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Design of Pilecaps

Naveed Anwar
ACECOMS, AIT
Y
X
Plan
600
M
N
V
Section
2000 4000
3600
600
1200
2000 800
1500
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Introduction
Pile foundations are extensively used to support the
substructures of bridges, buildings and other structures
Foundation cost represents a major portion
Limited design procedure of Pile cap Design
Need for a more realistic methods where
Pile cap size comparable with Columns size
Length of pile cap is much longer than its width
Pile cap is subjected to Torsion and biaxial Bending
Pile cap width, thickness and length are nearly the same
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Beams, Footings and Pilecaps
Beam
Footing
Pile-cap
h
b
L
h
b
L
L >> (b, h)
Use Beam Flexural and
Shear-Torsion Theory
(b, L) >> h
b <=> h <=> L
Use Beam/Slab Flexural and
Shear Theory
Use Which Theory ??
h
L
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Current Design Procedures
Pile cap as a Simple Flexural Member
standard specifications (AASHTO, ACI codes) are used.
Beam/Slab theories or truss analogies are used, and torsion is not
covered for special cases
The Tie and Strut Model
More realistic, post cracking model
No explicit way to incorporate column moments and torsion
No consideration for high compressive stress at the point where all the
compression struts are assumed to meet.
Assumption of struts to originate at the center line is questionable
The Deep Beam, Deep Bracket Design Approach
Mostly favored by CRSI, takes into account Torsion, Shear
enhancement
Complex, insufficient information on its applicability.
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Consideration for the relative stiffness of the piles and the pile cap.
Consideration for the relative location and size of column with
respect to piles and pile cap center.
Considerations of more than one column on the pile cap.
Considerations of the relative dimensions and proportions of the pile
cap (length, width, depth ratios).
Considerations of the column load and biaxial moments, with
associated eccentric shear and torsion.
A consistent model and approach for flexure, shear and torsion
design.
Major Areas of Concern
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Important Observations
Pile cap acts as a 3D elastic solid.
Beam/slab theory can not be used for all cases
Relative size of the column plays a very significant role in
the stress profiles of smaller pile caps.
Pile reactions do not strictly follow Combined stress
equation.
For long pile caps,
distribution of longitudinal flexural stresses is more or less
linear and closely responds to the simple beam theory
Deep Beam behavior is not significant for flexural
computations in the longitudinal direction
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Important Observations
Flexural stress and strain distribution is highly non linear
for
long pile caps in the transverse direction
small pile caps in both directions
Torsion is not applied at the center and is not uniform
over the length.
For small pile caps the column moments are transferred
to the pile cap by the formation of inclined compression
and tension stress zones.
Ordinary beam or slab design methods do not appear to
be applicable to piles of the same size and propositions.
Elastic FEM analyze not useful for Reinforcement Design
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Conventional Design Procedure
- The pile cap design load consists of column loads, weight of pile
cap, back-fill and surcharge. All horizontal loads are transferred
to the center of pile cap.
- The sectional model is utilized for pile cap design and the design
of deep flexural member is considered.
- For design by sectional model, Pile reactions are determined by
the combined stress equation.
- The critical section for computing moment is located at the
column face in each directions.
- Minimum reinforcement for flexural member to be provided is
adequate to develop a factored resistance of 1.2 x Mcr which is
equal to 0.90/fy for concrete C25.
- Minimum steel ratio for bottom reinforcement is 0.0020 x b x t in
each direction
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
- Shear Considerations
Beam shear with critical section at d from face of column
Punching shear with critical section at d/2 from face of column
Deep beam shear using CRSI recommendation with critical
section at face of column
Two-way deep corbel shear using CRSI recommendation with
critical section at perimeter of column
Punching shear of individual pile at corners
Combined shear and torsion with critical section at d from
face column
Combined shear and torsion with critical section at face
column
.
Conventional Design Procedure
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Pile Reactions: Rigid Cap Method
Each pile carries an equal amount of the load for`
concentric axial load on the cap or for n piles carrying a
total load Q , the load per pile is
- The combined stress equation ( assuming a planar stress
distribution ) is valid for a pile cap non centrally loaded or
loaded with a load Q and a moment, as
Where = moments about x and y axes, respectively
x ,y = distances from y and x axes to any pile
= moment of inertia of the group, computed as

