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MLE2105 Electronic Properties of Materials

Workload: 26 lecture hours + 6 tutorials + 6 assignments


g

Dr Chen Jingsheng
Dr.

Tel: 65167574 (O) 98223576 (Hp)


Office: E3A 04-13
E
E-mail:
il msecj@nus.edu.sg
j@ d
1
Main Text Book:

(1) S.O. Kasap, Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices, McGraw-Hill,


(2006), TK453kas2006.

Reference Books:

(1) William D. Callister, Jr., Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction,


John Wiley & Sons, (2003), TA403 cal 2003.
(2) D. Halliday, R. Resnick and J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, JohnWiley
& Sons, (2001), QC 21.2 Hal 2001.

2
Percentages

Final examination 60%


Experimental report and VIVA 15%
Mid-term
Mid term test 10%
Assignment (including one term paper) 15%

Mid-term test

Early of March

Biweekly Tutorials. Three slots available: Wed, 14:00-15:00, E1-06-05


Thursday: 13:00
13:00-14:00
14:00, 14:00
14:00-15:00
15:00, E1
E1-06-03
06 03.

3
switch Position sensor IC circuit

Honda‘s two seated Dream car


is powered by photovoltaics quantum dots with
Light emitting diode several different4 colors
Chapter I: Electrical Conduction in Solids

Chapter II: Quantum Theories of solids

Ch t III:
Chapter III S
Semiconductors
i d t

Chapter
p IV: Semiconductor Devices

5
Chapter I Electrical conduction in solids

magnetic field effect


Hall effect and Hall device
Conductivity (σ) in
classic model-the Drude
model
Application in IC-
interconnect
Temperature dependence
of σ -pure metal Electrical
σ of polycrystalline
Conduction
thin film
in metal
Doping effects on σ :
σ of heterogeneous
Matthiessen’s rule
Structure: mixture rule

σ of solid solution:
Electrical
Nordheim’s rule
Conduction
in non-metal
non metal

6
Characteristics of metal

Cu: 1s22s22p63s23p63p104s1

Valence electron is detached

electrons wander in the whole lattice

Interaction between electron and ions


is the origin
g of existence of metal solid

Kinetic energy of gas atom=3/2 kT


Electron speed in metal is insensitive
temperature -almost constant
Electrons is not really like gas.

one assumptions in the classic mode:


Valence electrons are free to move in metal (free electron gas model) although the speed of
7
electron is constant.
Electric current density J : the net amount of charge flowing across a unit area
per unit time, Electric current is the net amount of charge flowing per unit time,
which are,
x
Δq Δq
J = and I =
No electric field AΔt Δt

Cu: 1s22s22p63s23p63p104s1

u
M
Movement off electrons
l iin metall crystal:
l

Vibrating Cu+ ions


Collide with vibrating atoms

Move randomly

Cross its initial x plane position No net displacement


in any one direction

Common sense tells us: No current.


8
With an applied electric field

Ex A
Δx
vdx
Jx

Δx

The electron experiences an acceleration (force eEx) in the x direction in


addition to its random motion. There is a net displacement of electrons in x
di ti The
direction. Th electrons
l t gett a drift
d ift velocity
l it (v( dx) in
i x direction.
di ti

Current > 0

Current: net movement of electrical charges in one direction.


9
1. The Drude model
The relationship between electric current density J and the applied electric
field:
Δq eN
J = J = 11-11
AΔt AΔt
Δt
Δx A
1
vdx vdx = [v x1 + v x 2 + v x 3 + ... + v xN ] 1-2
Jx
N

N = nV n is the number of electrons per unit volume (n = N/V).


eN
Jx =
AΔt

V = Avdx Δt Δq eN enAvdx Δt 1-3


Jx = = = = envdx
AΔt AΔt AΔt
J x (t ) = envdx (t ) 1-410
How to calculate the average electron velocity (vdx) under an electric field?

Ex First consider the velocity vxi of the ith


electron in the x direction at time t.

Suppose its last collision was at time ti, its


velocity is uxi (initial velocity).
Δx

V In the presence of an electric field, for


time (t-ti), the electron is accelerated free
of collisions,
collisions and the acceleration is
Present time t eEx/me.

