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Painting Women: Images of Femininity in Jacobean Tragedy Author(s): Laurie A. Finke Source: Theatre Journal,

Painting Women: Images of Femininity in Jacobean Tragedy Author(s): Laurie A. Finke Source: Theatre Journal, Vol. 36, No. 3, Renaissance Re-Visions (Oct., 1984), pp. 356-370 Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3206952 Accessed: 08-08-2014 03:23 UTC

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Women:

Painting Images of Femininity in Jacobean Tragedy

Laurie

A. Finke

In a scene that both repeats and parodies the Renaissance'sidealizations of women, The Revenger'sTragedy opens with Vendice addressing - and fondling - the skull of his murderedbeloved.

Thousallow

My

Oncethe bright face of my betrothed lady,

Whenlife and

These

Whentwo heaven-pointed diamondswereset

In those unsightlyrings - then'twasa face

So far beyond the artificialshine

Of

picture of my poisonedlove,

studies'ornament, thoushellof death,

beautynaturally fill'dout

raggedimperfections,

any woman's boughtcomplexion.

[I. i. 14-22]1

Gloriana'sskull functions here and throughout the play as a grisly emblem uniting two dialectical notions of femininity: woman as ideal, as an object of adoration, and woman as death's head, as a figure which evokes fear and hostility. Both of these images are, in effect, reflections of Vendice's mind, masculine perceptions of woman that transform her into extreme projections of man's own fears of mortality. Gloriana'sskull is, for Vendice, a kind of fetish, a "sallow picture," or "studies'orna- ment."It has become a fragment of a once whole, living woman. Yet, as it plays a past

LaurieFinke is Assistant Professorof English at Lewis & Clark College. She has published articleson Chaucer, Langland, Shakespeare,Wollstonecraft, and Kierkegaard; she is also coeditor of two collections of essays: From Renaissance to Restoration: Metamorphoses of the Drama and Medieval Texts and Contemporary Readers.

1Cyril Tourneur, The Revenger's Tragedy, ed. Lawrence J. Ross (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966). All subsequent citations will be from this edition and will be noted in the text. For a discus- sion of the memento mori in Shakespeare'splays that bears on my discussion of The Revenger's Tragedy, see Marjorie Garber, "Remember Me: Memento Mori Figures in Shakespeare's Plays," Renaissance Drama, 12 (1981), 3-25.

357

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ideal off against a presenthorror, Vendice's opening soliloquy implies that Gloriana in

life was,

for him, neitherwhole nor vital. The imagery throughout is life-denying and

fragmenting. Words like "picture,""ornament," and "shell"reduce Gloriana to the

status of an objet d'art- a painted woman - even as they attempt to contrast past

beauty with present devastation.

suggests a kind of crystalline and lifeless perfection that is the essence of the ideal that

Vendice

decapitated. Vendice's descriptive strategy fragments his lover's body by making its parts, here the head, into signs - ciphers - of his own morbid imagination, his obses- sion with corruption and death.

When the skull reappears in Act III, it has been transformedfrom a memento mori, the death'shead Vendice keeps on his desk to fuel his hatred, into the instrumentof his revenge. He has painted and dressed his skull to represent "a country lady, a little bashful at first" (III. v. 132), counting on the Duke not to see the skull beneath the "skin," and to perceive the superficialpainting as a tantalizing form of "innocence," "a sin rob'd in holiness" (III. v. 138). Here the Petrarchan image of the living Gloriana merges with its inverted mirror image, woman as death'shead. Gloriana's painted - and poisoned-lips literally amount to death for the Duke. Idealized beauty, as a strategy to shield man from the actuality of death, is exposed as a transitory delusion by the poet/revenger who wallows in his realization. He asks of the skull:

labors

The Petrarchan image, "heaven-pointed diamonds,"

creates. In life, as in death, we see only Gloriana's head; she is silent and

Does the silkworm expend her Forthee?for theedoes she

Does everyproud and self-affecting dame

Camphire herfacefor Seeladies, with falseforms Youdeceive men,but cannotdeceiveworms.

yellow

[III. v.