+ =
2 2
y
y M
x
x M
n
Q
P
x
y
p
2
Ad I I
o
+ =

2 2
, y x
y x
M M ,
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
The assumption that each pile in a group carries equal
load may be nearly Correct when the following criteria
are all met:
.The pile cap is in contact with the ground
.The piles are all vertical.
.Load is applied at the centre of the pile group
.The pile group is symmetrical and cap is very thick
Pile Reactions: Rigid Cap Method
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Practical Considerations
In a practical case of a four- pile symmetrical group centrally
loaded, each pile. Will carry one-fourth of the vertical load
regardless of cap rigidity (or thickness). With a fifth pile directly
under the load, cap rigidity will be a significant factor. The
structural design of pile caps is only minimally addressed in
the literature. But the following may be used as a guide:
Bending moments are taken at the same sections as for
reinforced-concrete footings and defined in Art. 15-4 of the ACI
Code
Pile caps must be reinforced for both positive and negative
bending moments. Reinforcement should be placed so there is a
minimum cover of 75 mm for concrete adjacent to the soil. Where
piles extend into the cap only about 75 mm the bottom
reinforcement should be 75 mm above the pile top in case of
concrete cracking around the pile head.
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Practical Considerations
.Pile caps should extend at least 150mm beyond the outside face
of exterior piles and preferably 250mm. When piles extend into
the cap more than 75 mm the bottom rebars should loop around
the pile to avoid splitting a part of the cap from pile head
moments and shears.
.When pile heads are assumed fixed they should extend into the
pile cap at least 300 mm. The minimum thickness of pile cap
above pile heads is 300 mm ( required by ACI 318 Art15-7 )
.Some kind of tension connectors should be used on the pile
heads if the piles are subjected to tension forces.
Pile cap shear is computed at critical sections same as spread
footings
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
2
2
1
1
c
u v
c
u v
o
u
u
J
c M
J
c M
d b
V
v

=
Punching Shear: ACI Equations
Concrete Capacity, Vc
Direct Shear
Shear with Moment Transfer
d b
V
v
o
u
u
=
d b f V
d b f
b
d
V
d b f V
o c c
o c
o
s
c
o c
c
c
'
'
'
4
2
4
2
=
(

+ =
(

+ =
o
|
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Punching Shear: BS Equations
Concrete Capacity
Effective Direct Shear
General Equation
Corner/ Edge column with bending
perpendicular to edge
Actual Shear stress
Max at face of column/ load
At any other section
min
2
max
/ 5
8 . 0
mm N
f
v
cu
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
x V
M
V V
t
t
t eff
5 . 1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
x V
M
V V
t
t
t eff
5 . 1
25 . 1
d u
V
v
o
=
max
ud
V
v =
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Footing - Column Connection - ACI
Transfer of Moment
Partially by flexure: Top or Bottom Bars near the column
Partially by eccentricity of shear: Non-uniform distribution of
shear stresses
2
1
3
2
1
1
b
b
M M
f f f
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
) 1 (
f v v v
M M = =
C u
f f
C u
C u
f
V V when
ports inerior on
column corner V V
column edge V V when
port outer edge on
|

