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circuit

ideas

Skin Response Meter s.c. dwiv


edi

 D. Mohan Kumar

H
uman skin offers current from pin 18 to pin 10
some resistance to with each increment of 125
current and voltage. millivolts at its input pin 5.
This resistance changes with Using VR3 you can adjust the
the emotional state of the input voltage of IC2, while
body. The circuit proposed using VR4 you can control the
here measures changes in brightness of the LEDs.
your skin resistance following In practice, the circuit pro-
changes in your mental state. vides both meter reading and
In the relaxed state, the LED indications. If the LED
resistance offered by the skin display is not needed, IC2 can
is as high as 2 mega-ohms be omitted.
or more, which reduces to Assemble the circuit on
500 kilo-ohms or less when resistor along with the skin when the a general-purpose PCB and
the emotional stress is too high. The touch plates make contact with the skin. enclose in a suitable cabinet with touch
reduction in skin resistance is related to So the gain of IC1 depends on the feed- pads glued on the top, 5-10 mm apart.
increased blood flow and permeability back provided by R1 and the skin. Touch pads can be any type of conduct-
followed by the physiological changes In the inverting mode of IC1, a posi- ing plates, such as aluminium or copper
during high stress. This increases the tive input voltage to its pin 2 through the plates, having dimensions of 1×1 cm2.
electrical conductivity of the skin. feedback network makes its output low. The moving coil meter can be a small
This circuit is useful to monitor the If the skin offers very high resistance in VU meter with 1-kilo-ohm coil resistance
skin’s response to relaxation techniques. the relaxed state, input voltage to pin 2 and 0-10 digit reading.
It is very sensitive and shows response reduces and the output remains high. After assembling the circuit, adjust
during a sudden moment of stress. Even Thus the gain of IC1 varies depending the presets such that IC1 outputs around
a deep sigh will give response in the on the current passing through the skin, 6 volts. None of the LEDs (LED1 through
circuit. which, in turn, depends on the skin re- LED3) glows in this position with the
The circuit uses a sensitive amplifier sponse and emotional state. touch plates open.
to sense variations in the skin resistance. In the standby state, touch plates Now gently touch the touch plates
IC CA3140 (IC1) is designed as a resist- are free. As there is no feedback to IC1, with your middle finger. Maintain the
ance-to-voltage converter that outputs it gives a high output (around 6 volts), finger still allowing one minute to bond
varying voltage based on the skin’s con- which is indicated by shifting of the with the pads and keep your body
ductivity. It is wired as an inverting am- meter to right side. relaxed. Adjust VR3 until the green
plifier to generate constant current to skin When the touch plates are shorted by LED (LED1) lights up and the meter
in order to measure the skin resistance. the skin, the feedback circuit completes shows full deflection. Adjust VR2 to get
IC CA3140 is a 4.5MHz BiMOS op- and the output voltage reduces to 4 volts maximum deflection of the meter. This
erational amplifier with MOSFET inputs or less depending on the resistance of indicates normal resistance of the skin,
and bipolar output. The gate-protected the skin. Since the feedback network has provided the body is fully relaxed.
inputs have high impedance and can a fixed resistor (R1) and VR1 is set to a If you are stressed or have ill feel-
sense current as low as 10 pA. This de- fixed resistance value, the current flowing ing, skin resistance decreases and the
vice is ideal to sense small currents in through it depends only on the resistance blue LED lights up followed by the red
low-input-current applications. of the skin. The output from IC1 is dis- LED along with a deflection of the meter
The inverting input (pin 2) of IC1 played on a sensitive moving coil meter towards the lower side. In short, the red
is connected to ground (through preset (VU meter). By varying preset VR2, you LED and zero meter reading indicate
VR1) and one of the touch plates, while can adjust the sensitivity of the meter. you are stressed, and the green LED and
the non-inverting input (pin 3) is ground- For easy visual observation, an LED high meter reading indicate you are re-
ed directly. The output from IC1 passes display is also included. IC LM3915 (IC2) laxed. Practise some relaxation technique
through current-limiting resistor R1 to the is used to give a logarithmic display and observe how much your body is
second touch plate. R1 act as a feedback through LED indications. It can sink relaxed. 

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