71-72, 83-84, 96-97]

For Vendice, woman's attempts to preserve, through the artificeof cosmetics, the ideal of beauty inherent in his Petrarchanevocation of the living Gloriana, reveal, behind the fictions of idealization, the horrors of the grave. But if the ideal and death imply each other, then Vendice finds himself caught in a double bind: his idealized "painting" of woman (like her cosmetics), in its attempts to deny death, becomes little more than an ironic affirmation of the decay of the flesh.

I

Vendice's painted skull is a particularly appropriate image with which to begin a study of femininity in Jacobeantragedy because it suggests a fundamental equivalence between the beloved as an idealized object and motivation for revenge, on the one hand, and as an object of terror and instrument of revenge, on the other. Vendice's painted skull emphasizes the double sense of "painting": as art - a changeless, timeless ideal designed to transcenddeath - and as cosmetics - a form of disguise and a futile attempt to cheat death. In this respect, painting conflates the dialectical images of women-as ideal and as memento mori-that structure a common, if often unspoken, perception of women in Jacobeantragedy. As Gloriana'sskull suggests, the two images of the feminine, at once inviolate and irrevocably corrupt, stem from the

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same source: a fear of and hostility toward women that results from man's awareness of his own carnality and the "contingency of the flesh."As Simone de Beauvoir has argued,

The slimyembryobegins the cycle thatis completed in the

he is horrified by needlessnessanddeath,manfeelshorrorat

wouldfain deny his animalties.2

putrefaction of death.Because

having been engendered; he

In The Revenger's Tragedy, Vendice circumvents his own "animal ties" both by emphasizing woman's unique carnality, her bestial sexuality, and by denying her flesh, transforming her into a disembodied art object. He sees all women either as morbidly sexual, like the Duchess "thatwill do with the devil" (I. i. 4), or as bloodless virgins, like Castiza, garnering "crystalplaudites"(II. i. 240).

Jacobean tragedy, particularly when it is most lurid, as in Toureur's Revengers Tragedy, exploits these male fears that link the feminine with death. These tragedies enact, usually with deadly results for the heroine, the life-denying tendencies inherent in "painting" women. Recent feminist readings of Shakespeareantragedy have begun

calling attention to the violence heroes' expressions of both love

and hatred for women in the plays. In particular,

Madelon Gohlke and Harry Berger have argued that his heroes "striveto avoid an awareness of their vulnerability in relation to women." Because they regard such vulnerability as "feminine,"they become obsessed with their own "manliness,"displac- ing their powerlessness onto women. "It is," Gohlke argues, "theso-called masculine consciousness, therefore, that defines femininity as weakness and institutes structures

and

"male fear of contamination" that underlie his

of

male

dominance

designed

to

defend

against

an

awareness"

of

masculine

vulnerability.3

In the tragedies of the early seventeenth century, these strategies are most often violent, and include rape, prostitution, and murder. The debauchery that runs ram- pant throughout The Revenger's Tragedy reduces the women in the play to mere

objects whose femininity is exclusively defined by their sexuality: "The woman is all

male, whom none can enter" (II. i. 111). Even when they are virtuous, like

Antonio's ravished and dead wife or Gloriana, they are "fairmonuments" ripe for the

plundering; virginity "isa paradise lock'd up

keep the key"(II. i. 153-155). But, if all women are objects, defined solely by their sex- uality, they are also all potentially sexual threatsbecause they are all potentially false

lovers. This masculine fear of betrayal is the source of much of the play's hostility toward female sexuality, its reduction of all women to whores or potential whores. Even the most chaste and virtuous women, whether those locked up in the "crystal tower"of honor or those safely dead, might humiliate or dishonor a man. This fear drives Vendice to play the pimp to test a sister whose virtue he cannot doubt (indeed

Lord

And 'twas decreed that man should

2Simonede Beauvoir,TheSecond Sex, trans.and ed. H. M. Parshley(New York: VintageBooks, 1974),p. 165.

3MadelonGohlke,"'Iwooed theewith my sword':

Shakespeare'sTragicParadigm," in Representing

especiallyp.

180. HarryBerger,Jr.,"Text Against

Shakespeare: New PsychoanalyticEssays, eds. Murray M. Schwartzand Coppelia Kahn (Baltimore:

JohnsHopkinsUniversityPress,1980),pp. 170-84;see

Performancein

Shakespeare: The Example of Macbeth,"Genre,15 (1982),64-78.