|
|

4 . 0
sup 25 . 1
5 . 0
75 . 0
sup / 0 . 1
s

s
s

The Space Truss Model


Naveed Anwar
ACECOMS, AIT
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Truss Model for behavior of Pile caps
Truss analogy already in use
For shear design of Shallow and Deep beams
For Torsion design of shallow beams
For design of Pilecaps
For design of joints and D regions
For Brackets and corbels
Proposed use of Modified Space Truss Model
Unified and integrated design of RC Members for combined
moment, shear and torsion where significant cracking is
expected
Does not apply to design of compression/ tension members
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Simple Vs Modified Truss Model
L=2.5
a=1.6
d=1.4 h=1.6
T
P=10,000 kN
o
a) Simple "Strut & Tie" Model c) Modified Truss Model B
L=2.5
a=1.6
d=1.4
d=1.4 h=1.6
T
1
o
|
o = tan
-1
d/0.5L
o = 48 deg
T = 0.5P/tano
T = 4502 kN
o = tan
-1
d/0.5(L-d1)
o = 68.5 deg
T = 0.5P/tano
T = 1970 kN
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
A Space Truss Model for Pilecap
P1
P
2
P
4
P
3
a
2
a
2
d
L
2
L
1
Main members
Secondary members
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
L/d =2
L/a =1
L
d
a
L/d =1
L/a =0.5
L/d = 3
L/a = 1.5
L/d = 4
L/a = 2
L/d = 5
L/a = 2.5
L/d = 6
L/a = 3
L
d
a
Tie-Strut Model
Effect of Span:Depth Ratio
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Angle = 18 Deg
Angle = 34 Deg
Angle = 45 Deg
Angle = 64 Deg
Not OK: Too Shallow
NOT OK: Too Steep and Expensive
OK: USed by ACI Code
OK: Most Ecconomical
Tension in Bottom Chord
Tie-Strut Model
Effect of Strut Angle
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Modified Space Truss Model
General
MSTM is created using the basic assumptions of the Space Truss
Theory and the Tie-Strut approach with appropriate modifications.
MSTM gives more realistic results taking into account the
Uses actual dimensions of the column and its location.
The stiffness of the piles, ratios the dimensions of the pile cap.
Assumptions
The concrete in the pile cap is assumed to resist no direct tension.
All tension is resisted by the reinforcement. The reinforcement in a
particular zone can be lumped together as a single Tie.
All compression is resisted by the concrete.
The columns axial loads and moments are assumed to be
transferred to the pile cap at the corners of the equivalent
rectangular column section
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Construction of Model
Identify the overall form and geometry of the truss.
Connect the primary nodes with each other by primary
horizontal and diagonal members.
Add secondary members to the basic truss to provide static
stability for anticipated load cases.
Generally use a spring element to represent the piles, however
for determinate trusses (2, 3, 4 pile) simple support; can also be
used.
Add lateral restraint, to the nodes at the top of the piles to
ensure the overall stability of the truss. Determine the
approximate areas of the cross-section of these truss members.
Apply equivalent loads to the truss model at the column nodes.
Analyze the structure using any appropriate computer program.
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Interpretation of the Results
Reinforcement should be provided along all directions where
truss members are in significant tension.
This reinforcement should be provided along the direction of the
truss member
The distribution of the reinforcement should be such that its
centroid is approximately in line with the assumed truss element.
The compression forces in the struts should be checked for the
compressive stresses in the concrete, assuming the same area to
be effective, as that used in the construction of the model.
The Bearing Stress should be checked at top of piles and at base
of columns
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
Interpretation of the Results
Reinforcement should be provided along all directions where
truss members are in significant tension.
This reinforcement should be provided along the direction of the
truss member
The distribution of the reinforcement should be such that its
centroid is approximately in line with the assumed truss element.
The compression forces in the struts should be checked for the
compressive stresses in the concrete, assuming the same area to
be effective, as that used in the construction of the model.
The Bearing Stress should be checked at top of piles and at base
of columns
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
L
D
d) Three Pile Case
d) Six Pile Case
P
1
P
2
P
4
P
3
a
2
a
2
d
L
2
L
1
a) Two Pile Case
c) Four Pile Case
D
L
1
L
1
< (3D + b)
L
2
< (3D + b)
Main members
Secondary members
e) Sixteen Pile Case (Also for 12 pile, 14 pile, 20 pile)
P
P
P
P
Application of MSTM
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
b
a
2- Pile, Small L L < (3D + b)
L
D
4- Pile
b
L
1
D
L
1
L
2
a
Application of MSTM
Design of Pilecaps
ACECOMS, AIT
5- Pile
b
L
1
D
L
1
a L
2
a
L
D
2- Pile, Large L L > (3D + b)
b
Application of MSTM