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ConcreteTechnology

CEG204
INSTRUCTOR:ENGRA.OOYELADE
aoyelade@unilag.edu
APRIL,2013
Concreteconstituents(cement,aggregateandwater)
ConcreteProperties
PropertiesofFreshandHardenedConcrete
MixingRatio
MixDesign
Curing
CubestrengthDetermination
MortarMixingandPlastering
BlockLaying
Admixtures
Designandmanufactureofconcrete
Outline
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Concreteisamanmadecomposite,themajor
constituentsofwhichisnaturalaggregate,(graveland
sandorcrushedrock.
Artificialaggregate:blastfurnace slag,expandedclay,
brokenbricksorsteelshot.
Otherconstituent:Bindingmediumusedtobindthe
aggregatetogethertoformahardcomposite
material.
Introduction
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Mostcommonbindingmediumistheproductform
byachemicalreactionbetweencementandwater.
Otherbindingmedium:inasmallerscale,cementand
watercontentarereplacedeitherwhollyorinpart.
E.g.Resinaddictive
Freshconcretecanbemouldedintovirtuallyany
shape.
Initshardenedstate,concreteislikearocklike
materialwithhighcompressivestrength.
Introduction
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Lowtensilestrength:Incorporatesteelbars
(reinforcedconcrete)orapplycompressiveforcesto
theconcretetonegatethetensileforces(prestressed
concrete).
Concretehasmanyuses:building,foundations,
columns,beams,slabs,inshellstructures,bridges,
dams,sewagetreatmentwork,railwaysleepers,
roadsetc.
Introduction
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Concrete:Constituent
MaterialsandProperties
Concreteiscomposedofmainlythreematerials;
Cement
Water
Aggregates,
andsometimesadditionalmaterialcalled
Admixturetomodifycertainpropertiesofthe
concrete
ConstituentMaterials
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Concreteischemicalactiveconstituentsandits
reactivitytakesplaceinthepresenceofwater.
Aggregateplaysnopartinchemicalreaction
economyfillermaterial.Itimprovesthedurabilityof
theconcrete.
Compositionofconcrete
ConstituentMaterials
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Voids 12%
Cementpaste 2540%
Aggregates 6070%
Cementsarefinelygroundpowdersandallhavethe
importantpropertythatwhenmixedwithwatera
chemicalreactionhydrationtakesplace.
Inearlystagesofhydration(plasticstage)cement
mortargivestothefreshconcreteitscohesive
properties.
Cement
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Cement
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TypesofCement
PortlandCement
MainTypes
Ordinary
RapidHardening
SulphateResisting
Other
ExtraRapidHardening
UltraRapidHardening
LowHeat
White&Colour
Hydrophobic
Waterproofandwater
repellent
AirEntraining
SlagCement
PortlandBlastfurnace
LowHeatPortland
Blastfurnace
Supersulphated
Pozzolanic
HighAlumina
DifferentTypesofCement
Cementsarefinelygroundpowdersandallhavethe
importantpropertythatwhenmixedwithwatera
chemicalreactionhydrationtakesplace.
Inearlystagesofhydration(plasticstage)cement
mortargivestothefreshconcreteitscohesive
properties.
Cement
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Cementsarebinderwhichwhenmixedwithwater,
setorhardeninairorwaterbyaprocessof
hydration,formingacompoundswhichare
volumetricallystable,durableandincreaseinstrength
withage.
BasicconstituentsareoxidesofCa,Si,Al,Fe
HydraulicCement/Binders
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HydraulicCement/Binders
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Oxide %bymass
CaO 6368
SiO
2
1924
Al
2
O
3
47
Fe
2
O
3
16
MgO 0.53.6
Na
2
O+0.658 K
2
O 0.20.8
CompositionofPortlandcementclinker
Binderswhichwhenmixedwithwaterwillharden
veryslowly(generallytooslowforengineering
purposesandthereforerequireanactivatorto
acceleratethehydration.
