. $n eNample of this
dominance is the basketball competition .here Team India .on three out of four tournaments to
date.
%)(B'
The Ra;i" Mandhi @hel Ratna and the $r;una $.ard are the highest forms of go"ernment
recognition for athletic achie"ement/ the 1ronacharya $.ard is a.arded for eNcellence in coaching.
&ee also
Iutline of India
!tates of India
India portal
Asia portal
Notes
&. %...' Jana Gana Mana is the 0ational $nthem of India, sub;ect to such alterations in
the .ords as the Mo"ernment may authorise as occasion arises/ and the song Vande
Mataram, .hich has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be
honoured eCually .ith Jana Gana Mana and shall ha"e eCual status .ith it. (=onstituent
$ssembly of India &A7+).
(. The countryJs eNact siUe is sub;ect to debate because some borders are disputed. The
Indian go"ernment lists the total area as ),(26,(4+ km
(
(&,(4A,((+ sC mi) and the total land
area as ),+4+,7++ km
(
(&,&2&,6++ sC mi)/ the ?nited 0ations lists the total area as
),(26,(4) km
(
(&,(4A,(&A sC mi) and total land area as (,A6),&A+ km
(
(&,&B6,A4+ sC mi).
(>ibrary of =ongress (++B).
). !ee also, Ifficial names of India
B. The Mo"ernment of India regards $fghanistan as a bordering country, as it considers
all of @ashmir to be part of India. 8o.e"er, this is disputed, and the region bordering
$fghanistan is administered by :akistan. !ource, *inistry of 8ome $ffairs (1epartment of
-order *anagement) (1I=). Retrie"ed & !eptember (++2.
%dead ink'
.
7. The northernmost point under Indian control is the disputed !iachen Mlacier in
#ammu and @ashmir/ ho.e"er, the Mo"ernment of India regards the entire region of the
former princely state of #ammu and @ashmir, including the 0orthern $reas administered by
:akistan, to be its territory. It therefore assigns the longitude )63 4J to its northernmost point.
References
&. 0ational Informatics =entre (++7.
(. Wolpert (++), p. &.
). 0ational !ymbols ^ 0ational :ortal of India. India.go".in. Retrie"ed 4 #uly (+&).
B. :rofile ^ 0ational :ortal of India. India.go".in. Retrie"ed () $ugust (+&).
7. Eighth !chedule. Retrie"ed & #uly (+&).
4. #ustice 8> 1attu s.orn in as chief ;ustice of !upreme =ourt. I$2S. Times of India.
Retrie"ed (A !eptember (+&B.
6. :rofile ^ 0ational :ortal of India
2. *inistry of 8ome $ffairs (+&&.
A. Report for !elected =ountries and !ub;ects. World Economic Iutlook 1atabase,
International *onetary Fund. Ictober (+&B. Retrie"ed 2 Ictober (+&B.
&+. Mini IndeN. World -ank. Retrie"ed ( *arch (+&&.
&&. 8uman 1e"elopment Report (+&B !ummary. The ?nited 0ations. Retrie"ed (B
#uly (+&B.
&(. 1unlop illustrated encyclopedia of facts, p. A&, by 0orris *cWhirter, Ross
*cWhirter
&). !tein &AA2, pp. &4T&6.
&B. Mross domestic product, current prices in ?! dollars, Ict (+&). Retrie"ed )&
Ictober (+&).
&7. INford English 1ictionary.
&4. @uiper (+&+, p. 24.
&6. *inistry of >a. and #ustice (++2.
&2. @aye &AA6, pp. 4)AT4B+.
&A. Encyclop_dia -ritannica.
(+. :etraglia, $llchin Y (++6, p. 4.
(&. !ingh (++A, pp. 2ATA).
((. :ossehl (++), pp. (BT(7.
(). @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. (&T().
(B. !ingh (++A, p. &2&.
(7. :ossehl (++), p. (.
(4. !ingh (++A, p. (77.
(6. !ingh (++A, pp. &24T&26.
(2. WitUel (++), pp. 42T4A.
(A. @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, p. )&.
)+. !tein (+&+, p. B6.
)&. @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. B&TB).
)(. !ingh (++A, p. (++.
)). !ingh (++A, pp. (7+T(7&.
)B. !ingh (++A, pp. (4+9(47.
)7. @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. 7)T7B.
)4. @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. 7BT74.
)6. !tein &AA2, p. (&.
)2. !tein &AA2, pp. 46T42.
)A. !ingh (++A, pp. )&(T)&).
B+. !ingh (++A, p. )++.
B&. !ingh (++A, p. )&A.
B(. !tein &AA2, pp. 62T6A.
B). @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, p. 6+.
BB. !ingh (++A, p. )46.
B7. @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, p. 4).
B4. !tein &AA2, pp. 2ATA+.
B6. !ingh (++A, pp. B+2TB&7.
B2. !tein &AA2, pp. A(TA7.
BA. @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. 2ATA&.
7+. !ingh (++A, p. 7B7.
7&. !tein &AA2, pp. A2TAA.
7(. !tein &AA2, p. &)(.
7). !tein &AA2, pp. &&AT&(+.
7B. !tein &AA2, pp. &(&T&((.
77. !tein &AA2, p. &().
74. !tein &AA2, p. &(B.
76. !tein &AA2, pp. &(6T&(2.
72. >udden (++(, p. 42.
7A. $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. B6.
4+. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. 4.
4&. >udden (++(, p. 46.
4(. $sher Y Talbot (++2, pp. 7+T7&.
4). $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. 7).
4B. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &(.
47. Robb (++&, p. 2+.
44. !tein &AA2, p. &4B.
46. $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. &&7.
42. Robb (++&, pp. A+TA&.
4A. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &6.
6+. $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. &7(.
6&. $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. &72.
6(. !tein &AA2, p. &4A.
6). $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. &24.
6B. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. ()T(B.
67. $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. (74.
64. Regional states, c. &6++T&27+. Encyclop_dia -ritannica, Inc.
66. $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. (24.
62. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. BBTBA.
6A. Robb (++&, pp. A2T&++.
2+. >udden (++(, pp. &(2T&)(.
2&. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. 7&T77.
2(. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. 42T6&.
2). $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. (2A.
2B. Robb (++&, pp. &7&T&7(.
27. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. ABTAA.
24. -ro.n &AAB, p. 2).
26. :eers (++4, p. 7+.
22. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. &++T&+).
2A. -ro.n &AAB, pp. 27T24.
A+. !tein &AA2, p. ()A.
A&. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. &+)T&+2.
A(. Robb (++&, p. &2).
A). !arkar &A2), pp. &TB.
AB. =opland (++&, pp. iNTN.
A7. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &().
A4. !tein &AA2, p. (4+.
A6. -ose Y #alal (+&&, p. &&6.
A2. !tein &AA2, p. (72.
AA. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &(4.
&++. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. A6.
&+&. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &4).
&+(. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &46.
&+). *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. &A7T&A6.
&+B. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. (+).
&+7. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. ()&.
&+4. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. (47T(44.
&+6. ?nited !tates 1epartment of $griculture.
&+2. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. (44T(6+.
&+A. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. (7).
&&+. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. (6B.
&&&. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. (B6T(B2.
&&(. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. (A)T(A7.
&&). *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. )+B.
&&B. $li Y $itchison (++7.
&&7. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. 6.
&&4. :rakash et al. (+++.
&&6. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &&.
&&2. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. 2.
&&A. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, pp. AT&+.
&(+. *inistry of Information and -roadcasting (++6, p. &.
&(&. @umar et al. (++4.
&((. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &7.
&(). 1uff &AA), p. )7).
&(B. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &4.
&(7. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &6.
&(4. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &(.
&(6. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &).
&(2. =hang &A46, pp. )A&T)AB.
&(A. :osey &AAB, p. &&2.
&)+. Wolpert (++), p. B.
&)&. 8eitUman Y Worden &AA4, p. A6.
&)(. =onser"ation International (++6.
&)). Loological !ur"ey of India (+&(, p. &.
&)B. :uri.
&)7. -asak &A2), p. (B.
&)4. Tritsch (++&.
&)6. Fisher &AA7, p. B)B.
&)2. =rame Y I.en (++(, p. &B(.
&)A. @aranth (++4.
&B+. *ace &AAB, p. B.
&B&. *inistry of En"ironments and Forests &A6(.
&B(. 1epartment of En"ironment and Forests &A22.
&B). *inistry of En"ironment and Forests.
&BB. !ecretariat of the =on"ention on Wetlands.
&B7. ?nited 0ations :opulation 1i"ision.
&B4. -urnell Y =al"ert &AAA, p. &(7.
&B6. Election =ommission of India.
&B2. !arkar (++6, p. 2B.
&BA. =hander (++B, p. &&6.
&7+. -hambhri &AA(, pp. &&2, &B).
&7&. The 8indu (++2.
&7(. 1unlea"y, 1i.akar Y 1unlea"y (++6.
&7). @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, p. )2B.
&7B. -usiness !tandard (++A.
&77. -#: first party since &A2B to .in parliamentary ma;ority on its o.n. 02$. I$0!.
&4 *ay (+&B. Retrie"ed (+ *ay (+&B.
&74. :ylee Y (++) a, p. B.
&76. 1utt &AA2, p. B(&.
&72. Wheare &A2+, p. (2.
&7A. Eche"erri9Ment (++(, pp. &AT(+.
&4+. !inha (++B, p. (7.
&4&. In RTI reply, =entre says India has no national game. Retrie"ed B $ugust (+&(.
&4(. !harma (++6, p. )&.
&4). !harma (++6, p. &)2.
&4B. Mledhill &A6+, p. &&(.
&47. !harma &A7+.
&44. !harma (++6, p. &4(.
&46. *athe. (++), p. 7(B.
&42. Mledhill &A6+, p. &(6.
&4A. !harma (++6, p. &4&.
&6+. !harma (++6, p. &B).
&6&. !harma (++6, p. )4+.
&6(. 0euborne (++), p. B62.
&6). !harma (++6, pp. ()2, (77.
&6B. !ripati &AA2, pp. B()TB(B.
&67. :ylee Y (++) b, p. )&B.
&64. >ibrary of =ongress (++B.
&66. !harma (++6, p. BA.
&62. Rothermund (+++, pp. B2, ((6.
&6A. Milbert (++(, pp. B24TB26.
&2+. !harma &AAA, p. 74.
&2&. $lford (++2.
&2(. 8eine, #orge/ R. <is.anathan ((+&&). The Ither -RI= in >atin $merica, India.
$meri%as 3uartery. Retrie"ed (A 1ecember (+&).
&2). Mhosh (++A, pp. (2(T(2A.
&2B. !isodia Y 0aidu (++7, pp. &T2.
&27. :erko"ich (++&, pp. 4+T24, &+4T&(7.
&24. @umar (+&+.
&26. 0air (++6.
&22. :andit (++A.
&2A. The 8indu (+&&.
&A+. Europa (++2.
&A&. The Times of India (++2.
&A(. -ritish -roadcasting =orporation (++A.
&A). Rediff (++2 a.
&AB. Reuters (+&+.
&A7. =urry (+&+.
&A4. Ripsman Y :aul (+&+, p. &)+.
&A6. =entral Intelligence $gency.
&A2. -ehera (+&&.
&AA. -ehera (+&(.
(++. !tockholm International :eace Research Institute (++2, p. &62.
(+&. *iglani (+&&.
(+(. !hukla (+&&.
(+). !tockholm International :eace Research Initiati"e (+&(.
(+B. International *onetary Fund (+&&, p. (.
(+7. 0ayak, Moldar Y $gra.al (+&+, p. NN".
(+4. International *onetary Fund.
(+6. Wolpert (++), p. Ni".
(+2. Irganisation for Economic =o9operation and 1e"elopment (++6.
(+A. Margan &AA(.
(&+. $lamgir (++2, pp. (), A6.
(&&. WTI &AA7.
(&(. The Times of India (++A.
(&). World Trade Irganisation (+&+.
(&B. Economist (+&&.
(&7. -onner (+&+.
(&4. Farrell Y -einhocker (++6.
(&6. !ch.ab (+&+.
(&2. !heth (++A.
(&A. Telecom Regulatory $uthority (+&&.
((+. 0atasha >omas ((4 #une (+&)). India :asses #apan To -ecome Third >argest
Mlobal !martphone *arket, $fter =hina Y ?.!.. Te%h4run%h. $I> Inc. Retrie"ed (6 #une
(+&).
((&. -usiness >ine (+&+.
(((. ENpress India (++A.
((). 0asscom (+&&T(+&(.
((B. <ishal 1utta, ET -ureau &+ #ul (+&(, +).&B:* I!T (&+ #uly (+&(). Indian biotech
industry at critical ;uncture, global biotech stabilises, Report. Economic Times. Retrie"ed
)& Ictober (+&(.
((7. Indian pharmaceutical industryKgro.th story to continue. ENpress :harma. &7
#anuary (+&(. Retrie"ed )& Ictober (+&(.
((4. -iotechnology and :harmaceutical !ector in India, sector briefing by the ?@ Trade
and In"estment (+&&, utki.go".uk
((6. Vep (+&&.
((2. 1ifferding =onsulting :ubli 4. 1ifferding.com. (+&B9+(9&&. Retrie"ed (+&B9+B9
+B.
((A. 8o. *any :eople In India :ay Income TaN` 8ardly $nyone. 4 #une (+&).
()+. World -ank (++4.
()&. World -ank a.
()(. IndiaJs rank impro"es to 77th position on global hunger indeN. India times.
Ictober &), (+&B.
()). !ocial !tatistics 1i"ision. =hildren in India (+&(, $ !tatistical $ppraisal. =entral
!tatistics Iffice, Mo"ernment of India. pp. &+T&&. Retrie"ed ( !eptember (+&).
()B. 1raUe Y Moyal (++2, p. B4.
()7. :al Y Mhosh (++6.
()4. Transparency International (+&+.
()6. -ritish -roadcasting =orporation (+&+ c.
()2. International *onetary Fund (+&&.
()A. :rice.aterhouse=oopers (+&&.
(B+. World -ank (+&+.
(B&. Fitch Re"ises IndiaJs Iutlook to 0egati"e/ $ffirms at J---9J. &2 #une (+&(.
Retrie"ed &A #une (+&(.
(B(. !Y:, India risks losing in"estment grade rating.
(B). *oodyJs reaffirms IndiaJs stable outlook. (7 $pril (+&(.
(BB. *oodyJs, Indian go"ernment single biggest factor .eighing on outlook. (4 $pril
(+&(.
(B7. *inistry of 8ome $ffairs (+&+T(+&& b.
(B4. =ensus :opulation (:1F). 4ensus o" India. *inistry of Finance India.
(B6. Rorabacher (+&+, pp. )7T)A.
(B2. World 8ealth Irganisation (++4.
(BA. -oston $nalytics (++A.
(7+. >ife eNpectancy in India (:1F). ne1spaper. Times of India.
(7&. 1e" Y Rao (++A, p. )(A.
(7(. Marg (++7.
(7). 1yson Y <isaria (++7, pp. &&7T&(A.
(7B. Ratna (++6, pp. (6&T(6(.
(77. !kolnik (++2, p. )4.
(74. !ingh (++B, p. &+4.
(76. 1har.adker (+&+, pp. &42T&AB, &24.
(72. Ittenheimer (++2, p. )+).
(7A. *allikar;un (++B.
(4+. *inistry of 8ome $ffairs &A4+.
(4&. -onner &AA+, p. 2&.
(4(. *inistry of 8ome $ffairs (+&+T(+&&.
(4). Mlobal *uslim population estimated at &.76 billion. The 8indu (2 Ictober (++A)
(4B. India =hapter !ummary (+&(
%dead ink'
(47. @uiper (+&+, p. &7.
(44. 8eehs (++(, pp. (T7.
(46. 1eutsch &A4A, pp. ), 62.
(42. 0akamura &AAA.
(4A. @uiper (+&+, pp. (A4T)(A.
(6+. !il"erman (++6, p. (+.
(6&. @umar (+++, p. 7.
(6(. Roberts (++B, p. 6).
(6). >ang Y *oleski (+&+, pp. &7&T&7(.
(6B. ?nited 0ations Educational, !cientific, and =ultural Irganisation.
(67. =hopra (+&&, p. B4.
(64. 8oiberg Y Ramchandani (+++.
(66. !arma (++A.
(62. #ohnson (++2.
(6A. *ac1onell (++B, pp. &TB+.
(2+. @\lid\sa Y #ohnson (++&.
(2&. L"elebil &AA6, p. &(.
(2(. 8art &A67.
(2). Encyclop_dia -ritannica (++2.
(2B. Ramanu;an &A27, pp. iNTN.
(27. 1as (++7.
(24. 1atta (++4.
(26. *assey Y *assey &AA2.
(22. Encyclop_dia -ritannica b.
(2A. >al (++B, pp. (), )+, ()7.
(A+. @aranth (++(, p. (4.
(A&. 1issanayake Y Mokulsing (++B.
(A(. Ra;adhyaksha Y Willemen &AAA, p. 47(.
(A). The Economic Times.
(AB. @aminsky Y >ong (+&&, pp. 42BT4A(.
(A7. *ehta (++2, pp. &T&+.
(A4. *edia Research ?sers =ouncil (+&(.
(A6. !ch.artUberg (+&&.
(A2. !piritual Terrorism, !piritual $buse from the Womb to the Tomb, p. )A&, by -oyd
=. :urcell
(AA. *essner (++A, p. 7&97).
)++. *essner (+&(, p. (69(2.
)+&. *akar (++6.
)+(. *edora (++).
)+). #ones Y Ramdas (++7, p. &&&.
)+B. =ullen91upont (++A, p. A4.
)+7. -unting (+&&.
)+4. $gni"esh (++7.
)+6. =ensus of India9Mender =omposition (+&&
)+2. Woman killed o"er do.ry be"ery hourX in India. telegraph.com. ( !eptember (+&).
Retrie"ed &+ February (+&B.
)+A. Rising number of do.ry deaths in India,0=R-. thehindu.com. 6 $ugust (+&).
Retrie"ed &+ February (+&B.
)&+. India. Encyclop_dia -ritannica. Encyclop_dia -ritannica Inline. Encyclop_dia
-ritannica Inc., (+&B. Web. Retrie"ed (+ #an. (+&B.
)&&. Tarlo &AA4, pp. Nii, Nii, &&, &7, (2, B4.
)&(. Eraly (++2, p. &4+.
)&). Wolpert (++), p. (.
)&B. Rediff (++2 b.
)&7. -inmore (++6, p. A2.
)&4. The Wall !treet #ournal (++A.
)&6. -ritish -roadcasting =orporation (+&+ b.
)&2. The Times of India (+&+.
)&A. -ritish -roadcasting =orporation (+&+ a.
)(+. *int (+&+.
)(&. ca"ier (+&+.
)((. *a;umdar Y -andyopadhyay (++4, pp. &T7.
)(). 1ehe;ia (+&&.
)(B. -asketball team named for &&th !outh $sian Mames. 0ation.com.pk. ( #anuary
(+&+. Retrie"ed 2 *arch (+&).
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8eitUman, #./ Worden, R. >. ($ugust &AA4), India7 $ 4ountry Study, $rea 8andbook !eries,
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+ro/isiona +opuation Totas 8 4ensus 9:;;, <""i%e o" the Re#istrar Genera and 4ensus
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4onstituent $ssemby o" India=Voume >II, 4onstituent $ssemby o" India7 0ebates
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(+&&
There?s 2o 2ationa Lan#ua#e in India7 Gujarat Hi#h 4ourt, The Times If India, 4 #anuary
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Table &, 8uman 1e"elopment IndeN and its =omponents (:1F), Human 0e/eopment
Report 9:;;, ?nited 0ations, (+&&
*tymology
Hindustan, Encyclop_dia -ritannica, retrie"ed &6 #uly (+&&
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@uiper, @., ed. (#uly (+&+), 4uture o" India, Rosen :ublishing Mroup, I!-0 A629&94&7)+9
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4onstitution o" India (:1F), *inistry of >a. and #ustice, (A #uly (++2, retrie"ed ) *arch
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$ltamira, I!-0 A629+967A&9+&6(9(
Robb, :. ((++&), $ History o" India, >ondon, :algra"e, I!-0 A629+9)))94A&(A92
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!ingh, ?. ((++A), $ History o" $n%ient and Medie/a India7 6rom the Stone $#e to the ;9th
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!ripati, <. (&AA2), To1ard 6i"ty )ears o" 4onstitutionaism and 6undamenta Ri#hts in
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!tein, -. (&4 #une &AA2), $ History o" India (&st ed.), INford, Wiley9-lack.ell, I!-0 A629
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!tein, -. ((6 $pril (+&+), $rnold, 1., ed., $ History o" India ((nd ed.), INford, Wiley9
-lack.ell, I!-0 A629&9B+7&9A7+A94
Brie"in# Rooms7 India, A%onomi% Resear%h Ser/i%e (?nited !tates 1epartment of
$griculture), &6 1ecember (++A
Thapar, Romila ((++)), +en#uin history o" eary India7 "rom the ori#ins to $J0J;K::,
:enguin -ooks, retrie"ed &) February (+&(
WitUel, *ichael ((++)), <edas and ?pani ads , in Ma"in 1. Flood, The Ba%k1e
%ompanion to Hinduism, #ohn Wiley Y !ons, I!-0 A629+94)&9(&7)794, retrie"ed &7 *arch
(+&(
Wolpert, !. ((7 1ecember (++)), $ 2e1 History o" India (6th ed.), INford ?ni"ersity :ress,
I!-0 A629+9&A97&44629&
Geography
$li, #. R./ $itchison, #. =. ((++7), Greater India, Aarth*S%ien%e Re/ie1s 01 ()TB), &6+T&6),
doi,&+.&+&4E;.earscire".(++7.+6.++7
=hang, #. 8. (&A46), The Indian Summer Monsoon, Geo#raphi%a Re/ie1 20 ()), )6)T)A4,
doi,&+.()+6E(&(4B+
6orest H4onser/ationI $%tB ;EC: 1ith $mendments Made in ;ECC (:1F), 1epartment of
En"ironment and Forests, Mo"ernment of the $ndaman and 0icobar Islands, &A22, retrie"ed
(7 #uly (+&&
1ikshit, @. R./ !ch.artUberg, #oseph E., >and, India, An%y%opLdia Britanni%a, &T(A
1uff, 1. ((A Ictober &AA)), Homes +rin%ipes o" +hysi%a Geoo#y (Bth ed.), Routledge,
I!-0 A629+96B269B)2&9+
@umar, <. !./ :athak, @. =./ :ednekar, :./ Ra;u, 0. !. 0. ((++4), 4oasta pro%esses aon#
the Indian %oastine (:1F), 4urrent S%ien%e 3( (B), 7)+T7)4
India )earbook 9::G, 0e. 1elhi, :ublications 1i"ision, *inistry of Information and
-roadcasting, Mo"ernment of India, (++6, I!-0 A6292&9()+9&B()9B
:osey, =. $. (& 0o"ember &AAB), The Li/in# Aarth Book o" 5ind and 5eather, ReaderJs
1igest, I!-0 A629+92A76694(79A
:rakash, -./ @umar, !./ Rao, *. !./ Miri, !. =. ((+++), Hoo%ene Te%toni% Mo/ements and
Stress 6ied in the 5estern Gan#eti% +ains (:1F), 4urrent S%ien%e 03 (B), B)2TBBA
+iodiersity
$li, !./ Ripley, !. 1./ 1ick, #. 8. (&7 $ugust &AA4), $ +i%toria Guide to the Birds o" the
Indian Sub%ontinent ((nd ed.), *umbai, INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9&A974)6)(92
$nima 0is%o/eries 9:;;7 2e1 Spe%ies and 2e1 Re%ords (:1F), Loological !ur"ey of
India, (+&(, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&(
-asak, R. @. (&A2)), Botani%a Sur/ey o" India7 $%%ount o" Its AstabishmentB 0e/eopmentB
and $%ti/ities, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
Hotspots by Re#ion, Biodi/ersity Hotspots (=onser"ation International), (++6, retrie"ed (2
February (+&&
=rame, #. $./ I.en, $. W. (& $ugust (++(), +aaeobio#eo#raphy and Biodi/ersity 4han#e7
The <rdo/i%ian and Meso!oi%84eno!oi% Radiations, Meological !ociety !pecial :ublication
(&AB), Meological !ociety of >ondon, I!-0 A629&924()A9&+49(, retrie"ed 2 1ecember (+&&
Fisher, W. F. (#anuary &AA7), To1ard Sustainabe 0e/eopmentM7 Stru##in# o/er India?s
2armada Ri/er, =olumbia ?ni"ersity !eminars, *. E. !harpe, I!-0 A629&974)(B9)B&96
Mriffiths, *. (4 #uly (+&+), The Lotus 3uest7 In Sear%h o" the Sa%red 6o1er, !t. *artinJs
:ress, I!-0 A629+9)&(94B&B29&
@aranth, @. :. ((7 *arch (++4), <ut*o"*India Gond1anan <ri#in o" Some Tropi%a $sian
Biota (:1F), 4urrent S%ien%e (Indian $cademy of !ciences) 34 (4), 62AT6A(, retrie"ed &2
*ay (+&&
*ace, M. *. (*arch &AAB), ;EEF I(42 Red List o" Threatened $nimas, 5ord
4onser/ation Monitorin# 4entre (International ?nion for =onser"ation of 0ature),
I!-0 A629(92)&69+&AB9)
Biosphere Reser/es o" India, 4J +J RJ An/ironment Adu%ation 4entre (*inistry of
En"ironment and Forests, Mo"ernment of India), retrie"ed &6 #uly (+&&
Indian 5idi"e H+rote%tionI $%tB ;EG9, *inistry of En"ironments and Forests, Mo"ernment
of India, A !eptember &A6(, retrie"ed (7 #uly (+&&
:uri, !. @., Biodi/ersity +ro"ie o" India, retrie"ed (+ #une (++6
The List o" 5etands o" Internationa Importan%e (:1F), The !ecretariat of the =on"ention
on Wetlands, B #une (++6, p. &2, archi"ed from the original on (& #une (++6, retrie"ed (+
#une (++6
Tritsch, *. F. () !eptember (++&), 5idi"e o" India, >ondon, 8arper=ollins, I!-0 A629+9
++96&&+4(9A
!olitics
-hambhri, =. :. (& *ay &AA(), +oiti%s in IndiaB ;EE;8;EE9, !hipra, I!-0 A6292&927B+(9
&692, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
-urnell, :. #./ =al"ert, :. (& *ay &AAA), The Resiien%e o" 0emo%ra%y7 +ersistent +ra%ti%eB
0urabe Idea (&st ed.), Taylor Y Francis, I!-0 A629+96&B492+(49(, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
Se%ond (+$ 5inB $ 4ro1nin# Gory "or Sonia?s $s%endan%y, -usiness !tandard, &4 *ay
(++A, retrie"ed &) #une (++A
=hander, 0. #. (& #anuary (++B), 4oaition +oiti%s7 The Indian A@perien%e, =oncept
:ublishing =ompany, I!-0 A6292&92+4A9+A(9&, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
1unlea"y, :./ 1i.akar, R./ 1unlea"y, =. ((++6), The A""e%ti/e Spa%e o" +arty 4ompetition
(:1F) (7), >ondon !chool of Economics and :olitical !cience, retrie"ed (6 !eptember (+&&
1utt, !. (&AA2), Identities and the Indian State7 $n </er/ie1, Third 5ord 3uartery (3 ()),
B&&TB)B, doi,&+.&+2+E+&B)47AA2&B)(7
Eche"erri9Ment, #. (#anuary (++(), :olitics in IndiaJs 1ecentred :olity, in $yres, $./
Ildenburg, :., 3ui%kenin# the +a%e o" 4han#e, India -riefing, >ondon, *. E. !harpe,
pp. &AT7), I!-0 A629+964749+2&(9)
4urrent Re%o#nised +arties (:1F), Ae%tion 4ommission o" India, &B *arch (++A, retrie"ed
7 #uly (+&+
Mledhill, $. ()+ *arch &A6+), The Repubi% o" India7 The 0e/eopment o" its La1s and
4onstitution, Mreen.ood, I!-0 A629+92)6&9(2&)9A, retrie"ed (& #uly (+&&
2arasimha Rao +asses $1ay, The 8indu, (B 1ecember (++B, retrie"ed ( 0o"ember (++2
*athe., @. *. (& #anuary (++)), Manorama )earbook, *alayala *anorama, I!-0 A6292&9
A++B4&929), retrie"ed (& #uly (+&&
2ationa Symbos o" India, Nno1 India (0ational Informatics =entre, Mo"ernment of India),
retrie"ed (6 !eptember (++A
0euborne, -. ((++)), The Supreme 4ourt o" India, Internationa Journa o" 4onstitutiona
La1 ( (&), B64T7&+, doi,&+.&+A)EiconE&.).B64
:ylee, *. <. ((++)), The >ongest =onstitutional 1ocument, 4onstitutiona Go/ernment in
India ((nd ed.), !. =hand, I!-0 A6292&9(&A9((+)94
:ylee, *. <. ((++)), The ?nion #udiciary, The !upreme =ourt, 4onstitutiona
Go/ernment in India ((nd ed.), !. =hand, I!-0 A6292&9(&A9((+)94, retrie"ed ( 0o"ember
(++6
!arkar, 0. I. (& #anuary (++6), Sonia Gandhi7 Tryst 1ith India, $tlantic, I!-0 A6292&9(4A9
+6BB9&, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
!harma, R. (&A7+), 4abinet Go/ernment in India, +ariamentary $""airs / (&), &&4T&(4
!harma, -. @. ($ugust (++6), Introdu%tion to the 4onstitution o" India (Bth ed.), :rentice
8all, I!-0 A6292&9(+)9)(B49&
!inha, $. ((++B), The 4han#in# +oiti%a A%onomy o" 6ederaism in India, India Re/ie1 '
(&), (7T4), doi,&+.&+2+E&B6)4B2+BA+BB)+27
5ord?s Lar#est 0emo%ra%y to Rea%h <ne Biion +ersons on Independen%e 0ay, ?nited
0ations :opulation 1i"ision, retrie"ed 7 Ictober (+&&
Wheare, @. =. (#une &A2+), 6edera Go/ernment (Bth ed.), INford ?ni"ersity :ress,
I!-0 A629+9)&)9((6+(92
-oreign relations and military
$lford, :. (6 #uly (++2), GC +us D AOuas +o1er Shi"t, The $ustralian, retrie"ed (&
0o"ember (++A
-ehera, >. @. (6 *arch (+&&), Bud#etin# "or India?s 0e"en%e7 $n $naysis o" 0e"en%e
Bud#et 9:;;89:;9, Institute for 1efence !tudies and $nalyses, retrie"ed B $pril (+&&
-ehera, >. @. ((+ *arch (+&(), India?s 0e"en%e Bud#et 9:;98;K, Institute for 1efence
!tudies and $nalyses, retrie"ed (4 *arch (+&(
Russia $#rees India 2u%ear 0ea, BB4 2e1s (-ritish -roadcasting =orporation), &&
February (++A, retrie"ed (( $ugust (+&+
=urry, -. ((6 #une (+&+), 4anada Si#ns 2u%ear 0ea 1ith India, The Mlobe and *ail,
retrie"ed &) *ay (+&&
IndiaB Aurope Strate#i% Reations, Auropa7 Summaries o" A( Le#isation (European ?nion),
2 $pril (++2, retrie"ed &B #anuary (+&&
Mhosh, $. (& !eptember (++A), India?s 6orei#n +oi%y, :earson, I!-0 A6292&9)&69&+(792
Milbert, *. (&6 1ecember (++(), $ History o" the T1entieth 4entury, William *orro.,
I!-0 A629+9+49+7+7AB9), retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
IndiaB Russia Re/ie1 0e"en%e Ties, The 8indu, 7 Ictober (++A, retrie"ed 2 Ictober (+&&
@umar, $. <. (& *ay (+&+), Re"ormin# the 2+T to In%ude India, Buetin o" $tomi%
S%ientists, retrie"ed & 0o"ember (+&+
%dead ink'
*iglani, !. ((2 February (+&&), 5ith $n Aye on 4hinaB India Steps (p 0e"en%e Spendin#,
Reuters, retrie"ed 4 #uly (+&&
0air, <. @. ((++6), 2o More $mbi#uity7 India?s 2u%ear +oi%y (:1F), archi"ed from the
original on (6 !eptember (++6, retrie"ed 6 #une (++6
:andit, R. ((6 #uly (++A), 2*Submarine to Gi/e India 4ru%ia Third Le# o" 2uke Triad, The
Times of India, retrie"ed &+ *arch (+&+
:erko"ich, M. (7 0o"ember (++&), India?s 2u%ear Bomb7 The Impa%t on Goba
+roi"eration, ?ni"ersity of =alifornia :ress, I!-0 A629+97(+9()(&+97, retrie"ed (( #uly
(+&&
IndiaB 6ran%e $#ree on 4i/i 2u%ear 4ooperation, Rediff, (7 #anuary (++2, retrie"ed ((
$ugust (+&+
(NB India Si#n 4i/i 2u%ear $%%ord, Reuters, &) February (+&+, retrie"ed (( $ugust (+&+
Ripsman, 0. *./ :aul, T. <. (&2 *arch (+&+), Gobai!ation and the 2ationa Se%urity State,
INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9&A97)A)A+9), retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
Rothermund, 1. (&6 Ictober (+++), The Routed#e 4ompanion to 0e%ooni!ation,
Routledge =ompanions to 8istory (&st ed.), Routledge, I!-0 A629+9B&79)74)(9A
India Gets Its 6irst Home#ro1n 6i#hter Jet, RI$ 0o"osti, &+ #anuary (+&&, retrie"ed &
$pril (++A
!harma, !. R. (& #anuary &AAA), India8(SSR Reations ;EFG8;EG;7 6rom $mbi/aen%e to
Stead"astness (, 1isco"ery, I!-0 A6292&96&B&9B249B
!hukla, $. (7 *arch (+&&), 4hina Mat%hes India?s A@pansion in Miitary Spendin#,
-usiness !tandard, retrie"ed 4 #uly (+&&
!isodia, 0. !./ 0aidu, M. <. =. ((++7), 4han#in# Se%urity 0ynami% in Aastern $sia7 6o%us
on Japan, :romilla, I!-0 A6292&924+&A97(92
SI+RI )earbook 9::C7 $rmamentsB 0isarmamentB and Internationa Se%urity, Sto%khom
Internationa +ea%e Resear%h Institute (INford ?ni"ersity :ress), 2 $ugust (++2,
I!-0 A629+9&A9A7B2A792, retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
Rise in internationa arms trans"ers is dri/en by $sian demandB says SI+RI, Sto%khom
Internationa +ea%e Resear%h Initiati/e, &A *arch (+&(, archi"ed from the original on &)
#anuary (+&), retrie"ed (4 *arch (+&(
IndiaB (S Si#n ;9K $#reement, The Times of India, && Ictober (++2, retrie"ed (& #uly (+&&
*conomy
$lamgir, #. ((B 1ecember (++2), India?s <pen*A%onomy +oi%y7 GobaismB Ri/aryB
4ontinuity, Taylor Y Francis, I!-0 A629+9B&796642B9B, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
-onner, - ((+ *arch (+&+), Make 5ayB 5ordJ India Is on the Mo/e, =hristian !cience
*onitor, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
India Lost PFQ9bn in Ie#a 4apita 6o1sB Says Report, BB4 2e1s (-ritish -roadcasting
=orporation), &2 0o"ember (+&+, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
India Se%ond 6astest Gro1in# $uto Market $"ter 4hina, Business Line, A $pril (+&+,
retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
1raUe, #ean/ !en, $martya ((+&)), $n (n%ertain Gory7 India and Its 4ontradi%tions, $llen
>ane
India?s A%onomy7 2ot Just Rubies and +oyester Shirts, The Economist, 2 Ictober (+&&,
retrie"ed A Ictober (+&&
Indian 4ar A@ports Sur#e KQR, A@press India, &) Ictober (++A, archi"ed from the original
on ( #anuary (+&), retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Report "or See%ted 4ountries and Subje%ts7 IndiaB IndonesiaB Isami% Repubi% o" IranB
MaaysiaB +hiippinesB Sri LankaB Thaiand, International *onetary Fund, $pril (+&&,
retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Farrell, 1./ -einhocker, E. (&A *ay (++6), 2e@t Bi# Spenders7 India?s Midde 4ass,
*c@insey Y =ompany, retrie"ed &6 !eptember (+&&
Margan, E. $. (&7 $ugust &AA(), India Stumbes in Rush to a 6ree Market A%onomy, The
0e. Vork Times, retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
5ord A%onomi% <utook (pdate (:1F), International *onetary Fund, #une (+&&, retrie"ed
(( #uly (+&&
0ayak, :. -./ Moldar, -./ $gra.al, :. (&+ 0o"ember (+&+), India?s A%onomy and Gro1th7
Assays in Honour o" VJ NJ RJ VJ Rao, !$ME :ublications, I!-0 A6292&9)(&9+B7(9+
A%onomi% Sur/ey o" India 9::G7 +oi%y Brie" (:1F), Irganisation for Economic =o9
operation and 1e"elopment, Ictober (++6, retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
:al, :./ Mhosh, # (#uly (++6), IneOuaity in India7 $ Sur/ey o" Re%ent Trends (:1F),
A%onomi% and So%ia $""airs7 0AS$ 5orkin# +aper 2oJ FD (?nited 0ations), retrie"ed ()
#uly (+&&
The 5ord in 9:D:7 The $%%eeratin# Shi"t o" Goba A%onomi% +o1er7 4haen#es and
<pportunities (:1F), :rice.aterhouse=oopers, #anuary (+&&, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
!ch.ab, @. ((+&+), The Goba 4ompetiti/eness Report 9:;:89:;; (:1F), World Economic
Forum, retrie"ed &+ *ay (+&&
!heth, 0. ((2 *ay (++A), <utook "or <utsour%in# Spendin# Bri#htens, The 5a Street
Journa, retrie"ed ) Ictober (+&+
!ri"asta"a, <. =. ((++2), Introduction, in <.=. !ri"asta"a, >allan;i Mopal, 1.:.
=hattopadhyaya, History o" $#ri%uture in India Hp to %;9:: $0I, 8istory of !cience,
:hilosophy and =ulture In Indian =i"iUation, < (:art &), =oncept :ublishing =o,
I!-0 2&2+4A7(&(
In"ormation 2ote to the +ress H+ress Reease 2oJ9E S9:;;I (:1F), Telecom Regulatory
$uthority of India, 4 $pril (+&&, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
A@porters Get 5ider Market Rea%h, The Times of India, (2 $ugust (++A, retrie"ed () #uly
(+&&
4orruption +er%eption Inde@ 9:;:=India 4ontinues to be 4orrupt (:1F), Transparency
International, (4 Ictober (+&&, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
2e1 Goba +o/erty Astimates=5hat It Means "or India, World -ank, retrie"ed () #uly
(+&&
India7 (ndernourished 4hidren=$ 4a "or Re"orm and $%tion, 5ord Bank, retrie"ed ()
#uly (+&&
In%usi/e Gro1th and Ser/i%e 0ei/ery7 Buidin# on India?s Su%%ess (:1F), World -ank, (A
*ay (++4, retrie"ed 6 *ay (++A
India 4ountry </er/ie1 September 9:;:, World -ank, !eptember (+&+, retrie"ed () #uly
(+&&
Trade to A@pand by EJDR in 9:;: $"ter a 0isma 9::EB 5T< Reports, World Trade
Irganisation, (4 *arch (+&+, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Vep, E. ((6 !eptember (+&&), Re2e1 5ind +o1er Gets P9:; Miion Godman In/estment,
The Wall !treet #ournal, retrie"ed (6 !eptember (+&&
Indian IT*B+< Industry, 0$!!=I*, (+&&9(+&(, retrie"ed (( #une (+&( =heck date "alues
in, |date= (help)
(20ARST$20I2G THA 5T<7 THA <RG$2IT$TI<2 Members and <bser/ers, WTI,
&AA7, retrie"ed () #une (+&(
Demographics
-onner, $. (&AA+), $/ertin# the $po%aypse7 So%ia Mo/ements in India Today, 1uke
?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+92(()9&+B292, retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
Heath%are in India7 Report Hi#hi#hts (:1F), -oston $nalytics, #anuary (++A, retrie"ed ()
#uly (+&&
1e", !. *./ Rao, 0. =. ((++A), India7 +erspe%ti/es on AOuitabe 0e/eopment, $cademic
Foundation, I!-0 A6292&96&2294279(
1har.adker, $. ((2 Ictober (+&+), Representing IndiaJs :asts, Time, =ulture, and
:roblems of :erformance 8istoriography, in =anning, =. *./ :ostle.ait, T., Representin#
the +ast7 Assays in +er"orman%e Historio#raphy, ?ni"ersity of Io.a :ress, I!-0 A629&9
726(A9A+794, retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
1raUe, #./ Moyal, $. (A February (++A), The Future of *id91ay *eals, in -aru, R. <.,
S%hoo Heath Ser/i%es in India7 The So%ia and A%onomi% 4onte@ts, !$ME :ublications,
I!-0 A6292&962(A926)9)
1yson, T./ <isaria, :. (6 #uly (++7), *igration and ?rbanisation, Retrospect and
:rospects, in 1yson, T./ =asses, R./ <isaria, >., T1enty*6irst 4entury India7 +opuationB
A%onomyB Human 0e/eopmentB and the An/ironment, INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629
+9&A9A(2)2(92
Marg, !. =. (&A $pril (++7), Mobii!in# (rban In"rastru%ture 6inan%e in India (:1F), World
-ank, retrie"ed (6 #anuary (+&+
*allikar;un, - (0o"ember (++B), 6i"ty )ears o" Lan#ua#e +annin# "or Modern Hindi=
The <""i%ia Lan#ua#e o" India, Lan#ua#e in India / (&&), I!!0 &A)+9(AB+, retrie"ed (B
#uly (+&&
2oti"i%ation 2oJ 9SCSQ:*<JL, *inistry of 8ome $ffairs, Mo"ernment of India, (6 $pril &A4+,
retrie"ed &) *ay (+&&
Rei#ious 4omposition, <""i%e o" the Re#istrar Genera and 4ensus 4ommissioner (*inistry
of 8ome $ffairs, Mo"ernment of India), (+&+T(+&&, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
4ensus 0ata 9::;, <""i%e o" the Re#istrar Genera and 4ensus 4ommissioner (*inistry of
8ome $ffairs, Mo"ernment of India), (+&+T(+&&, retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
Ittenheimer, 8. #. ((++2), The $nthropoo#y o" Lan#ua#e7 $n Introdu%tion to Lin#uisti%
$nthropoo#y, =engage, I!-0 A629+9BA797+22B96
Ratna, ?. ((++6), Interface -et.een ?rban and Rural 1e"elopment in India, in 1utt, $.
@./ Thakur, -, 4ityB So%ietyB and +annin# (, =oncept, I!-0 A6292&92+4A9B7A9(
Robinson, !. (& *ay (++2), India?s Medi%a Amer#en%y, Time, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Rorabacher, #. $. ((+&+), Hun#er and +o/erty in South $sia, Myan, I!-0 A6292&9(&(9&+(69
+
!ingh, !. ((++B), Library and Litera%y Mo/ement "or 2ationa 0e/eopment, =oncept,
I!-0 A6292&92+4A9+4797
!kolnik, R. >. ((++2), Assentias o" Goba Heath, #ones Y -artlett >earning, I!-0 A629+9
64)69)B(&9)
4ountry 4ooperation Strate#y7 India (:1F), World 8ealth Irganisation, 0o"ember (++4,
retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Culture
$gni"esh, !.ami/ Rama *ani/ $ngelika @dester9>ossack ((7 0o"ember (++7). *issing,
7+ million Indian girls. 2e1 )ork Times. Retrie"ed )+ 1ecember (+&).
-unting, *adeleine ((( #uly (+&&). IndiaJs missing .omen. The Guardian. Retrie"ed )+
1ecember (+&).
-inmore, @. M. ((6 *arch (++6), +ayin# "or Rea7 $ Te@t on Game Theory, INford
?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9&A97)++769B
-ladholm, >. (&( $ugust (+++), The Indian Gro%ery Store 0emysti"ied (&st ed.), *acmillan
:ublishers, I!-0 A629&972+4)9&B)9)
Saina 2eh1a7 India?s Badminton Star and U2e1 5omanU, BB4 2e1s, & $ugust (+&+,
retrie"ed 7 Ictober (+&+
4ommon1eath Games 9:;:7 India 0ominate Shootin# Medas, BB4 2e1s, 6 Ictober
(+&+, retrie"ed ) #une (+&&
=hopra, :. (&2 *arch (+&&), $ Joint Anterprise7 Indian Aites and the Makin# o" British
Bombay, ?ni"ersity of *innesota :ress, I!-0 A629+92&4496+)694
=ullen91upont, @. (#uly (++A), Human Tra""i%kin# (&st ed.), Infobase :ublishing,
I!-0 A629+92&4+967B79B
1as, !. @. (& #anuary (++7), $ History o" Indian LiteratureB D::8;KEE7 6rom 4ourty to the
+opuar, !ahitya $kademi, I!-0 A6292&9(4+9(&6&9+
1atta, $. ((++4), The An%y%opaedia o" Indian Literature 1, !ahitya $kademi, I!-0 A629
2&9(4+9&&AB9+
1ehe;ia, R. !. (6 0o"ember (+&&), Indian Grand +ri@ VsJ An%ephaitisM, The 5a Street
Journa, retrie"ed (+ 1ecember (+&&
1eutsch, E. ()+ $pril &A4A), $d/aita Vednta7 $ +hiosophi%a Re%onstru%tion, ?ni"ersity
of 8a.aii :ress, I!-0 A629+92(B29+(6&9B
1issanayake, W. @./ Mokulsing, *. (*ay (++B), Indian +opuar 4inema7 $ 2arrati/e o"
4utura 4han#e ((nd ed.), Trentham -ooks, I!-0 A629&9272749)(A9A
Southern Mo/ies $%%ount "or o/er GDR o" 6im Re/enues, The Economic Times, &2
0o"ember (++A, retrie"ed &2 #une (+&&
Indian 1ance, South $sian $rts, An%y%opLdia Britanni%a, retrie"ed &6 #uly (+&&
Tami Literature, An%y%opLdia Britanni%a, (++2, retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
Eraly, $. ((++2), India, :enguin -ooks, I!-0 A629+967449BA7(9B, retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
8art, M. >. ($ugust &A67), +oems o" $n%ient Tami7 Their Miieu and Their Sanskrit
4ounterparts (&st ed.), ?ni"ersity of =alifornia :ress, I!-0 A629+97(+9+(46(92
8eehs, :., ed. (& !eptember (++(), Indian Rei#ions7 $ Histori%a Reader o" Spiritua
A@pression and A@perien%e, 0e. Vork ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+92&B69)47+9+,
retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
8enderson, =. E. ((++(), 4uture and 4ustoms o" India, Mreen.ood :ublishing Mroup,
I!-0 A629+9)&)9)+7&)9A
8oiberg, 1./ Ramchandani, I. ((+++), Students? Britanni%a India7 See%t Assays, :opular
:rakashan, I!-0 A629+927((A964(9A
#ohnson, W. #., ed. (& !eptember (++2), The Sauptikapar/an o" the Mahabharata7 The
Massa%re at 2i#ht, INford WorldJs =lassics ((nd ed.), INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629
+9&A9(2()4&92
#ones, M./ Ramdas, @. ((++7), H(nItyin# the Nnot7 Idea and Reaity in $sian Marria#e,
0ational ?ni"ersity of !ingapore :ress, I!-0 A629A2&9+79&B(29+
@\lid\sa/ #ohnson, W. #. (&7 0o"ember (++&), The Re%o#nition o" .akunta7 $ +ay in
Se/en $%ts, INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9&A9(2)A&&9B
@aminsky, $rnold :./ >ong, Roger 1. ()+ !eptember (+&&), India Today7 $n An%y%opedia
o" Li"e in the Repubi%7 $n An%y%opedia o" Li"e in the Repubi%, $-=9=>II, I!-0 A629+9
)&)9)6B4(9), retrie"ed &( !eptember (+&(
@aranth, !. @. (Ictober (++(), )aka#na, $bhina" :ublications, I!-0 A6292&96+&69)769&
@iple, @. F./ Irnelas, @. =., eds. ((+++), The 4ambrid#e 5ord History o" 6ood,
=ambridge, =ambridge ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+97(&9B+(&49)
@uiper, @., ed. (& #uly (+&+), The 4uture o" India, -ritannica Educational :ublishing,
I!-0 A629&94&7)+9(+)9&, retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
@umar, <. (#anuary (+++), Vastushastra, $ll Vou Wanted to @no. $bout !eries ((nd ed.),
!terling :ublishing, I!-0 A6292&9(+69(&AA9A
>al, $. ((++B), The <@"ord 4ompanion to Indian Theatre, INford ?ni"ersity :ress,
I!-0 A629+9&A974BBB49), retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
>ang, #./ *oleski, W. (& 1ecember (+&+), 6un%tionaism Re/isited, $shgate :ublishing,
I!-0 A629&9B+AB9+6+&9+
*ac1onell, $. $. ((++B), $ History o" Sanskrit Literature, @essinger :ublishing, I!-0 A629
&9B&6A9+4&A9(
*a;umdar, -./ -andyopadhyay, @. ((++4), $ So%ia History o" Indian 6ootba7 Stri/in# To
S%ore, Routledge, I!-0 A629+9B&79)B2)797
*akar, E. *. ((++6), $n $meri%an?s Guide to 0oin# Business in India, $dams, I!-0 A629
&97A24A9(&&9(
*assey, R./ *assey, # (&AA2), The Musi% o" India, $bhina" :ublications, I!-0 A6292&9
6+&69))(92
*edora, 0. ((++)), *ate !election in =ontemporary India, >o"e *arriages <ersus
$rranged *arriages, in 8amon, R. R./ Ingoldsby, -. -., Mate See%tion $%ross 4utures,
!$ME :ublications, pp. (+AT()+, I!-0 A629+964&A9(7A(96
*essner, W. ((++A), 5orkin# 1ith IndiaJ The So"ter $spe%ts o" a Su%%ess"u 4oaboration
1ith the Indian IT V B+< Industry, !pringer, I!-0 A629)97B+92A+6697
*essner, W. ((+&(), An#a#in# 1ith IndiaJ Ho1 to Mana#e the So"ter $spe%ts o" a Goba
4oaboration, =reatespace, I!-0 A629&9B44(BBA++
Indian Readership !ur"ey (+&( f& , Topline Findings (:1F). *edia Research ?sers
=ouncil. Mro.th, >iteracy Y *edia =onsumption. Retrie"ed &( !eptember (+&(.
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India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the Republic of India. For other uses, see India (disambiguation).
Republic of India
Bhrat Ganarjya
Flag Emblem
Motto: !atyame"a #ayate (!anskrit)
Truth $lone Triumphs
%&'
Anthem: Jana Gana Mana
Thou art the rulers of the minds of all people
%('%)'
*enu
+,++
National song:
Vande Mataram
I -o. to Thee, *other
%a'%&'%)'