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whose virtue is inscribed in her name - Castiza) and to exploit the skull of his dead lover as the instrument of his revenge against the Duke who, in his turn, had tried to exploit her sexually in life. Lurking behind these fears of sexual betrayal at the hands of women, and contributing to this play's particularly lurid atmosphere, is the obses- sion with woman as a memento mori masked by a beautiful facade. Vendice's hostility in Act III, scene v - "See ladies, with false forms / You deceive men but cannot

as a powerful agent of death

deceive worms" - reveals his preoccupation with woman

who deceives man and betrays him through her beauty and sexuality.

This sense of betrayal underlies and informs the sexual hostility that pervades both

Webster'sDuchess of Malfi and John Ford's'Tis Pity She's a Whore as

tions about femininity shared by Shakespeare's and Toureur's heroes also form the backdrop against which Webster's and Ford's tragedies are played. Indeed, The Revengers Tragedy, The Duchess of Malfi, and 'Tis Pity She's a Whore assume the forms they do because their authors simultaneously participatein, and call into ques- tion, the Renaissance'scultural repression of the feminine and its concomitant asser- tion of masculine power. The tragic playwright's role is paradoxical: the closer his attention to the dynamics of feminine idealization and desecration, the stronger become the repressive mechanisms that reinforce cultural perceptions of women as

either saints or whores.4 Misogyny is not - in and of itself - simply a theme in any of these works; it inheres in what Berger calls the "institutional 'deep structure"'of

Renaissance patriarchy.5 The

mystification of the feminine even as it probes the dark underside of a rhetorical

strategy for neutralizing the twin threats of betrayal and death laid out earlier by the sonneteers and lyricists. For this reason, before exploring the "deconstruction"of this rhetorical pose more fully in The Duchess of Malfi and 'Tis Pity She's a Whore, it is

worth a brief backward glance at the Renaissance lyricists'"painting" of women - and

at the Renaissance moralists' perception of woman's attempts to "paint" herself.

well. The fic-

playwrights' rhetoric participates in

a

collective

II

A male poet of the Renaissancecould and did acknowledge, and even wallow in, his fears of mortality by emphasizing death's essential contiguity with the feminine, as Tichbore does in "I sought my death and found it in my womb" or Drayton in "There's nothing grieves me but that Age should haste."6Butmuch more frequently he

4For a discussion of this problem in relation to Macbeth see Berger, "Text Against Performance,"pp. 64-78. Such a reading is not intended to condemn Jacobean playwrights ahistorically by twentieth cen- tury standards, but to call attention to the ways in which a feminist perspective may enhance our understanding of Jacobean tragedy. Berger, "Text Against Performance,"p. 64. 6Drayton's sonnet employs the same counterpointing of beauty and decay that structures Vendice's opening soliloquy in The Revenger's Tragedy: "That there where two clear sparkling Eyes are placed / Onely two loope-holes, then might I behold. / That lovely, arched, yvoried, pollish'd brow, / Defac'd with Wrinkles, that I might but see." The poet's meditation on his beloved contrasts present beauty with future devastation, and, like Vendice, plays on the Petrarchan strategy of "scattering" the woman's body into a series of objects - ivory, pearl, roses, moss - to emphasize the inevitability of the decay of the flesh. The Works of Michael Drayton, ed. J. William Hebel (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, rpt., 1961), II, 314.

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PAINTING WOMEN

attempts to deny mortality and neutralize the threat posed by woman's carnality by

transforming her, through his lyric, through art, into an ideal, eternally changeless because essentially lifeless. This strategy is brilliantly illustratedin the "absent" subject of Robert Browning's poem, "My Last Duchess" (a Victorian redaction of the Renaissance heroine). She is "painted on the wall / Looking as if she were

alive

mine). The poem enacts a strategy for "killing" a woman into art (to use Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar's phrase from Madwoman in the Attic),7 as frequent in the Renaissance lyric as it is natural for a man of Ferrara's megalomania. Through the

agency of the male artist, Browning's villain makes his Duchess a static and two- dimensional painting, reducing her to an appearance, an illusion. He denies her physical being by painting her into lifeless immortality.