Last collision vxi

uxi
time
ti t

11
So, the velocity vxi in the x direction at time t will be:

eE x
Newton’s second law: v xi = u xi + (t − ti ) 1-5
F = ma, v = v0 + at me

We assume that immediately after a collision with a vibrating ion, the electron may
move in any random direction; that is, it can just as likely move along the negative
or positive x, so that uxi averaged over many electrons is zero. Thus,

1 eE
vdx = [v x1 + v x 2 + vx 3 + ... + v xN ] = x (t − ti ) 1-6
N me

12
(t − ti ) is the average free time for N electrons between collisions, or the mean
time between collisions (also known as mean scattering time and relaxation
time), which is denoted as τ, so eqn 1-6 can be written as,


v dx = Ex 1-7
me

The constant eτ/me is called drift mobility μd, so,

v dx = μ d E x 1-8

So, the current density Jx is,

J x = en μ d E x 1-9

J x = σE x σ = en μ d

Reciprocal
p 1/τ : the mean p
probability
ypper unit time that the electron will be
scattered.
13
Consider an infinitesimally small time interval dt at time t. Let N be the number
t The probability of scattering during dt is (1/τ)dt and
unscattered electrons at time t.
the number of scattered electrons during dt is N(1/τ)dt . The change dN in N is thus:

1
dN = − N ( )dt
τ

t
N = N 0 exp(− ),
τ
N 0 is the total number of unscattered electrons at time t = 0

The mean free time can be calculated from the mathematical definition
of t .

t=
∫ 0
tNdt


∫ 0
Ndt

Γ(α ) = ∫ e −t t α −1dt ; Γ(α + 1) = αΓ(α ) 14
0
2. Temperature dependence of resistivity: pure metals

Relate the temperature to resistivity (the electron is only scattered by thermal


vibration in pure metals):

1
T → σ=1/ρ = σ = en μ d
ρ

T → μd

μd =
me
T→τ

T → Scattering

The mean speed u of conduction electrons in a metal can be shown to be only


15
slightly temperature dependent.
S = π a2
τ is inverselyy pproportional
p to
the area πa2 that scatters the
l=uτ a
electron.

u The average kinetic


Th ki i energy off
the oscillations is 1/4Ma2ω2,
where ω is the oscillation
q y From the kinetic
frequency.
theory of matter, this average
Electron
kinetic energy must be on the
order of 1/2kT. Therefore,
Fi
Figure 13
1-3
1 1
Ma 2ω 2 ≈ kT
4 2

a2 ∝ T

1 1 C
So, τ∝ ∝ τ= 1-10
πa 2 T T 16
eτ eC
μd = μd =
me meT 1 11
1-11

e 2 nC
C 1
σ T = enμ d =
me T

1 1 mT
ρT = = = 2 e = AT 1-12
σT enμ d e nC

Where A is a temperature-independent constant. We term this conductivity lattice-


scattering-limited
g conductivity.
y

17
3. Matthiessen’s rule

(1) Matthiessen’s rule and the temperature coefficient resistivity (α)

For metallic alloys,


y , their resistivities are onlyy weaklyy temperature
p dependent.
p Why?
y

τI

τΤ

Figure 1-4

The impurity
p y atom results in a local distortion of the crystal y lattice, and then the
local potential energy is changed. It will be effective in scattering.
18
Two types of mean free times between collisions: τT, for scattering from thermal
vibrations only and τI, for scattering from impurities only.
Like addition of probability
1 1 1
= + 1-14
τ τT τI

1 1 1
μd = eτ/me = +
μd μL μI 1-15

Where, μL = eτT/me μI = eτI/me.

The effective resistivity ρ of the material is simply 1/enμd, so,

1 1 1
Matthiessen’s rule ρ= = + = ρT + ρ I
enμ d enμ L enμ I 1-16

τI depends on the separation between the impurity atoms and therefore on the
concentration of those atoms. 19
There may also be electrons scattering from other crystal defects. All of these
scatteringg pprocesses add to the resistivityy of a metal, jjust as the scatteringg pprocess
from impurities, so,

ρ = ρT + ρ R + ρ I 1-17

Where ρR is called the residual resistivity and is due to the scattering of all the
crystal defects. The residual resistivity shows very little temperature dependence,
e e s ρT = AT,, so,
whereas
w