*enu
+,++
$rea controlled by India sho.n in dark green/
claimed but uncontrolled regions sho.n in light green.
Capital 0e. 1elhi
(23)4.250 663&(.75E
Largest city *umbai
Official languages
8indi
English
%sho.'
Recognised regional languages 2th !chedule %sho.'
National language 0one
Demonym Indian
Goernment
Federal parliamentary
constitutional republic
%&'
9 :resident :ranab *ukher;ee
9 <ice :resident *ohammad 8amid $nsari
9 :rime *inister 0arendra *odi (-#:)
9 =hief #ustice 8. >. 1attu
%4'
9 !peaker of the 8ouse !umitra *aha;an (-#:)
Legislature :arliament of India
9 ?pper house Rajya Sabha
9 >o.er house Lok Sabha
Independence from the ?nited @ingdom
9 1ominion &7 $ugust &AB6
9 Republic (4 #anuary &A7+
Area
9 Total
),(26,7A+
%6'
km
(
%b'
(6th)
&,(4A,)B4 sC mi
9 Water (D) A.4
!opulation
9 (+&& census &,(&+,&A),B((
%2'
((nd)
9 1ensity
)2+.&Ekm
(
()&st)
A2B.7EsC mi
GD! (:::) (+&B estimate
9 Total F6.(66 trillion
%A'
()rd)
9 :er capita F7,666
%A'
(&))rd)
GD! (nominal) (+&B estimate
9 Total F(.+B6 trillion
%A'
(&+th)
9 :er capita F&,4(7
%A'
(&B)rd)
Gini ((+&+)
)).A
%&+'
medium " 6Ath
#DI ((+&))
+.724
%&&'
medium " &)7th
Currency Indian rupee ( ) (I0R)
$ime %one I!T (?T=G+7,)+)
9 !ummer (1!T) not obser"ed (?T=G+7,)+)
Date format dd9mm9yyyy (=E)
Dries on the left
Calling code GA&
I&O '()) code I0
Internet $LD
.in
other T>1s%sho.'
India (
i
En d iH E), officially the Republic of India (Bhrat Ganarjya),
%&('%c'
is a country in !outh
$sia. It is the se"enth9largest country by area, the second9most populous country .ith o"er &.(
billion people, and the most populous democracy in the .orld. -ounded by the Indian Icean on the
south, the $rabian !ea on the south9.est, and the -ay of -engal on the south9east, it shares land
borders .ith :akistan to the .est/
%d'
=hina, 0epal, and -hutan to the north9east/ and -urma and
-angladesh to the east. In the Indian Icean, India is in the "icinity of !ri >anka and the *aldi"es/
in addition, IndiaJs $ndaman and 0icobar Islands share a maritime border .ith Thailand and
Indonesia.
8ome to the ancient Indus <alley =i"ilisation and a region of historic trade routes and "ast empires,
the Indian subcontinent .as identified .ith its commercial and cultural .ealth for much of its long
history.
%&)'
Four .orld religionsK8induism, -uddhism, #ainism, and !ikhismKoriginated here,
.hereas #udaism, Loroastrianism, =hristianity, and Islam arri"ed in the &st millennium =E and also
helped shape the regionJs di"erse culture. Mradually anneNed by and brought under the
administration of the -ritish East India =ompany from the early &2th century and administered
directly by the ?nited @ingdom from the mid9&Ath century, India became an independent nation in
&AB6 after a struggle for independence that .as marked by non9"iolent resistance led by *ahatma
Mandhi.
The Indian economy is the .orldJs tenth9largest by nominal M1: and third9largest by purchasing
po.er parity (:::).
%&B'
Follo.ing market9based economic reforms in &AA&, India became one of the
fastest9gro.ing ma;or economies/ it is considered a ne.ly industrialised country. 8o.e"er, it
continues to face the challenges of po"erty, corruption, malnutrition, inadeCuate public healthcare,
and terrorism. $ nuclear .eapons state and a regional po.er, it has the third9largest standing army
in the .orld and ranks ninth in military eNpenditure among nations. India is a federal constitutional
republic go"erned under a parliamentary system consisting of (A states and 6 union territories. India
is a pluralistic, multilingual, and a multi9ethnic society. It is also home to a di"ersity of .ildlife in a
"ariety of protected habitats.
Contents
& Etymology
( 8istory
o (.& $ncient India
o (.( *edie"al India
o (.) Early modern India
o (.B *odern India
) Meography
B -iodi"ersity
7 :olitics
o 7.& Mo"ernment
o 7.( !ubdi"isions
4 Foreign relations and military
6 Economy
2 1emographics
A =ulture
o A.& $rt and architecture
o A.( >iterature
o A.) :erforming arts
o A.B *otion pictures
o A.7 !ociety
o A.4 =lothing
o A.6 !port
&+ !ee also
&& 0otes
&( References
&) -ibliography
&B ENternal links
*tymology
*ain article, 0ames of India
The name India is deri"ed from Indus, .hich originates from the Ild :ersian .ord Hindu. The
latter term stems from the !anskrit .ord Sindhu, .hich .as the historical local appellation for the
Indus Ri"er.
%&7'
The ancient Mreeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (OPQRS), .hich translates as the
people of the Indus.
%&4'
The geographical term Bharat (pronounced % b a rHt ' ( listen)), .hich is recognised by the
=onstitution of India as an official name for the country,
%&6'
is used by many Indian languages in its
"ariations. The eponym of Bharat is -harata, a theological figure that 8indu scriptures describe as a
legendary emperor of ancient India.
Hindustan (% nd st a n' ( listen)) .as originally a :ersian .ord that meant >and of the 8indus/
prior to &AB6, it referred to a region that encompassed northern India and :akistan. It is occasionally
used to solely denote India in its entirety.
%&2'%&A'
#istory
*ain articles, 8istory of India and 8istory of the Republic of India
Ancient India
The earliest authenticated human remains in !outh $sia date to about )+,+++ years ago.
%(+'
0early
contemporaneous *esolithic rock art sites ha"e been found in many parts of the Indian
subcontinent, including at the -himbetka rock shelters in *adhya :radesh.
%(&'
$round 6+++ -=E,
the first kno.n 0eolithic settlements appeared on the subcontinent in *ehrgarh and other sites in
.estern :akistan.
%(('
These gradually de"eloped into the Indus <alley =i"ilisation,
%()'
the first urban
culture in !outh $sia/
%(B'
It flourished during (4++T&A++ -=E in :akistan and .estern India.
%(7'

=entred on cities such as *ohen;o9daro, 8arappa, 1hola"ira, and @alibangan, and relying on
"aried forms of subsistence, the ci"ilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and .ide9ranging
trade.
%(B'
1uring the period (+++T7++ -=E, in terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinent
transitioned from the =halcolithic to the Iron $ge.
%(4'
The <edas, the oldest scriptures of 8induism,
%(6'
.ere composed during this period,
%(2'
and historians ha"e analysed these to posit a <edic culture
in the :un;ab region and the upper Mangetic :lain.
%(4'
*ost historians also consider this period to
ha"e encompassed se"eral .a"es of Indo9$ryan migration into the subcontinent from the north9
.est.
%(A'%(6'%)+'
The caste system arose during this period, .hich created a hierarchy of priests,
.arriors, free peasants and traders, and lastly the indigenous peoples .ho .ere regarded as impure/
and small tribal units gradually coalesced into monarchical, state9le"el polities.
%)&'%)('
In the 1eccan
:lateau, archaeological e"idence from this period suggests the eNistence of a chiefdom stage of
political organisation.
%(4'
In southern India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large
number of megalithic monuments dating from this period,
%))'
as .ell as by nearby traces of
agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions.
%))'
:aintings at the $;anta =a"es in $urangabad, *aharashtra, 4th century
In the late <edic period, around the 4th century -=E, the small states and chiefdoms of the Manges
:lain and the north9.estern regions had consolidated into &4 ma;or oligarchies and monarchies that
.ere kno.n as the mahajanapadas.
%)B'%)7'
The emerging urbanisation and the orthodoNies of this age
also created heterodoN religious mo"ements, t.o of .hich became independent religions.
-uddhism, based on the teachings of Mautama -uddha attracted follo.ers from all social classes
eNcepting the middle class/ chronicling the life of the -uddha .as central to the beginnings of
recorded history in India.
%)4'%)6'%)2'
#ainism came into prominence during the life of its eNemplar,
*aha"ira.
%)A'
In an age of increasing urban .ealth, both religions held up renunciation as an ideal,
%B+'
and both established long9lasting monastic traditions. :olitically, by the )rd century -=E, the
kingdom of *agadha had anneNed or reduced other states to emerge as the *auryan Empire.
%B&'
The
empire .as once thought to ha"e controlled most of the subcontinent eNcepting the far south, but its
core regions are no. thought to ha"e been separated by large autonomous areas.
%B('%B)'
The *auryan
kings are kno.n as much for their empire9building and determined management of public life as for
$shokaJs renunciation of militarism and far9flung ad"ocacy of the -uddhist dhamma.
%BB'%B7'
The !angam literature of the Tamil language re"eals that, bet.een (++ -=E and (++ =E, the
southern peninsula .as being ruled by the =heras, the =holas, and the :andyas, dynasties that
traded eNtensi"ely .ith the Roman Empire and .ith West and !outh9East $sia.
%B4'%B6'
In 0orth India,
8induism asserted patriarchal control .ithin the family, leading to increased subordination of
.omen.
%B2'%B&'
-y the Bth and 7th centuries, the Mupta Empire had created in the greater Manges
:lain a compleN system of administration and taNation that became a model for later Indian
kingdoms.
%BA'%7+'
?nder the Muptas, a rene.ed 8induism based on de"otion rather than the
management of ritual began to assert itself.
%7&'
The rene.al .as reflected in a flo.ering of sculpture
and architecture, .hich found patrons among an urban elite.
%7+'
=lassical !anskrit literature flo.ered
as .ell, and Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made significant ad"ances.
%7+'
Medieal India
The granite to.er of -rihadees.arar Temple in Than;a"ur .as completed in &+&+ =E by Ra;a Ra;a
=hola I.
The Indian early medie"al age, 4++ =E to &(++ =E, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural
di"ersity.
%7('
When 8arsha of @annau;, .ho ruled much of the Indo9Mangetic :lain from 4+4 to 4B6
=E, attempted to eNpand south.ards, he .as defeated by the =halukya ruler of the 1eccan.
%7)'

When his successor attempted to eNpand east.ards, he .as defeated by the :ala king of -engal.
%7)'

When the =halukyas attempted to eNpand south.ards, they .ere defeated by the :alla"as from
farther south, .ho in turn .ere opposed by the :andyas and the =holas from still farther south.
%7)'

0o ruler of this period .as able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond his
core region.
%7('
1uring this time, pastoral peoples .hose land had been cleared to make .ay for the
gro.ing agricultural economy .ere accommodated .ithin caste society, as .ere ne. non9
traditional ruling classes.
%7B'
The caste system conseCuently began to sho. regional differences.
%7B'
In the 4th and 6th centuries, the first de"otional hymns .ere created in the Tamil language.
%77'
They
.ere imitated all o"er India and led to both the resurgence of 8induism and the de"elopment of all
modern languages of the subcontinent.
%77'
Indian royalty, big and small, and the temples they
patronised, dre. citiUens in great numbers to the capital cities, .hich became economic hubs as
.ell.
%74'
Temple to.ns of "arious siUes began to appear e"ery.here as India under.ent another
urbanisation.
%74'
-y the 2th and Ath centuries, the effects .ere felt in !outh9East $sia, as !outh
Indian culture and political systems .ere eNported to lands that became part of modern9day
*yanmar, Thailand, >aos, =ambodia, <ietnam, :hilippines, *alaysia, and #a"a.
%76'
Indian
merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies .ere in"ol"ed in this transmission/ !outh9East $sians
took the initiati"e as .ell, .ith many so;ourning in Indian seminaries and translating -uddhist and
8indu teNts into their languages.
%76'
$fter the &+th century, *uslim =entral $sian nomadic clans, using s.ift9horse ca"alry and raising
"ast armies united by ethnicity and religion, repeatedly o"erran !outh $siaJs north9.estern plains,
leading e"entually to the establishment of the Islamic 1elhi !ultanate in &(+4.
%72'
The sultanate .as
to control much of 0orth India, and to make many forays into !outh India. $lthough at first
disrupti"e for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its "ast non9*uslim sub;ect population to
its o.n la.s and customs.
%7A'%4+'
-y repeatedly repulsing *ongol raiders in the &)th century, the
sultanate sa"ed India from the de"astation "isited on West and =entral $sia, setting the scene for
centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers, learned men, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from
that region into the subcontinent, thereby creating a syncretic Indo9Islamic culture in the north.
%4&'%4('
The sultanateJs raiding and .eakening of the regional kingdoms of !outh India pa"ed the .ay for
the indigenous <i;ayanagara Empire.
%4)'
Embracing a strong !hai"ite tradition and building upon the
military technology of the sultanate, the empire came to control much of peninsular India,
%4B'
and
.as to influence !outh Indian society for long after.ards.
%4)'
*arly modern India
Writing the .ill and testament of the *ughal king court in :ersian, &7A+T&7A7
In the early &4th century, northern India, being then under mainly *uslim rulers,
%47'
fell again to the
superior mobility and firepo.er of a ne. generation of =entral $sian .arriors.
%44'
The resulting
*ughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and
pacified them through ne. administrati"e practices
%46'%42'
and di"erse and inclusi"e ruling elites,
%4A'

leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule.
%6+'
Esche.ing tribal bonds and Islamic
identity, especially under $kbar, the *ughals united their far9flung realms through loyalty,
eNpressed through a :ersianised culture, to an emperor .ho had near9di"ine status.
%4A'
The *ughal
stateJs economic policies, deri"ing most re"enues from agriculture
%6&'
and mandating that taNes be
paid in the .ell9regulated sil"er currency,
%6('
caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets.
%6+'

The relati"e peace maintained by the empire during much of the &6th century .as a factor in IndiaJs
economic eNpansion,
%6+'
resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, teNtiles, and
architecture.
%6)'
0e.ly coherent social groups in northern and .estern India, such as the *arathas,
the Ra;puts, and the !ikhs, gained military and go"erning ambitions during *ughal rule, .hich,
through collaboration or ad"ersity, ga"e them both recognition and military eNperience.
%6B'