The Petrarchan lady of the Renaissance, no less than the Duchess of Ferrara,must be killed into art so that she may remain forever present and forever beautiful. Sonnet after sonnet in the Renaissance contrasts the decay that is the fate of all "fleshly" women with the "eternalsummer" promised by the lyricist. Drayton spells out this opposition in the following sonnet from Ideas (1619) through the tension between the "painted" women of the first line and the woman addressed in the sonnet, the poet's "thou":

Fra Pandolph's hand worked

busily a day and there she stands" (italics

How

Thatnow in Coachestrouble ev'rystreet,

manypaltry,foolish,paintedthings,

Shall be forgotten, whom no Poet sings,

Ere they be well

WhereI

wrap'd in their winding Sheets?

to thee Eternity shall give.8

The painted women, distanced from the poet as "things," stand metonymically for the death he wishes to avoid. Through art, that is through the sonnet, the lover avoids their "winding sheets."

So shaltthou flye abovethe vulgarThrong,

Stillto survivein my immortal Song.

The poet, assuming the godlike power to grant

immortality, momentarily suspends

time and circumvents his own death as well as that of his lover. But what the sonnet

can only imply in the tension between the two "types" of women is that, like the Duke

of

in

Lyric Time, "and they do both as paradox is the essence of the sonnet's

of woman, the poem reduces her to a sign, to "fleshmade words," and, in so doing,

oppositions. While affirming the eternal presence

price

her vitality. "Words assassinate and they immortalize,"writes Sharon Cameron

of Ferrara,the poet purchases immortality - his own and his lover's - at the

a

consequence of the death of presence."9 This

7Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar, Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth Century Literary Imagination (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979), pp. 14-17. 8 Works, II, 313. 9Sharon Cameron, Lyric Time: Emily Dickinson and the Limits of Genre (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979), p. 246.

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proclaims woman's absence.10 "Painting" in the Renaissance lyric is a form of idealiza- tion that allows the painter to escape mutability and death. The Duke of Ferraracan have the ideal Duchess - constant and unchanging. The lyricist can create an ideal

lover, one who

of his own aging and death. But idealizations have their price. The "painted woman" cannot die because she cannot live. As Wolfgang Lederer has pointed out about cosmetics, that is precisely the point: "where nothing is lifelike, nothing speaks of

death."11

One of the consequences of "painting" a woman, of killing her into art, is already

implicit in her transformationfrom body to

fragmented into a series of lifeless objects. Nancy J. Vickers, in a recent study of Petrarch'sRime sparse, argues that Petrarch's descriptivestrategies, which set the stan- dard for portraying feminine beauty in the Renaissance, neutralizethe threat of death posed by women (or in Rime sparse 52, of dismemberment, since the poet/narrator

of

plays Actaeon to Laura's Diana) by scattering her body. She becomes "acollection

exquisitely beautiful, dissociated objects," which fail to add up to any coherent or human whole.12Her textures may be those of metal or stones - the face of Chaucer's Rosamound, for instance, shines "asthe cristal," while her cheeks are 'lyke ruby" - or,

like Shakespeare'sJuliet, she may be disembodied, a light given off by the sun or stars. She may also be vegetative, like Thomas Campion's idealized lover in "There is a

Garden in Her Face," but she remains no more Chaucer'sRosamound:

will never grow old

and die and who, therefore, will never remindhim

text: she is dispersed into words, her body

human than Petrarch's Laura or

Thereis a Gardenin her face,

WhereRosesandwhiteLillies grow!

A

heav'nlyparadice is that place,

Whereinall pleasant fruitsdoe flow.

ThereCherries grow, whichnone

Till Cherryripe

maybuy

themselvesdoe cry.13

The poet's imagery, while loosely held together by its garden topos, suggests none of the humanity of the lover's face; he has fragmented it into a series of discrete, non- human objects - lillies, roses, cherries,pearls, angels, and bows. Shakespeare's sonnet

10 Murray Krieger explores this contradiction between the absence and presence of the beloved in the Renaissance love lyric in terms of the poet's desire to give bodily presence to language's representational nature: 'Words are empty and belated counters because it is their nature to seek to refer to what is elsewhere and has occurred earlier. Any pretension by them to present reality is frustrated by the re, which requires that what they would represent - what has already presented itself in person - has had its presence, its presentness, elsewhere and earlier."The poet "would make language more than properly

representational .

language's deferred nature. Woman dispersed into words is at once necessarily absent and present. "Presentation and Representation in the Renaissance Lyric: The Net of Words and the Escape of the Gods," in Mimesis: From Mirror to Method, Augustine to Descartes, eds. John D. Lyons and Stephen G.