Comprisesamebasicoxidesashydraulicbindersbut
indifferentproportions.
LatentHydraulicBinders
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PortlandCementswasdevelopedin1824,andderivedits
namefromPortlandlimestoneinDorset.
Thebasicrawmaterialsusedinthemanufactureof
Portlandcementarecalciumcarbonatefoundinin
calcareousrockssuchaslimestoneorchalk,andsilica,
aluminaandironoxidefoundinargillaceousrockssuchas
clayorshale.
Maral,whichisamixtureofcalcareousandargillaceous
materialscanalsobeused.
Cement
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Grindingandmixingofrawconstituentsin
proportions
BurninginaKilnathightemperature14001450
o
C
Kilnisasteelcylinder,withrefractorylining,inclined
tothehorizontalandrotatescontinuouslyaboutits
ownaxis.3.5mdiameter,150mlong,700tonsof
cementperday
Clinkerisallowedtocoolandgroundwith1to5%
gypsum.
Manufacture
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DifferenttypesofPortlandareobtainedbyvarying
theproportionofrawmaterials,temperatureof
burningandfinenessofgrinding.
Gypsumisaddedtocontrolthesettingtimeof
cement
Addictives maybeaddedatthisstagetoproduce
specialcement
Manufacture
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ChemicalComposition
CharacteristicsofPC
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Nameof Compound Chemical
Composition
Abbreviation Speed ofHydration
Tricalcium Silicate 3Cao.SiO
2
C
3
S Rapid,generate heat
incontactwithwater
Dicalcium Silicate 2Cao.SiO
2
C
2
S Slow
Tricalcium Aluminate 3Cao.Al
2
O
3
C
3
A VerySlow
Tetracalcium
aluminoferrite
4Cao.Al
2
O
3
.Fe
2
O
3
C
4
AF ExtremelySlow
RateofHydration
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CharacteristicsofPC
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C
3
SandC
2
S Stable 7080%
C
3
A Leaststable
(exothermic)
<10%,andIf>10%,
sulphate attack
C
4
AF Hydrate slowly <10%
Fineness
Reactionofcementandwaterstartsfromthecement
surface.
FineCementdevelopstrengthandgenerateheat
morequicklythatcoarsecement.
CharacteristicsofPC
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Hydration
Thechemicalcombinationofcementandwater
whichproducesveryhardandstrongbindingmedium
fortheaggregateparticlesinconcreteandis
accomplishedbytheliberationofheat.
Rateofhydrationdepends
o Propertiesofsilicatesandaluminatecompound
o Fineness
o Ambienttemperature
CharacteristicsofPC
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SettingandHardening
Hydrationresultsintheformulationofgelaround
eachofthecementparticles.
Cementpastelossesitsfluidity
Thebeginningofanoticeablestiffeninginthecement
pasteisknownasinitialset
Asthevolumeofgelincreases,finalhardening
processresponsibleforitsstrengthcommences final
set
CharacteristicsofPC
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Cement TypicalResults BritishStandardRequirement
Initial
Setting
time(mm)
Final
Setting
time(mm)
Initial Setting
time.Notless
than(mm)
Final Settingtime.
Notmorethan(hr)
Ordinary 162 214 45 10
Rapid
Hardening
97 149 45 10
Sulphate
Resisting
154 202 45 10
LowHeat 157 253 60 10
Initial&FinalSettingTimesofPC
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Anexcessivechangeinvolumeparticularlyexpansionof
acementpasteaftersettingindicatesthatthecement
isunsoundandnotsuitableforthemanufactureof
concrete.
Theeffectofusingunsoundcementmaynotbe
apparentforsomeconsiderableperiodoftime,but
usuallymanifestthemselvesincrackingand
disintegrationofthesurfaceoftheconcrete.