ρ ≈ AT + B 1-18

Where A and B are temperature-independent


temperature independent constants.
constants

20
The temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) α0 is defined as the fractional
change in the resistivity per unit temperature increase at the reference temperature
T0, that is,

1 ⎡ δρ ⎤
α0 = 1-19
ρ 0 ⎢⎣ δ T ⎥⎦ T =T0

1 ⎡ ρ − ρ0 ⎤
α0 =
ρ 0 ⎢⎣ T − T0 ⎥⎦

ρ = ρ 0 [1 + α 0 (T − T0 )] 1-20

For pure metal, ρ = AT, is substituted in equation 1-20, then

α0 = T0-1
21
Table 1.1 Resistivity, thermal coefficient of resistivity α0 at 273K (0 °C) for various
metals. The resistivity index n in ρ ∝ Tn or some of the metals is also shown.
Metal ρ0 (nΩ m) α0 (1 /K) n Comment

Aluminum, Al 25.0 1/233


Antimony, Sb 38 1/196
Copper, Cu 15.7 1/232 1.15
Gold, Au 22.8 1/251
Indium, In 78.0 1/196
Platinum, Pt 98 1/255 0.94

Silver, Ag 14.6 1/244 1.11


Tantalum Ta
Tantalum, 117 1/294 0 93
0.93
Tin, Sn 110 1/217 1.11
Tungsten, W 50 1/202 1.20
Iron, Fe 84.0 1/152 1.80 Magnetic metal; 273 < T < 1043K

Nickel, Ni 59.0 1/125 1.72 Magnetic metal; 273 < T < 627K

•For some magnetic metals, the conduction electron is not scattered simply by atomic
vibrations, but is affected by its magnetic interaction with the ions in the lattice. This22leads
to a complicated T dependence.
Figure 1-5
100
ρ∝T
10
•As the T decreases, typically below
1
~ 100 K for many metals, our simple
assumption that all the atoms are
Resistivity(nnΩm)

ρ (nΩ m) vibrating
ib ti withith a constant
t t frequency
f
0.1 3.5
3 ρ∝T fails. The mean free time τ becomes
ρ ∝ T5 2.5 longer and strongly T dependent,
0.01
2 leadingg to a smaller resistivityy than
0.001
1.5 ρ ∝ T5 the ρ∝ T. For some metals, such as
1
0.5
copper, ρ∝ T5 (Figure 1-5).
0.0001 0
0 20 40 60 80 100
T (K)
0.00001
1 10 100 1000 10000
Temperature (K)

The resistivity versus temperature behavior can be empirically described by


a power law of the form:
n
⎡T ⎤
ρ = ρ0 ⎢ ⎥ 1-13
⎣ T0 ⎦ 23
(2) Solid solutions and Nordheim’s rule

F an iso-morphous
For i h alloy
ll off two
t metals,
t l

ρ = ρT + ρR + ρI

How to work out ρI?

Concentration of impurity atoms related

1 A semi-empirical equation.
ρI =
enμ dI

eτ I lI
μ dI = τI =
me u
24
600
C u-N i A lloys
500

R e s i s t iv i ty ( n Ω m )
400

3 00

200

100

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
1 00% C u at.% N i 10 0 % N i

(b )

The resistivity of the Cu-Ni alloy as a function of Ni content (at.%) at room


temperature.

25
Nordheim’s rule: relates the impurity resistivity ρI to the atomic fraction X of
solute atoms in a solid solution, as follows.

ρ I = CX (1 − X ) 1-21

Where C is the constant termed the Nordheim coefficient, which represents the
effectiveness of the solute atom in increasing the resistivity. Obviously, for small
amounts of impurity, X << 1 and ρI = CX.

26
Resistivity ρ=1/(enμd), change in n also affects the resistivity

Nordheim’s rule: the alloying does not significantly vary the number of
conduction electrons per atom on the alloy.

Alloy from same column Alloy of different valency Cu-Ni alloy


i the
in th Period
P i d table-same
t bl such as Cu-Zn
Cu Zn
valence electrons such as
Cu-Au and Ag-Au
Other scattering
Resistivity of Cu-Zn at high Zn mechanism-
h i
content predicted by Eq.1-21 is magnetic
Nordheim’s rule is valid greater than actual value. interaction
for anyy concentration

Resistivity at high Ni
Nordheim’s rule is only
concentration by Eq.1-21
valid at low concentration
is smaller than actual
value.
27
With Nordheim’s rule in eqn 1-21, the resistivity of an alloy of composition X is,

ρ = ρ matrix + CX (1 − X ) 1-22

Where ρmatrix = ρT + ρR is the resistivity of the matrix due to scattering from


thermal vibrations and from other defects, in the absence of alloying elements. To
reiterate the value of C depends on the alloying element and the matrix.
reiterate, matrix For,
For
example, C for gold in copper would be different from C for copper in gold.