ENpanding commerce during *ughal rule ga"e rise to ne. Indian commercial and political elites
along the coasts of southern and eastern India.
%6B'
$s the empire disintegrated, many among these
elites .ere able to seek and control their o.n affairs.
%67'
The single most important po.er that
emerged in the early modern period .as the *aratha confederacy.
%64'
-y the early &2th century, .ith the lines bet.een commercial and political dominance being
increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English East India
=ompany, had established coastal outposts.
%66'%62'
The East India =ompanyJs control of the seas,
greater resources, and more ad"anced military training and technology led it to increasingly fleN its
military muscle and caused it to become attracti"e to a portion of the Indian elite/ both these factors
.ere crucial in allo.ing the =ompany to gain control o"er the -engal region by &647 and sideline
the other European companies.
%6A'%66'%2+'%2&'
Its further access to the riches of -engal and the
subseCuent increased strength and siUe of its army enabled it to anneN or subdue most of India by
the &2(+s.
%2('
India .as then no longer eNporting manufactured goods as it long had, but .as instead
supplying the -ritish empire .ith ra. materials, and many historians consider this to be the onset
of IndiaJs colonial period.
%66'
-y this time, .ith its economic po.er se"erely curtailed by the -ritish
parliament and itself effecti"ely made an arm of -ritish administration, the =ompany began to more
consciously enter non9economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.
%2)'
Modern India
The -ritish Indian Empire, from the &A+A edition of The Imperia Ga!etteer o" India. $reas directly
go"erned by the -ritish are shaded pink/ the princely states under -ritish suUerainty are in yello..
8istorians consider IndiaJs modern age to ha"e begun sometime bet.een &2B2 and &227. The
appointment in &2B2 of >ord 1alhousie as Mo"ernor Meneral of the East India =ompany set the
stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of
so"ereignty, the sur"eillance of the population, and the education of citiUens. Technological changes
Kamong them, rail.ays, canals, and the telegraphK.ere introduced not long after their
introduction in Europe.
%2B'%27'%24'%26'
8o.e"er, disaffection .ith the =ompany also gre. during this
time, and set off the Indian Rebellion of &276. Fed by di"erse resentments and perceptions,
including in"asi"e -ritish9style social reforms, harsh land taNes, and summary treatment of some
rich lando.ners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and
shook the foundations of =ompany rule.
%22'%2A'
$lthough the rebellion .as suppressed by &272, it led
to the dissolution of the East India =ompany and to the direct administration of India by the -ritish
go"ernment. :roclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited -ritish9style parliamentary
system, the ne. rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future
unrest.
%A+'%A&'
In the decades follo.ing, public life gradually emerged all o"er India, leading
e"entually to the founding of the Indian 0ational =ongress in &227.
%A('%A)'%AB'%A7'
#a.aharlal 0ehru (left) became IndiaJs first prime minister in &AB6. *ahatma Mandhi (right) led the
independence mo"ement.
The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the &Ath
century .as marked by economic setbacksKmany small farmers became dependent on the .hims
of far9a.ay markets.
%A4'
There .as an increase in the number of large9scale famines,
%A6'
and, despite
the risks of infrastructure de"elopment borne by Indian taNpayers, little industrial employment .as
generated for Indians.
%A2'
There .ere also salutary effects, commercial cropping, especially in the
ne.ly canalled :un;ab, led to increased food production for internal consumption.
%AA'
The rail.ay
net.ork pro"ided critical famine relief,
%&++'
notably reduced the cost of mo"ing goods,
%&++'
and
helped nascent Indian9o.ned industry.
%AA'
$fter World War I, in .hich some one million Indians
ser"ed,
%&+&'
a ne. period began. It .as marked by -ritish reforms but also repressi"e legislation, by
more strident Indian calls for self9rule, and by the beginnings of a non9"iolent mo"ement of non9
cooperation, of .hich *ohandas @aramchand Mandhi .ould become the leader and enduring
symbol.
%&+('
1uring the &A)+s, slo. legislati"e reform .as enacted by the -ritish/ the Indian
0ational =ongress .on "ictories in the resulting elections.
%&+)'
The neNt decade .as beset .ith
crises, Indian participation in World War II, the =ongressJs final push for non9cooperation, and an
upsurge of *uslim nationalism. $ll .ere capped by the ad"ent of independence in &AB6, but
tempered by the partition of India into t.o states, India and :akistan.
%&+B'
<ital to IndiaJs self9image as an independent nation .as its constitution, completed in &A7+, .hich
put in place a secular and democratic republic.
%&+7'
In the 4+ years since, India has had a miNed
record of successes and failures.
%&+4'
It has remained a democracy .ith ci"il liberties, an acti"e
!upreme =ourt, and a largely independent press.
%&+4'
Economic liberalisation, .hich .as begun in
the &AA+s, has created a large urban middle class, transformed India into one of the .orldJs fastest9
gro.ing economies,
%&+6'
and increased its geopolitical clout. Indian mo"ies, music, and spiritual
teachings play an increasing role in global culture.
%&+4'
Vet, India is also shaped by seemingly
unyielding po"erty, both rural and urban/
%&+4'
by religious and caste9related "iolence/
%&+2'
by *aoist9
inspired 0aNalite insurgencies/
%&+A'
and by separatism in #ammu and @ashmir and in 0ortheast India.
%&&+'
It has unresol"ed territorial disputes .ith =hina,
%&&&'
and .ith :akistan.
%&&&'
The IndiaT:akistan
nuclear ri"alry came to a head in &AA2.
%&&('
IndiaJs sustained democratic freedoms are uniCue among
the .orldJs ne. nations/ ho.e"er, in spite of its recent economic successes, freedom from .ant for
its disad"antaged population remains a goal yet to be achie"ed.
%&&)'
Geography
*ain article, Meography of India
!ee also, Meology of India
$ topographic map of India
India comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate, and part of
the Indo9$ustralian :late.
%&&B'
IndiaJs defining geological processes began 67 million years ago .hen
the Indian plate, then part of the southern supercontinent Mond.ana, began a north9east.ard drift
caused by seafloor spreading to its south9.est, and later, south and south9east.
%&&B'
!imultaneously,
the "ast Tethyn oceanic crust, to its northeast, began to subduct under the Eurasian plate.
%&&B'
These
dual processes, dri"en by con"ection in the EarthJs mantle, both created the Indian Icean and
caused the Indian continental crust e"entually to under9thrust Eurasia and to uplift the 8imalayas.
%&&B'
Immediately south of the emerging 8imalayas, plate mo"ement created a "ast trough that
rapidly filled .ith ri"er9borne sediment
%&&7'
and no. constitutes the Indo9Mangetic :lain.
%&&4'
=ut off
from the plain by the ancient $ra"alli Range lies the Thar 1esert.
%&&6'
The original Indian plate sur"i"es as peninsular India, the oldest and geologically most stable part
of India. It eNtends as far north as the !atpura and <indhya ranges in central India. These parallel
chains run from the $rabian !ea coast in Mu;arat in the .est to the coal9rich =hota 0agpur :lateau
in #harkhand in the east.
%&&2'
To the south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the 1eccan :lateau, is
flanked on the .est and east by coastal ranges kno.n as the Western and Eastern Mhats/
%&&A'
the
plateau contains the countryJs oldest rock formations, some o"er one billion years old. =onstituted
in such fashion, India lies to the north of the eCuator bet.een 43 BBJ and )73 )+J north latitude
%e'
and
423 6J and A63 (7J east longitude.
%&(+'
The @edar Range of the Mreater 8imalayas rises behind @edarnath Temple (Indian state of
?ttarakhand), .hich is one of the t.el"e jyotirin#a shrines.
IndiaJs coastline measures 6,7&6 kilometres (B,6++ mi) in length/ of this distance, 7,B() kilometres
(),B++ mi) belong to peninsular India and (,+AB kilometres (&,)++ mi) to the $ndaman, 0icobar,
and >akshad.eep island chains.
%&(&'
$ccording to the Indian na"al hydrographic charts, the
mainland coastline consists of the follo.ing, B)D sandy beaches/ &&D rocky shores, including
cliffs/ and B4D mudflats or marshy shores.
%&(&'
*a;or 8imalayan9origin ri"ers that substantially flo. through India include the Manges and the
-rahmaputra, both of .hich drain into the -ay of -engal.
%&(('
Important tributaries of the Manges
include the Vamuna and the @osi/ the latterJs eNtremely lo. gradient often leads to se"ere floods
and course changes.
%&()'
*a;or peninsular ri"ers, .hose steeper gradients pre"ent their .aters from
flooding, include the Moda"ari, the *ahanadi, the @a"eri, and the @rishna, .hich also drain into
the -ay of -engal/
%&(B'
and the 0armada and the Tapti, .hich drain into the $rabian !ea.
%&(7'
=oastal
features include the marshy Rann of @utch of .estern India and the allu"ial !undarbans delta of
eastern India/ the latter is shared .ith -angladesh.
%&(4'
India has t.o archipelagos, the >akshad.eep,
coral atolls off IndiaJs south9.estern coast/ and the $ndaman and 0icobar Islands, a "olcanic chain
in the $ndaman !ea.
%&(6'
The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the 8imalayas and the Thar 1esert, both of .hich
dri"e the economically and culturally pi"otal summer and .inter monsoons.
%&(2'
The 8imalayas
pre"ent cold =entral $sian katabatic .inds from blo.ing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian
subcontinent .armer than most locations at similar latitudes.
%&(A'%&)+'
The Thar 1esert plays a crucial
role in attracting the moisture9laden south9.est summer monsoon .inds that, bet.een #une and
Ictober, pro"ide the ma;ority of IndiaJs rainfall.
%&(2'
Four ma;or climatic groupings predominate in
India, tropical .et, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.
%&)&'
+iodiersity
*ain article, Wildlife of India
!hola highlands are found in @udremukh 0ational :ark, =hikmagalur .hich is part of the Western
Mhats.
India lies .ithin the Indomalaya ecoUone and contains three biodi"ersity hotspots.
%&)('
Ine of &6
megadi"erse countries, it hosts 2.4D of all mammalian, &).6D of all a"ian, 6.AD of all reptilian,
4D of all amphibian, &(.(D of all piscine, and 4.+D of all flo.ering plant species.
%&))'%&)B'
Endemism
is high among plants, ))D, and among ecoregions such as the shola forests.
%&)7'
8abitat ranges from
the tropical rainforest of the $ndaman Islands, Western Mhats, and 0orth9East India to the
coniferous forest of the 8imalaya. -et.een these eNtremes lie the moist deciduous sal forest of
eastern India/ the dry deciduous teak forest of central and southern India/ and the babul9dominated
thorn forest of the central 1eccan and .estern Mangetic plain.
%&)4'
?nder &(D of IndiaJs landmass
bears thick ;ungle.
%&)6'
The medicinal neem, .idely used in rural Indian herbal remedies, is a key
Indian tree. The luNuriant pipal fig tree, sho.n on the seals of *ohen;o9daro, shaded Mautama
-uddha as he sought enlightenment.
*any Indian species descend from taNa originating in Mond.ana, from .hich the Indian plate
separated more than &+7 million years before present.
%&)2'
:eninsular IndiaJs subseCuent mo"ement
to.ards and collision .ith the >aurasian landmass set off a mass eNchange of species. Epochal
"olcanism and climatic changes (+ million years ago forced a mass eNtinction.
%&)A'
*ammals then
entered India from $sia through t.o Uoogeographical passes flanking the rising 8imalaya.
%&)4'
Thus,
.hile B7.2D of reptiles and 77.2D of amphibians are endemic, only &(.4D of mammals and B.7D
of birds are.
%&)B'
$mong them are the 0ilgiri leaf monkey and -eddomeJs toad of the Western Mhats.
India contains &6( I?=09designated threatened animal species, or (.AD of endangered forms.
%&B+'

These include the $siatic lion, the -engal tiger, and the Indian White9rumped "ulture, .hich, by
ingesting the carrion of diclofenac9laced cattle, nearly .ent eNtinct.
The per"asi"e and ecologically de"astating human encroachment of recent decades has critically
endangered Indian .ildlife. In response the system of national parks and protected areas, first
established in &A)7, .as substantially eNpanded. In &A6(, India enacted the Wildlife :rotection
$ct
%&B&'
and :ro;ect Tiger to safeguard crucial .ilderness/ the Forest =onser"ation $ct .as enacted
in &A2+ and amendments added in &A22.
%&B('
India hosts more than fi"e hundred .ildlife sanctuaries
and thirteen biosphere reser"es,
%&B)'
four of .hich are part of the World 0et.ork of -iosphere
Reser"es/ t.enty9fi"e .etlands are registered under the Ramsar =on"ention.
%&BB'
!olitics
*ain article, :olitics of India
$ parliamentary ;oint session being held in the !ansad -ha"an.
The Rashtrapati -ha"an is the official residence of the president of India.
India is the .orldJs most populous democracy.
%&B7'
$ parliamentary republic .ith a multi9party
system,
%&B4'
it has siN recognised national parties, including the Indian 0ational =ongress and the
-haratiya #anata :arty (-#:), and more than B+ regional parties.
%&B6'
The =ongress is considered
centre9left or liberal in Indian political culture, and the -#: centre9right or conser"ati"e. For
most of the period bet.een &A7+K.hen India first became a republicKand the late &A2+s, the
=ongress held a ma;ority in the parliament. !ince then, ho.e"er, it has increasingly shared the
political stage .ith the -#:,
%&B2'
as .ell as .ith po.erful regional parties .hich ha"e often forced
the creation of multi9party coalitions at the centre.
%&BA'
In the Republic of IndiaJs first three general elections, in &A7&, &A76, and &A4(, the #a.aharlal
0ehru9led =ongress .on easy "ictories. In 0ehruJs death in &A4B, >al -ahadur !hastri briefly
became prime minister/ he .as succeeded, after his o.n uneNpected death in &A44, by Indira
Mandhi, .ho .ent on to lead the =ongress to election "ictories in &A46 and &A6&. Follo.ing public
discontent .ith the state of emergency she declared in &A67, the =ongress .as "oted out of po.er
in &A66/ the then9ne. #anata :arty, .hich had opposed the emergency, .as "oted in. Its
go"ernment lasted ;ust o"er three years. <oted back into po.er in &A2+, the =ongress sa. a change
in leadership in &A2B, .hen Indira Mandhi .as assassinated/ she .as succeeded by her son Ra;i"
Mandhi, .ho .on an easy "ictory in the general elections later that year. The =ongress .as "oted
out again in &A2A .hen a 0ational Front coalition, led by the ne.ly formed #anata 1al in alliance
.ith the >eft Front, .on the elections/ that go"ernment too pro"ed relati"ely short9li"ed, it lasted
;ust under t.o years.
%&7+'
Elections .ere held again in &AA&/ no party .on an absolute ma;ority. -ut
the =ongress, as the largest single party, .as able to form a minority go"ernment led by :. <.
0arasimha Rao.
%&7&'
$ t.o9year period of political turmoil follo.ed the general election of &AA4. !e"eral short9li"ed
alliances shared po.er at the centre. The -#: formed a go"ernment briefly in &AA4/ it .as follo.ed
by t.o comparati"ely long9lasting ?nited Front coalitions, .hich depended on eNternal support. In
&AA2, the -#: .as able to form a successful coalition, the 0ational 1emocratic $lliance (01$).
>ed by $tal -ihari <a;payee, the 01$ became the first non9=ongress, coalition go"ernment to
complete a fi"e9year term.
%&7('
In the (++B Indian general elections, again no party .on an absolute
ma;ority, but the =ongress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition,
the ?nited :rogressi"e $lliance (?:$). It had the support of left9leaning parties and *:s .ho
opposed the -#:. The ?:$ returned to po.er in the (++A general election .ith increased numbers,
and it no longer reCuired eNternal support from IndiaJs communist parties.
%&7)'
That year, *anmohan
!ingh became the first prime minister since #a.aharlal 0ehru in &A76 and &A4( to be re9elected to a
consecuti"e fi"e9year term.
%&7B'
In the (+&B general election, -haratiya #anata :arty became the first
political party since &A2B to .in a ma;ority and go"ern .ithout the support of other parties.
%&77'
Goernment
*ain article, Mo"ernment of India
!ee also, Elections in India
India is a federation .ith a parliamentary system go"erned under the =onstitution of India, .hich
ser"es as the countryJs supreme legal document. It is a constitutional republic and representati"e
democracy, in .hich ma;ority rule is tempered by minority
rights protected by la.. Federalism in India defines the
po.er distribution bet.een the federal go"ernment and the
states. The go"ernment abides by constitutional checks and
balances. The =onstitution of India, .hich came into effect on
(4 #anuary &A7+,
%&74'
states in its preamble that India is a
so"ereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.
%&76'
IndiaJs
form of go"ernment, traditionally described as Cuasi9federal
.ith a strong centre and .eak states,
%&72'
has gro.n
increasingly federal since the late &AA+s as a result of
political, economic, and social changes.
%&7A'%&4+'
The federal go"ernment comprises three branches,
ENecuti"e, The :resident of India is the head of
state
%&4('
and is elected indirectly by a national electoral
college
%&4)'
for a fi"e9year term.
%&4B'
The :rime *inister
of India is the head of go"ernment and eNercises most eNecuti"e po.er.
%&47'
$ppointed by the
president,
%&44'
the prime minister is by con"ention supported by the party or political alliance
holding the ma;ority of seats in the lo.er house of parliament.
%&47'
The eNecuti"e branch of
the Indian go"ernment consists of the president, the "ice9president, and the =ouncil of
*inistersKthe cabinet being its eNecuti"e committeeKheaded by the prime minister. $ny
minister holding a portfolio must be a member of one of the houses of parliament.
%&4('
In the
Indian parliamentary system, the eNecuti"e is subordinate to the legislature/ the prime
minister and his council are directly responsible to the lo.er house of the parliament.
%&46'
>egislati"e, The legislature of India is the bicameral parliament. It operates under a
Westminster9style parliamentary system and comprises the upper house called the Ra;ya
!abha (=ouncil of !tates) and the lo.er called the >ok !abha (8ouse of the :eople).
%&42'

The Ra;ya !abha is a permanent body that has (B7 members .ho ser"e in staggered siN9year
terms.
%&4A'
*ost are elected indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures in numbers
proportional to their stateJs share of the national population.
%&44'
$ll but t.o of the >ok
!abhaJs 7B7 members are directly elected by popular "ote/ they represent indi"idual
constituencies "ia fi"e9year terms.
%&6+'
The remaining t.o members are nominated by the
president from among the $nglo9Indian community, in case the president decides that they
are not adeCuately represented.
%&6&'
#udicial, India has a unitary three9tier independent ;udiciary
%&6('
that comprises the !upreme
=ourt, headed by the =hief #ustice of India, (B 8igh =ourts, and a large number of trial
courts.
%&6('
The !upreme =ourt has original ;urisdiction o"er cases in"ol"ing fundamental
rights and o"er disputes bet.een states and the centre/ it has appellate ;urisdiction o"er the
8igh =ourts.
%&6)'
It has the po.er both to declare the la. and to strike do.n union or state
la.s .hich contra"ene the constitution.
%&6B'
The !upreme =ourt is also the ultimate
interpreter of the constitution.
%&67'
&ubdiisions
National symbols
%&'
Flag Tricolour
Emblem !arnath >ion =apital
$nthem Jana Gana Mana
!ong Vande Mataram
=urrency (Indian rupee)
=alendar !aka
Mame 0ot declared
%&4&'
Flo.er >otus
Fruit *ango
Tree -anyan
-ird Indian :eafo.l
>and animal Tiger
$Cuatic animal Ri"er 1olphin
Ri"er Manga or Manges
$ clickable map of the (A states and 6 union territories of India
*ain article, $dministrati"e di"isions of India
!ee also, :olitical integration of India
India is a federation composed of (A states and 6 union territories.
%&64'
$ll states, as .ell as the union
territories of :uducherry and the 0ational =apital Territory of 1elhi, ha"e elected legislatures and
go"ernments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining fi"e union territories are
directly ruled by the centre through appointed administrators. In &A74, under the !tates
Reorganisation $ct, states .ere reorganised on a linguistic basis.
%&66'
!ince then, their structure has
remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further di"ided into administrati"e
districts. The districts in turn are further di"ided into tehsils and ultimately into "illages.
&tates
&. $ndhra :radesh
(. $runachal :radesh
). $ssam
B. -ihar
7. =hhattisgarh
4. Moa
6. Mu;arat
2. 8aryana
A. 8imachal :radesh
&+. #ammu and @ashmir
&&. #harkhand
&(. @arnataka
&). @erala
&B. *adhya :radesh
&7. *aharashtra
&4. *anipur
&6. *eghalaya
&2. *iUoram
&A. 0agaland
(+. Idisha
(&. :un;ab
((. Ra;asthan
(). !ikkim
(B. Tamil 0adu
(7. Telangana
(4. Tripura
(6. ?ttar :radesh
(2. ?ttarakhand
(A. West -engal
,nion territories
$. $ndaman and 0icobar Islands
-. =handigarh
=. 1adra and 0agar 8a"eli
1. 1aman and 1iu
E. >akshad.eep
F. 0ational =apital Territory of 1elhi
M. :uducherry
-oreign relations and military
*ain articles, Foreign relations of India and Indian $rmed Forces
0arendra *odi meets <ladimir :utin at the 4th -RI=! summit. India and Russia share eNtensi"e
economic, defence, and technological ties.
!ince its independence in &AB6, India has maintained cordial relations .ith most nations. In the
&A7+s, it strongly supported decolonisation in $frica and $sia and played a lead role in the 0on9
$ligned *o"ement.
%&62'
In the late &A2+s, the Indian military t.ice inter"ened abroad at the
in"itation of neighbouring countries, a peace9keeping operation in !ri >anka bet.een &A26 and
&AA+/ and an armed inter"ention to pre"ent a coup dJWtat attempt in *aldi"es. India has tense
relations .ith neighbouring :akistan/ the t.o nations ha"e gone to .ar four times, in &AB6, &A47,
&A6&, and &AAA. Three of these .ars .ere fought o"er the disputed territory of @ashmir, .hile the
fourth, the &A6& .ar, follo.ed from IndiaJs support for the independence of -angladesh.
%&6A'
$fter
.aging the &A4( !ino9Indian War and the &A47 .ar .ith :akistan, India pursued close military and
economic ties .ith the !o"iet ?nion/ by the late &A4+s, the !o"iet ?nion .as its largest arms
supplier.
%&2+'
$side from ongoing strategic relations .ith Russia, India has .ide9ranging defence relations .ith
Israel and France. In recent years, it has played key roles in the !outh $sian $ssociation for
Regional =ooperation and the World Trade Irganisation. The nation has pro"ided &++,+++ military
and police personnel to ser"e in )7 ?0 peacekeeping operations across four continents. It
participates in the East $sia !ummit, the M2G7, and other multilateral forums.
%&2&'
India has close
economic ties .ith !outh $merica,
%&2('
$sia, and $frica/ it pursues a >ook East policy that seeks
to strengthen partnerships .ith the $!E$0 nations, #apan, and !outh @orea that re"ol"e around
many issues, but especially those in"ol"ing economic in"estment and regional security.
%&2)'%&2B'
I0! <ikramaditya, the Indian 0a"yXs biggest .arship.
=hinaJs nuclear test of &A4B, as .ell as its repeated threats to inter"ene in support of :akistan in the
&A47 .ar, con"inced India to de"elop nuclear .eapons.
%&27'
India conducted its first nuclear
.eapons test in &A6B and carried out further underground testing in &AA2. 1espite criticism and
military sanctions, India has signed neither the =omprehensi"e 0uclear9Test9-an Treaty nor the
0uclear 0on9:roliferation Treaty, considering both to be fla.ed and discriminatory.
%&24'
India
maintains a no first use nuclear policy and is de"eloping a nuclear triad capability as a part of its
minimum credible deterrence doctrine.
%&26'%&22'
It is de"eloping a ballistic missile defence shield
and, in collaboration .ith Russia, a fifth9generation fighter ;et.
%&2A'
Ither indigenous military
pro;ects in"ol"e the design and implementation of Vikrant 9class aircraft carriers and $rihant 9class
nuclear submarines.
%&2A'
!ince the end of the =old War, India has increased its economic, strategic, and military cooperation
.ith the ?nited !tates and the European ?nion.
%&A+'
In (++2, a ci"ilian nuclear agreement .as
signed bet.een India and the ?nited !tates. $lthough India possessed nuclear .eapons at the time
and .as not party to the 0uclear 0on9:roliferation Treaty, it recei"ed .ai"ers from the
International $tomic Energy $gency and the 0uclear !uppliers Mroup, ending earlier restrictions on
IndiaJs nuclear technology and commerce. $s a conseCuence, India became the siNth de "a%to
nuclear .eapons state.
%&A&'
India subseCuently signed cooperation agreements in"ol"ing ci"ilian
nuclear energy .ith Russia,
%&A('
France,
%&A)'
the ?nited @ingdom,
%&AB'
and =anada.
%&A7'
The :resident of India is the supreme commander of the nationJs armed forces/ .ith &.)(7 million
acti"e troops, they compose the .orldJs third9largest military.
%&A4'
It comprises the Indian $rmy, the
Indian 0a"y, and the Indian $ir Force/ auNiliary organisations include the !trategic Forces
=ommand and three paramilitary groups, the $ssam Rifles, the !pecial Frontier Force, and the
Indian =oast Muard.
%&A6'
The official Indian defence budget for (+&& .as ?!F)4.+) billion, or &.2)D
of M1:.
%&A2'
For the fiscal year spanning (+&(T(+&), ?!FB+.BB billion .as budgeted.
%&AA'
$ccording
to a (++2 !I:RI report, IndiaJs annual military eNpenditure in terms of purchasing po.er stood at
?!F6(.6 billion,
%(++'
In (+&&, the annual defence budget increased by &&.4D,
%(+&'
although this does
not include funds that reach the military through other branches of go"ernment.
%(+('
$s of (+&(,
India is the .orldJs largest arms importer/ bet.een (++6 and (+&&, it accounted for &+D of funds
spent on international arms purchases.
%(+)'
*uch of the military eNpenditure .as focused on defence
against :akistan and countering gro.ing =hinese influence in the Indian Icean.
%(+&'
*conomy
*ain article, Economy of India
!ee also, Economic history of India, Economic de"elopment in India, Tourism in India and
Transport in India
Fishermen on the =hinese fishing nets of =ochin. Fisheries in India is a ma;or industry in its coastal
states, employing o"er &B million people. The annual catch doubled bet.een &AA+ and (+&+.
$ccording to the International *onetary Fund (I*F), as of (+&B, the Indian economy is nominally
.orth ?!F(.+B6 trillion/ it is the ele"enth9largest economy by market eNchange rates, and is, at
?!F6.(66 trillion, the third9largest by purchasing po.er parity, or :::.
%A'
With its a"erage annual
M1: gro.th rate of 7.2D o"er the past t.o decades, and reaching 4.&D during (+&&T&(,
%(+B'
India is
one of the .orldJs fastest9gro.ing economies.
%(+7'
8o.e"er, the country ranks &B+th in the .orld in
nominal M1: per capita and &(Ath in M1: per capita at :::.
%(+4'
?ntil &AA&, all Indian go"ernments
follo.ed protectionist policies that .ere influenced by socialist economics. Widespread state
inter"ention and regulation largely .alled the economy off from the outside .orld. $n acute
balance of payments crisis in &AA& forced the nation to liberalise its economy/
%(+6'
since then it has
slo.ly mo"ed to.ards a free9market system
%(+2'%(+A'
by emphasising both foreign trade and direct
in"estment inflo.s.
%(&+'
IndiaJs recent economic model is largely capitalist.
%(+A'
India has been a
member of WTI since & #anuary &AA7.
%(&&'
The B24.49million .orker Indian labour force is the .orldJs second9largest, as of (+&&.
%&A6'
The
ser"ice sector makes up 77.4D of M1:, the industrial sector (4.)D and the agricultural sector
&2.&D. *a;or agricultural products include rice, .heat, oilseed, cotton, ;ute, tea, sugarcane, and
potatoes.
%&64'
*a;or industries include teNtiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals,
biotechnology, food processing, steel, transport eCuipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery,
and soft.are.
%&64'
In (++4, the share of eNternal trade in IndiaJs M1: stood at (BD, up from 4D in
&A27.
%(+2'
In (++2, IndiaJs share of .orld trade .as &.42D/
%(&('
In (+&&, India .as the .orldJs tenth9
largest importer and the nineteenth9largest eNporter.
%(&)'
*a;or eNports include petroleum products,
teNtile goods, ;e.ellery, soft.are, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather manufactures.
%&64'

*a;or imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals.
%&64'
-et.een (++& and
(+&&, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total eNports gre. from &BD to
B(D.
%(&B'
$"eraging an economic gro.th rate of 6.7D for se"eral years prior to (++6,
%(+2'
India has more than
doubled its hourly .age rates during the first decade of the (&st century.
%(&7'
!ome B)& million
Indians ha"e left po"erty since &A27/ IndiaJs middle classes are pro;ected to number around 72+
million by (+)+.
%(&4'
Though ranking 7&st in global competiti"eness, India ranks &6th in financial
market sophistication, (Bth in the banking sector, BBth in business sophistication, and )Ath in
inno"ation, ahead of se"eral ad"anced economies, as of (+&+.
%(&6'
With 6 of the .orldJs top &7
information technology outsourcing companies based in India, the country is "ie.ed as the second9
most fa"ourable outsourcing destination after the ?nited !tates, as of (++A.
%(&2'
IndiaJs consumer
market, currently the .orldJs ele"enth9largest, is eNpected to become fifth9largest by (+)+.
%(&4'
IndiaJs telecommunication industry, the .orldJs fastest9gro.ing, added ((6 million subscribers
during the period (+&+T&&,
%(&A'
and after the first Cuarter of (+&), India surpassed #apan to become
the third largest smartphone market in the .orld after =hina and the ?.!.
%((+'
:o.er >oom used inside a house in a "illage near !alem, Tamil 0adu. :o.er loom accounts for
more than 4+D of teNtile production in India.
Its automoti"e industry, the .orldJs second fastest gro.ing, increased domestic sales by (4D during
(++AT&+,
%((&'
and eNports by )4D during (++2T+A.
%((('
:o.er capacity is (7+ giga.atts, of .hich 2D
is rene.able. $t the end of (+&&, Indian IT Industry employed (.2 million professionals, generated
re"enues close to ?!F&++ billion eCualling 6.7D of Indian M1: and contributed (4D of IndiaJs
merchandise eNports.
%(()'
The :harmaceutical industry in India is among the significant emerging markets for global pharma
industry. The Indian pharmaceutical market is eNpected to reach FB2.7 billion by (+(+. IndiaJs R Y
1 spending constitutes 4+D of -iopharmaceutical industry.
%((B'%((7'
India is among the top &( -iotech
destinations of the .orld.
%((4'

%((6'
The Indian biotech industry gre. by &7.&D in (+&(T&), increasing
its re"enues from (+B.B -illion I0R (Indian Rupees) to ()7.(B -illion I0R ().AB - ?!F 9 eNchange
rate #une (+&), & ?!F approN. 4+ I0R)
%((2'
$lthough hardly (D of Indians pay income taNes.
%((A'
1espite impressi"e economic gro.th during recent decades, India continues to face socio9economic
challenges. India contains the largest concentration of people li"ing belo. the World -ankJs
international po"erty line of ?!F&.(7 per day,
%()+'
the proportion ha"ing decreased from 4+D in
&A2& to B(D in (++7, and (7D in (+&&
%()&'
)+.6D of IndiaJs children under the age of fi"e are
under.eight,
%()('
half the children under fi"e suffer from chronic malnutrition, and in the states of
*adhya :radesh, $ndhra :radesh, -ihar, =hhattisgarh, 8aryana, #harkhand, @arnataka, and ?ttar
:radesh, .hich account for 7+.+BD of IndiaJs population, 6+D of the children bet.een the ages of
siN months and 7A months are anaemic.
%())'
The *id91ay *eal !cheme attempts to lo.er these
rates.
%()B'
!ince &AA&, economic ineCuality bet.een IndiaJs states has consistently gro.n, the per9
capita net state domestic product of the richest states in (++6 .as ).( times that of the poorest.
%()7'