Nichols, Jr. (Hanover: University Press of New England, 1982), p. 118. 1Wolfgang Lederer, The Fear of Women (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1968), p. 42. 12Nancy J. Vickers, "Diana Described: Scattered Woman and Scattered Rhyme," Critical Inquiry, 8 (1981), 266. 13 The Works of Thomas Campion, ed. Walter R. Davis (New York: Doubleday and Co., 1967), p. 174.

[hel would make it nothing less than presentational," but is constantly frustrated by

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130

- My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun" - both parodies this "scattering" of

the beloved

into text and testifies to its popularity among lyric poets of

the

Renaissance.

My

Coralis farmoreredthanher

If snow be white,why

If hairsbe wires, blackwires grow on herhead.

I haveseenrosesdamasked, redand white,

Butno suchrosessee I in hercheeks.14

mistress' eyes are

nothing like the sun;

lips'red;

thenherbreastsaredun;

Unlike Fra Pandolph'sportrait of Ferrara's Duchess, the descriptivestrategy illustrated by Campion'spoem and parodied by Shakespeare's sonnet rejects "realistic" represen- tation altogether. Insteadit transforms her, creatingfetishes, forerunnersof Gloriana's

skull, from her

ment of a code of beauty that causes us to view the fetishized body as a norm and

encourages [women]

every individual perfection.'" 1 Idealized woman must become painted

As Vickers suggests, woman must attempt to live up to the lyricists' idealizations of her. She must kill herself into art through "careful coiffure, through adornment and

make-up"16 that stress the "eternal type" over the mortal individual. But still she can- not win. The "painted woman" for the Renaissance moralist is also the death's head.

"That picture,"

comely,

would sooner eat a dead pigeon taken from the soles of the feet of one sick of the

plague, than kiss

Yorick'sskull, Hamlet commands, "getyou to my lady's chamber and tell her, let her paint an inch thick, to this favor she must come" (V. i. 212-214).19Indeed, this connec- tion between woman's vanity and death, evoked also by Vendice'sAct III soliloquy to

one of you [painted women] fasting" (II. i. 41-43).18 Addressing

that painting is deceitful." 7 In The Duchess of Malfi, Bosola remarks, "I

dismembered body. The result, as Vickers suggests, is "the develop-

to seek to be 'ideal types, beautiful monsters composed of

woman.

writes St. Ambrose

[of painted women], "is of corruption and not

Gloriana's painted skull, is not entirely gratuitous since the effects of mercury based cosmetics available to Renaissance women included gradual decomposition. In a treatise against painting, Thomas Tuke notes that

the excellency of this mercury sublimateis such, that the women, who often paint

veryyoung,theypresently turnoldwithwitheredand

themselveswithit, thoughthey be

wrinkledfaceslikean

ape,

andbefore age comes

uponthem,they tremble (poorwretches)

it

it dries up, andconsumesthe Theharmandincon-

as if they were sick of the staggers, reeling, and full of quicksilver, for so they are

eatsout the spots andstainsof the face, but so, thatwith all,

fleshthatis underneath,so thatof forcethe poor

14William Shakespeare, Sonnets, ed. Barbara Herrnstein Smith (New York: Avon Books, 1969). 15 Vickers, "Diana Described," 277. 16Lederer, Fear of Women, p. 42. 17 Quoted in Thomas Tuke's "ATreatise Against Painting"(1616), in Blood and Knavery: A Collection of English Renaissance Pamphlets and Ballads of Crime and Sin, Joseph H. Marshburnand Alan R. Velie, eds. (Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1973), p. 186. "1John Webster, The Duchess of Malfi, ed. Elizabeth Brennan (London: Ernest Benn, 1964). All subse- quent citations are from this edition and will be noted in the text. 19 The Complete Plays and Poems of William Shakespeare, eds. William Allan Neilson and Charles Jarvis Nell (Cambridge: Houghton Mifflin, 1942).