Soundness
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OrdinaryPortlandcement Type
Modifiedcement Type
RapidhardeningPortlandcement Type
LowheatPortlandcement TypeV
SulfateresistingPortlandcement TypeV
TypesofPC
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ItispossibletoaddsomeadditivetoPortlandcement
toproducethefollowingtypes:
Portlandblastfurnacecement TypeS
Pozzolanic cement TypeP
Airentrainedcement TypeA
WhitePortlandcement
ColouredPortlandcement
TypesofPC
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Classification Characteristics Applications
TypeI Generalpurpose FairlyhighC
3
S
contentforgood
earlystrength
development
Generalconstruction(most
buildings,bridges,pavements,
precastunits,etc
TypeII Moderatesulphate
resistance
LowC
3
Acontent
(<8%)
Structuresexposedtosoilor
watercontainingsulphateions
TypeIII Highearlystrength Groundmorefinely,
mayhaveslightly
moreC
3
S
Rapidconstruction,coldweather
concreting
TypeIV Lowheatof
hydration(slow
reacting)
LowcontentofC
3
S
(<50%)andC
3
A
Massivestructuressuchasdams.
Nowrare.
TypeV Highsulfate
resistance
VerylowC
3
A
content(<5%)
Structuresexposedtohighlevels
ofsulfate ions
White Whitecolor NoC
4
AF,lowMgO Decorative(otherwisehas
propertiessimilartoTypeI)
TypesIIV
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GeneralpurposePortlandcementsuitableforalluses.It
isusedwherecementorconcreteisnotsubjectto
specificexposures,suchassulphateattackfromsoilor
water,ortoanobjectionabletemperaturerisedueto
heatgeneratedbyhydration.
Itsusesincludepavementsandsidewalks,reinforced
concretebuildings,bridges,railwaystructures,tanks,
reservoirs,culverts,sewers,waterpipesandmasonry
units.
TypesI
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Usedwhereprecautionagainstmoderatesulphate
attackisimportant,asindrainagestructureswhere
sulphateconcentrationsingroundwaters arehigher
thannormalbutnotunusuallysevere.Thiscementwill
usuallygeneratelessheatataslowerratethanTypeI.
Type2canbeusedinstructuresofconsiderablemass,
suchaslargepiers,heavyabutments,andheavy
retainingwalls.Itsusewillreducetemperaturerise
especiallyimportantwhentheconcreteisplacedin
warmweather.
TypesII
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TypeIIIisahighearlystrengthPortlandcementthat
provideshighstrengthsatanearlyperiod,usuallya
weekorless.
Itisusedwhenformsaretoberemovedassoonas
possible,orwhenthestructuremustbeputintoservice
quickly.Incoldweather,itsusepermitsareductionin
thecontrolledcuringperiod.
TypesIII
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TypeIVisalowheatofhydrationcementforuse
wheretherateandamountofheatgeneratedmust
beminimized.Itdevelopsstrengthataslowerrate
thanTypeIcement.TypeIVPortlandcementis
intendedforuseinmassiveconcretestructures,such
aslargegravitydams,wherethetemperaturerise
resultingfromheatgeneratedduringcuringisa
criticalfactor.
TypesIV
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TypeVisasulphateresistingcementusedonlyin
concreteexposedtoseveresulphateaction
principallywheresoilsorgroundwatershaveahigh
sulphatecontent.LowTricalcium Aluminate(C3A)
content,generally5%orless,isrequiredwhenhigh
sulphateresistanceisneeded.
TypesV
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TypeVisasulphateresistingcementusedonlyin
concreteexposedtoseveresulphateaction
principallywheresoilsorgroundwatershaveahigh
sulphatecontent.LowTricalcium Aluminate(C3A)
content,generally5%orless,isrequiredwhenhigh
sulphateresistanceisneeded.
TypesV
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Aggregatesaredefinedasinert,granular,andinorganic
materialsthatnormallyconsistofstoneorstonelikesolids.
Aggregatescanbeusedalone(inroadbasesandvarious
typesoffill)orcanbeusedwithcementingmaterials(such
asPortlandcementorasphaltcement)toformcomposite
materialsorconcrete.