=orruption in India is percei"ed to ha"e increased significantly,
%()4'
.ith one report estimating the
illegal capital flo.s since independence to be ?!FB4( billion.
%()6'
1ri"en by gro.th, IndiaJs nominal M1: per capita has steadily increased from ?!F)(A in &AA&,
.hen economic liberalisation began, to ?!F&,(47 in (+&+, and is estimated to increase to ?!F(,&&+
by (+&4/ ho.e"er, it has remained lo.er than those of other $sian de"eloping countries such as
Indonesia, Iran, *alaysia, :hilippines, !ri >anka, and Thailand, and is eNpected to remain so in the
near future. While it is currently higher than :akistan, 0epal, -angladesh and others.
%()2'
$ccording to a (+&& :rice.aterhouse=oopers report, IndiaJs M1: at purchasing po.er parity could
o"ertake that of the ?nited !tates by (+B7.
%()A'
1uring the neNt four decades, Indian M1: is
eNpected to gro. at an annualised a"erage of 2D, making it potentially the .orldJs fastest9gro.ing
ma;or economy until (+7+.
%()A'
The report highlights key gro.th factors, a young and rapidly
gro.ing .orking9age population/ gro.th in the manufacturing sector because of rising education
and engineering skill le"els/ and sustained gro.th of the consumer market dri"en by a rapidly
gro.ing middle class.
%()A'
The World -ank cautions that, for India to achie"e its economic potential,
it must continue to focus on public sector reform, transport infrastructure, agricultural and rural
de"elopment, remo"al of labour regulations, education, energy security, and public health and
nutrition.
%(B+'
=iting persistent inflation pressures, .eak public finances, limited progress on fiscal consolidation
and ineffecti"eness of the go"ernment, rating agency Fitch re"ised IndiaJs Iutlook to 0egati"e from
!table on &2 #une (+&(.
%(B&'
$nother credit rating agency !Y: had .arned pre"iously that a slo.ing
M1: gro.th and political roadblocks to economic policy9making could put India at the risk of
losing its in"estment grade rating.
%(B('
8o.e"er, *oody did not re"ise its outlook on India keeping it
stable,
%(B)'
but termed the national go"ernment as the single biggest drag on business acti"ity.
%(BB'
Demographics
*ain articles, 1emographics of India and >ist of most populous cities in India
$ population density and Indian Rail.ays connecti"ity map. The already densely settled Indo9
Mangetic :lain is the main dri"er of Indian population gro.th.
With &,(&+,&A),B(( residents reported in the (+&& pro"isional census,
%2'
India is the .orldJs second9
most populous country. Its population gre. at &.64D per annum during (++&T(+&&,
%2'
do.n from
(.&)D per annum in the pre"ious decade (&AA&T(++&).
%(B7'
The human seN ratio, according to the
(+&& census, is AB+ females per &,+++ males.
%2'
The median age .as (B.A in the (++& census.
%&A6'
The
first post9colonial census, conducted in &A7&, counted )4&.& million people.
%(B4'
*edical ad"ances
made in the last 7+ years as .ell as increased agricultural producti"ity brought about by the Mreen
Re"olution ha"e caused IndiaJs population to gro. rapidly.
%(B6'
India continues to face se"eral
public health9related challenges.
%(B2'%(BA'
>ife eNpectancy in India is at 42 years .ith life eNpectancy
for .omen being 4A.4 years and for men being 46.).
%(7+'
There are around 7+ physicians per &++,+++
Indians.
%(7&'
The number of Indians li"ing in urban areas has gro.n by )&.(D bet.een &AA& and
(++&.
%(7('
Vet, in (++&, o"er 6+D li"ed in rural areas.
%(7)'%(7B'
$ccording to the (++& census, there are
(6 million9plus cities in India/
%(7('
among them 1elhi, *umbai, @olkata, =hennai, -angalore,
8yderabad, $hmedabad and :une are the most populous metropolitan areas. The literacy rate in
(+&& .as 6B.+BD, 47.B4D among females and 2(.&BD among males.
%2'
@erala is the most literate
state .ith A7.7D literacy/
%(77'
.hile -ihar the least .ith 46.2D.
%(74'
$ handicraft seller in 8yderabad, $ndhra :radesh
India is home to t.o ma;or language families, Indo9$ryan (spoken by about 6BD of the population)
and 1ra"idian ((BD). Ither languages spoken in India come from the $ustroasiatic and Tibeto9
-urman language families. India has no national language.
%(76'
8indi, .ith the largest number of
speakers, is the official language of the go"ernment.
%(72'%(7A'
English is used eNtensi"ely in business
and administration and has the status of a subsidiary official language/
%(4+'
it is important in
education, especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory has one or
more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular (& scheduled languages. The
=onstitution of India recognises (&( scheduled tribal groups .hich together constitute about 6.7D
of the countryJs population.
%(4&'
The (++& census reported that 8induism, .ith o"er 2++ million
adherents (2+.7D of the population), .as the largest religion in India/ it is follo.ed by Islam
(&).BD), =hristianity ((.)D), !ikhism (&.AD), -uddhism (+.2D), #ainism (+.BD), #udaism,
Loroastrianism, and the -ahZJ[ Faith.
%(4('
India has the .orldJs largest 8indu, !ikh, #ain, Loroastrian,
and -ahZJ[ populations, and has the third9largest *uslim population and the largest *uslim
population for a non9*uslim ma;ority country.
%(4)'%(4B'
Culture
*ain article, =ulture of India
$ =hola bronUe depicting 0atara;a, .ho is seen as a cosmic >ord of the 1ance and representati"e
of !hi"a
Indian cultural history spans more than B,7++ years.
%(47'
1uring the <edic period (c. &6++ T 7++
-=E), the foundations of 8indu philosophy, mythology, theology and literature .ere laid, and
many beliefs and practices .hich still eNist today, such as dh&rma, k&rma, y'#a, and mok a, .ere
established.
%&4'
India is notable for its religious di"ersity, .ith 8induism, !ikhism, Islam,
=hristianity, and #ainism among the nationJs ma;or religions.
%(44'
The predominant religion,
8induism, has been shaped by "arious historical schools of thought, including those of the
(panishads,
%(46'
the )o#a Sutras, the Bhakti mo"ement,
%(44'
and by -uddhist philosophy.
%(42'
Art and architecture
*uch of Indian architecture, including the Ta; *ahal, other .orks of *ughal architecture, and
!outh Indian architecture, blends ancient local traditions .ith imported styles.
%(4A'
<ernacular
architecture is also highly regional in it fla"ours. Vastu shastra, literally science of construction or
architecture and ascribed to *amuni *ayan,
%(6+'
eNplores ho. the la.s of nature affect human
d.ellings/
%(6&'
it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect percei"ed cosmic
constructs.
%(6('
$s applied in 8indu temple architecture, it is influenced by the Shipa Shastras, a
series of foundational teNts .hose basic mythological form is the Vastu*+urusha mandaa, a sCuare
that embodied the absolute.
%(6)'
The Ta; *ahal, built in $gra bet.een &4)& and &4B2 by orders of
Emperor !hah #ahan in memory of his .ife, has been described in the ?0E!=I World 8eritage
>ist as the ;e.el of *uslim art in India and one of the uni"ersally admired masterpieces of the
.orldJs heritage.
%(6B'
Indo9!aracenic Re"i"al architecture, de"eloped by the -ritish in the late &Ath
century, dre. on Indo9Islamic architecture.
%(67'
Literature
The earliest literary .ritings in India, composed bet.een &B++ -=E and &(++ =E, .ere in the
!anskrit language.
%(64'%(66'
:rominent .orks of this !anskrit literature include epics such as the
Mahbhrata and the Ramayana, the dramas of @\lid\sa such as the $bhij,na-kuntaam (The
Re%o#nition o" .akunta), and poetry such as the Mahk/ya.
%(62'%(6A'%(2+'
@amasutra, the famous
book about seNual intercourse also originated in India. 1e"eloped bet.een 4++ -=E and )++ =E in
!outh India, the San#am literature, consisting of (,)2& poems, is regarded as a predecessor of Tamil
literature.
%(2&'%(2('%(2)'%(2B'
From the &Bth to the &2th centuries, IndiaJs literary traditions .ent through a
period of drastic change because of the emergence of de"otional poets such as @ab]r, Tuls]d\s, and
Muru 0\nak. This period .as characterised by a "aried and .ide spectrum of thought and
eNpression/ as a conseCuence, medie"al Indian literary .orks differed significantly from classical
traditions.
%(27'
In the &Ath century, Indian .riters took a ne. interest in social Cuestions and
psychological descriptions. In the (+th century, Indian literature .as influenced by the .orks of
-engali poet and no"elist Rabindranath Tagore.
%(24'
!erforming arts
!arod performance at the *usWe Muimet, :aris
Indian music ranges o"er "arious traditions and regional styles. =lassical music encompasses t.o
genres and their "arious folk offshoots, the northern 8industani and southern =arnatic schools.
%(26'

Regionalised popular forms include filmi and folk music/ the syncretic tradition of the baus is a
.ell9kno.n form of the latter. Indian dance also features di"erse folk and classical forms. $mong
the better9kno.n folk dances are the bhan#ra of the :un;ab, the bihu of $ssam, the %hhau of
Idisha, West -engal and #harkhand,Garba and 0andiya of Mu;arat, sambapuri of Idisha,
#hoomar of Ra;asthan, and the a/ani of *aharashtra. Eight dance forms, many .ith narrati"e
forms and mythological elements, ha"e been accorded classical dance status by IndiaJs 0ational
$cademy of *usic, 1ance, and 1rama. These are, bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil 0adu,
kathak of ?ttar :radesh, kathakai and mohiniyattam of @erala, ku%hipudi of $ndhra :radesh,
manipuri of *anipur, odissi of Idisha, and the sattriya of $ssam.
%(22'
Theatre in India melds music,
dance, and impro"ised or .ritten dialogue.
%(2A'
Iften based on 8indu mythology, but also borro.ing
from medie"al romances or social and political e"ents, Indian theatre includes the bha/ai of
Mu;arat, the jatra of West -engal, the nautanki and ramia of 0orth India, tamasha of *aharashtra,
burrakatha of $ndhra :radesh, terukkuttu of Tamil 0adu, and the yaksha#ana of @arnataka.
%(A+'
Motion pictures
The Indian film industry produces the .orldJs most9.atched cinema.
%(A&'
Established regional
cinematic traditions eNist in the $ssamese, -engali, 8indi, @annada, *alayalam, :un;abi, Mu;arati,
*arathi, Iriya, Tamil, and Telugu languages.
%(A('
!outh Indian cinema attracts more than 67D of
national film re"enue.
%(A)'
Tele"ision broadcasting began in India in &A7A as a state9run medium of
communication, and had slo. eNpansion for more than t.o decades.
%(AB'
The state monopoly on
tele"ision broadcast ended in the &AA+s and, since then, satellite channels ha"e increasingly shaped
popular culture of Indian society.
%(A7'
Today, tele"ision is the most penetrati"e media in India/
industry estimates indicate that as of (+&( there are o"er 77B million T< consumers, B4( million
.ith satellite andEor cable connections, compared to other forms of mass media such as press ()7+
million), radio (&74 million) or internet ()6 million).
%(A4'
&ociety
$ =hristian .edding in *adurai, Tamil 0adu. =hristianity is belie"ed to ha"e been introduced to
India by the late (nd century by !yriac9speaking =hristians.
Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system
embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian
subcontinent. !ocial classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often
termed as jtis, or castes.
%(A6'
India declared untouchability to be illegal
%(A2'
in &AB6 and has since
enacted other anti9discriminatory la.s and social .elfare initiati"es. $t the .orkplace in urban
India and in international or leading Indian companies, the caste related identification has pretty
much lost its importance.
%(AA'%)++'
Family "alues are important in the Indian tradition, and multi9
generational patriarchal ;oint families ha"e been the norm in India, though nuclear families are
becoming common in urban areas.
%)+&'
$n o"er.helming ma;ority of Indians, .ith their consent,
ha"e their marriages arranged by their parents or other family members.
%)+('
*arriage is thought to
be for life,
%)+('
and the di"orce rate is eNtremely lo..
%)+)'
=hild marriages are common, especially in
rural areas/ many .omen in India .ed before reaching &2, .hich is their legal marriageable age.
%)+B'

Female infanticide in India and female foeticide in India ha"e caused a discrepancy in the seN ratio,
as of (++7 it .as estimated that there .ere 7+ million more males than females in the nation.
%)+7'%)+4'