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venience (although itbe great),yet

not accompanyit; suchas are,

whichthissoliman engenders.20

might wellbe dissembled, if other greater thanthisdid

a stinkingbreath, theblacknessand corruption of theteeth

it

This description of mercury poisoning works on two levels: as a medical warning and

a metaphorical image. It vividly evokes all the horrors, both visual and olfactory, of the putrefying corpse. By attempting to kill herselfinto art, to realizein her own flesh the idealizations of the lyricists, Tuke's painted woman literally kills herself. Like Gloriana's painted and poisoned skull, with which this essay began, she has become an instrument of death as well as a powerful memento mori.

III

The heroine in Jacobeantragedy is frequently a victim of the two activities of paint- ing I have been describing: man painting woman as a lifeless, dismembered object (both an ideal and the corruption of that ideal) and woman painting herself to con- form - pathetically - to the tragically double image men have of her. The Revenger's

Tragedy, The Duchess of Malfi, and 'Tis Pity She'sa

Whorework out, with disastrous

results, the destructive potential of feminine idealization that in the lyric remains only

symbolic. These plays "fix"women dialectically. Their heroines are caught between male fantasies of idealization and exploitation. Like the dead Gloriana, Webster's Duchess and Ford'sAnnabella are forced into silence and their "eternal presence" is assured only by their deaths; they are literally killed into art, literally dismembered. Like The Revenger's Tragedy, The Duchess of Malfi and 'Tis Pity She's a Whore

demonstrate that the lyric's idealization is, at best,

male fantasy of power

turns against them and exposes their tragic delusions.

Webster'sDuchess of Malfi demonstrates - tragically - that the most serious conse- quence of painting for women lies in the power which man coopts for himself to impose upon her and the world his fictions about femininity. These fictions, like his desires, are contradictory. Malfi is a place in which all women have become "signifiers" which must be "interpreted," often in unflattering ways, to accord with men's desires. Yet, as Susan McCloskey has recently argued, the play's central "sign," the Duchess of Malfi, remainsan unreadable cipher for all the play's male characters.21 To Antonio, her husband, she is a saint whose

a highly unstable poetic moment, a

which, when acted upon by the male characters, ultimately

days

are practis'd in suchnoblevirtues

Thatsureher nights - nay moreher verysleeps -

Aremorein heaventhanotherladies'shrifts.

[I. ii. 123-125]

To Ferdinand, she becomes a whore who "likesthat part which, like the lamprey /

255-256). To the "commonrabble"she is a strumpet. To

Hath ne'era bone in't" (I. ii.

Bosola she is now "a box of worm seed," "a salvatory of green mummy," a "little

20Tuke, "ATreatise AgainstPainting,"p.

21 Susan McCloskey, "ThePriceof

183.

Misinterpretation in TheDuchess of Malfi," in FromRenaissanceto

Restoration: Metamorphosesof theDrama,eds.Robert Markley andLaurieFinke(Cleveland:Bellflower

Press).

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crudded milk" (IV.

As to give majesty to adversity"(IV. i. 5-6). Modern critics' readings of the Duchess have often been as divided as the characters'.One critic, in the same breath, sees her as

a "greatlady in command of her household," and a "mere voluptuary."22 Clifford

Leechcondemns her for "overturning a social code"and defying "the responsibilities of degree both as a woman in speaking first and as a Duchess in marrying beneath her."

He insists on the parallels between the

resist the idea that Julia is meant to provide a comment on the behavior of the

Duchess; they are sisters, Webster hints, in their passions and in their consequent

actions." 23 Harriett Hawkins, on the other hand, notes that Webster's"'noble'Duchess

throughout her

of Malfi is radiant, intelligent, brave, witty, warm, and loving

ii. 123-125), now a woman who displays a "behaviorso noble /

Duchess and the whore Julia: "Itis difficult to

tragedy, Webster insists that she acts in accordance with a finer and fairer morality