Asanotherimportantapplication,aggregatesareusedin
asphaltcementconcreteinwhichtheyoccupy90%ormore
ofthetotalvolume.Onceagain,aggregatescanlargely
influencethecompositepropertiesduetoitslargevolume
fraction.
Aggregate
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Cheaperthancement
Improvesvolumestabilityanddurabilityofconcrete.
Strengthofanaggregatelimitstheattainablestrengthof
concrete
ConcretestrengthSu -Su Nmm
-2
andaggregate7u -
SSu Nmm
-2
Deformationcharacteristicscanbedeterminedfrom
compressiontestsofspecimenfromtheparentrock.
Aggregatewithhighporositywillproducelessdurable
concrete.
Aggregate
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Thegradingofanaggregatedefinestheproportions
ofparticlesofdifferentsizeintheaggregate.
Learnhowtoplotgradingcurves
Grading
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General
Occupy7075%ofthetotalvolumeofconcrete
DefinedasaninertmineralfillerforOPC BS882
Sizes
Coarseaggregatee.g.
Gravel 4.76mmormore
(5mm)
Fineaggregatee.g.sand
lessthan4.76mm
Silt variesfrom0.02mm
0.06mm
Clay muchfinerthan
0.02mm
Classification
A)Petrological BS812
B)Density
C)Shape&texture
Petrological
1.)Igneous Granites,basaltsdolerites,gabbros &
porphyries Hard,tough,dense Excellent
aggregates
2.)Sedimentary Sandstones Whenhard&dense
suitable Siliceousbetterthancalcareouswhich
areliabletoacidattack
Limestones Sedimentaryrockschieflycomposed
ofcalciumcarbonateHarder,densertypesare
suitable
Contd
Shales Pooraggregates weak,soft,laminated&
absorptive
3.)Metamorphic Variablecharacter marbles&
quartzites usuallymassive,dense&adequatelytough&
strong
Schists &slatesareoftenthinlylaminated&therefore
unsuitable
Density
1.)Heavy SG>4.0
i)Magnetic,naturalironore(Fe
3
O
4
)
ii)Barytes (BaSO
4
)
Contd
2.)NormalSG2.53.0
i)Sands&gravels divisionisarbitrarilyonsize sandspass
4.76mmBSsieve
ii)Granites&basalts hard&tough
iii)Sandstone hard&densetypes
iv)Limestone hard&densetypes
v)Brokenbricks mustbefreeofplaster lowsulphur
content
vi)Aircooledblastfurnaceslag
Contd
3.)Lightweight SG<2.5
i)SinteredPFA
ii)Foamedslag
iii)Vermiculite
iv)Expandedpolystyrene
v)Pumice
vi)Woodwaste
C)Shape&Texture
ParticleshapeclassifiedtoBS812:1975
Termsused:
Wellrounded,rounded,subrounded,subangular,
angular
Contd
SurfacetextureclassifiedtoBS812:1975
Relatestothedegreeofpolishordullness,
smoothnessorroughnessofparticlessurfaces
Dependsonhardness,grainsizeandporecharacter
B)PhysicalProperties
Strength
Porosity
Thermal
Bonding
Moisture
Density relative(SSD)&solid(x1000)
bulk(packingair)
BulkDensity
Stockpilesoflooselypackedaggregatescontainlarge
volumesofairtrappedbetweenparticles,usuallymany
timesthatofthevolumeofairpresentwithinthe
particles Bulking
Coarseaggregates 3050%oftotalspaceoccupied
Fineaggregate approx 20% varieswithmoisture
content
BatchingofAggregates
Bulkingofaggregates
produceuncertaintyin
thesolidcontentof
aggregatesbatchedby
volume
Batchingbyweight
(mass)istherefore
preferred,hencemost
concretemixesare
batchedbyweight
GradingofAggregates
Referstothesize&distributionoftheaggregate
Sieveanalysis BS410:1976
Gradinglimits BS882:1983
Note:TheEurostandardBSEN12620