8o.e"er the recent report from (+&& sho.n impro"ement among the gender ratio.
%)+6'
The payment
of 1o.ry, although illegal, remains .idespread across class lines.
%)+2'
1eaths resulting from do.ry,
mostly from bride burning, is on the rise.
%)+A'
*any Indian festi"als are religious in origin/ among them are =hhath, =hristmas, 1i.ali, 1urga
:u;a, -akr9Id, Eid ul9Fitr, Manesh =haturthi, 8oli, *akar !ankranti or ?ttarayan, 0a"ratri, Thai
:ongal, and <aisakhi. India has three national holidays .hich are obser"ed in all states and union
territories, Republic 1ay, Independence 1ay, and Mandhi #ayanti. Ither sets of holidays, "arying
bet.een nine and t.el"e, are officially obser"ed in indi"idual states.
Throughout India, many people practice customs and religious rituals, such as !a sk\ra, .hich
is a series of personal sacraments and rites conducted at "arious stages throughout life.
%)&+'
Clothing
*ain article, =lothing in India
=otton .as domesticated in India by B+++ -.=.E. Traditional Indian dress "aries in colour and style
across regions and depends on "arious factors, including climate and faith. :opular styles of dress
include draped garments such as the sari for .omen and the dhoti or un#i for men. !titched
clothes, such as the sha1ar kamee! for .omen and kurtaTpyjama combinations or European9style
trousers and shirts for men, are also popular.
%)&&'
?se of delicate ;e.ellery, modelled on real flo.ers
.orn in ancient India, is part of a tradition dating back some 7,+++ years/ gemstones are also .orn
in India as talismans.
%)&('
&port
*ain article, !port in India
=ricket is the most popular game among IndiaJs masses. !ho.n here is an instance of street cricket.
In India, se"eral traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddi, kho kho,
peh1ani and #ii*danda. !ome of the earliest forms of $sian martial arts, such as kaarippayattu,
musti yuddha, siambam, and marma adi, originated in India. =hess, commonly held to ha"e
originated in India as %hatura #a, is regaining .idespread popularity .ith the rise in the number of
Indian grandmasters.
%)&)'%)&B'
+a%hisi, from .hich parcheesi deri"es, .as played on a giant marble
court by $kbar.
%)&7'
Indian chess grandmaster and former .orld champion <ish.anathan $nand competes at a chess
tournament in (++7. =hess is commonly belie"ed to ha"e originated in India in the 7th century.
The impro"ed results garnered by the Indian 1a"is =up team and other Indian tennis players in the
early (+&+s ha"e made tennis increasingly popular in the country.
%)&4'
India has a comparati"ely
strong presence in shooting sports, and has .on se"eral medals at the Ilympics, the World
!hooting =hampionships, and the =ommon.ealth Mames.
%)&6'%)&2'
Ither sports in .hich Indians
ha"e succeeded internationally include badminton,
%)&A'
boNing,
%)(+'
and .restling.
%)(&'
Football is
popular in West -engal, Moa, Tamil 0adu, @erala, and the north9eastern states.
%)(('
Field hockey in India is administered by 8ockey India. The Indian national hockey team .on the
&A67 8ockey World =up and ha"e, as of (+&(, taken eight gold, one sil"er, and t.o bronUe
Ilympic medals, making it the sportJs most successful team in the Ilympics.
In a career of t.enty four9year span, !achin Tendulkar has created almost all batting records,
including most runs in both tests and I1Is and most number of centuries in both tests and I1Is,
thus making him the most successful cricketer e"er.
India has also played a ma;or role in popularising cricket. Thus, cricket is, by far, the most popular
sport of India. The Indian national cricket team .on the &A2) and (+&& =ricket World =up e"ents,
the (++6 I== World T.enty(+, shared the (++( I== =hampions Trophy .ith !ri >anka, and .on
(+&) I== =hampions Trophy. =ricket in India is administered by the -oard of =ontrol for =ricket
in India (-==I)/ the Ran;i Trophy, the 1uleep Trophy, the 1eodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy, and
the 0@: !al"e =hallenger Trophy are domestic competitions. The -==I is also responsible for
conducting an annual T.enty(+ competition kno.n as the Indian :remier >eague.
India has hosted or co9hosted se"eral international sporting e"ents, the &A7& and &A2( $sian
Mames/ the &A26, &AA4, and (+&& =ricket World =up tournaments/ the (++) $fro9$sian Mames/ the
(++4 I== =hampions Trophy/ the (+&+ 8ockey World =up/ and the (+&+ =ommon.ealth Mames.
*a;or international sporting e"ents held annually in India include the =hennai Ipen, the *umbai
*arathon, the 1elhi 8alf *arathon, and the Indian *asters. The first Indian Mrand :riN featured in
late (+&&.
%)()'
India has traditionally been the dominant country at the !outh $sian Mames. $n eNample of this
dominance is the basketball competition .here Team India .on three out of four tournaments to
date.
%)(B'
The Ra;i" Mandhi @hel Ratna and the $r;una $.ard are the highest forms of go"ernment
recognition for athletic achie"ement/ the 1ronacharya $.ard is a.arded for eNcellence in coaching.
&ee also
Iutline of India
!tates of India
India portal
Asia portal
Notes
&. %...' Jana Gana Mana is the 0ational $nthem of India, sub;ect to such alterations in
the .ords as the Mo"ernment may authorise as occasion arises/ and the song Vande
Mataram, .hich has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be
honoured eCually .ith Jana Gana Mana and shall ha"e eCual status .ith it. (=onstituent
$ssembly of India &A7+).
(. The countryJs eNact siUe is sub;ect to debate because some borders are disputed. The
Indian go"ernment lists the total area as ),(26,(4+ km
(
(&,(4A,((+ sC mi) and the total land
area as ),+4+,7++ km
(
(&,&2&,6++ sC mi)/ the ?nited 0ations lists the total area as
),(26,(4) km
(
(&,(4A,(&A sC mi) and total land area as (,A6),&A+ km
(
(&,&B6,A4+ sC mi).
(>ibrary of =ongress (++B).
). !ee also, Ifficial names of India
B. The Mo"ernment of India regards $fghanistan as a bordering country, as it considers
all of @ashmir to be part of India. 8o.e"er, this is disputed, and the region bordering
$fghanistan is administered by :akistan. !ource, *inistry of 8ome $ffairs (1epartment of
-order *anagement) (1I=). Retrie"ed & !eptember (++2.
%dead ink'
.
7. The northernmost point under Indian control is the disputed !iachen Mlacier in
#ammu and @ashmir/ ho.e"er, the Mo"ernment of India regards the entire region of the
former princely state of #ammu and @ashmir, including the 0orthern $reas administered by
:akistan, to be its territory. It therefore assigns the longitude )63 4J to its northernmost point.
References
&. 0ational Informatics =entre (++7.
(. Wolpert (++), p. &.
). 0ational !ymbols ^ 0ational :ortal of India. India.go".in. Retrie"ed 4 #uly (+&).
B. :rofile ^ 0ational :ortal of India. India.go".in. Retrie"ed () $ugust (+&).
7. Eighth !chedule. Retrie"ed & #uly (+&).
4. #ustice 8> 1attu s.orn in as chief ;ustice of !upreme =ourt. I$2S. Times of India.
Retrie"ed (A !eptember (+&B.
6. :rofile ^ 0ational :ortal of India
2. *inistry of 8ome $ffairs (+&&.
A. Report for !elected =ountries and !ub;ects. World Economic Iutlook 1atabase,
International *onetary Fund. Ictober (+&B. Retrie"ed 2 Ictober (+&B.
&+. Mini IndeN. World -ank. Retrie"ed ( *arch (+&&.
&&. 8uman 1e"elopment Report (+&B !ummary. The ?nited 0ations. Retrie"ed (B
#uly (+&B.
&(. 1unlop illustrated encyclopedia of facts, p. A&, by 0orris *cWhirter, Ross
*cWhirter
&). !tein &AA2, pp. &4T&6.
&B. Mross domestic product, current prices in ?! dollars, Ict (+&). Retrie"ed )&
Ictober (+&).
&7. INford English 1ictionary.
&4. @uiper (+&+, p. 24.
&6. *inistry of >a. and #ustice (++2.
&2. @aye &AA6, pp. 4)AT4B+.
&A. Encyclop_dia -ritannica.
(+. :etraglia, $llchin Y (++6, p. 4.
(&. !ingh (++A, pp. 2ATA).
((. :ossehl (++), pp. (BT(7.
(). @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. (&T().
(B. !ingh (++A, p. &2&.
(7. :ossehl (++), p. (.
(4. !ingh (++A, p. (77.
(6. !ingh (++A, pp. &24T&26.
(2. WitUel (++), pp. 42T4A.
(A. @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, p. )&.
)+. !tein (+&+, p. B6.
)&. @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. B&TB).
)(. !ingh (++A, p. (++.
)). !ingh (++A, pp. (7+T(7&.
)B. !ingh (++A, pp. (4+9(47.
)7. @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. 7)T7B.
)4. @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. 7BT74.
)6. !tein &AA2, p. (&.
)2. !tein &AA2, pp. 46T42.
)A. !ingh (++A, pp. )&(T)&).
B+. !ingh (++A, p. )++.
B&. !ingh (++A, p. )&A.
B(. !tein &AA2, pp. 62T6A.
B). @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, p. 6+.
BB. !ingh (++A, p. )46.
B7. @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, p. 4).
B4. !tein &AA2, pp. 2ATA+.
B6. !ingh (++A, pp. B+2TB&7.
B2. !tein &AA2, pp. A(TA7.
BA. @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. 2ATA&.
7+. !ingh (++A, p. 7B7.
7&. !tein &AA2, pp. A2TAA.
7(. !tein &AA2, p. &)(.
7). !tein &AA2, pp. &&AT&(+.
7B. !tein &AA2, pp. &(&T&((.
77. !tein &AA2, p. &().
74. !tein &AA2, p. &(B.
76. !tein &AA2, pp. &(6T&(2.
72. >udden (++(, p. 42.
7A. $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. B6.
4+. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. 4.
4&. >udden (++(, p. 46.
4(. $sher Y Talbot (++2, pp. 7+T7&.
4). $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. 7).
4B. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &(.
47. Robb (++&, p. 2+.
44. !tein &AA2, p. &4B.
46. $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. &&7.
42. Robb (++&, pp. A+TA&.
4A. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &6.
6+. $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. &7(.
6&. $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. &72.
6(. !tein &AA2, p. &4A.
6). $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. &24.
6B. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. ()T(B.
67. $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. (74.
64. Regional states, c. &6++T&27+. Encyclop_dia -ritannica, Inc.
66. $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. (24.
62. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. BBTBA.
6A. Robb (++&, pp. A2T&++.
2+. >udden (++(, pp. &(2T&)(.
2&. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. 7&T77.
2(. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. 42T6&.
2). $sher Y Talbot (++2, p. (2A.
2B. Robb (++&, pp. &7&T&7(.
27. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. ABTAA.
24. -ro.n &AAB, p. 2).
26. :eers (++4, p. 7+.
22. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. &++T&+).
2A. -ro.n &AAB, pp. 27T24.
A+. !tein &AA2, p. ()A.
A&. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. &+)T&+2.
A(. Robb (++&, p. &2).
A). !arkar &A2), pp. &TB.
AB. =opland (++&, pp. iNTN.
A7. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &().
A4. !tein &AA2, p. (4+.
A6. -ose Y #alal (+&&, p. &&6.
A2. !tein &AA2, p. (72.
AA. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &(4.
&++. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. A6.
&+&. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &4).
&+(. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &46.
&+). *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. &A7T&A6.
&+B. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. (+).
&+7. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. ()&.
&+4. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. (47T(44.
&+6. ?nited !tates 1epartment of $griculture.
&+2. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. (44T(6+.
&+A. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. (7).
&&+. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. (6B.
&&&. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. (B6T(B2.
&&(. *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. (A)T(A7.
&&). *etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. )+B.
&&B. $li Y $itchison (++7.
&&7. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. 6.
&&4. :rakash et al. (+++.
&&6. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &&.
&&2. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. 2.
&&A. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, pp. AT&+.
&(+. *inistry of Information and -roadcasting (++6, p. &.
&(&. @umar et al. (++4.
&((. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &7.
&(). 1uff &AA), p. )7).
&(B. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &4.
&(7. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &6.
&(4. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &(.
&(6. 1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &).
&(2. =hang &A46, pp. )A&T)AB.
&(A. :osey &AAB, p. &&2.
&)+. Wolpert (++), p. B.
&)&. 8eitUman Y Worden &AA4, p. A6.
&)(. =onser"ation International (++6.
&)). Loological !ur"ey of India (+&(, p. &.
&)B. :uri.
&)7. -asak &A2), p. (B.
&)4. Tritsch (++&.
&)6. Fisher &AA7, p. B)B.
&)2. =rame Y I.en (++(, p. &B(.
&)A. @aranth (++4.
&B+. *ace &AAB, p. B.
&B&. *inistry of En"ironments and Forests &A6(.
&B(. 1epartment of En"ironment and Forests &A22.
&B). *inistry of En"ironment and Forests.
&BB. !ecretariat of the =on"ention on Wetlands.
&B7. ?nited 0ations :opulation 1i"ision.
&B4. -urnell Y =al"ert &AAA, p. &(7.
&B6. Election =ommission of India.
&B2. !arkar (++6, p. 2B.
&BA. =hander (++B, p. &&6.
&7+. -hambhri &AA(, pp. &&2, &B).
&7&. The 8indu (++2.
&7(. 1unlea"y, 1i.akar Y 1unlea"y (++6.
&7). @ulke Y Rothermund (++B, p. )2B.
&7B. -usiness !tandard (++A.
&77. -#: first party since &A2B to .in parliamentary ma;ority on its o.n. 02$. I$0!.
&4 *ay (+&B. Retrie"ed (+ *ay (+&B.
&74. :ylee Y (++) a, p. B.
&76. 1utt &AA2, p. B(&.
&72. Wheare &A2+, p. (2.
&7A. Eche"erri9Ment (++(, pp. &AT(+.
&4+. !inha (++B, p. (7.
&4&. In RTI reply, =entre says India has no national game. Retrie"ed B $ugust (+&(.
&4(. !harma (++6, p. )&.
&4). !harma (++6, p. &)2.
&4B. Mledhill &A6+, p. &&(.
&47. !harma &A7+.
&44. !harma (++6, p. &4(.
&46. *athe. (++), p. 7(B.
&42. Mledhill &A6+, p. &(6.
&4A. !harma (++6, p. &4&.
&6+. !harma (++6, p. &B).
&6&. !harma (++6, p. )4+.
&6(. 0euborne (++), p. B62.
&6). !harma (++6, pp. ()2, (77.
&6B. !ripati &AA2, pp. B()TB(B.
&67. :ylee Y (++) b, p. )&B.
&64. >ibrary of =ongress (++B.
&66. !harma (++6, p. BA.
&62. Rothermund (+++, pp. B2, ((6.
&6A. Milbert (++(, pp. B24TB26.
&2+. !harma &AAA, p. 74.
&2&. $lford (++2.
&2(. 8eine, #orge/ R. <is.anathan ((+&&). The Ither -RI= in >atin $merica, India.
$meri%as 3uartery. Retrie"ed (A 1ecember (+&).
&2). Mhosh (++A, pp. (2(T(2A.
&2B. !isodia Y 0aidu (++7, pp. &T2.
&27. :erko"ich (++&, pp. 4+T24, &+4T&(7.
&24. @umar (+&+.
&26. 0air (++6.
&22. :andit (++A.
&2A. The 8indu (+&&.
&A+. Europa (++2.
&A&. The Times of India (++2.
&A(. -ritish -roadcasting =orporation (++A.
&A). Rediff (++2 a.
&AB. Reuters (+&+.
&A7. =urry (+&+.
&A4. Ripsman Y :aul (+&+, p. &)+.
&A6. =entral Intelligence $gency.
&A2. -ehera (+&&.
&AA. -ehera (+&(.
(++. !tockholm International :eace Research Institute (++2, p. &62.
(+&. *iglani (+&&.
(+(. !hukla (+&&.
(+). !tockholm International :eace Research Initiati"e (+&(.
(+B. International *onetary Fund (+&&, p. (.
(+7. 0ayak, Moldar Y $gra.al (+&+, p. NN".
(+4. International *onetary Fund.
(+6. Wolpert (++), p. Ni".
(+2. Irganisation for Economic =o9operation and 1e"elopment (++6.
(+A. Margan &AA(.
(&+. $lamgir (++2, pp. (), A6.
(&&. WTI &AA7.
(&(. The Times of India (++A.
(&). World Trade Irganisation (+&+.
(&B. Economist (+&&.
(&7. -onner (+&+.
(&4. Farrell Y -einhocker (++6.
(&6. !ch.ab (+&+.
(&2. !heth (++A.
(&A. Telecom Regulatory $uthority (+&&.
((+. 0atasha >omas ((4 #une (+&)). India :asses #apan To -ecome Third >argest
Mlobal !martphone *arket, $fter =hina Y ?.!.. Te%h4run%h. $I> Inc. Retrie"ed (6 #une
(+&).
((&. -usiness >ine (+&+.
(((. ENpress India (++A.
((). 0asscom (+&&T(+&(.
((B. <ishal 1utta, ET -ureau &+ #ul (+&(, +).&B:* I!T (&+ #uly (+&(). Indian biotech
industry at critical ;uncture, global biotech stabilises, Report. Economic Times. Retrie"ed
)& Ictober (+&(.
((7. Indian pharmaceutical industryKgro.th story to continue. ENpress :harma. &7
#anuary (+&(. Retrie"ed )& Ictober (+&(.
((4. -iotechnology and :harmaceutical !ector in India, sector briefing by the ?@ Trade
and In"estment (+&&, utki.go".uk
((6. Vep (+&&.
((2. 1ifferding =onsulting :ubli 4. 1ifferding.com. (+&B9+(9&&. Retrie"ed (+&B9+B9
+B.
((A. 8o. *any :eople In India :ay Income TaN` 8ardly $nyone. 4 #une (+&).
()+. World -ank (++4.
()&. World -ank a.
()(. IndiaJs rank impro"es to 77th position on global hunger indeN. India times.
Ictober &), (+&B.
()). !ocial !tatistics 1i"ision. =hildren in India (+&(, $ !tatistical $ppraisal. =entral
!tatistics Iffice, Mo"ernment of India. pp. &+T&&. Retrie"ed ( !eptember (+&).
()B. 1raUe Y Moyal (++2, p. B4.
()7. :al Y Mhosh (++6.
()4. Transparency International (+&+.
()6. -ritish -roadcasting =orporation (+&+ c.
()2. International *onetary Fund (+&&.
()A. :rice.aterhouse=oopers (+&&.
(B+. World -ank (+&+.
(B&. Fitch Re"ises IndiaJs Iutlook to 0egati"e/ $ffirms at J---9J. &2 #une (+&(.
Retrie"ed &A #une (+&(.
(B(. !Y:, India risks losing in"estment grade rating.
(B). *oodyJs reaffirms IndiaJs stable outlook. (7 $pril (+&(.
(BB. *oodyJs, Indian go"ernment single biggest factor .eighing on outlook. (4 $pril
(+&(.
(B7. *inistry of 8ome $ffairs (+&+T(+&& b.
(B4. =ensus :opulation (:1F). 4ensus o" India. *inistry of Finance India.
(B6. Rorabacher (+&+, pp. )7T)A.
(B2. World 8ealth Irganisation (++4.
(BA. -oston $nalytics (++A.
(7+. >ife eNpectancy in India (:1F). ne1spaper. Times of India.
(7&. 1e" Y Rao (++A, p. )(A.
(7(. Marg (++7.
(7). 1yson Y <isaria (++7, pp. &&7T&(A.
(7B. Ratna (++6, pp. (6&T(6(.
(77. !kolnik (++2, p. )4.
(74. !ingh (++B, p. &+4.
(76. 1har.adker (+&+, pp. &42T&AB, &24.
(72. Ittenheimer (++2, p. )+).
(7A. *allikar;un (++B.
(4+. *inistry of 8ome $ffairs &A4+.
(4&. -onner &AA+, p. 2&.
(4(. *inistry of 8ome $ffairs (+&+T(+&&.
(4). Mlobal *uslim population estimated at &.76 billion. The 8indu (2 Ictober (++A)
(4B. India =hapter !ummary (+&(
%dead ink'
(47. @uiper (+&+, p. &7.
(44. 8eehs (++(, pp. (T7.
(46. 1eutsch &A4A, pp. ), 62.
(42. 0akamura &AAA.
(4A. @uiper (+&+, pp. (A4T)(A.
(6+. !il"erman (++6, p. (+.
(6&. @umar (+++, p. 7.
(6(. Roberts (++B, p. 6).
(6). >ang Y *oleski (+&+, pp. &7&T&7(.
(6B. ?nited 0ations Educational, !cientific, and =ultural Irganisation.
(67. =hopra (+&&, p. B4.
(64. 8oiberg Y Ramchandani (+++.
(66. !arma (++A.
(62. #ohnson (++2.
(6A. *ac1onell (++B, pp. &TB+.
(2+. @\lid\sa Y #ohnson (++&.
(2&. L"elebil &AA6, p. &(.
(2(. 8art &A67.
(2). Encyclop_dia -ritannica (++2.
(2B. Ramanu;an &A27, pp. iNTN.
(27. 1as (++7.
(24. 1atta (++4.
(26. *assey Y *assey &AA2.
(22. Encyclop_dia -ritannica b.
(2A. >al (++B, pp. (), )+, ()7.
(A+. @aranth (++(, p. (4.
(A&. 1issanayake Y Mokulsing (++B.
(A(. Ra;adhyaksha Y Willemen &AAA, p. 47(.
(A). The Economic Times.
(AB. @aminsky Y >ong (+&&, pp. 42BT4A(.
(A7. *ehta (++2, pp. &T&+.
(A4. *edia Research ?sers =ouncil (+&(.
(A6. !ch.artUberg (+&&.
(A2. !piritual Terrorism, !piritual $buse from the Womb to the Tomb, p. )A&, by -oyd
=. :urcell
(AA. *essner (++A, p. 7&97).
)++. *essner (+&(, p. (69(2.
)+&. *akar (++6.
)+(. *edora (++).
)+). #ones Y Ramdas (++7, p. &&&.
)+B. =ullen91upont (++A, p. A4.
)+7. -unting (+&&.
)+4. $gni"esh (++7.
)+6. =ensus of India9Mender =omposition (+&&
)+2. Woman killed o"er do.ry be"ery hourX in India. telegraph.com. ( !eptember (+&).
Retrie"ed &+ February (+&B.
)+A. Rising number of do.ry deaths in India,0=R-. thehindu.com. 6 $ugust (+&).
Retrie"ed &+ February (+&B.
)&+. India. Encyclop_dia -ritannica. Encyclop_dia -ritannica Inline. Encyclop_dia
-ritannica Inc., (+&B. Web. Retrie"ed (+ #an. (+&B.
)&&. Tarlo &AA4, pp. Nii, Nii, &&, &7, (2, B4.
)&(. Eraly (++2, p. &4+.
)&). Wolpert (++), p. (.
)&B. Rediff (++2 b.
)&7. -inmore (++6, p. A2.
)&4. The Wall !treet #ournal (++A.
)&6. -ritish -roadcasting =orporation (+&+ b.
)&2. The Times of India (+&+.
)&A. -ritish -roadcasting =orporation (+&+ a.
)(+. *int (+&+.
)(&. ca"ier (+&+.
)((. *a;umdar Y -andyopadhyay (++4, pp. &T7.
)(). 1ehe;ia (+&&.
)(B. -asketball team named for &&th !outh $sian Mames. 0ation.com.pk. ( #anuary
(+&+. Retrie"ed 2 *arch (+&).
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I!-0 A629+9&A97&44629&
Geography
$li, #. R./ $itchison, #. =. ((++7), Greater India, Aarth*S%ien%e Re/ie1s 01 ()TB), &6+T&6),
doi,&+.&+&4E;.earscire".(++7.+6.++7
=hang, #. 8. (&A46), The Indian Summer Monsoon, Geo#raphi%a Re/ie1 20 ()), )6)T)A4,
doi,&+.()+6E(&(4B+
6orest H4onser/ationI $%tB ;EC: 1ith $mendments Made in ;ECC (:1F), 1epartment of
En"ironment and Forests, Mo"ernment of the $ndaman and 0icobar Islands, &A22, retrie"ed
(7 #uly (+&&
1ikshit, @. R./ !ch.artUberg, #oseph E., >and, India, An%y%opLdia Britanni%a, &T(A
1uff, 1. ((A Ictober &AA)), Homes +rin%ipes o" +hysi%a Geoo#y (Bth ed.), Routledge,
I!-0 A629+96B269B)2&9+
@umar, <. !./ :athak, @. =./ :ednekar, :./ Ra;u, 0. !. 0. ((++4), 4oasta pro%esses aon#
the Indian %oastine (:1F), 4urrent S%ien%e 3( (B), 7)+T7)4
India )earbook 9::G, 0e. 1elhi, :ublications 1i"ision, *inistry of Information and
-roadcasting, Mo"ernment of India, (++6, I!-0 A6292&9()+9&B()9B
:osey, =. $. (& 0o"ember &AAB), The Li/in# Aarth Book o" 5ind and 5eather, ReaderJs
1igest, I!-0 A629+92A76694(79A
:rakash, -./ @umar, !./ Rao, *. !./ Miri, !. =. ((+++), Hoo%ene Te%toni% Mo/ements and
Stress 6ied in the 5estern Gan#eti% +ains (:1F), 4urrent S%ien%e 03 (B), B)2TBBA
+iodiersity
$li, !./ Ripley, !. 1./ 1ick, #. 8. (&7 $ugust &AA4), $ +i%toria Guide to the Birds o" the
Indian Sub%ontinent ((nd ed.), *umbai, INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9&A974)6)(92
$nima 0is%o/eries 9:;;7 2e1 Spe%ies and 2e1 Re%ords (:1F), Loological !ur"ey of
India, (+&(, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&(
-asak, R. @. (&A2)), Botani%a Sur/ey o" India7 $%%ount o" Its AstabishmentB 0e/eopmentB
and $%ti/ities, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
Hotspots by Re#ion, Biodi/ersity Hotspots (=onser"ation International), (++6, retrie"ed (2
February (+&&
=rame, #. $./ I.en, $. W. (& $ugust (++(), +aaeobio#eo#raphy and Biodi/ersity 4han#e7
The <rdo/i%ian and Meso!oi%84eno!oi% Radiations, Meological !ociety !pecial :ublication
(&AB), Meological !ociety of >ondon, I!-0 A629&924()A9&+49(, retrie"ed 2 1ecember (+&&
Fisher, W. F. (#anuary &AA7), To1ard Sustainabe 0e/eopmentM7 Stru##in# o/er India?s
2armada Ri/er, =olumbia ?ni"ersity !eminars, *. E. !harpe, I!-0 A629&974)(B9)B&96
Mriffiths, *. (4 #uly (+&+), The Lotus 3uest7 In Sear%h o" the Sa%red 6o1er, !t. *artinJs
:ress, I!-0 A629+9)&(94B&B29&
@aranth, @. :. ((7 *arch (++4), <ut*o"*India Gond1anan <ri#in o" Some Tropi%a $sian
Biota (:1F), 4urrent S%ien%e (Indian $cademy of !ciences) 34 (4), 62AT6A(, retrie"ed &2
*ay (+&&
*ace, M. *. (*arch &AAB), ;EEF I(42 Red List o" Threatened $nimas, 5ord
4onser/ation Monitorin# 4entre (International ?nion for =onser"ation of 0ature),
I!-0 A629(92)&69+&AB9)
Biosphere Reser/es o" India, 4J +J RJ An/ironment Adu%ation 4entre (*inistry of
En"ironment and Forests, Mo"ernment of India), retrie"ed &6 #uly (+&&
Indian 5idi"e H+rote%tionI $%tB ;EG9, *inistry of En"ironments and Forests, Mo"ernment
of India, A !eptember &A6(, retrie"ed (7 #uly (+&&
:uri, !. @., Biodi/ersity +ro"ie o" India, retrie"ed (+ #une (++6
The List o" 5etands o" Internationa Importan%e (:1F), The !ecretariat of the =on"ention
on Wetlands, B #une (++6, p. &2, archi"ed from the original on (& #une (++6, retrie"ed (+
#une (++6
Tritsch, *. F. () !eptember (++&), 5idi"e o" India, >ondon, 8arper=ollins, I!-0 A629+9
++96&&+4(9A
!olitics
-hambhri, =. :. (& *ay &AA(), +oiti%s in IndiaB ;EE;8;EE9, !hipra, I!-0 A6292&927B+(9
&692, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
-urnell, :. #./ =al"ert, :. (& *ay &AAA), The Resiien%e o" 0emo%ra%y7 +ersistent +ra%ti%eB
0urabe Idea (&st ed.), Taylor Y Francis, I!-0 A629+96&B492+(49(, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
Se%ond (+$ 5inB $ 4ro1nin# Gory "or Sonia?s $s%endan%y, -usiness !tandard, &4 *ay
(++A, retrie"ed &) #une (++A
=hander, 0. #. (& #anuary (++B), 4oaition +oiti%s7 The Indian A@perien%e, =oncept
:ublishing =ompany, I!-0 A6292&92+4A9+A(9&, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
1unlea"y, :./ 1i.akar, R./ 1unlea"y, =. ((++6), The A""e%ti/e Spa%e o" +arty 4ompetition
(:1F) (7), >ondon !chool of Economics and :olitical !cience, retrie"ed (6 !eptember (+&&
1utt, !. (&AA2), Identities and the Indian State7 $n </er/ie1, Third 5ord 3uartery (3 ()),
B&&TB)B, doi,&+.&+2+E+&B)47AA2&B)(7
Eche"erri9Ment, #. (#anuary (++(), :olitics in IndiaJs 1ecentred :olity, in $yres, $./
Ildenburg, :., 3ui%kenin# the +a%e o" 4han#e, India -riefing, >ondon, *. E. !harpe,
pp. &AT7), I!-0 A629+964749+2&(9)
4urrent Re%o#nised +arties (:1F), Ae%tion 4ommission o" India, &B *arch (++A, retrie"ed
7 #uly (+&+
Mledhill, $. ()+ *arch &A6+), The Repubi% o" India7 The 0e/eopment o" its La1s and
4onstitution, Mreen.ood, I!-0 A629+92)6&9(2&)9A, retrie"ed (& #uly (+&&
2arasimha Rao +asses $1ay, The 8indu, (B 1ecember (++B, retrie"ed ( 0o"ember (++2
*athe., @. *. (& #anuary (++)), Manorama )earbook, *alayala *anorama, I!-0 A6292&9
A++B4&929), retrie"ed (& #uly (+&&
2ationa Symbos o" India, Nno1 India (0ational Informatics =entre, Mo"ernment of India),
retrie"ed (6 !eptember (++A
0euborne, -. ((++)), The Supreme 4ourt o" India, Internationa Journa o" 4onstitutiona
La1 ( (&), B64T7&+, doi,&+.&+A)EiconE&.).B64
:ylee, *. <. ((++)), The >ongest =onstitutional 1ocument, 4onstitutiona Go/ernment in
India ((nd ed.), !. =hand, I!-0 A6292&9(&A9((+)94
:ylee, *. <. ((++)), The ?nion #udiciary, The !upreme =ourt, 4onstitutiona
Go/ernment in India ((nd ed.), !. =hand, I!-0 A6292&9(&A9((+)94, retrie"ed ( 0o"ember
(++6
!arkar, 0. I. (& #anuary (++6), Sonia Gandhi7 Tryst 1ith India, $tlantic, I!-0 A6292&9(4A9
+6BB9&, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
!harma, R. (&A7+), 4abinet Go/ernment in India, +ariamentary $""airs / (&), &&4T&(4
!harma, -. @. ($ugust (++6), Introdu%tion to the 4onstitution o" India (Bth ed.), :rentice
8all, I!-0 A6292&9(+)9)(B49&
!inha, $. ((++B), The 4han#in# +oiti%a A%onomy o" 6ederaism in India, India Re/ie1 '
(&), (7T4), doi,&+.&+2+E&B6)4B2+BA+BB)+27
5ord?s Lar#est 0emo%ra%y to Rea%h <ne Biion +ersons on Independen%e 0ay, ?nited
0ations :opulation 1i"ision, retrie"ed 7 Ictober (+&&
Wheare, @. =. (#une &A2+), 6edera Go/ernment (Bth ed.), INford ?ni"ersity :ress,
I!-0 A629+9)&)9((6+(92
-oreign relations and military
$lford, :. (6 #uly (++2), GC +us D AOuas +o1er Shi"t, The $ustralian, retrie"ed (&
0o"ember (++A
-ehera, >. @. (6 *arch (+&&), Bud#etin# "or India?s 0e"en%e7 $n $naysis o" 0e"en%e
Bud#et 9:;;89:;9, Institute for 1efence !tudies and $nalyses, retrie"ed B $pril (+&&
-ehera, >. @. ((+ *arch (+&(), India?s 0e"en%e Bud#et 9:;98;K, Institute for 1efence
!tudies and $nalyses, retrie"ed (4 *arch (+&(
Russia $#rees India 2u%ear 0ea, BB4 2e1s (-ritish -roadcasting =orporation), &&
February (++A, retrie"ed (( $ugust (+&+
=urry, -. ((6 #une (+&+), 4anada Si#ns 2u%ear 0ea 1ith India, The Mlobe and *ail,
retrie"ed &) *ay (+&&
IndiaB Aurope Strate#i% Reations, Auropa7 Summaries o" A( Le#isation (European ?nion),
2 $pril (++2, retrie"ed &B #anuary (+&&
Mhosh, $. (& !eptember (++A), India?s 6orei#n +oi%y, :earson, I!-0 A6292&9)&69&+(792
Milbert, *. (&6 1ecember (++(), $ History o" the T1entieth 4entury, William *orro.,
I!-0 A629+9+49+7+7AB9), retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
IndiaB Russia Re/ie1 0e"en%e Ties, The 8indu, 7 Ictober (++A, retrie"ed 2 Ictober (+&&
@umar, $. <. (& *ay (+&+), Re"ormin# the 2+T to In%ude India, Buetin o" $tomi%
S%ientists, retrie"ed & 0o"ember (+&+
%dead ink'
*iglani, !. ((2 February (+&&), 5ith $n Aye on 4hinaB India Steps (p 0e"en%e Spendin#,
Reuters, retrie"ed 4 #uly (+&&
0air, <. @. ((++6), 2o More $mbi#uity7 India?s 2u%ear +oi%y (:1F), archi"ed from the
original on (6 !eptember (++6, retrie"ed 6 #une (++6
:andit, R. ((6 #uly (++A), 2*Submarine to Gi/e India 4ru%ia Third Le# o" 2uke Triad, The
Times of India, retrie"ed &+ *arch (+&+
:erko"ich, M. (7 0o"ember (++&), India?s 2u%ear Bomb7 The Impa%t on Goba
+roi"eration, ?ni"ersity of =alifornia :ress, I!-0 A629+97(+9()(&+97, retrie"ed (( #uly
(+&&
IndiaB 6ran%e $#ree on 4i/i 2u%ear 4ooperation, Rediff, (7 #anuary (++2, retrie"ed ((
$ugust (+&+
(NB India Si#n 4i/i 2u%ear $%%ord, Reuters, &) February (+&+, retrie"ed (( $ugust (+&+
Ripsman, 0. *./ :aul, T. <. (&2 *arch (+&+), Gobai!ation and the 2ationa Se%urity State,
INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9&A97)A)A+9), retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
Rothermund, 1. (&6 Ictober (+++), The Routed#e 4ompanion to 0e%ooni!ation,
Routledge =ompanions to 8istory (&st ed.), Routledge, I!-0 A629+9B&79)74)(9A
India Gets Its 6irst Home#ro1n 6i#hter Jet, RI$ 0o"osti, &+ #anuary (+&&, retrie"ed &
$pril (++A
!harma, !. R. (& #anuary &AAA), India8(SSR Reations ;EFG8;EG;7 6rom $mbi/aen%e to
Stead"astness (, 1isco"ery, I!-0 A6292&96&B&9B249B
!hukla, $. (7 *arch (+&&), 4hina Mat%hes India?s A@pansion in Miitary Spendin#,
-usiness !tandard, retrie"ed 4 #uly (+&&
!isodia, 0. !./ 0aidu, M. <. =. ((++7), 4han#in# Se%urity 0ynami% in Aastern $sia7 6o%us
on Japan, :romilla, I!-0 A6292&924+&A97(92
SI+RI )earbook 9::C7 $rmamentsB 0isarmamentB and Internationa Se%urity, Sto%khom
Internationa +ea%e Resear%h Institute (INford ?ni"ersity :ress), 2 $ugust (++2,
I!-0 A629+9&A9A7B2A792, retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
Rise in internationa arms trans"ers is dri/en by $sian demandB says SI+RI, Sto%khom
Internationa +ea%e Resear%h Initiati/e, &A *arch (+&(, archi"ed from the original on &)
#anuary (+&), retrie"ed (4 *arch (+&(
IndiaB (S Si#n ;9K $#reement, The Times of India, && Ictober (++2, retrie"ed (& #uly (+&&
*conomy
$lamgir, #. ((B 1ecember (++2), India?s <pen*A%onomy +oi%y7 GobaismB Ri/aryB
4ontinuity, Taylor Y Francis, I!-0 A629+9B&796642B9B, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
-onner, - ((+ *arch (+&+), Make 5ayB 5ordJ India Is on the Mo/e, =hristian !cience
*onitor, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
India Lost PFQ9bn in Ie#a 4apita 6o1sB Says Report, BB4 2e1s (-ritish -roadcasting
=orporation), &2 0o"ember (+&+, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
India Se%ond 6astest Gro1in# $uto Market $"ter 4hina, Business Line, A $pril (+&+,
retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
1raUe, #ean/ !en, $martya ((+&)), $n (n%ertain Gory7 India and Its 4ontradi%tions, $llen
>ane
India?s A%onomy7 2ot Just Rubies and +oyester Shirts, The Economist, 2 Ictober (+&&,
retrie"ed A Ictober (+&&
Indian 4ar A@ports Sur#e KQR, A@press India, &) Ictober (++A, archi"ed from the original
on ( #anuary (+&), retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Report "or See%ted 4ountries and Subje%ts7 IndiaB IndonesiaB Isami% Repubi% o" IranB
MaaysiaB +hiippinesB Sri LankaB Thaiand, International *onetary Fund, $pril (+&&,
retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Farrell, 1./ -einhocker, E. (&A *ay (++6), 2e@t Bi# Spenders7 India?s Midde 4ass,
*c@insey Y =ompany, retrie"ed &6 !eptember (+&&
Margan, E. $. (&7 $ugust &AA(), India Stumbes in Rush to a 6ree Market A%onomy, The
0e. Vork Times, retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
5ord A%onomi% <utook (pdate (:1F), International *onetary Fund, #une (+&&, retrie"ed
(( #uly (+&&
0ayak, :. -./ Moldar, -./ $gra.al, :. (&+ 0o"ember (+&+), India?s A%onomy and Gro1th7
Assays in Honour o" VJ NJ RJ VJ Rao, !$ME :ublications, I!-0 A6292&9)(&9+B7(9+
A%onomi% Sur/ey o" India 9::G7 +oi%y Brie" (:1F), Irganisation for Economic =o9
operation and 1e"elopment, Ictober (++6, retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
:al, :./ Mhosh, # (#uly (++6), IneOuaity in India7 $ Sur/ey o" Re%ent Trends (:1F),
A%onomi% and So%ia $""airs7 0AS$ 5orkin# +aper 2oJ FD (?nited 0ations), retrie"ed ()
#uly (+&&
The 5ord in 9:D:7 The $%%eeratin# Shi"t o" Goba A%onomi% +o1er7 4haen#es and
<pportunities (:1F), :rice.aterhouse=oopers, #anuary (+&&, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
!ch.ab, @. ((+&+), The Goba 4ompetiti/eness Report 9:;:89:;; (:1F), World Economic
Forum, retrie"ed &+ *ay (+&&
!heth, 0. ((2 *ay (++A), <utook "or <utsour%in# Spendin# Bri#htens, The 5a Street
Journa, retrie"ed ) Ictober (+&+
!ri"asta"a, <. =. ((++2), Introduction, in <.=. !ri"asta"a, >allan;i Mopal, 1.:.
=hattopadhyaya, History o" $#ri%uture in India Hp to %;9:: $0I, 8istory of !cience,
:hilosophy and =ulture In Indian =i"iUation, < (:art &), =oncept :ublishing =o,
I!-0 2&2+4A7(&(
In"ormation 2ote to the +ress H+ress Reease 2oJ9E S9:;;I (:1F), Telecom Regulatory
$uthority of India, 4 $pril (+&&, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
A@porters Get 5ider Market Rea%h, The Times of India, (2 $ugust (++A, retrie"ed () #uly
(+&&
4orruption +er%eption Inde@ 9:;:=India 4ontinues to be 4orrupt (:1F), Transparency
International, (4 Ictober (+&&, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
2e1 Goba +o/erty Astimates=5hat It Means "or India, World -ank, retrie"ed () #uly
(+&&
India7 (ndernourished 4hidren=$ 4a "or Re"orm and $%tion, 5ord Bank, retrie"ed ()
#uly (+&&
In%usi/e Gro1th and Ser/i%e 0ei/ery7 Buidin# on India?s Su%%ess (:1F), World -ank, (A
*ay (++4, retrie"ed 6 *ay (++A
India 4ountry </er/ie1 September 9:;:, World -ank, !eptember (+&+, retrie"ed () #uly
(+&&
Trade to A@pand by EJDR in 9:;: $"ter a 0isma 9::EB 5T< Reports, World Trade
Irganisation, (4 *arch (+&+, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Vep, E. ((6 !eptember (+&&), Re2e1 5ind +o1er Gets P9:; Miion Godman In/estment,
The Wall !treet #ournal, retrie"ed (6 !eptember (+&&
Indian IT*B+< Industry, 0$!!=I*, (+&&9(+&(, retrie"ed (( #une (+&( =heck date "alues
in, |date= (help)
(20ARST$20I2G THA 5T<7 THA <RG$2IT$TI<2 Members and <bser/ers, WTI,
&AA7, retrie"ed () #une (+&(
Demographics
-onner, $. (&AA+), $/ertin# the $po%aypse7 So%ia Mo/ements in India Today, 1uke
?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+92(()9&+B292, retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
Heath%are in India7 Report Hi#hi#hts (:1F), -oston $nalytics, #anuary (++A, retrie"ed ()
#uly (+&&
1e", !. *./ Rao, 0. =. ((++A), India7 +erspe%ti/es on AOuitabe 0e/eopment, $cademic
Foundation, I!-0 A6292&96&2294279(
1har.adker, $. ((2 Ictober (+&+), Representing IndiaJs :asts, Time, =ulture, and
:roblems of :erformance 8istoriography, in =anning, =. *./ :ostle.ait, T., Representin#
the +ast7 Assays in +er"orman%e Historio#raphy, ?ni"ersity of Io.a :ress, I!-0 A629&9
726(A9A+794, retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
1raUe, #./ Moyal, $. (A February (++A), The Future of *id91ay *eals, in -aru, R. <.,
S%hoo Heath Ser/i%es in India7 The So%ia and A%onomi% 4onte@ts, !$ME :ublications,
I!-0 A6292&962(A926)9)
1yson, T./ <isaria, :. (6 #uly (++7), *igration and ?rbanisation, Retrospect and
:rospects, in 1yson, T./ =asses, R./ <isaria, >., T1enty*6irst 4entury India7 +opuationB
A%onomyB Human 0e/eopmentB and the An/ironment, INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629
+9&A9A(2)2(92
Marg, !. =. (&A $pril (++7), Mobii!in# (rban In"rastru%ture 6inan%e in India (:1F), World
-ank, retrie"ed (6 #anuary (+&+
*allikar;un, - (0o"ember (++B), 6i"ty )ears o" Lan#ua#e +annin# "or Modern Hindi=
The <""i%ia Lan#ua#e o" India, Lan#ua#e in India / (&&), I!!0 &A)+9(AB+, retrie"ed (B