than the one which persecutes and condemns her."24

These contradictory "readings" of the Duchess are more than merely the kind of critical "one-up-man-ship" Richard Levin criticizes in New Readings vs. Old Plays,25 yet they cannot be easily reconciled. They illustrate the ways in which patriarchal ideologies, the "masculineconsciousness"Gohlke discusses, both createand ultimately judge the Duchess even for moder readers. Antonio's high praise of her virtue results from his perception of her as a potentially dutiful wife. Yet, by the very same stan- dards, she can be condemned for overstepping the bounds of a dutiful sister (a dilemma shared, to some extent, by the heroines of both The Revenger'sTragedy and 'Tis Pity She's a Whore). The virulence of Ferdinand'scondemnation of women who wed twice, "whores by that rule are precious,"suggests a fear of sexual betrayal similar to that which prompts Vendice to test his sister Castiza in Toureur's play. His reac- tion reflects an attitude best articulated, as Gohlke notes, by the player queen in Hamlet: "Asecond time I kill my husband dead / When second husband kisses me in bed" (III. ii. 188-189).26 Ferdinand perceives female sexuality, even when condoned by lawful marriage, as a form of violence and reacts to it violently.

Webster suggests, however, that the Duchess's dilemma is inevitable. At the height of her suffering, the Duchess asks Cariola, her maid, "Who do I look like now?"The answer confirms what one imagines are her worst fears: that she is condemned by a body that speaks more eloquently than she:

Liketo

A dealof life in show, but nonein

Or ratherlikesomereverentmonument

Whoseruinsareeven pitied.

yourpicture in a gallery,

practice;

[IV. ii. 31-34]

22Gunnar Boklund, The Duchess of Malfi: Sources, Themes, and Characters (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962), p. 91.

Leech, John Webster: A Critical Study (London: Hogarth Press, 1951), pp. 69, 75; for the

comparison between the Duchess and Julia, see also Boklund, The Duchess of Malfi, p. 90. 24Harriett Hawkins, Poetic Freedom and Poetic Truth, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), p. 28. 25Richard Levin, New Readings vs. Old Plays: Recent Trends in the Reinterpretation of English

Renaissance Drama (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979). 26Gohlke, "Shakespeare'sTragic Paradigm," 173.

23Clifford

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The question is a strange one (she asks not "whatdo I look like?"but "who do I look like?"); the answer is even stranger. Both women seem to realize that the Duchess of Malfi is as much a "painted woman" as the "Old Lady" Bosola reacts to with such disgust in Act II. She has become her own portrait, literally a "sign" of her

former- idealized-

been "killed into art," transfixed and imprisoned by the images-saint and whore - those around her have created and imposed upon her, images that reflect the

painters' own fears and obsessions, rather than her own subjectivity.

In this respect, the Duchess's tragedy is the archetypicaltragedy of the Renaissance heroine. While the men around her "paint" her to conform to their own perceptions of the feminine "Other," she is silent. She can talk, but she cannot speak; she can make noise, but can have nothing to say. Ferdinand's pun, "women like that part, which, like the lamprey / Hath ne'era bone in't," is significant, in this regard, because it may refereither to the tongue or the phallus. Susan McCloskey notes that The Duchess of Malfi abounds in images and scenes which emphasize the Duchess's entrapment in a world in which she can talk eloquently, but cannot speak.27Early in the play, Antonio praises her "discourse,"but only by evoking, in the same breath, her silence:

self. Like the Duchess of Ferrarain Browning's poem, she has

Forherdiscourse, it is so full

You only will begin thento be sorry

Whenshe dothend her speech; andwish, in wonder,

Sheheldit less vainglory to talkmuch

Than yourpenance, to hearher.

of rapture,

[I. ii. 112-116]

It is not her speech so much as her "sweetcountenance"that "speaketh so divine a con- tinence, / As cuts off all lascivious and vain hope"(I. ii. 121-122). With her brothers, the Duchess hardly utters a word. In fifty lines of Act I, scene i she speaks four times, never more than two lines, and is interrupted twice. In Act III, after exchanging trivialitieswith Antonio and Cariola, she is confronted by Ferdinandand told "Donot speak" and "cutout thine tongue"(III. ii. 75, 108). He refusesto let her speak her inno-

cence. Finally, during her torture, Bosola notes that "her silence

than if she spake"(IV. i. 9-10).

These images of talking and silence remind us that, although a woman's weapon is supposed to be her tongue, women always remainoutside language, which, as Jacques

Lacan argues, is essentially phallocentric. If this is true, the effects on women's con- sciousness are psychologically profound: Helene Cixous notes that "Ifman operates under the threat of castration, if masculinity is culturally ordered by the castration

complex,

anxiety is its displacement as decapitation,