nowcoverstesting&specificationfor
aggregates
GradedAggregate
UniformGraded equalweightsofeachparticlesize
present
Gapgraded severalconsecutiveparticlesizes
missing
Singlegraded consistpredominantlyofasingle
particlesize
Fine&CoarseAggregates
FineAggregate <4.76mm(5mm)
CoarseAggregate >4.76mm
Grading:
Fine Coarse
CCoarse 40,20,14mmdown
MMedium
FFine
AggregateUses
Concrete
Mortar
Renders
Screeds
Unboundpavements
Contd
BituminousMaterials
Railwayballast
Filtermedia
biological
Water
WaterFitfordrinking
Seawatershouldbeavoided;itcauses
surfacedampness
Itcancorrodethesteelintheconcrete
Admixture
Admixturesarethoseingredientsinconcreteother
thanPortlandcement,water,andaggregatesthat
areaddedtothemixtureimmediatelybeforeor
duringmixing
Admixtures
Admixturescanbeclassifiedbyfunctionasfollows:
1.Airentrainingadmixtures
2.Waterreducing/Plasticizersadmixtures
3.Acceleratingadmixtures
4.Retardingadmixtures
5.Hydrationcontroladmixtures
6.Corrosioninhibitors
7.Shrinkagereducers
8.Alkalisilicareactivityinhibitors
9.Colouringadmixtures
10.Miscellaneousadmixturessuchasworkability,bonding,damp
proofing,permeabilityreducing,grouting,gasforming,antiwashout,
foaming,andpumpingadmixtures
Airentrainingadmixtures
Airentrainingadmixturesareusedtopurposely
introduceandstabilizemicroscopicairbubblesin
concrete.Airentrainmentwilldramaticallyimprovethe
durabilityofconcreteexposedtocyclesoffreezingand
thawing.
Entrainedairgreatlyimprovesconcretesresistanceto
surfacescalingcausedbychemicaldeicers(Fig.63).
Furthermore,theworkabilityoffreshconcreteis
improvedsignificantly,andsegregationandbleedingare
reducedoreliminated.
Waterreducingadmixtures
Waterreducingadmixturesareusedtoreducethe
quantityofmixingwaterrequiredtoproduceconcreteof
acertainslump,reducewatercementratio,reduce
cementcontent,orincreaseslump.Typicalwater
reducersreducethewatercontentbyapproximately5%
to10%.
Addingawaterreducingadmixturetoconcretewithout
reducingthewatercontentcanproduceamixturewitha
higherslump.Therateofslumploss,however,isnot
reducedandinmostcasesisincreased
Acceleratingadmixture
Anacceleratingadmixtureisusedtoacceleratetherate
ofhydration(setting)andstrengthdevelopmentof
concreteatanearlyage.Thestrengthdevelopmentof
concretecanalsobeacceleratedbyothermethods:(1)
usingTypeIIIorTypeHEhighearlystrengthcement,(2)
loweringthewatercementratiobyadding60to120
kg/m3(100to200lb/yd3)ofadditionalcementtothe
concrete,(3)usingawaterreducer,or(4)curingat
highertemperatures.
Retardingadmixtures
Retardingadmixturesareusedtodelaytherateof
settingofconcrete.Hightemperaturesoffreshconcrete
(30C[86F])areoftenthecauseofanincreasedrateof
hardeningthatmakesplacingandfinishingdifficult.One
ofthemostpracticalmethodsofcounteractingthis
effectistoreducethetemperatureoftheconcreteby
coolingthemixingwaterand/ortheaggregates.
Retardersdonotdecreasetheinitialtemperatureof
concrete.Thebleedingrateandbleedingcapacityof
concreteisincreasedwithretarders.
Waterreducingadmixtures
Retardingadmixturesareusefulinextendingthesetting
timeofconcrete,buttheyareoftenalsousedinattempts
todecreaseslumplossandextendworkability,especially
priortoplacementatelevatedtemperatures.