#uly (+&&
2oti"i%ation 2oJ 9SCSQ:*<JL, *inistry of 8ome $ffairs, Mo"ernment of India, (6 $pril &A4+,
retrie"ed &) *ay (+&&
Rei#ious 4omposition, <""i%e o" the Re#istrar Genera and 4ensus 4ommissioner (*inistry
of 8ome $ffairs, Mo"ernment of India), (+&+T(+&&, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
4ensus 0ata 9::;, <""i%e o" the Re#istrar Genera and 4ensus 4ommissioner (*inistry of
8ome $ffairs, Mo"ernment of India), (+&+T(+&&, retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
Ittenheimer, 8. #. ((++2), The $nthropoo#y o" Lan#ua#e7 $n Introdu%tion to Lin#uisti%
$nthropoo#y, =engage, I!-0 A629+9BA797+22B96
Ratna, ?. ((++6), Interface -et.een ?rban and Rural 1e"elopment in India, in 1utt, $.
@./ Thakur, -, 4ityB So%ietyB and +annin# (, =oncept, I!-0 A6292&92+4A9B7A9(
Robinson, !. (& *ay (++2), India?s Medi%a Amer#en%y, Time, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Rorabacher, #. $. ((+&+), Hun#er and +o/erty in South $sia, Myan, I!-0 A6292&9(&(9&+(69
+
!ingh, !. ((++B), Library and Litera%y Mo/ement "or 2ationa 0e/eopment, =oncept,
I!-0 A6292&92+4A9+4797
!kolnik, R. >. ((++2), Assentias o" Goba Heath, #ones Y -artlett >earning, I!-0 A629+9
64)69)B(&9)
4ountry 4ooperation Strate#y7 India (:1F), World 8ealth Irganisation, 0o"ember (++4,
retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Culture
$gni"esh, !.ami/ Rama *ani/ $ngelika @dester9>ossack ((7 0o"ember (++7). *issing,
7+ million Indian girls. 2e1 )ork Times. Retrie"ed )+ 1ecember (+&).
-unting, *adeleine ((( #uly (+&&). IndiaJs missing .omen. The Guardian. Retrie"ed )+
1ecember (+&).
-inmore, @. M. ((6 *arch (++6), +ayin# "or Rea7 $ Te@t on Game Theory, INford
?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9&A97)++769B
-ladholm, >. (&( $ugust (+++), The Indian Gro%ery Store 0emysti"ied (&st ed.), *acmillan
:ublishers, I!-0 A629&972+4)9&B)9)
Saina 2eh1a7 India?s Badminton Star and U2e1 5omanU, BB4 2e1s, & $ugust (+&+,
retrie"ed 7 Ictober (+&+
4ommon1eath Games 9:;:7 India 0ominate Shootin# Medas, BB4 2e1s, 6 Ictober
(+&+, retrie"ed ) #une (+&&
=hopra, :. (&2 *arch (+&&), $ Joint Anterprise7 Indian Aites and the Makin# o" British
Bombay, ?ni"ersity of *innesota :ress, I!-0 A629+92&4496+)694
=ullen91upont, @. (#uly (++A), Human Tra""i%kin# (&st ed.), Infobase :ublishing,
I!-0 A629+92&4+967B79B
1as, !. @. (& #anuary (++7), $ History o" Indian LiteratureB D::8;KEE7 6rom 4ourty to the
+opuar, !ahitya $kademi, I!-0 A6292&9(4+9(&6&9+
1atta, $. ((++4), The An%y%opaedia o" Indian Literature 1, !ahitya $kademi, I!-0 A629
2&9(4+9&&AB9+
1ehe;ia, R. !. (6 0o"ember (+&&), Indian Grand +ri@ VsJ An%ephaitisM, The 5a Street
Journa, retrie"ed (+ 1ecember (+&&
1eutsch, E. ()+ $pril &A4A), $d/aita Vednta7 $ +hiosophi%a Re%onstru%tion, ?ni"ersity
of 8a.aii :ress, I!-0 A629+92(B29+(6&9B
1issanayake, W. @./ Mokulsing, *. (*ay (++B), Indian +opuar 4inema7 $ 2arrati/e o"
4utura 4han#e ((nd ed.), Trentham -ooks, I!-0 A629&9272749)(A9A
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Eraly, $. ((++2), India, :enguin -ooks, I!-0 A629+967449BA7(9B, retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
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India
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the Republic of India. For other uses, see India (disambiguation).
:ermanently protected article
:ermanently protected article
Republic of India
-h\rat Manar\;ya
8oriUontal tricolor flag bearing, from top to bottom, deep saffron, .hite, and green horiUontal
bands. In the center of the .hite band is a na"y9blue .heel .ith (B spokes. Three lions facing
left, right, and to.ard "ie.er, atop a frieUe containing a galloping horse, a (B9spoke .heel, and an
elephant. ?nderneath is a motto, .
Flag Emblem
*otto, !atyame"a #ayate (!anskrit)
Truth $lone Triumphs%&'
$nthem, #ana Mana *ana
Thou art the rulers of the minds of all people%('%)'
*enu
+,++
0ational song,
<ande *ataram
I -o. to Thee, *other%a'%&'%)'
*enu
+,++
Image of a globe centred on India, .ith India highlighted.
$rea controlled by India sho.n in dark green/
claimed but uncontrolled regions sho.n in light green.
=apital 0e. 1elhi
(23)4.250 663&(.75E
>argest city *umbai
Ifficial languages
8indi
English
%sho.'
Recognised regional languages
2th !chedule%sho.'
0ational language 0one
1emonym Indian
Mo"ernment Federal parliamentary
constitutional republic%&'
9 :resident :ranab *ukher;ee
9 <ice :resident *ohammad 8amid $nsari
9 :rime *inister 0arendra *odi (-#:)
9 =hief #ustice 8. >. 1attu%4'
9 !peaker of the 8ouse !umitra *aha;an (-#:)
>egislature :arliament of India
9 ?pper house Ra;ya !abha
9 >o.er house >ok !abha
Independence from the ?nited @ingdom
9 1ominion &7 $ugust &AB6
9 Republic (4 #anuary &A7+
$rea
9 Total ),(26,7A+%6' km(%b' (6th)
&,(4A,)B4 sC mi
9 Water (D) A.4
:opulation
9 (+&& census &,(&+,&A),B((%2' ((nd)
9 1ensity )2+.&Ekm( ()&st)
A2B.7EsC mi
M1: (:::) (+&B estimate
9 Total F6.(66 trillion%A' ()rd)
9 :er capita F7,666%A' (&))rd)
M1: (nominal) (+&B estimate
9 Total F(.+B6 trillion %A' (&+th)
9 :er capita F&,4(7%A' (&B)rd)
Mini ((+&+) )).A%&+'
medium g 6Ath
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medium g &)7th
=urrency Indian rupee (I0R) (I0R)
Time Uone I!T (?T=G+7,)+)
9 !ummer (1!T) not obser"ed (?T=G+7,)+)
1ate format dd9mm9yyyy (=E)
1ri"es on the left
=alling code GA&
I!I )&44 code I0
Internet T>1 .in
other T>1s%sho.'
India (>isteniEndiHE), officially the Republic of India (-h\rat Manar\;ya),%&('%c' is a country in
!outh $sia. It is the se"enth9largest country by area, the second9most populous country .ith o"er
&.( billion people, and the most populous democracy in the .orld. -ounded by the Indian Icean on
the south, the $rabian !ea on the south9.est, and the -ay of -engal on the south9east, it shares land
borders .ith :akistan to the .est/%d' =hina, 0epal, and -hutan to the north9east/ and -urma and
-angladesh to the east. In the Indian Icean, India is in the "icinity of !ri >anka and the *aldi"es/
in addition, IndiaJs $ndaman and 0icobar Islands share a maritime border .ith Thailand and
Indonesia.
8ome to the ancient Indus <alley =i"ilisation and a region of historic trade routes and "ast empires,
the Indian subcontinent .as identified .ith its commercial and cultural .ealth for much of its long
history.%&)' Four .orld religionsK8induism, -uddhism, #ainism, and !ikhismKoriginated here,
.hereas #udaism, Loroastrianism, =hristianity, and Islam arri"ed in the &st millennium =E and also
helped shape the regionJs di"erse culture. Mradually anneNed by and brought under the
administration of the -ritish East India =ompany from the early &2th century and administered
directly by the ?nited @ingdom from the mid9&Ath century, India became an independent nation in
&AB6 after a struggle for independence that .as marked by non9"iolent resistance led by *ahatma
Mandhi.
The Indian economy is the .orldJs tenth9largest by nominal M1: and third9largest by purchasing
po.er parity (:::).%&B' Follo.ing market9based economic reforms in &AA&, India became one of
the fastest9gro.ing ma;or economies/ it is considered a ne.ly industrialised country. 8o.e"er, it
continues to face the challenges of po"erty, corruption, malnutrition, inadeCuate public healthcare,
and terrorism. $ nuclear .eapons state and a regional po.er, it has the third9largest standing army
in the .orld and ranks ninth in military eNpenditure among nations. India is a federal constitutional
republic go"erned under a parliamentary system consisting of (A states and 6 union territories. India
is a pluralistic, multilingual, and a multi9ethnic society. It is also home to a di"ersity of .ildlife in a
"ariety of protected habitats.
=ontents
& Etymology
( 8istory
(.& $ncient India
(.( *edie"al India
(.) Early modern India
(.B *odern India
) Meography
B -iodi"ersity
7 :olitics
7.& Mo"ernment
7.( !ubdi"isions
4 Foreign relations and military
6 Economy
2 1emographics
A =ulture
A.& $rt and architecture
A.( >iterature
A.) :erforming arts
A.B *otion pictures
A.7 !ociety
A.4 =lothing
A.6 !port
&+ !ee also
&& 0otes
&( References
&) -ibliography
&B ENternal links
Etymology
*ain article, 0ames of India
The name India is deri"ed from Indus, .hich originates from the Ild :ersian .ord 8induh. The
latter term stems from the !anskrit .ord !indhu, .hich .as the historical local appellation for the
Indus Ri"er.%&7' The ancient Mreeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (OPQRS), .hich translates as the
people of the Indus.%&4'
The geographical term -harat (pronounced % b a rHt ' ( listen)), .hich is recognised by the
=onstitution of India as an official name for the country,%&6' is used by many Indian languages in
its "ariations. The eponym of -harat is -harata, a theological figure that 8indu scriptures describe
as a legendary emperor of ancient India.
8industan (%ndsta n' ( listen)) .as originally a :ersian .ord that meant >and of the 8indus/
prior to &AB6, it referred to a region that encompassed northern India and :akistan. It is occasionally
used to solely denote India in its entirety.%&2'%&A'
8istory
*ain articles, 8istory of India and 8istory of the Republic of India
$ncient India
The earliest authenticated human remains in !outh $sia date to about )+,+++ years ago.%(+' 0early
contemporaneous *esolithic rock art sites ha"e been found in many parts of the Indian
subcontinent, including at the -himbetka rock shelters in *adhya :radesh.%(&' $round 6+++ -=E,
the first kno.n 0eolithic settlements appeared on the subcontinent in *ehrgarh and other sites in
.estern :akistan.%((' These gradually de"eloped into the Indus <alley =i"ilisation,%()' the first
urban culture in !outh $sia/%(B' It flourished during (4++T&A++ -=E in :akistan and .estern
India.%(7' =entred on cities such as *ohen;o9daro, 8arappa, 1hola"ira, and @alibangan, and
relying on "aried forms of subsistence, the ci"ilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and
.ide9ranging trade.%(B'
1uring the period (+++T7++ -=E, in terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinent
transitioned from the =halcolithic to the Iron $ge.%(4' The <edas, the oldest scriptures of
8induism,%(6' .ere composed during this period,%(2' and historians ha"e analysed these to posit a
<edic culture in the :un;ab region and the upper Mangetic :lain.%(4' *ost historians also consider
this period to ha"e encompassed se"eral .a"es of Indo9$ryan migration into the subcontinent from
the north9.est.%(A'%(6'%)+' The caste system arose during this period, .hich created a hierarchy of
priests, .arriors, free peasants and traders, and lastly the indigenous peoples .ho .ere regarded as
impure/ and small tribal units gradually coalesced into monarchical, state9le"el polities.%)&'%)(' In
the 1eccan :lateau, archaeological e"idence from this period suggests the eNistence of a chiefdom
stage of political organisation.%(4' In southern India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by
the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period,%))' as .ell as by nearby traces
of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions.%))'
1amaged bro.n painting of a reclining man and .oman.
:aintings at the $;anta =a"es in $urangabad, *aharashtra, 4th century
In the late <edic period, around the 4th century -=E, the small states and chiefdoms of the Manges
:lain and the north9.estern regions had consolidated into &4 ma;or oligarchies and monarchies that
.ere kno.n as the maha;anapadas.%)B'%)7' The emerging urbanisation and the orthodoNies of this
age also created heterodoN religious mo"ements, t.o of .hich became independent religions.
-uddhism, based on the teachings of Mautama -uddha attracted follo.ers from all social classes
eNcepting the middle class/ chronicling the life of the -uddha .as central to the beginnings of
recorded history in India.%)4'%)6'%)2' #ainism came into prominence during the life of its eNemplar,
*aha"ira.%)A' In an age of increasing urban .ealth, both religions held up renunciation as an ideal,
%B+' and both established long9lasting monastic traditions. :olitically, by the )rd century -=E, the
kingdom of *agadha had anneNed or reduced other states to emerge as the *auryan Empire.%B&'
The empire .as once thought to ha"e controlled most of the subcontinent eNcepting the far south,
but its core regions are no. thought to ha"e been separated by large autonomous areas.%B('%B)' The
*auryan kings are kno.n as much for their empire9building and determined management of public
life as for $shokaJs renunciation of militarism and far9flung ad"ocacy of the -uddhist dhamma.%BB'
%B7'
The !angam literature of the Tamil language re"eals that, bet.een (++ -=E and (++ =E, the
southern peninsula .as being ruled by the =heras, the =holas, and the :andyas, dynasties that
traded eNtensi"ely .ith the Roman Empire and .ith West and !outh9East $sia.%B4'%B6' In 0orth
India, 8induism asserted patriarchal control .ithin the family, leading to increased subordination of
.omen.%B2'%B&' -y the Bth and 7th centuries, the Mupta Empire had created in the greater Manges
:lain a compleN system of administration and taNation that became a model for later Indian
kingdoms.%BA'%7+' ?nder the Muptas, a rene.ed 8induism based on de"otion rather than the
management of ritual began to assert itself.%7&' The rene.al .as reflected in a flo.ering of
sculpture and architecture, .hich found patrons among an urban elite.%7+' =lassical !anskrit
literature flo.ered as .ell, and Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made
significant ad"ances.%7+'
*edie"al India
The granite to.er of -rihadees.arar Temple in Than;a"ur .as completed in &+&+ =E by Ra;a Ra;a
=hola I.
The Indian early medie"al age, 4++ =E to &(++ =E, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural
di"ersity.%7(' When 8arsha of @annau;, .ho ruled much of the Indo9Mangetic :lain from 4+4 to
4B6 =E, attempted to eNpand south.ards, he .as defeated by the =halukya ruler of the 1eccan.%7)'
When his successor attempted to eNpand east.ards, he .as defeated by the :ala king of -engal.%7)'
When the =halukyas attempted to eNpand south.ards, they .ere defeated by the :alla"as from
farther south, .ho in turn .ere opposed by the :andyas and the =holas from still farther south.%7)'
0o ruler of this period .as able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond his
core region.%7(' 1uring this time, pastoral peoples .hose land had been cleared to make .ay for
the gro.ing agricultural economy .ere accommodated .ithin caste society, as .ere ne. non9
traditional ruling classes.%7B' The caste system conseCuently began to sho. regional differences.
%7B'
In the 4th and 6th centuries, the first de"otional hymns .ere created in the Tamil language.%77'
They .ere imitated all o"er India and led to both the resurgence of 8induism and the de"elopment
of all modern languages of the subcontinent.%77' Indian royalty, big and small, and the temples they
patronised, dre. citiUens in great numbers to the capital cities, .hich became economic hubs as
.ell.%74' Temple to.ns of "arious siUes began to appear e"ery.here as India under.ent another
urbanisation.%74' -y the 2th and Ath centuries, the effects .ere felt in !outh9East $sia, as !outh
Indian culture and political systems .ere eNported to lands that became part of modern9day
*yanmar, Thailand, >aos, =ambodia, <ietnam, :hilippines, *alaysia, and #a"a.%76' Indian
merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies .ere in"ol"ed in this transmission/ !outh9East $sians
took the initiati"e as .ell, .ith many so;ourning in Indian seminaries and translating -uddhist and
8indu teNts into their languages.%76'
$fter the &+th century, *uslim =entral $sian nomadic clans, using s.ift9horse ca"alry and raising
"ast armies united by ethnicity and religion, repeatedly o"erran !outh $siaJs north9.estern plains,
leading e"entually to the establishment of the Islamic 1elhi !ultanate in &(+4.%72' The sultanate
.as to control much of 0orth India, and to make many forays into !outh India. $lthough at first
disrupti"e for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its "ast non9*uslim sub;ect population to
its o.n la.s and customs.%7A'%4+' -y repeatedly repulsing *ongol raiders in the &)th century, the
sultanate sa"ed India from the de"astation "isited on West and =entral $sia, setting the scene for
centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers, learned men, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from
that region into the subcontinent, thereby creating a syncretic Indo9Islamic culture in the north.%4&'
%4(' The sultanateJs raiding and .eakening of the regional kingdoms of !outh India pa"ed the .ay
for the indigenous <i;ayanagara Empire.%4)' Embracing a strong !hai"ite tradition and building
upon the military technology of the sultanate, the empire came to control much of peninsular India,
%4B' and .as to influence !outh Indian society for long after.ards.%4)'
Early modern India
Writing the .ill and testament of the *ughal king court in :ersian, &7A+T&7A7
In the early &4th century, northern India, being then under mainly *uslim rulers,%47' fell again to
the superior mobility and firepo.er of a ne. generation of =entral $sian .arriors.%44' The
resulting *ughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced
and pacified them through ne. administrati"e practices%46'%42' and di"erse and inclusi"e ruling
elites,%4A' leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule.%6+' Esche.ing tribal bonds
and Islamic identity, especially under $kbar, the *ughals united their far9flung realms through
loyalty, eNpressed through a :ersianised culture, to an emperor .ho had near9di"ine status.%4A' The
*ughal stateJs economic policies, deri"ing most re"enues from agriculture%6&' and mandating that
taNes be paid in the .ell9regulated sil"er currency,%6(' caused peasants and artisans to enter larger
markets.%6+' The relati"e peace maintained by the empire during much of the &6th century .as a
factor in IndiaJs economic eNpansion,%6+' resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms,
teNtiles, and architecture.%6)' 0e.ly coherent social groups in northern and .estern India, such as
the *arathas, the Ra;puts, and the !ikhs, gained military and go"erning ambitions during *ughal
rule, .hich, through collaboration or ad"ersity, ga"e them both recognition and military eNperience.
%6B' ENpanding commerce during *ughal rule ga"e rise to ne. Indian commercial and political
elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India.%6B' $s the empire disintegrated, many among
these elites .ere able to seek and control their o.n affairs.%67' The single most important po.er
that emerged in the early modern period .as the *aratha confederacy.%64'
-y the early &2th century, .ith the lines bet.een commercial and political dominance being
increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English East India
=ompany, had established coastal outposts.%66'%62' The East India =ompanyJs control of the seas,
greater resources, and more ad"anced military training and technology led it to increasingly fleN its
military muscle and caused it to become attracti"e to a portion of the Indian elite/ both these factors
.ere crucial in allo.ing the =ompany to gain control o"er the -engal region by &647 and sideline
the other European companies.%6A'%66'%2+'%2&' Its further access to the riches of -engal and the
subseCuent increased strength and siUe of its army enabled it to anneN or subdue most of India by
the &2(+s.%2(' India .as then no longer eNporting manufactured goods as it long had, but .as
instead supplying the -ritish empire .ith ra. materials, and many historians consider this to be the
onset of IndiaJs colonial period.%66' -y this time, .ith its economic po.er se"erely curtailed by the
-ritish parliament and itself effecti"ely made an arm of -ritish administration, the =ompany began
to more consciously enter non9economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.%2)'
*odern India
The -ritish Indian Empire, from the &A+A edition of The Imperial MaUetteer of India. $reas directly
go"erned by the -ritish are shaded pink/ the princely states under -ritish suUerainty are in yello..
8istorians consider IndiaJs modern age to ha"e begun sometime bet.een &2B2 and &227. The
appointment in &2B2 of >ord 1alhousie as Mo"ernor Meneral of the East India =ompany set the
stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of
so"ereignty, the sur"eillance of the population, and the education of citiUens. Technological changes
Kamong them, rail.ays, canals, and the telegraphK.ere introduced not long after their
introduction in Europe.%2B'%27'%24'%26' 8o.e"er, disaffection .ith the =ompany also gre. during
this time, and set off the Indian Rebellion of &276. Fed by di"erse resentments and perceptions,
including in"asi"e -ritish9style social reforms, harsh land taNes, and summary treatment of some
rich lando.ners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and
shook the foundations of =ompany rule.%22'%2A' $lthough the rebellion .as suppressed by &272, it
led to the dissolution of the East India =ompany and to the direct administration of India by the
-ritish go"ernment. :roclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited -ritish9style
parliamentary system, the ne. rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard
against future unrest.%A+'%A&' In the decades follo.ing, public life gradually emerged all o"er India,
leading e"entually to the founding of the Indian 0ational =ongress in &227.%A('%A)'%AB'%A7'
T.o smiling men in robes sitting on the ground .ith bodies facing the "ie.er and .ith heads turned
to.ard each other. The younger .ears a .hite 0ehru cap/ the elder is bald and .ears glasses. $
half9doUen other people are in the background.
#a.aharlal 0ehru (left) became IndiaJs first prime minister in &AB6. *ahatma Mandhi (right) led the
independence mo"ement.
The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the &Ath
century .as marked by economic setbacksKmany small farmers became dependent on the .hims
of far9a.ay markets.%A4' There .as an increase in the number of large9scale famines,%A6' and,
despite the risks of infrastructure de"elopment borne by Indian taNpayers, little industrial
employment .as generated for Indians.%A2' There .ere also salutary effects, commercial cropping,
especially in the ne.ly canalled :un;ab, led to increased food production for internal consumption.
%AA' The rail.ay net.ork pro"ided critical famine relief,%&++' notably reduced the cost of mo"ing
goods,%&++' and helped nascent Indian9o.ned industry.%AA' $fter World War I, in .hich some one
million Indians ser"ed,%&+&' a ne. period began. It .as marked by -ritish reforms but also
repressi"e legislation, by more strident Indian calls for self9rule, and by the beginnings of a non9
"iolent mo"ement of non9cooperation, of .hich *ohandas @aramchand Mandhi .ould become the
leader and enduring symbol.%&+(' 1uring the &A)+s, slo. legislati"e reform .as enacted by the
-ritish/ the Indian 0ational =ongress .on "ictories in the resulting elections.%&+)' The neNt decade
.as beset .ith crises, Indian participation in World War II, the =ongressJs final push for non9
cooperation, and an upsurge of *uslim nationalism. $ll .ere capped by the ad"ent of independence
in &AB6, but tempered by the partition of India into t.o states, India and :akistan.%&+B'
<ital to IndiaJs self9image as an independent nation .as its constitution, completed in &A7+, .hich
put in place a secular and democratic republic.%&+7' In the 4+ years since, India has had a miNed
record of successes and failures.%&+4' It has remained a democracy .ith ci"il liberties, an acti"e
!upreme =ourt, and a largely independent press.%&+4' Economic liberalisation, .hich .as begun in
the &AA+s, has created a large urban middle class, transformed India into one of the .orldJs fastest9
gro.ing economies,%&+6' and increased its geopolitical clout. Indian mo"ies, music, and spiritual
teachings play an increasing role in global culture.%&+4' Vet, India is also shaped by seemingly
unyielding po"erty, both rural and urban/%&+4' by religious and caste9related "iolence/%&+2' by
*aoist9inspired 0aNalite insurgencies/%&+A' and by separatism in #ammu and @ashmir and in
0ortheast India.%&&+' It has unresol"ed territorial disputes .ith =hina,%&&&' and .ith :akistan.%&&&'
The IndiaT:akistan nuclear ri"alry came to a head in &AA2.%&&(' IndiaJs sustained democratic
freedoms are uniCue among the .orldJs ne. nations/ ho.e"er, in spite of its recent economic
successes, freedom from .ant for its disad"antaged population remains a goal yet to be achie"ed.
%&&)'
Meography
*ain article, Meography of India
!ee also, Meology of India
*ap of India. *ost of India is yello. (ele"ation &++T&+++ m). !ome areas in the south and mid9
east are bro.n (abo"e &+++ m). *a;or ri"er "alleys are green (belo. &++ m).
$ topographic map of India
India comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate, and part of
the Indo9$ustralian :late.%&&B' IndiaJs defining geological processes began 67 million years ago
.hen the Indian plate, then part of the southern supercontinent Mond.ana, began a north9east.ard
drift caused by seafloor spreading to its south9.est, and later, south and south9east.%&&B'
!imultaneously, the "ast Tethyn oceanic crust, to its northeast, began to subduct under the Eurasian
plate.%&&B' These dual processes, dri"en by con"ection in the EarthJs mantle, both created the Indian
Icean and caused the Indian continental crust e"entually to under9thrust Eurasia and to uplift the
8imalayas.%&&B' Immediately south of the emerging 8imalayas, plate mo"ement created a "ast
trough that rapidly filled .ith ri"er9borne sediment%&&7' and no. constitutes the Indo9Mangetic
:lain.%&&4' =ut off from the plain by the ancient $ra"alli Range lies the Thar 1esert.%&&6'
The original Indian plate sur"i"es as peninsular India, the oldest and geologically most stable part
of India. It eNtends as far north as the !atpura and <indhya ranges in central India. These parallel
chains run from the $rabian !ea coast in Mu;arat in the .est to the coal9rich =hota 0agpur :lateau
in #harkhand in the east.%&&2' To the south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the 1eccan :lateau,
is flanked on the .est and east by coastal ranges kno.n as the Western and Eastern Mhats/%&&A' the
plateau contains the countryJs oldest rock formations, some o"er one billion years old. =onstituted
in such fashion, India lies to the north of the eCuator bet.een 43 BBJ and )73 )+J north latitude%e'
and 423 6J and A63 (7J east longitude.%&(+'
$ shining .hite sno.9clad range, framed against a turCuoise sky. In the middle ground, a ridge
descends from the right to form a saddle in the centre of the photograph, partly in shado.. In the
near foreground, a loop of a road is seen.
The @edar Range of the Mreater 8imalayas rises behind @edarnath Temple (Indian state of
?ttarakhand), .hich is one of the t.el"e ;yotirlinga shrines.
IndiaJs coastline measures 6,7&6 kilometres (B,6++ mi) in length/ of this distance, 7,B() kilometres
(),B++ mi) belong to peninsular India and (,+AB kilometres (&,)++ mi) to the $ndaman, 0icobar,
and >akshad.eep island chains.%&(&' $ccording to the Indian na"al hydrographic charts, the
mainland coastline consists of the follo.ing, B)D sandy beaches/ &&D rocky shores, including
cliffs/ and B4D mudflats or marshy shores.%&(&'
*a;or 8imalayan9origin ri"ers that substantially flo. through India include the Manges and the
-rahmaputra, both of .hich drain into the -ay of -engal.%&((' Important tributaries of the Manges
include the Vamuna and the @osi/ the latterJs eNtremely lo. gradient often leads to se"ere floods
and course changes.%&()' *a;or peninsular ri"ers, .hose steeper gradients pre"ent their .aters
from flooding, include the Moda"ari, the *ahanadi, the @a"eri, and the @rishna, .hich also drain
into the -ay of -engal/%&(B' and the 0armada and the Tapti, .hich drain into the $rabian !ea.%&(7'
=oastal features include the marshy Rann of @utch of .estern India and the allu"ial !undarbans
delta of eastern India/ the latter is shared .ith -angladesh.%&(4' India has t.o archipelagos, the
>akshad.eep, coral atolls off IndiaJs south9.estern coast/ and the $ndaman and 0icobar Islands, a
"olcanic chain in the $ndaman !ea.%&(6'
The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the 8imalayas and the Thar 1esert, both of .hich
dri"e the economically and culturally pi"otal summer and .inter monsoons.%&(2' The 8imalayas
pre"ent cold =entral $sian katabatic .inds from blo.ing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian
subcontinent .armer than most locations at similar latitudes.%&(A'%&)+' The Thar 1esert plays a
crucial role in attracting the moisture9laden south9.est summer monsoon .inds that, bet.een #une
and Ictober, pro"ide the ma;ority of IndiaJs rainfall.%&(2' Four ma;or climatic groupings
predominate in India, tropical .et, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.%&)&'
-iodi"ersity
*ain article, Wildlife of India
!hola highlands are found in @udremukh 0ational :ark, =hikmagalur .hich is part of the Western
Mhats.
India lies .ithin the Indomalaya ecoUone and contains three biodi"ersity hotspots.%&)(' Ine of &6
megadi"erse countries, it hosts 2.4D of all mammalian, &).6D of all a"ian, 6.AD of all reptilian,
4D of all amphibian, &(.(D of all piscine, and 4.+D of all flo.ering plant species.%&))'%&)B'
Endemism is high among plants, ))D, and among ecoregions such as the shola forests.%&)7'
8abitat ranges from the tropical rainforest of the $ndaman Islands, Western Mhats, and 0orth9East
India to the coniferous forest of the 8imalaya. -et.een these eNtremes lie the moist deciduous sal
forest of eastern India/ the dry deciduous teak forest of central and southern India/ and the babul9
dominated thorn forest of the central 1eccan and .estern Mangetic plain.%&)4' ?nder &(D of
IndiaJs landmass bears thick ;ungle.%&)6' The medicinal neem, .idely used in rural Indian herbal
remedies, is a key Indian tree. The luNuriant pipal fig tree, sho.n on the seals of *ohen;o9daro,
shaded Mautama -uddha as he sought enlightenment.
*any Indian species descend from taNa originating in Mond.ana, from .hich the Indian plate
separated more than &+7 million years before present.%&)2' :eninsular IndiaJs subseCuent
mo"ement to.ards and collision .ith the >aurasian landmass set off a mass eNchange of species.
Epochal "olcanism and climatic changes (+ million years ago forced a mass eNtinction.%&)A'
*ammals then entered India from $sia through t.o Uoogeographical passes flanking the rising
8imalaya.%&)4' Thus, .hile B7.2D of reptiles and 77.2D of amphibians are endemic, only &(.4D
of mammals and B.7D of birds are.%&)B' $mong them are the 0ilgiri leaf monkey and -eddomeJs
toad of the Western Mhats. India contains &6( I?=09designated threatened animal species, or (.AD
of endangered forms.%&B+' These include the $siatic lion, the -engal tiger, and the Indian White9
rumped "ulture, .hich, by ingesting the carrion of diclofenac9laced cattle, nearly .ent eNtinct.
The per"asi"e and ecologically de"astating human encroachment of recent decades has critically
endangered Indian .ildlife. In response the system of national parks and protected areas, first
established in &A)7, .as substantially eNpanded. In &A6(, India enacted the Wildlife :rotection
$ct%&B&' and :ro;ect Tiger to safeguard crucial .ilderness/ the Forest =onser"ation $ct .as
enacted in &A2+ and amendments added in &A22.%&B(' India hosts more than fi"e hundred .ildlife
sanctuaries and thirteen biosphere reser"es,%&B)' four of .hich are part of the World 0et.ork of
-iosphere Reser"es/ t.enty9fi"e .etlands are registered under the Ramsar =on"ention.%&BB'
:olitics
*ain article, :olitics of India
$ parliamentary ;oint session being held in the !ansad -ha"an.
The Rashtrapati -ha"an is the official residence of the president of India.
India is the .orldJs most populous democracy.%&B7' $ parliamentary republic .ith a multi9party
system,%&B4' it has siN recognised national parties, including the Indian 0ational =ongress and the
-haratiya #anata :arty (-#:), and more than B+ regional parties.%&B6' The =ongress is considered
centre9left or liberal in Indian political culture, and the -#: centre9right or conser"ati"e. For
most of the period bet.een &A7+K.hen India first became a republicKand the late &A2+s, the
=ongress held a ma;ority in the parliament. !ince then, ho.e"er, it has increasingly shared the
political stage .ith the -#:,%&B2' as .ell as .ith po.erful regional parties .hich ha"e often forced
the creation of multi9party coalitions at the centre.%&BA'
In the Republic of IndiaJs first three general elections, in &A7&, &A76, and &A4(, the #a.aharlal
0ehru9led =ongress .on easy "ictories. In 0ehruJs death in &A4B, >al -ahadur !hastri briefly
became prime minister/ he .as succeeded, after his o.n uneNpected death in &A44, by Indira
Mandhi, .ho .ent on to lead the =ongress to election "ictories in &A46 and &A6&. Follo.ing public
discontent .ith the state of emergency she declared in &A67, the =ongress .as "oted out of po.er
in &A66/ the then9ne. #anata :arty, .hich had opposed the emergency, .as "oted in. Its go"ernment
lasted ;ust o"er three years. <oted back into po.er in &A2+, the =ongress sa. a change in leadership
in &A2B, .hen Indira Mandhi .as assassinated/ she .as succeeded by her son Ra;i" Mandhi, .ho
.on an easy "ictory in the general elections later that year. The =ongress .as "oted out again in
&A2A .hen a 0ational Front coalition, led by the ne.ly formed #anata 1al in alliance .ith the >eft
Front, .on the elections/ that go"ernment too pro"ed relati"ely short9li"ed, it lasted ;ust under t.o
years.%&7+' Elections .ere held again in &AA&/ no party .on an absolute ma;ority. -ut the
=ongress, as the largest single party, .as able to form a minority go"ernment led by :. <.
0arasimha Rao.%&7&'
$ t.o9year period of political turmoil follo.ed the general election of &AA4. !e"eral short9li"ed
alliances shared po.er at the centre. The -#: formed a go"ernment briefly in &AA4/ it .as follo.ed
by t.o comparati"ely long9lasting ?nited Front coalitions, .hich depended on eNternal support. In
&AA2, the -#: .as able to form a successful coalition, the 0ational 1emocratic $lliance (01$).
>ed by $tal -ihari <a;payee, the 01$ became the first non9=ongress, coalition go"ernment to
complete a fi"e9year term.%&7(' In the (++B Indian general elections, again no party .on an
absolute ma;ority, but the =ongress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful
coalition, the ?nited :rogressi"e $lliance (?:$). It had the support of left9leaning parties and *:s
.ho opposed the -#:. The ?:$ returned to po.er in the (++A general election .ith increased
numbers, and it no longer reCuired eNternal support from IndiaJs communist parties.%&7)' That year,
*anmohan !ingh became the first prime minister since #a.aharlal 0ehru in &A76 and &A4( to be
re9elected to a consecuti"e fi"e9year term.%&7B' In the (+&B general election, -haratiya #anata :arty
became the first political party since &A2B to .in a ma;ority and go"ern .ithout the support of other
parties.%&77'
Mo"ernment
*ain article, Mo"ernment of India
!ee also, Elections in India
India is a federation .ith a parliamentary system go"erned under the =onstitution of India, .hich
ser"es as the countryJs supreme legal document. It is a constitutional republic and representati"e
democracy, in .hich ma;ority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by la.. Federalism in
India defines the po.er distribution bet.een the federal go"ernment and the states. The go"ernment
abides by constitutional checks and balances. The =onstitution of India, .hich came into effect on
(4 #anuary &A7+,%&74' states in its preamble that India is a so"ereign, socialist, secular, democratic
republic.%&76' IndiaJs form of go"ernment, traditionally described as Cuasi9federal .ith a strong
centre and .eak states,%&72' has gro.n increasingly federal since the late &AA+s as a result of
political, economic, and social changes.%&7A'%&4+'
0ational symbols%&' Flag Tricolour
Emblem !arnath >ion =apital
$nthem #ana Mana *ana
!ong <ande *ataram
=urrency I0R (Indian rupee)
=alendar !aka
Mame 0ot declared%&4&'
Flo.er >otus
Fruit *ango
Tree -anyan
-ird Indian :eafo.l
>and animal Tiger
$Cuatic animal Ri"er 1olphin
Ri"er Manga or Manges
The federal go"ernment comprises three branches,
ENecuti"e, The :resident of India is the head of state%&4(' and is elected indirectly by a national
electoral college%&4)' for a fi"e9year term.%&4B' The :rime *inister of India is the head of
go"ernment and eNercises most eNecuti"e po.er.%&47' $ppointed by the president,%&44' the prime
minister is by con"ention supported by the party or political alliance holding the ma;ority of seats in
the lo.er house of parliament.%&47' The eNecuti"e branch of the Indian go"ernment consists of the
president, the "ice9president, and the =ouncil of *inistersKthe cabinet being its eNecuti"e
committeeKheaded by the prime minister. $ny minister holding a portfolio must be a member of
one of the houses of parliament.%&4(' In the Indian parliamentary system, the eNecuti"e is
subordinate to the legislature/ the prime minister and his council are directly responsible to the
lo.er house of the parliament.%&46'
>egislati"e, The legislature of India is the bicameral parliament. It operates under a Westminster9
style parliamentary system and comprises the upper house called the Ra;ya !abha (=ouncil of
!tates) and the lo.er called the >ok !abha (8ouse of the :eople).%&42' The Ra;ya !abha is a
permanent body that has (B7 members .ho ser"e in staggered siN9year terms.%&4A' *ost are elected
indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures in numbers proportional to their stateJs share of the
national population.%&44' $ll but t.o of the >ok !abhaJs 7B7 members are directly elected by
popular "ote/ they represent indi"idual constituencies "ia fi"e9year terms.%&6+' The remaining t.o
members are nominated by the president from among the $nglo9Indian community, in case the
president decides that they are not adeCuately represented.%&6&'
#udicial, India has a unitary three9tier independent ;udiciary%&6(' that comprises the !upreme
=ourt, headed by the =hief #ustice of India, (B 8igh =ourts, and a large number of trial courts.%&6('
The !upreme =ourt has original ;urisdiction o"er cases in"ol"ing fundamental rights and o"er
disputes bet.een states and the centre/ it has appellate ;urisdiction o"er the 8igh =ourts.%&6)' It has
the po.er both to declare the la. and to strike do.n union or state la.s .hich contra"ene the
constitution.%&6B' The !upreme =ourt is also the ultimate interpreter of the constitution.%&67'
!ubdi"isions
$ clickable map of the (A states and 6 union territories of India
*ain article, $dministrati"e di"isions of India
!ee also, :olitical integration of India
India is a federation composed of (A states and 6 union territories.%&64' $ll states, as .ell as the
union territories of :uducherry and the 0ational =apital Territory of 1elhi, ha"e elected legislatures
and go"ernments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining fi"e union territories are
directly ruled by the centre through appointed administrators. In &A74, under the !tates
Reorganisation $ct, states .ere reorganised on a linguistic basis.%&66' !ince then, their structure
has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further di"ided into administrati"e
districts. The districts in turn are further di"ided into tehsils and ultimately into "illages.
!tates
$ndhra :radesh
$runachal :radesh
$ssam
-ihar
=hhattisgarh
Moa
Mu;arat
8aryana
8imachal :radesh
#ammu and @ashmir
#harkhand
@arnataka
@erala
*adhya :radesh
*aharashtra
*anipur
*eghalaya
*iUoram
0agaland
Idisha
:un;ab
Ra;asthan
!ikkim
Tamil 0adu
Telangana
Tripura
?ttar :radesh
?ttarakhand
West -engal
?nion territories
$ndaman and 0icobar Islands
=handigarh
1adra and 0agar 8a"eli
1aman and 1iu
>akshad.eep
0ational =apital Territory of 1elhi
:uducherry
Foreign relations and military
*ain articles, Foreign relations of India and Indian $rmed Forces
T.o standing men are pictured shaking hands. The first is dressed in Indian clothing/ the second is
in a Western business suit/ both standing behind a Russian flag.
0arendra *odi meets <ladimir :utin at the 4th -RI=! summit. India and Russia share eNtensi"e
economic, defence, and technological ties.
!ince its independence in &AB6, India has maintained cordial relations .ith most nations. In the
&A7+s, it strongly supported decolonisation in $frica and $sia and played a lead role in the 0on9
$ligned *o"ement.%&62' In the late &A2+s, the Indian military t.ice inter"ened abroad at the
in"itation of neighbouring countries, a peace9keeping operation in !ri >anka bet.een &A26 and
&AA+/ and an armed inter"ention to pre"ent a coup dJWtat attempt in *aldi"es. India has tense
relations .ith neighbouring :akistan/ the t.o nations ha"e gone to .ar four times, in &AB6, &A47,
&A6&, and &AAA. Three of these .ars .ere fought o"er the disputed territory of @ashmir, .hile the
fourth, the &A6& .ar, follo.ed from IndiaJs support for the independence of -angladesh.%&6A' $fter
.aging the &A4( !ino9Indian War and the &A47 .ar .ith :akistan, India pursued close military and
economic ties .ith the !o"iet ?nion/ by the late &A4+s, the !o"iet ?nion .as its largest arms
supplier.%&2+'
$side from ongoing strategic relations .ith Russia, India has .ide9ranging defence relations .ith
Israel and France. In recent years, it has played key roles in the !outh $sian $ssociation for
Regional =ooperation and the World Trade Irganisation. The nation has pro"ided &++,+++ military
and police personnel to ser"e in )7 ?0 peacekeeping operations across four continents. It
participates in the East $sia !ummit, the M2G7, and other multilateral forums.%&2&' India has close
economic ties .ith !outh $merica,%&2(' $sia, and $frica/ it pursues a >ook East policy that seeks
to strengthen partnerships .ith the $!E$0 nations, #apan, and !outh @orea that re"ol"e around
many issues, but especially those in"ol"ing economic in"estment and regional security.%&2)'%&2B'
I0! <ikramaditya, the Indian 0a"yXs biggest .arship.
=hinaJs nuclear test of &A4B, as .ell as its repeated threats to inter"ene in support of :akistan in the
&A47 .ar, con"inced India to de"elop nuclear .eapons.%&27' India conducted its first nuclear
.eapons test in &A6B and carried out further underground testing in &AA2. 1espite criticism and
military sanctions, India has signed neither the =omprehensi"e 0uclear9Test9-an Treaty nor the
0uclear 0on9:roliferation Treaty, considering both to be fla.ed and discriminatory.%&24' India
maintains a no first use nuclear policy and is de"eloping a nuclear triad capability as a part of its
minimum credible deterrence doctrine.%&26'%&22' It is de"eloping a ballistic missile defence
shield and, in collaboration .ith Russia, a fifth9generation fighter ;et.%&2A' Ither indigenous
military pro;ects in"ol"e the design and implementation of <ikrant9class aircraft carriers and
$rihant9class nuclear submarines.%&2A'
!ince the end of the =old War, India has increased its economic, strategic, and military cooperation
.ith the ?nited !tates and the European ?nion.%&A+' In (++2, a ci"ilian nuclear agreement .as
signed bet.een India and the ?nited !tates. $lthough India possessed nuclear .eapons at the time
and .as not party to the 0uclear 0on9:roliferation Treaty, it recei"ed .ai"ers from the
International $tomic Energy $gency and the 0uclear !uppliers Mroup, ending earlier restrictions on
IndiaJs nuclear technology and commerce. $s a conseCuence, India became the siNth de facto
nuclear .eapons state.%&A&' India subseCuently signed cooperation agreements in"ol"ing ci"ilian
nuclear energy .ith Russia,%&A(' France,%&A)' the ?nited @ingdom,%&AB' and =anada.%&A7'
The :resident of India is the supreme commander of the nationJs armed forces/ .ith &.)(7 million
acti"e troops, they compose the .orldJs third9largest military.%&A4' It comprises the Indian $rmy,
the Indian 0a"y, and the Indian $ir Force/ auNiliary organisations include the !trategic Forces
=ommand and three paramilitary groups, the $ssam Rifles, the !pecial Frontier Force, and the
Indian =oast Muard.%&A6' The official Indian defence budget for (+&& .as ?!F)4.+) billion, or
&.2)D of M1:.%&A2' For the fiscal year spanning (+&(T(+&), ?!FB+.BB billion .as budgeted.%&AA'
$ccording to a (++2 !I:RI report, IndiaJs annual military eNpenditure in terms of purchasing po.er
stood at ?!F6(.6 billion,%(++' In (+&&, the annual defence budget increased by &&.4D,%(+&'
although this does not include funds that reach the military through other branches of go"ernment.
%(+(' $s of (+&(, India is the .orldJs largest arms importer/ bet.een (++6 and (+&&, it accounted
for &+D of funds spent on international arms purchases.%(+)' *uch of the military eNpenditure .as
focused on defence against :akistan and countering gro.ing =hinese influence in the Indian Icean.
%(+&'
Economy
*ain article, Economy of India
!ee also, Economic history of India, Economic de"elopment in India, Tourism in India and
Transport in India
Fishermen on the =hinese fishing nets of =ochin. Fisheries in India is a ma;or industry in its coastal
states, employing o"er &B million people. The annual catch doubled bet.een &AA+ and (+&+.
$ccording to the International *onetary Fund (I*F), as of (+&B, the Indian economy is nominally
.orth ?!F(.+B6 trillion/ it is the ele"enth9largest economy by market eNchange rates, and is, at
?!F6.(66 trillion, the third9largest by purchasing po.er parity, or :::.%A' With its a"erage annual
M1: gro.th rate of 7.2D o"er the past t.o decades, and reaching 4.&D during (+&&T&(,%(+B' India
is one of the .orldJs fastest9gro.ing economies.%(+7' 8o.e"er, the country ranks &B+th in the
.orld in nominal M1: per capita and &(Ath in M1: per capita at :::.%(+4' ?ntil &AA&, all Indian
go"ernments follo.ed protectionist policies that .ere influenced by socialist economics.
Widespread state inter"ention and regulation largely .alled the economy off from the outside
.orld. $n acute balance of payments crisis in &AA& forced the nation to liberalise its economy/%(+6'
since then it has slo.ly mo"ed to.ards a free9market system%(+2'%(+A' by emphasising both
foreign trade and direct in"estment inflo.s.%(&+' IndiaJs recent economic model is largely
capitalist.%(+A' India has been a member of WTI since & #anuary &AA7.%(&&'
The B24.49million .orker Indian labour force is the .orldJs second9largest, as of (+&&.%&A6' The
ser"ice sector makes up 77.4D of M1:, the industrial sector (4.)D and the agricultural sector
&2.&D. *a;or agricultural products include rice, .heat, oilseed, cotton, ;ute, tea, sugarcane, and
potatoes.%&64' *a;or industries include teNtiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals,
biotechnology, food processing, steel, transport eCuipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery,
and soft.are.%&64' In (++4, the share of eNternal trade in IndiaJs M1: stood at (BD, up from 4D in
&A27.%(+2' In (++2, IndiaJs share of .orld trade .as &.42D/%(&(' In (+&&, India .as the .orldJs
tenth9largest importer and the nineteenth9largest eNporter.%(&)' *a;or eNports include petroleum
products, teNtile goods, ;e.ellery, soft.are, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather
manufactures.%&64' *a;or imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals.
%&64' -et.een (++& and (+&&, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total
eNports gre. from &BD to B(D.%(&B'
$"eraging an economic gro.th rate of 6.7D for se"eral years prior to (++6,%(+2' India has more
than doubled its hourly .age rates during the first decade of the (&st century.%(&7' !ome B)&
million Indians ha"e left po"erty since &A27/ IndiaJs middle classes are pro;ected to number around
72+ million by (+)+.%(&4' Though ranking 7&st in global competiti"eness, India ranks &6th in
financial market sophistication, (Bth in the banking sector, BBth in business sophistication, and )Ath
in inno"ation, ahead of se"eral ad"anced economies, as of (+&+.%(&6' With 6 of the .orldJs top &7
information technology outsourcing companies based in India, the country is "ie.ed as the second9
most fa"ourable outsourcing destination after the ?nited !tates, as of (++A.%(&2' IndiaJs consumer
market, currently the .orldJs ele"enth9largest, is eNpected to become fifth9largest by (+)+.%(&4'
IndiaJs telecommunication industry, the .orldJs fastest9gro.ing, added ((6 million subscribers
during the period (+&+T&&,%(&A' and after the first Cuarter of (+&), India surpassed #apan to
become the third largest smartphone market in the .orld after =hina and the ?.!.%((+'
:o.er >oom used inside a house in a "illage near !alem, Tamil 0adu. :o.er loom accounts for
more than 4+D of teNtile production in India.
Its automoti"e industry, the .orldJs second fastest gro.ing, increased domestic sales by (4D during
(++AT&+,%((&' and eNports by )4D during (++2T+A.%(((' :o.er capacity is (7+ giga.atts, of
.hich 2D is rene.able. $t the end of (+&&, Indian IT Industry employed (.2 million professionals,
generated re"enues close to ?!F&++ billion eCualling 6.7D of Indian M1: and contributed (4D of
IndiaJs merchandise eNports.%(()'
The :harmaceutical industry in India is among the significant emerging markets for global pharma
industry. The Indian pharmaceutical market is eNpected to reach FB2.7 billion by (+(+. IndiaJs R Y
1 spending constitutes 4+D of -iopharmaceutical industry.%((B'%((7' India is among the top &(
-iotech destinations of the .orld.%((4' %((6' The Indian biotech industry gre. by &7.&D in (+&(T
&), increasing its re"enues from (+B.B -illion I0R (Indian Rupees) to ()7.(B -illion I0R ().AB -
?!F 9 eNchange rate #une (+&), & ?!F approN. 4+ I0R)%((2' $lthough hardly (D of Indians pay
income taNes.%((A'
1espite impressi"e economic gro.th during recent decades, India continues to face socio9economic
challenges. India contains the largest concentration of people li"ing belo. the World -ankJs
international po"erty line of ?!F&.(7 per day,%()+' the proportion ha"ing decreased from 4+D in
&A2& to B(D in (++7, and (7D in (+&&%()&' )+.6D of IndiaJs children under the age of fi"e are
under.eight,%()(' half the children under fi"e suffer from chronic malnutrition, and in the states of
*adhya :radesh, $ndhra :radesh, -ihar, =hhattisgarh, 8aryana, #harkhand, @arnataka, and ?ttar
:radesh, .hich account for 7+.+BD of IndiaJs population, 6+D of the children bet.een the ages of
siN months and 7A months are anaemic.%())' The *id91ay *eal !cheme attempts to lo.er these
rates.%()B' !ince &AA&, economic ineCuality bet.een IndiaJs states has consistently gro.n, the per9
capita net state domestic product of the richest states in (++6 .as ).( times that of the poorest.%()7'
=orruption in India is percei"ed to ha"e increased significantly,%()4' .ith one report estimating the
illegal capital flo.s since independence to be ?!FB4( billion.%()6'
1ri"en by gro.th, IndiaJs nominal M1: per capita has steadily increased from ?!F)(A in &AA&,
.hen economic liberalisation began, to ?!F&,(47 in (+&+, and is estimated to increase to ?!F(,&&+
by (+&4/ ho.e"er, it has remained lo.er than those of other $sian de"eloping countries such as
Indonesia, Iran, *alaysia, :hilippines, !ri >anka, and Thailand, and is eNpected to remain so in the
near future. While it is currently higher than :akistan, 0epal, -angladesh and others.%()2'
$ccording to a (+&& :rice.aterhouse=oopers report, IndiaJs M1: at purchasing po.er parity could
o"ertake that of the ?nited !tates by (+B7.%()A' 1uring the neNt four decades, Indian M1: is
eNpected to gro. at an annualised a"erage of 2D, making it potentially the .orldJs fastest9gro.ing
ma;or economy until (+7+.%()A' The report highlights key gro.th factors, a young and rapidly
gro.ing .orking9age population/ gro.th in the manufacturing sector because of rising education
and engineering skill le"els/ and sustained gro.th of the consumer market dri"en by a rapidly
gro.ing middle class.%()A' The World -ank cautions that, for India to achie"e its economic
potential, it must continue to focus on public sector reform, transport infrastructure, agricultural and
rural de"elopment, remo"al of labour regulations, education, energy security, and public health and
nutrition.%(B+'
=iting persistent inflation pressures, .eak public finances, limited progress on fiscal consolidation
and ineffecti"eness of the go"ernment, rating agency Fitch re"ised IndiaJs Iutlook to 0egati"e from
!table on &2 #une (+&(.%(B&' $nother credit rating agency !Y: had .arned pre"iously that a
slo.ing M1: gro.th and political roadblocks to economic policy9making could put India at the risk
of losing its in"estment grade rating.%(B(' 8o.e"er, *oody did not re"ise its outlook on India
keeping it stable,%(B)' but termed the national go"ernment as the single biggest drag on business
acti"ity.%(BB'
1emographics
*ain articles, 1emographics of India and >ist of most populous cities in India
*ap of India. 8igh population density areas (abo"e &+++ persons per sCuare kilometre) centre on
@olkata along .ith other parts of the Manges Ri"er -asin, *umbai, -angalore, the south9.est
coast, and the >akshad.eep Islands. >o. density areas (belo. &++) include the .estern desert,
eastern @ashmir, and the eastern frontier.
$ population density and Indian Rail.ays connecti"ity map. The already densely settled Indo9
Mangetic :lain is the main dri"er of Indian population gro.th.
With &,(&+,&A),B(( residents reported in the (+&& pro"isional census,%2' India is the .orldJs
second9most populous country. Its population gre. at &.64D per annum during (++&T(+&&,%2'
do.n from (.&)D per annum in the pre"ious decade (&AA&T(++&).%(B7' The human seN ratio,
according to the (+&& census, is AB+ females per &,+++ males.%2' The median age .as (B.A in the
(++& census.%&A6' The first post9colonial census, conducted in &A7&, counted )4&.& million people.
%(B4' *edical ad"ances made in the last 7+ years as .ell as increased agricultural producti"ity
brought about by the Mreen Re"olution ha"e caused IndiaJs population to gro. rapidly.%(B6' India
continues to face se"eral public health9related challenges.%(B2'%(BA' >ife eNpectancy in India is at
42 years .ith life eNpectancy for .omen being 4A.4 years and for men being 46.).%(7+' There are
around 7+ physicians per &++,+++ Indians.%(7&' The number of Indians li"ing in urban areas has
gro.n by )&.(D bet.een &AA& and (++&.%(7(' Vet, in (++&, o"er 6+D li"ed in rural areas.%(7)'
%(7B' $ccording to the (++& census, there are (6 million9plus cities in India/%(7(' among them
1elhi, *umbai, @olkata, =hennai, -angalore, 8yderabad, $hmedabad and :une are the most
populous metropolitan areas. The literacy rate in (+&& .as 6B.+BD, 47.B4D among females and
2(.&BD among males.%2' @erala is the most literate state .ith A7.7D literacy/%(77' .hile -ihar the
least .ith 46.2D.%(74'
$ handicraft seller in 8yderabad, $ndhra :radesh
India is home to t.o ma;or language families, Indo9$ryan (spoken by about 6BD of the population)
and 1ra"idian ((BD). Ither languages spoken in India come from the $ustroasiatic and Tibeto9
-urman language families. India has no national language.%(76' 8indi, .ith the largest number of
speakers, is the official language of the go"ernment.%(72'%(7A' English is used eNtensi"ely in
business and administration and has the status of a subsidiary official language/%(4+' it is
important in education, especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory
has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular (& scheduled
languages. The =onstitution of India recognises (&( scheduled tribal groups .hich together
constitute about 6.7D of the countryJs population.%(4&' The (++& census reported that 8induism,
.ith o"er 2++ million adherents (2+.7D of the population), .as the largest religion in India/ it is
follo.ed by Islam (&).BD), =hristianity ((.)D), !ikhism (&.AD), -uddhism (+.2D), #ainism
(+.BD), #udaism, Loroastrianism, and the -ahZJ[ Faith.%(4(' India has the .orldJs largest 8indu,
!ikh, #ain, Loroastrian, and -ahZJ[ populations, and has the third9largest *uslim population and the
largest *uslim population for a non9*uslim ma;ority country.%(4)'%(4B'
=ulture
*ain article, =ulture of India
$ =hola bronUe depicting 0atara;a, .ho is seen as a cosmic >ord of the 1ance and representati"e
of !hi"a
Indian cultural history spans more than B,7++ years.%(47' 1uring the <edic period (c. &6++ T 7++
-=E), the foundations of 8indu philosophy, mythology, theology and literature .ere laid, and many
beliefs and practices .hich still eNist today, such as dhZrma, kZrma, yiga, and moka, .ere
established.%&4' India is notable for its religious di"ersity, .ith 8induism, !ikhism, Islam,
=hristianity, and #ainism among the nationJs ma;or religions.%(44' The predominant religion,
8induism, has been shaped by "arious historical schools of thought, including those of the
?panishads,%(46' the Voga !utras, the -hakti mo"ement,%(44' and by -uddhist philosophy.%(42'
$rt and architecture
*uch of Indian architecture, including the Ta; *ahal, other .orks of *ughal architecture, and
!outh Indian architecture, blends ancient local traditions .ith imported styles.%(4A' <ernacular
architecture is also highly regional in it fla"ours. <astu shastra, literally science of construction or
architecture and ascribed to *amuni *ayan,%(6+' eNplores ho. the la.s of nature affect human
d.ellings/%(6&' it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect percei"ed cosmic
constructs.%(6(' $s applied in 8indu temple architecture, it is influenced by the !hilpa !hastras, a
series of foundational teNts .hose basic mythological form is the <astu9:urusha mandala, a sCuare
that embodied the absolute.%(6)' The Ta; *ahal, built in $gra bet.een &4)& and &4B2 by orders
of Emperor !hah #ahan in memory of his .ife, has been described in the ?0E!=I World 8eritage
>ist as the ;e.el of *uslim art in India and one of the uni"ersally admired masterpieces of the
.orldJs heritage.%(6B' Indo9!aracenic Re"i"al architecture, de"eloped by the -ritish in the late
&Ath century, dre. on Indo9Islamic architecture.%(67'
>iterature
The earliest literary .ritings in India, composed bet.een &B++ -=E and &(++ =E, .ere in the
!anskrit language.%(64'%(66' :rominent .orks of this !anskrit literature include epics such as the
*ah\bh\rata and the Ramayana, the dramas of @\lid\sa such as the $bhi;j\nak\kuntalam (The
Recognition of lakuntal\), and poetry such as the *ah\k\"ya.%(62'%(6A'%(2+' @amasutra, the
famous book about seNual intercourse also originated in India. 1e"eloped bet.een 4++ -=E and
)++ =E in !outh India, the !angam literature, consisting of (,)2& poems, is regarded as a
predecessor of Tamil literature.%(2&'%(2('%(2)'%(2B' From the &Bth to the &2th centuries, IndiaJs
literary traditions .ent through a period of drastic change because of the emergence of de"otional
poets such as @ab]r, Tuls]d\s, and Muru 0\nak. This period .as characterised by a "aried and .ide
spectrum of thought and eNpression/ as a conseCuence, medie"al Indian literary .orks differed
significantly from classical traditions.%(27' In the &Ath century, Indian .riters took a ne. interest in
social Cuestions and psychological descriptions. In the (+th century, Indian literature .as
influenced by the .orks of -engali poet and no"elist Rabindranath Tagore.%(24'
:erforming arts
!arod performance at the *usWe Muimet, :aris
Indian music ranges o"er "arious traditions and regional styles. =lassical music encompasses t.o
genres and their "arious folk offshoots, the northern 8industani and southern =arnatic schools.%(26'
Regionalised popular forms include filmi and folk music/ the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a
.ell9kno.n form of the latter. Indian dance also features di"erse folk and classical forms. $mong
the better9kno.n folk dances are the bhangra of the :un;ab, the bihu of $ssam, the chhau of
Idisha, West -engal and #harkhand,Marba and 1andiya of Mu;arat, sambalpuri of Idisha, ghoomar
of Ra;asthan, and the la"ani of *aharashtra. Eight dance forms, many .ith narrati"e forms and
mythological elements, ha"e been accorded classical dance status by IndiaJs 0ational $cademy of
*usic, 1ance, and 1rama. These are, bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil 0adu, kathak of ?ttar
:radesh, kathakali and mohiniyattam of @erala, kuchipudi of $ndhra :radesh, manipuri of *anipur,
odissi of Idisha, and the sattriya of $ssam.%(22' Theatre in India melds music, dance, and
impro"ised or .ritten dialogue.%(2A' Iften based on 8indu mythology, but also borro.ing from
medie"al romances or social and political e"ents, Indian theatre includes the bha"ai of Mu;arat, the
;atra of West -engal, the nautanki and ramlila of 0orth India, tamasha of *aharashtra, burrakatha
of $ndhra :radesh, terukkuttu of Tamil 0adu, and the yakshagana of @arnataka.%(A+'
*otion pictures
The Indian film industry produces the .orldJs most9.atched cinema.%(A&' Established regional
cinematic traditions eNist in the $ssamese, -engali, 8indi, @annada, *alayalam, :un;abi, Mu;arati,
*arathi, Iriya, Tamil, and Telugu languages.%(A(' !outh Indian cinema attracts more than 67D of
national film re"enue.%(A)' Tele"ision broadcasting began in India in &A7A as a state9run medium of
communication, and had slo. eNpansion for more than t.o decades.%(AB' The state monopoly on
tele"ision broadcast ended in the &AA+s and, since then, satellite channels ha"e increasingly shaped
popular culture of Indian society.%(A7' Today, tele"ision is the most penetrati"e media in India/
industry estimates indicate that as of (+&( there are o"er 77B million T< consumers, B4( million
.ith satellite andEor cable connections, compared to other forms of mass media such as press ()7+
million), radio (&74 million) or internet ()6 million).%(A4'
!ociety
$ =hristian .edding in *adurai, Tamil 0adu. =hristianity is belie"ed to ha"e been introduced to
India by the late (nd century by !yriac9speaking =hristians.
Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system
embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian
subcontinent. !ocial classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often
termed as ;\tis, or castes.%(A6' India declared untouchability to be illegal%(A2' in &AB6 and has
since enacted other anti9discriminatory la.s and social .elfare initiati"es. $t the .orkplace in
urban India and in international or leading Indian companies, the caste related identification has
pretty much lost its importance.%(AA'%)++' Family "alues are important in the Indian tradition, and
multi9generational patriarchal ;oint families ha"e been the norm in India, though nuclear families
are becoming common in urban areas.%)+&' $n o"er.helming ma;ority of Indians, .ith their
consent, ha"e their marriages arranged by their parents or other family members.%)+(' *arriage is
thought to be for life,%)+(' and the di"orce rate is eNtremely lo..%)+)' =hild marriages are
common, especially in rural areas/ many .omen in India .ed before reaching &2, .hich is their
legal marriageable age.%)+B' Female infanticide in India and female foeticide in India ha"e caused a
discrepancy in the seN ratio, as of (++7 it .as estimated that there .ere 7+ million more males than
females in the nation.%)+7'%)+4' 8o.e"er the recent report from (+&& sho.n impro"ement among
the gender ratio.%)+6' The payment of 1o.ry, although illegal, remains .idespread across class
lines.%)+2' 1eaths resulting from do.ry, mostly from bride burning, is on the rise.%)+A'
*any Indian festi"als are religious in origin/ among them are =hhath, =hristmas, 1i.ali, 1urga
:u;a, -akr9Id, Eid ul9Fitr, Manesh =haturthi, 8oli, *akar !ankranti or ?ttarayan, 0a"ratri, Thai
:ongal, and <aisakhi. India has three national holidays .hich are obser"ed in all states and union
territories, Republic 1ay, Independence 1ay, and Mandhi #ayanti. Ither sets of holidays, "arying
bet.een nine and t.el"e, are officially obser"ed in indi"idual states.
Throughout India, many people practice customs and religious rituals, such as !ask\ra, .hich
is a series of personal sacraments and rites conducted at "arious stages throughout life.%)&+'
=lothing
*ain article, =lothing in India
=otton .as domesticated in India by B+++ -.=.E. Traditional Indian dress "aries in colour and style
across regions and depends on "arious factors, including climate and faith. :opular styles of dress
include draped garments such as the sari for .omen and the dhoti or lungi for men. !titched
clothes, such as the shal.ar kameeU for .omen and kurtaTpy;ama combinations or European9style
trousers and shirts for men, are also popular.%)&&' ?se of delicate ;e.ellery, modelled on real
flo.ers .orn in ancient India, is part of a tradition dating back some 7,+++ years/ gemstones are
also .orn in India as talismans.%)&('
!port
*ain article, !port in India
=ricket is the most popular game among IndiaJs masses. !ho.n here is an instance of street cricket.
In India, se"eral traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddi, kho kho,
pehl.ani and gilli9danda. !ome of the earliest forms of $sian martial arts, such as kalarippayattu,
musti yuddha, silambam, and marma adi, originated in India. =hess, commonly held to ha"e
originated in India as chaturaga, is regaining .idespread popularity .ith the rise in the number of
Indian grandmasters.%)&)'%)&B' :achisi, from .hich parcheesi deri"es, .as played on a giant
marble court by $kbar.%)&7'
Indian chess grandmaster and former .orld champion <ish.anathan $nand competes at a chess
tournament in (++7. =hess is commonly belie"ed to ha"e originated in India in the 7th century.
The impro"ed results garnered by the Indian 1a"is =up team and other Indian tennis players in the
early (+&+s ha"e made tennis increasingly popular in the country.%)&4' India has a comparati"ely
strong presence in shooting sports, and has .on se"eral medals at the Ilympics, the World
!hooting =hampionships, and the =ommon.ealth Mames.%)&6'%)&2' Ither sports in .hich Indians
ha"e succeeded internationally include badminton,%)&A' boNing,%)(+' and .restling.%)(&' Football
is popular in West -engal, Moa, Tamil 0adu, @erala, and the north9eastern states.%)(('
Field hockey in India is administered by 8ockey India. The Indian national hockey team .on the
&A67 8ockey World =up and ha"e, as of (+&(, taken eight gold, one sil"er, and t.o bronUe
Ilympic medals, making it the sportJs most successful team in the Ilympics.
In a career of t.enty four9year span, !achin Tendulkar has created almost all batting records,
including most runs in both tests and I1Is and most number of centuries in both tests and I1Is,
thus making him the most successful cricketer e"er.
India has also played a ma;or role in popularising cricket. Thus, cricket is, by far, the most popular
sport of India. The Indian national cricket team .on the &A2) and (+&& =ricket World =up e"ents,
the (++6 I== World T.enty(+, shared the (++( I== =hampions Trophy .ith !ri >anka, and .on
(+&) I== =hampions Trophy. =ricket in India is administered by the -oard of =ontrol for =ricket
in India (-==I)/ the Ran;i Trophy, the 1uleep Trophy, the 1eodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy, and
the 0@: !al"e =hallenger Trophy are domestic competitions. The -==I is also responsible for
conducting an annual T.enty(+ competition kno.n as the Indian :remier >eague.
India has hosted or co9hosted se"eral international sporting e"ents, the &A7& and &A2( $sian
Mames/ the &A26, &AA4, and (+&& =ricket World =up tournaments/ the (++) $fro9$sian Mames/ the
(++4 I== =hampions Trophy/ the (+&+ 8ockey World =up/ and the (+&+ =ommon.ealth Mames.
*a;or international sporting e"ents held annually in India include the =hennai Ipen, the *umbai
*arathon, the 1elhi 8alf *arathon, and the Indian *asters. The first Indian Mrand :riN featured in
late (+&&.%)()'
India has traditionally been the dominant country at the !outh $sian Mames. $n eNample of this
dominance is the basketball competition .here Team India .on three out of four tournaments to
date.%)(B' The Ra;i" Mandhi @hel Ratna and the $r;una $.ard are the highest forms of go"ernment
recognition for athletic achie"ement/ the 1ronacharya $.ard is a.arded for eNcellence in coaching.
!ee also
Iutline of India
!tates of India
Flag of India.s"gIndia portal
$sia (orthographic pro;ection).s"g$sia portal
0otes
%...' #ana Mana *ana is the 0ational $nthem of India, sub;ect to such alterations in the .ords as
the Mo"ernment may authorise as occasion arises/ and the song <ande *ataram, .hich has played a
historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured eCually .ith #ana Mana *ana and
shall ha"e eCual status .ith it. (=onstituent $ssembly of India &A7+).
The countryJs eNact siUe is sub;ect to debate because some borders are disputed. The Indian
go"ernment lists the total area as ),(26,(4+ km( (&,(4A,((+ sC mi) and the total land area as
),+4+,7++ km( (&,&2&,6++ sC mi)/ the ?nited 0ations lists the total area as ),(26,(4) km(
(&,(4A,(&A sC mi) and total land area as (,A6),&A+ km( (&,&B6,A4+ sC mi). (>ibrary of =ongress
(++B).
!ee also, Ifficial names of India
The Mo"ernment of India regards $fghanistan as a bordering country, as it considers all of
@ashmir to be part of India. 8o.e"er, this is disputed, and the region bordering $fghanistan is
administered by :akistan. !ource, *inistry of 8ome $ffairs (1epartment of -order *anagement)
(1I=). Retrie"ed & !eptember (++2.%dead link'.
The northernmost point under Indian control is the disputed !iachen Mlacier in #ammu and
@ashmir/ ho.e"er, the Mo"ernment of India regards the entire region of the former princely state of
#ammu and @ashmir, including the 0orthern $reas administered by :akistan, to be its territory. It
therefore assigns the longitude )63 4J to its northernmost point.
References
0ational Informatics =entre (++7.
Wolpert (++), p. &.
0ational !ymbols ^ 0ational :ortal of India. India.go".in. Retrie"ed 4 #uly (+&).
:rofile ^ 0ational :ortal of India. India.go".in. Retrie"ed () $ugust (+&).
Eighth !chedule. Retrie"ed & #uly (+&).
#ustice 8> 1attu s.orn in as chief ;ustice of !upreme =ourt. I$0!. Times of India. Retrie"ed
(A !eptember (+&B.
:rofile ^ 0ational :ortal of India
*inistry of 8ome $ffairs (+&&.
Report for !elected =ountries and !ub;ects. World Economic Iutlook 1atabase, International
*onetary Fund. Ictober (+&B. Retrie"ed 2 Ictober (+&B.
Mini IndeN. World -ank. Retrie"ed ( *arch (+&&.
8uman 1e"elopment Report (+&B !ummary. The ?nited 0ations. Retrie"ed (B #uly (+&B.
1unlop illustrated encyclopedia of facts, p. A&, by 0orris *cWhirter, Ross *cWhirter
!tein &AA2, pp. &4T&6.
Mross domestic product, current prices in ?! dollars, Ict (+&). Retrie"ed )& Ictober (+&).
INford English 1ictionary.
@uiper (+&+, p. 24.
*inistry of >a. and #ustice (++2.
@aye &AA6, pp. 4)AT4B+.
Encyclop_dia -ritannica.
:etraglia, $llchin Y (++6, p. 4.
!ingh (++A, pp. 2ATA).
:ossehl (++), pp. (BT(7.
@ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. (&T().
!ingh (++A, p. &2&.
:ossehl (++), p. (.
!ingh (++A, p. (77.
!ingh (++A, pp. &24T&26.
WitUel (++), pp. 42T4A.
@ulke Y Rothermund (++B, p. )&.
!tein (+&+, p. B6.
@ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. B&TB).
!ingh (++A, p. (++.
!ingh (++A, pp. (7+T(7&.
!ingh (++A, pp. (4+9(47.
@ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. 7)T7B.
@ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. 7BT74.
!tein &AA2, p. (&.
!tein &AA2, pp. 46T42.
!ingh (++A, pp. )&(T)&).
!ingh (++A, p. )++.
!ingh (++A, p. )&A.
!tein &AA2, pp. 62T6A.
@ulke Y Rothermund (++B, p. 6+.
!ingh (++A, p. )46.
@ulke Y Rothermund (++B, p. 4).
!tein &AA2, pp. 2ATA+.
!ingh (++A, pp. B+2TB&7.
!tein &AA2, pp. A(TA7.
@ulke Y Rothermund (++B, pp. 2ATA&.
!ingh (++A, p. 7B7.
!tein &AA2, pp. A2TAA.
!tein &AA2, p. &)(.
!tein &AA2, pp. &&AT&(+.
!tein &AA2, pp. &(&T&((.
!tein &AA2, p. &().
!tein &AA2, p. &(B.
!tein &AA2, pp. &(6T&(2.
>udden (++(, p. 42.
$sher Y Talbot (++2, p. B6.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. 4.
>udden (++(, p. 46.
$sher Y Talbot (++2, pp. 7+T7&.
$sher Y Talbot (++2, p. 7).
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &(.
Robb (++&, p. 2+.
!tein &AA2, p. &4B.
$sher Y Talbot (++2, p. &&7.
Robb (++&, pp. A+TA&.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &6.
$sher Y Talbot (++2, p. &7(.
$sher Y Talbot (++2, p. &72.
!tein &AA2, p. &4A.
$sher Y Talbot (++2, p. &24.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. ()T(B.
$sher Y Talbot (++2, p. (74.
Regional states, c. &6++T&27+. Encyclop_dia -ritannica, Inc.
$sher Y Talbot (++2, p. (24.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. BBTBA.
Robb (++&, pp. A2T&++.
>udden (++(, pp. &(2T&)(.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. 7&T77.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. 42T6&.
$sher Y Talbot (++2, p. (2A.
Robb (++&, pp. &7&T&7(.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. ABTAA.
-ro.n &AAB, p. 2).
:eers (++4, p. 7+.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. &++T&+).
-ro.n &AAB, pp. 27T24.
!tein &AA2, p. ()A.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. &+)T&+2.
Robb (++&, p. &2).
!arkar &A2), pp. &TB.
=opland (++&, pp. iNTN.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &().
!tein &AA2, p. (4+.
-ose Y #alal (+&&, p. &&6.
!tein &AA2, p. (72.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &(4.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. A6.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &4).
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. &46.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. &A7T&A6.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. (+).
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. ()&.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. (47T(44.
?nited !tates 1epartment of $griculture.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. (44T(6+.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. (7).
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. (6B.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. (B6T(B2.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, pp. (A)T(A7.
*etcalf Y *etcalf (++4, p. )+B.
$li Y $itchison (++7.
1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. 6.
:rakash et al. (+++.
1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &&.
1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. 2.
1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, pp. AT&+.
*inistry of Information and -roadcasting (++6, p. &.
@umar et al. (++4.
1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &7.
1uff &AA), p. )7).
1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &4.
1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &6.
1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &(.
1ikshit Y !ch.artUberg, p. &).
=hang &A46, pp. )A&T)AB.
:osey &AAB, p. &&2.
Wolpert (++), p. B.
8eitUman Y Worden &AA4, p. A6.
=onser"ation International (++6.
Loological !ur"ey of India (+&(, p. &.
:uri.
-asak &A2), p. (B.
Tritsch (++&.
Fisher &AA7, p. B)B.
=rame Y I.en (++(, p. &B(.
@aranth (++4.
*ace &AAB, p. B.
*inistry of En"ironments and Forests &A6(.
1epartment of En"ironment and Forests &A22.
*inistry of En"ironment and Forests.
!ecretariat of the =on"ention on Wetlands.
?nited 0ations :opulation 1i"ision.
-urnell Y =al"ert &AAA, p. &(7.
Election =ommission of India.
!arkar (++6, p. 2B.
=hander (++B, p. &&6.
-hambhri &AA(, pp. &&2, &B).
The 8indu (++2.
1unlea"y, 1i.akar Y 1unlea"y (++6.
@ulke Y Rothermund (++B, p. )2B.
-usiness !tandard (++A.
-#: first party since &A2B to .in parliamentary ma;ority on its o.n. 10$. I$0!. &4 *ay
(+&B. Retrie"ed (+ *ay (+&B.
:ylee Y (++) a, p. B.
1utt &AA2, p. B(&.
Wheare &A2+, p. (2.
Eche"erri9Ment (++(, pp. &AT(+.
!inha (++B, p. (7.
In RTI reply, =entre says India has no national game. Retrie"ed B $ugust (+&(.
!harma (++6, p. )&.
!harma (++6, p. &)2.
Mledhill &A6+, p. &&(.
!harma &A7+.
!harma (++6, p. &4(.
*athe. (++), p. 7(B.
Mledhill &A6+, p. &(6.
!harma (++6, p. &4&.
!harma (++6, p. &B).
!harma (++6, p. )4+.
0euborne (++), p. B62.
!harma (++6, pp. ()2, (77.
!ripati &AA2, pp. B()TB(B.
:ylee Y (++) b, p. )&B.
>ibrary of =ongress (++B.
!harma (++6, p. BA.
Rothermund (+++, pp. B2, ((6.
Milbert (++(, pp. B24TB26.
!harma &AAA, p. 74.
$lford (++2.
8eine, #orge/ R. <is.anathan ((+&&). The Ither -RI= in >atin $merica, India. $mericas
fuarterly. Retrie"ed (A 1ecember (+&).
Mhosh (++A, pp. (2(T(2A.
!isodia Y 0aidu (++7, pp. &T2.
:erko"ich (++&, pp. 4+T24, &+4T&(7.
@umar (+&+.
0air (++6.
:andit (++A.
The 8indu (+&&.
Europa (++2.
The Times of India (++2.
-ritish -roadcasting =orporation (++A.
Rediff (++2 a.
Reuters (+&+.
=urry (+&+.
Ripsman Y :aul (+&+, p. &)+.
=entral Intelligence $gency.
-ehera (+&&.
-ehera (+&(.
!tockholm International :eace Research Institute (++2, p. &62.
*iglani (+&&.
!hukla (+&&.
!tockholm International :eace Research Initiati"e (+&(.
International *onetary Fund (+&&, p. (.
0ayak, Moldar Y $gra.al (+&+, p. NN".
International *onetary Fund.
Wolpert (++), p. Ni".
Irganisation for Economic =o9operation and 1e"elopment (++6.
Margan &AA(.
$lamgir (++2, pp. (), A6.
WTI &AA7.
The Times of India (++A.
World Trade Irganisation (+&+.
Economist (+&&.
-onner (+&+.
Farrell Y -einhocker (++6.
!ch.ab (+&+.
!heth (++A.
Telecom Regulatory $uthority (+&&.
0atasha >omas ((4 #une (+&)). India :asses #apan To -ecome Third >argest Mlobal
!martphone *arket, $fter =hina Y ?.!.. Tech=runch. $I> Inc. Retrie"ed (6 #une (+&).
-usiness >ine (+&+.
ENpress India (++A.
0asscom (+&&T(+&(.
<ishal 1utta, ET -ureau &+ #ul (+&(, +).&B:* I!T (&+ #uly (+&(). Indian biotech industry at
critical ;uncture, global biotech stabilises, Report. Economic Times. Retrie"ed )& Ictober (+&(.
Indian pharmaceutical industryKgro.th story to continue. ENpress :harma. &7 #anuary (+&(.
Retrie"ed )& Ictober (+&(.
-iotechnology and :harmaceutical !ector in India, sector briefing by the ?@ Trade and
In"estment (+&&, utki.go".uk
Vep (+&&.
1ifferding =onsulting :ubli 4. 1ifferding.com. (+&B9+(9&&. Retrie"ed (+&B9+B9+B.
8o. *any :eople In India :ay Income TaN` 8ardly $nyone. 4 #une (+&).
World -ank (++4.
World -ank a.
IndiaJs rank impro"es to 77th position on global hunger indeN. India times. Ictober &), (+&B.
!ocial !tatistics 1i"ision. =hildren in India (+&(, $ !tatistical $ppraisal. =entral !tatistics
Iffice, Mo"ernment of India. pp. &+T&&. Retrie"ed ( !eptember (+&).
1raUe Y Moyal (++2, p. B4.
:al Y Mhosh (++6.
Transparency International (+&+.
-ritish -roadcasting =orporation (+&+ c.
International *onetary Fund (+&&.
:rice.aterhouse=oopers (+&&.
World -ank (+&+.
Fitch Re"ises IndiaJs Iutlook to 0egati"e/ $ffirms at J---9J. &2 #une (+&(. Retrie"ed &A #une
(+&(.
!Y:, India risks losing in"estment grade rating.
*oodyJs reaffirms IndiaJs stable outlook. (7 $pril (+&(.
*oodyJs, Indian go"ernment single biggest factor .eighing on outlook. (4 $pril (+&(.
*inistry of 8ome $ffairs (+&+T(+&& b.
=ensus :opulation (:1F). =ensus of India. *inistry of Finance India.
Rorabacher (+&+, pp. )7T)A.
World 8ealth Irganisation (++4.
-oston $nalytics (++A.
>ife eNpectancy in India (:1F). ne.spaper. Times of India.
1e" Y Rao (++A, p. )(A.
Marg (++7.
1yson Y <isaria (++7, pp. &&7T&(A.
Ratna (++6, pp. (6&T(6(.
!kolnik (++2, p. )4.
!ingh (++B, p. &+4.
1har.adker (+&+, pp. &42T&AB, &24.
Ittenheimer (++2, p. )+).
*allikar;un (++B.
*inistry of 8ome $ffairs &A4+.
-onner &AA+, p. 2&.
*inistry of 8ome $ffairs (+&+T(+&&.
Mlobal *uslim population estimated at &.76 billion. The 8indu (2 Ictober (++A)
India =hapter !ummary (+&(%dead link'
@uiper (+&+, p. &7.
8eehs (++(, pp. (T7.
1eutsch &A4A, pp. ), 62.
0akamura &AAA.
@uiper (+&+, pp. (A4T)(A.
!il"erman (++6, p. (+.
@umar (+++, p. 7.
Roberts (++B, p. 6).
>ang Y *oleski (+&+, pp. &7&T&7(.
?nited 0ations Educational, !cientific, and =ultural Irganisation.
=hopra (+&&, p. B4.
8oiberg Y Ramchandani (+++.
!arma (++A.
#ohnson (++2.
*ac1onell (++B, pp. &TB+.
@\lid\sa Y #ohnson (++&.
L"elebil &AA6, p. &(.
8art &A67.
Encyclop_dia -ritannica (++2.
Ramanu;an &A27, pp. iNTN.
1as (++7.
1atta (++4.
*assey Y *assey &AA2.
Encyclop_dia -ritannica b.
>al (++B, pp. (), )+, ()7.
@aranth (++(, p. (4.
1issanayake Y Mokulsing (++B.
Ra;adhyaksha Y Willemen &AAA, p. 47(.
The Economic Times.
@aminsky Y >ong (+&&, pp. 42BT4A(.
*ehta (++2, pp. &T&+.
*edia Research ?sers =ouncil (+&(.
!ch.artUberg (+&&.
!piritual Terrorism, !piritual $buse from the Womb to the Tomb, p. )A&, by -oyd =. :urcell
*essner (++A, p. 7&97).
*essner (+&(, p. (69(2.
*akar (++6.
*edora (++).
#ones Y Ramdas (++7, p. &&&.
=ullen91upont (++A, p. A4.
-unting (+&&.
$gni"esh (++7.
=ensus of India9Mender =omposition (+&&
Woman killed o"er do.ry be"ery hourX in India. telegraph.com. ( !eptember (+&). Retrie"ed
&+ February (+&B.
Rising number of do.ry deaths in India,0=R-. thehindu.com. 6 $ugust (+&). Retrie"ed &+
February (+&B.
India. Encyclop_dia -ritannica. Encyclop_dia -ritannica Inline. Encyclop_dia -ritannica
Inc., (+&B. Web. Retrie"ed (+ #an. (+&B.
Tarlo &AA4, pp. Nii, Nii, &&, &7, (2, B4.
Eraly (++2, p. &4+.
Wolpert (++), p. (.
Rediff (++2 b.
-inmore (++6, p. A2.
The Wall !treet #ournal (++A.
-ritish -roadcasting =orporation (+&+ b.
The Times of India (+&+.
-ritish -roadcasting =orporation (+&+ a.
*int (+&+.
ca"ier (+&+.
*a;umdar Y -andyopadhyay (++4, pp. &T7.
1ehe;ia (+&&.
-asketball team named for &&th !outh $sian Mames. 0ation.com.pk. ( #anuary (+&+.
Retrie"ed 2 *arch (+&).
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#uly (+&&
1ikshit, @. R./ !ch.artUberg, #oseph E., >and, India, Encyclop_dia -ritannica, &T(A
1uff, 1. ((A Ictober &AA)), 8olmes :rinciples of :hysical Meology (Bth ed.), Routledge, I!-0
A629+96B269B)2&9+
@umar, <. !./ :athak, @. =./ :ednekar, :./ Ra;u, 0. !. 0. ((++4), =oastal processes along the
Indian coastline (:1F), =urrent !cience A& (B), 7)+T7)4
India Vearbook (++6, 0e. 1elhi, :ublications 1i"ision, *inistry of Information and
-roadcasting, Mo"ernment of India, (++6, I!-0 A6292&9()+9&B()9B
:osey, =. $. (& 0o"ember &AAB), The >i"ing Earth -ook of Wind and Weather, ReaderJs 1igest,
I!-0 A629+92A76694(79A
:rakash, -./ @umar, !./ Rao, *. !./ Miri, !. =. ((+++), 8olocene Tectonic *o"ements and !tress
Field in the Western Mangetic :lains (:1F), =urrent !cience 6A (B), B)2TBBA
-iodi"ersity
$li, !./ Ripley, !. 1./ 1ick, #. 8. (&7 $ugust &AA4), $ :ictorial Muide to the -irds of the Indian
!ubcontinent ((nd ed.), *umbai, INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9&A974)6)(92
$nimal 1isco"eries (+&&, 0e. !pecies and 0e. Records (:1F), Loological !ur"ey of India,
(+&(, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&(
-asak, R. @. (&A2)), -otanical !ur"ey of India, $ccount of Its Establishment, 1e"elopment, and
$cti"ities, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
8otspots by Region, -iodi"ersity 8otspots (=onser"ation International), (++6, retrie"ed (2
February (+&&
=rame, #. $./ I.en, $. W. (& $ugust (++(), :alaeobiogeography and -iodi"ersity =hange, The
Irdo"ician and *esoUoicT=enoUoic Radiations, Meological !ociety !pecial :ublication (&AB),
Meological !ociety of >ondon, I!-0 A629&924()A9&+49(, retrie"ed 2 1ecember (+&&
Fisher, W. F. (#anuary &AA7), To.ard !ustainable 1e"elopment`, !truggling o"er IndiaJs
0armada Ri"er, =olumbia ?ni"ersity !eminars, *. E. !harpe, I!-0 A629&974)(B9)B&96
Mriffiths, *. (4 #uly (+&+), The >otus fuest, In !earch of the !acred Flo.er, !t. *artinJs :ress,
I!-0 A629+9)&(94B&B29&
@aranth, @. :. ((7 *arch (++4), Iut9of9India Mond.anan Irigin of !ome Tropical $sian -iota
(:1F), =urrent !cience (Indian $cademy of !ciences) A+ (4), 62AT6A(, retrie"ed &2 *ay (+&&
*ace, M. *. (*arch &AAB), &AAB I?=0 Red >ist of Threatened $nimals, World =onser"ation
*onitoring =entre (International ?nion for =onser"ation of 0ature), I!-0 A629(92)&69+&AB9)
-iosphere Reser"es of India, =. :. R. En"ironment Education =entre (*inistry of En"ironment
and Forests, Mo"ernment of India), retrie"ed &6 #uly (+&&
Indian Wildlife (:rotection) $ct, &A6(, *inistry of En"ironments and Forests, Mo"ernment of
India, A !eptember &A6(, retrie"ed (7 #uly (+&&
:uri, !. @., -iodi"ersity :rofile of India, retrie"ed (+ #une (++6
The >ist of Wetlands of International Importance (:1F), The !ecretariat of the =on"ention on
Wetlands, B #une (++6, p. &2, archi"ed from the original on (& #une (++6, retrie"ed (+ #une (++6
Tritsch, *. F. () !eptember (++&), Wildlife of India, >ondon, 8arper=ollins, I!-0 A629+9++9
6&&+4(9A
:olitics
-hambhri, =. :. (& *ay &AA(), :olitics in India, &AA&T&AA(, !hipra, I!-0 A6292&927B+(9&692,
retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
-urnell, :. #./ =al"ert, :. (& *ay &AAA), The Resilience of 1emocracy, :ersistent :ractice,
1urable Idea (&st ed.), Taylor Y Francis, I!-0 A629+96&B492+(49(, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
!econd ?:$ Win, $ =ro.ning Mlory for !oniaJs $scendancy, -usiness !tandard, &4 *ay (++A,
retrie"ed &) #une (++A
=hander, 0. #. (& #anuary (++B), =oalition :olitics, The Indian ENperience, =oncept :ublishing
=ompany, I!-0 A6292&92+4A9+A(9&, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
1unlea"y, :./ 1i.akar, R./ 1unlea"y, =. ((++6), The Effecti"e !pace of :arty =ompetition (:1F)
(7), >ondon !chool of Economics and :olitical !cience, retrie"ed (6 !eptember (+&&
1utt, !. (&AA2), Identities and the Indian !tate, $n I"er"ie., Third World fuarterly &A ()), B&&T
B)B, doi,&+.&+2+E+&B)47AA2&B)(7
Eche"erri9Ment, #. (#anuary (++(), :olitics in IndiaJs 1ecentred :olity, in $yres, $./ Ildenburg,
:., fuickening the :ace of =hange, India -riefing, >ondon, *. E. !harpe, pp. &AT7), I!-0 A629+9
64749+2&(9)
=urrent Recognised :arties (:1F), Election =ommission of India, &B *arch (++A, retrie"ed 7
#uly (+&+
Mledhill, $. ()+ *arch &A6+), The Republic of India, The 1e"elopment of its >a.s and
=onstitution, Mreen.ood, I!-0 A629+92)6&9(2&)9A, retrie"ed (& #uly (+&&
0arasimha Rao :asses $.ay, The 8indu, (B 1ecember (++B, retrie"ed ( 0o"ember (++2
*athe., @. *. (& #anuary (++)), *anorama Vearbook, *alayala *anorama, I!-0 A6292&9
A++B4&929), retrie"ed (& #uly (+&&
0ational !ymbols of India, @no. India (0ational Informatics =entre, Mo"ernment of India),
retrie"ed (6 !eptember (++A
0euborne, -. ((++)), The !upreme =ourt of India, International #ournal of =onstitutional >a. &
(&), B64T7&+, doi,&+.&+A)EiconE&.).B64
:ylee, *. <. ((++)), The >ongest =onstitutional 1ocument, =onstitutional Mo"ernment in
India ((nd ed.), !. =hand, I!-0 A6292&9(&A9((+)94
:ylee, *. <. ((++)), The ?nion #udiciary, The !upreme =ourt, =onstitutional Mo"ernment in
India ((nd ed.), !. =hand, I!-0 A6292&9(&A9((+)94, retrie"ed ( 0o"ember (++6
!arkar, 0. I. (& #anuary (++6), !onia Mandhi, Tryst .ith India, $tlantic, I!-0 A6292&9(4A9+6BB9
&, retrie"ed (+ #uly (+&&
!harma, R. (&A7+), =abinet Mo"ernment in India, :arliamentary $ffairs B (&), &&4T&(4
!harma, -. @. ($ugust (++6), Introduction to the =onstitution of India (Bth ed.), :rentice 8all,
I!-0 A6292&9(+)9)(B49&
!inha, $. ((++B), The =hanging :olitical Economy of Federalism in India, India Re"ie. ) (&),
(7T4), doi,&+.&+2+E&B6)4B2+BA+BB)+27
WorldJs >argest 1emocracy to Reach Ine -illion :ersons on Independence 1ay, ?nited 0ations
:opulation 1i"ision, retrie"ed 7 Ictober (+&&
Wheare, @. =. (#une &A2+), Federal Mo"ernment (Bth ed.), INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9
)&)9((6+(92
Foreign relations and military
$lford, :. (6 #uly (++2), M2 :lus 7 ECuals :o.er !hift, The $ustralian, retrie"ed (& 0o"ember
(++A
-ehera, >. @. (6 *arch (+&&), -udgeting for IndiaJs 1efence, $n $nalysis of 1efence -udget
(+&&T(+&(, Institute for 1efence !tudies and $nalyses, retrie"ed B $pril (+&&
-ehera, >. @. ((+ *arch (+&(), IndiaJs 1efence -udget (+&(T&), Institute for 1efence !tudies
and $nalyses, retrie"ed (4 *arch (+&(
Russia $grees India 0uclear 1eal, --= 0e.s (-ritish -roadcasting =orporation), && February
(++A, retrie"ed (( $ugust (+&+
=urry, -. ((6 #une (+&+), =anada !igns 0uclear 1eal .ith India, The Mlobe and *ail, retrie"ed
&) *ay (+&&
India, Europe !trategic Relations, Europa, !ummaries of E? >egislation (European ?nion), 2
$pril (++2, retrie"ed &B #anuary (+&&
Mhosh, $. (& !eptember (++A), IndiaJs Foreign :olicy, :earson, I!-0 A6292&9)&69&+(792
Milbert, *. (&6 1ecember (++(), $ 8istory of the T.entieth =entury, William *orro., I!-0
A629+9+49+7+7AB9), retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
India, Russia Re"ie. 1efence Ties, The 8indu, 7 Ictober (++A, retrie"ed 2 Ictober (+&&
@umar, $. <. (& *ay (+&+), Reforming the 0:T to Include India, -ulletin of $tomic !cientists,
retrie"ed & 0o"ember (+&+%dead link'
*iglani, !. ((2 February (+&&), With $n Eye on =hina, India !teps ?p 1efence !pending,
Reuters, retrie"ed 4 #uly (+&&
0air, <. @. ((++6), 0o *ore $mbiguity, IndiaJs 0uclear :olicy (:1F), archi"ed from the original
on (6 !eptember (++6, retrie"ed 6 #une (++6
:andit, R. ((6 #uly (++A), 09!ubmarine to Mi"e India =rucial Third >eg of 0uke Triad, The
Times of India, retrie"ed &+ *arch (+&+
:erko"ich, M. (7 0o"ember (++&), IndiaJs 0uclear -omb, The Impact on Mlobal :roliferation,
?ni"ersity of =alifornia :ress, I!-0 A629+97(+9()(&+97, retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
India, France $gree on =i"il 0uclear =ooperation, Rediff, (7 #anuary (++2, retrie"ed (( $ugust
(+&+
?@, India !ign =i"il 0uclear $ccord, Reuters, &) February (+&+, retrie"ed (( $ugust (+&+
Ripsman, 0. *./ :aul, T. <. (&2 *arch (+&+), MlobaliUation and the 0ational !ecurity !tate,
INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9&A97)A)A+9), retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
Rothermund, 1. (&6 Ictober (+++), The Routledge =ompanion to 1ecoloniUation, Routledge
=ompanions to 8istory (&st ed.), Routledge, I!-0 A629+9B&79)74)(9A
India Mets Its First 8omegro.n Fighter #et, RI$ 0o"osti, &+ #anuary (+&&, retrie"ed & $pril
(++A
!harma, !. R. (& #anuary &AAA), IndiaT?!!R Relations &AB6T&A6&, From $mbi"alence to
!teadfastness &, 1isco"ery, I!-0 A6292&96&B&9B249B
!hukla, $. (7 *arch (+&&), =hina *atches IndiaJs ENpansion in *ilitary !pending, -usiness
!tandard, retrie"ed 4 #uly (+&&
!isodia, 0. !./ 0aidu, M. <. =. ((++7), =hanging !ecurity 1ynamic in Eastern $sia, Focus on
#apan, :romilla, I!-0 A6292&924+&A97(92
!I:RI Vearbook (++2, $rmaments, 1isarmament, and International !ecurity, !tockholm
International :eace Research Institute (INford ?ni"ersity :ress), 2 $ugust (++2, I!-0 A629+9&A9
A7B2A792, retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
Rise in international arms transfers is dri"en by $sian demand, says !I:RI, !tockholm
International :eace Research Initiati"e, &A *arch (+&(, archi"ed from the original on &) #anuary
(+&), retrie"ed (4 *arch (+&(
India, ?! !ign &() $greement, The Times of India, && Ictober (++2, retrie"ed (& #uly (+&&
Economy
$lamgir, #. ((B 1ecember (++2), IndiaJs Ipen9Economy :olicy, Mlobalism, Ri"alry, =ontinuity,
Taylor Y Francis, I!-0 A629+9B&796642B9B, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
-onner, - ((+ *arch (+&+), *ake Way, World. India Is on the *o"e, =hristian !cience *onitor,
retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
India >ost FB4(bn in Illegal =apital Flo.s, !ays Report, --= 0e.s (-ritish -roadcasting
=orporation), &2 0o"ember (+&+, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
India !econd Fastest Mro.ing $uto *arket $fter =hina, -usiness >ine, A $pril (+&+, retrie"ed
() #uly (+&&
1raUe, #ean/ !en, $martya ((+&)), $n ?ncertain Mlory, India and Its =ontradictions, $llen >ane
IndiaJs Economy, 0ot #ust Rubies and :olyester !hirts, The Economist, 2 Ictober (+&&, retrie"ed
A Ictober (+&&
Indian =ar ENports !urge )4D, ENpress India, &) Ictober (++A, archi"ed from the original on (
#anuary (+&), retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Report for !elected =ountries and !ub;ects, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, *alaysia,
:hilippines, !ri >anka, Thailand, International *onetary Fund, $pril (+&&, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Farrell, 1./ -einhocker, E. (&A *ay (++6), 0eNt -ig !penders, IndiaJs *iddle =lass, *c@insey
Y =ompany, retrie"ed &6 !eptember (+&&
Margan, E. $. (&7 $ugust &AA(), India !tumbles in Rush to a Free *arket Economy, The 0e.
Vork Times, retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
World Economic Iutlook ?pdate (:1F), International *onetary Fund, #une (+&&, retrie"ed ((
#uly (+&&
0ayak, :. -./ Moldar, -./ $gra.al, :. (&+ 0o"ember (+&+), IndiaJs Economy and Mro.th, Essays
in 8onour of <. @. R. <. Rao, !$ME :ublications, I!-0 A6292&9)(&9+B7(9+
Economic !ur"ey of India (++6, :olicy -rief (:1F), Irganisation for Economic =o9operation
and 1e"elopment, Ictober (++6, retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
:al, :./ Mhosh, # (#uly (++6), IneCuality in India, $ !ur"ey of Recent Trends (:1F), Economic
and !ocial $ffairs, 1E!$ Working :aper 0o. B7 (?nited 0ations), retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
The World in (+7+, The $ccelerating !hift of Mlobal Economic :o.er, =hallenges and
Ipportunities (:1F), :rice.aterhouse=oopers, #anuary (+&&, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
!ch.ab, @. ((+&+), The Mlobal =ompetiti"eness Report (+&+T(+&& (:1F), World Economic
Forum, retrie"ed &+ *ay (+&&
!heth, 0. ((2 *ay (++A), Iutlook for Iutsourcing !pending -rightens, The Wall !treet #ournal,
retrie"ed ) Ictober (+&+
!ri"asta"a, <. =. ((++2), Introduction, in <.=. !ri"asta"a, >allan;i Mopal, 1.:. =hattopadhyaya,
8istory of $griculture in India (p to c&(++ $1), 8istory of !cience, :hilosophy and =ulture In
Indian =i"iUation, < (:art &), =oncept :ublishing =o, I!-0 2&2+4A7(&(
Information 0ote to the :ress (:ress Release 0o.(A E(+&&) (:1F), Telecom Regulatory $uthority
of India, 4 $pril (+&&, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
ENporters Met Wider *arket Reach, The Times of India, (2 $ugust (++A, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
=orruption :erception IndeN (+&+KIndia =ontinues to be =orrupt (:1F), Transparency
International, (4 Ictober (+&&, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
0e. Mlobal :o"erty EstimatesKWhat It *eans for India, World -ank, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
India, ?ndernourished =hildrenK$ =all for Reform and $ction, World -ank, retrie"ed () #uly
(+&&
Inclusi"e Mro.th and !er"ice 1eli"ery, -uilding on IndiaJs !uccess (:1F), World -ank, (A *ay
(++4, retrie"ed 6 *ay (++A
India =ountry I"er"ie. !eptember (+&+, World -ank, !eptember (+&+, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Trade to ENpand by A.7D in (+&+ $fter a 1ismal (++A, WTI Reports, World Trade Irganisation,
(4 *arch (+&+, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Vep, E. ((6 !eptember (+&&), Re0e. Wind :o.er Mets F(+& *illion Moldman In"estment, The
Wall !treet #ournal, retrie"ed (6 !eptember (+&&
Indian IT9-:I Industry, 0$!!=I*, (+&&9(+&(, retrie"ed (( #une (+&( =heck date "alues in, ^
datem (help)
?01ER!T$01I0M T8E WTI, T8E IRM$0IL$TII0 *embers and Ibser"ers, WTI, &AA7,
retrie"ed () #une (+&(
1emographics
-onner, $. (&AA+), $"erting the $pocalypse, !ocial *o"ements in India Today, 1uke ?ni"ersity
:ress, I!-0 A629+92(()9&+B292, retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
8ealthcare in India, Report 8ighlights (:1F), -oston $nalytics, #anuary (++A, retrie"ed () #uly
(+&&
1e", !. *./ Rao, 0. =. ((++A), India, :erspecti"es on ECuitable 1e"elopment, $cademic
Foundation, I!-0 A6292&96&2294279(
1har.adker, $. ((2 Ictober (+&+), Representing IndiaJs :asts, Time, =ulture, and :roblems of
:erformance 8istoriography, in =anning, =. *./ :ostle.ait, T., Representing the :ast, Essays in
:erformance 8istoriography, ?ni"ersity of Io.a :ress, I!-0 A629&9726(A9A+794, retrie"ed (B #uly
(+&&
1raUe, #./ Moyal, $. (A February (++A), The Future of *id91ay *eals, in -aru, R. <., !chool
8ealth !er"ices in India, The !ocial and Economic =onteNts, !$ME :ublications, I!-0 A6292&9
62(A926)9)
1yson, T./ <isaria, :. (6 #uly (++7), *igration and ?rbanisation, Retrospect and :rospects, in
1yson, T./ =asses, R./ <isaria, >., T.enty9First =entury India, :opulation, Economy, 8uman
1e"elopment, and the En"ironment, INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9&A9A(2)2(92
Marg, !. =. (&A $pril (++7), *obiliUing ?rban Infrastructure Finance in India (:1F), World
-ank, retrie"ed (6 #anuary (+&+
*allikar;un, - (0o"ember (++B), Fifty Vears of >anguage :lanning for *odern 8indiKThe
Ifficial >anguage of India, >anguage in India B (&&), I!!0 &A)+9(AB+, retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
0otification 0o. (E2E4+9I.>, *inistry of 8ome $ffairs, Mo"ernment of India, (6 $pril &A4+,
retrie"ed &) *ay (+&&
Religious =omposition, Iffice of the Registrar Meneral and =ensus =ommissioner (*inistry of
8ome $ffairs, Mo"ernment of India), (+&+T(+&&, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
=ensus 1ata (++&, Iffice of the Registrar Meneral and =ensus =ommissioner (*inistry of 8ome
$ffairs, Mo"ernment of India), (+&+T(+&&, retrie"ed (( #uly (+&&
Ittenheimer, 8. #. ((++2), The $nthropology of >anguage, $n Introduction to >inguistic
$nthropology, =engage, I!-0 A629+9BA797+22B96
Ratna, ?. ((++6), Interface -et.een ?rban and Rural 1e"elopment in India, in 1utt, $. @./
Thakur, -, =ity, !ociety, and :lanning &, =oncept, I!-0 A6292&92+4A9B7A9(
Robinson, !. (& *ay (++2), IndiaJs *edical Emergency, Time, retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
Rorabacher, #. $. ((+&+), 8unger and :o"erty in !outh $sia, Myan, I!-0 A6292&9(&(9&+(69+
!ingh, !. ((++B), >ibrary and >iteracy *o"ement for 0ational 1e"elopment, =oncept, I!-0
A6292&92+4A9+4797
!kolnik, R. >. ((++2), Essentials of Mlobal 8ealth, #ones Y -artlett >earning, I!-0 A629+964)69
)B(&9)
=ountry =ooperation !trategy, India (:1F), World 8ealth Irganisation, 0o"ember (++4,
retrie"ed () #uly (+&&
=ulture
$gni"esh, !.ami/ Rama *ani/ $ngelika @dester9>ossack ((7 0o"ember (++7). *issing, 7+
million Indian girls. 0e. Vork Times. Retrie"ed )+ 1ecember (+&).
-unting, *adeleine ((( #uly (+&&). IndiaJs missing .omen. The Muardian. Retrie"ed )+
1ecember (+&).
-inmore, @. M. ((6 *arch (++6), :laying for Real, $ TeNt on Mame Theory, INford ?ni"ersity
:ress, I!-0 A629+9&A97)++769B
-ladholm, >. (&( $ugust (+++), The Indian Mrocery !tore 1emystified (&st ed.), *acmillan
:ublishers, I!-0 A629&972+4)9&B)9)
!aina 0eh.al, IndiaJs -adminton !tar and 0e. Woman, --= 0e.s, & $ugust (+&+, retrie"ed
7 Ictober (+&+
=ommon.ealth Mames (+&+, India 1ominate !hooting *edals, --= 0e.s, 6 Ictober (+&+,
retrie"ed ) #une (+&&
=hopra, :. (&2 *arch (+&&), $ #oint Enterprise, Indian Elites and the *aking of -ritish -ombay,
?ni"ersity of *innesota :ress, I!-0 A629+92&4496+)694
=ullen91upont, @. (#uly (++A), 8uman Trafficking (&st ed.), Infobase :ublishing, I!-0 A629+9
2&4+967B79B
1as, !. @. (& #anuary (++7), $ 8istory of Indian >iterature, 7++T&)AA, From =ourtly to the
:opular, !ahitya $kademi, I!-0 A6292&9(4+9(&6&9+
1atta, $. ((++4), The Encyclopaedia of Indian >iterature (, !ahitya $kademi, I!-0 A6292&9(4+9
&&AB9+
1ehe;ia, R. !. (6 0o"ember (+&&), Indian Mrand :riN <s. Encephalitis`, The Wall !treet #ournal,
retrie"ed (+ 1ecember (+&&
1eutsch, E. ()+ $pril &A4A), $d"aita <ed\nta, $ :hilosophical Reconstruction, ?ni"ersity of
8a.aii :ress, I!-0 A629+92(B29+(6&9B
1issanayake, W. @./ Mokulsing, *. (*ay (++B), Indian :opular =inema, $ 0arrati"e of =ultural
=hange ((nd ed.), Trentham -ooks, I!-0 A629&9272749)(A9A
!outhern *o"ies $ccount for o"er 67D of Film Re"enues, The Economic Times, &2 0o"ember
(++A, retrie"ed &2 #une (+&&
Indian 1ance, !outh $sian $rts, Encyclop_dia -ritannica, retrie"ed &6 #uly (+&&
Tamil >iterature, Encyclop_dia -ritannica, (++2, retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
Eraly, $. ((++2), India, :enguin -ooks, I!-0 A629+967449BA7(9B, retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
8art, M. >. ($ugust &A67), :oems of $ncient Tamil, Their *ilieu and Their !anskrit
=ounterparts (&st ed.), ?ni"ersity of =alifornia :ress, I!-0 A629+97(+9+(46(92
8eehs, :., ed. (& !eptember (++(), Indian Religions, $ 8istorical Reader of !piritual ENpression
and ENperience, 0e. Vork ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+92&B69)47+9+, retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
8enderson, =. E. ((++(), =ulture and =ustoms of India, Mreen.ood :ublishing Mroup, I!-0
A629+9)&)9)+7&)9A
8oiberg, 1./ Ramchandani, I. ((+++), !tudentsJ -ritannica India, !elect Essays, :opular
:rakashan, I!-0 A629+927((A964(9A
#ohnson, W. #., ed. (& !eptember (++2), The !auptikapar"an of the *ahabharata, The *assacre
at 0ight, INford WorldJs =lassics ((nd ed.), INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9&A9(2()4&92
#ones, M./ Ramdas, @. ((++7), (?n)tying the @not, Ideal and Reality in $sian *arriage, 0ational
?ni"ersity of !ingapore :ress, I!-0 A629A2&9+79&B(29+
@\lid\sa/ #ohnson, W. #. (&7 0o"ember (++&), The Recognition of lakuntal\, $ :lay in !e"en
$cts, INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9&A9(2)A&&9B
@aminsky, $rnold :./ >ong, Roger 1. ()+ !eptember (+&&), India Today, $n Encyclopedia of
>ife in the Republic, $n Encyclopedia of >ife in the Republic, $-=9=>II, I!-0 A629+9)&)9
)6B4(9), retrie"ed &( !eptember (+&(
@aranth, !. @. (Ictober (++(), Vakag\na, $bhina" :ublications, I!-0 A6292&96+&69)769&
@iple, @. F./ Irnelas, @. =., eds. ((+++), The =ambridge World 8istory of Food, =ambridge,
=ambridge ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+97(&9B+(&49)
@uiper, @., ed. (& #uly (+&+), The =ulture of India, -ritannica Educational :ublishing, I!-0
A629&94&7)+9(+)9&, retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
@umar, <. (#anuary (+++), <astushastra, $ll Vou Wanted to @no. $bout !eries ((nd ed.),
!terling :ublishing, I!-0 A6292&9(+69(&AA9A
>al, $. ((++B), The INford =ompanion to Indian Theatre, INford ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9
&A974BBB49), retrie"ed (B #uly (+&&
>ang, #./ *oleski, W. (& 1ecember (+&+), Functionalism Re"isited, $shgate :ublishing, I!-0
A629&9B+AB9+6+&9+
*ac1onell, $. $. ((++B), $ 8istory of !anskrit >iterature, @essinger :ublishing, I!-0 A629&9
B&6A9+4&A9(
*a;umdar, -./ -andyopadhyay, @. ((++4), $ !ocial 8istory of Indian Football, !tri"ing To
!core, Routledge, I!-0 A629+9B&79)B2)797
*akar, E. *. ((++6), $n $mericanJs Muide to 1oing -usiness in India, $dams, I!-0 A629&9
7A24A9(&&9(
*assey, R./ *assey, # (&AA2), The *usic of India, $bhina" :ublications, I!-0 A6292&96+&69
))(92
*edora, 0. ((++)), *ate !election in =ontemporary India, >o"e *arriages <ersus $rranged
*arriages, in 8amon, R. R./ Ingoldsby, -. -., *ate !election $cross =ultures, !$ME
:ublications, pp. (+AT()+, I!-0 A629+964&A9(7A(96
*essner, W. ((++A), Working .ith India. The !ofter $spects of a !uccessful =ollaboration .ith
the Indian IT Y -:I Industry, !pringer, I!-0 A629)97B+92A+6697
*essner, W. ((+&(), Engaging .ith India. 8o. to *anage the !ofter $spects of a Mlobal
=ollaboration, =reatespace, I!-0 A629&9B44(BBA++
Indian Readership !ur"ey (+&( f& , Topline Findings (:1F). *edia Research ?sers =ouncil.
Mro.th, >iteracy Y *edia =onsumption. Retrie"ed &( !eptember (+&(.
*ehta, 0alin ()+ #uly (++2), Tele"ision in India, !atellites, :olitics and =ultural =hange, Taylor
Y Francis ?!, I!-0 A629+9B&79BB67A9&, retrie"ed &( !eptember (+&(
Is -oNing the 0e. =ricket`, *int, (B !eptember (+&+, retrie"ed 7 Ictober (+&+
0akamura, 8. (& $pril &AAA), Indian -uddhism, $ !ur"ey .ith -ibliographical 0otes, -uddhist
Tradition !eries (&(th ed.), *otilal -anarsidass, I!-0 A6292&9(+29+(6(92
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:ublishing Mroup, I!-0 A629+9)&)9)67749A
Ragha"an, !. (() Ictober (++4), 8andbook of !pices, !easonings, and Fla"orings ((nd ed.),
=R= :ress, I!-0 A629+92BA)9(2B(92
Raichlen, !. (&+ *ay (+&&), $ Tandoor I"en -rings IndiaJs 8eat to the -ackyard, The 0e. Vork
Times, retrie"ed &B #une (+&&
Ra;adhyaksha, $./ Willemen, :., eds. ((( #anuary &AAA), Encyclopaedia of Indian =inema ((nd
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Ramanu;an, $. @. (translator) (&7 Ictober &A27), :oems of >o"e and War, From the Eight
$nthologies and the Ten >ong :oems of =lassical Tamil, 0e. Vork, =olumbia ?ni"ersity :ress,
pp. iNTN, I!-0 A629+9()&9+7&+69&
Ra.at, Ramnarayan ! (() *arch (+&&), Reconsidering ?ntouchability, =hamars and 1alit
8istory in 0orth India, Indiana ?ni"ersity :ress, I!-0 A629+9(7)9(((4(94
$nand =ro.ned World =hampion, Rediff, (A Ictober (++2, retrie"ed (A Ictober (++2
Roberts, 0. W. (&( #uly (++B), -uilding Type -asics for :laces of Worship (&st ed.), #ohn Wiley
Y !ons, I!-0 A629+9B6&9((7429)
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!il"erman, !. (&+ Ictober (++6), <astu, Transcendental 8ome 1esign in 8armony .ith 0ature,
Mibbs !mith, I!-0 A629&9B()49+&)(94
Tarlo, E. (& !eptember &AA4), =lothing *atters, 1ress and Identity in India (&st ed.), ?ni"ersity
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!a.ant !hoots 8istoric Mold at World =hampionships, The Times of India, A $ugust (+&+,
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(+&(
India $ims for =enter =ourt, The Wall !treet #ournal, && !eptember (++A, retrie"ed (A
!eptember (+&+
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Intergenerational *obility for 1alits Is <isible, $lbeit >imited (:1F). World -ank Report
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ca"ier, >. (&( !eptember (+&+), !ushil @umar Wins Mold in World Wrestling =hampionship,
The Times of India, retrie"ed 7 Ictober (+&+
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*odern Times, !pringer, I!-0 A629&9B+(+94)&(9&
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ENternal links
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