28
4. Heterogeneous mixture rules

Nordheim’s rule only applies to solid solutions that are single-phase solids. In other
words, it is valid for homogeneous
g mixtures in which the atoms are mixed at the
atomic level throughout the solid.

How about multiphase solids?

Heterogeneous mixture rules.


29
Three kinds of mixtures of two phases

Continuous phase
Dispersed phase y
L L
A A
A x
Jx Jx

L
α β

(a) Resistivity of (b) Resistivity of (c) Resistivity of


materials with materials with materials with a
layer structure layer
y structure dispersed phase in
along a direction along a direction a continuous
perpendicular to parallel to the matrix
the layers layers

30
L
The effective resistance Reff for the whole material is,
A
Jx
Lα ρα Lβ ρ β 1-23
Reff = +
A A
α β
Lρ eff
Reff = 1-24
A
perpendicular
di l

Where ρeff is the effective resistivity, Lα , Lβ are the total length of α and β,
respectively, and L = Lα + Lβ. Using volume fraction χα = Lα/L and χβ = Lβ/L in
eqn 1-23, we find,

ρ eff = χα ρα + χ β ρ β 1-25

Which is called the resistivity-mixture rule or series rule of mixtures.

31
The effective resistance Reff for the whole material is,
L
A 1 A Aα Aβ
= = +
Reff Lρ eff Lρα Lρ β

Aσ eff Aα σ α Aβ σ β
= +
L L L
parallel

Where σeff is the effective conductivity and A = Aα + Aβ. Using χα = Aα/A and
χβ = Aβ/A,, we find,,

σ eff = χα σ α + χ β σ β 1-26

Which is called the conductivity-mixture rule or parallel rule of mixtures.

32
Continuous phase
Dispersed phase y 1) the resistivities of the two phases are not very
different,
A
x
Jx

2) The resistivities of the two phases are very different?


L

Random

33
1) the resistivities of the two phases are not very different.

Divide the solid into a bundle of N parallel fibers of


length L and cross-sectional area A/N
L

A fiber α and β phases are in series


In the fiber, series, volume
α
(a) fractions χα=Vα/V, χβ=Vβ/V, total length of α and β
β
region are χαL and χβL. The resistivity of the fiber is
α β

ρα (χα L ) ρ β (χ β L )
A/N

(b)
R fiber = +
(A / N ) (A / N )
L

(a) A two phase solid. (b) A thin fiber cut out from the solid.

The resistance of the solid is made up of N such


Two types of resistivities ρα of α fibers in parallel, that is
and ρβ of β
R fiber ρα (χα L ) ρ β (χ β L )
Rsolid = = +
Rsolid= ρeffL/A N A A
ρ eff L ρα (χα L ) ρ β (χ β L )
= +
A A A
34
ρ eff = ρα χ α + ρ β χ β
2) the resistivities of the two phases are very different.

Assume that ρc and ρd are the resistivities of the continuous and dispersed phases (ρc
and ρd are very different), and χc and χd are their volume fractions.

If the dispersed phase is much more resistive with respect to the matrix, that is, ρd >
10ρc, then,

1
(1 + χd ) 1-27
ρ eff = ρ c 2
(1 − χ d )

On the other hand, if ρd < (ρc/10), then,

(1 − χ d )
ρ effff = ρ c 1 28
1-28
(1 + 2 χ d )

We therefore have at least four mixture rules, the uses of which depends on the
mixture geometry and the resistivities of the various phases.
35
5. Hall Effect
The force F (Lorentz force) acting on a charge q
moving with a velocity v in a magnetic B is
given through the vector product:
Jy =0
Bz
y
VH V + + + + + F = qv × B 1-29
z x
Jx Ex Jx
vdx

A F = qvdx Bz Di i ?
Direction?
Bz
V
+

36
F = qv × B
q =-e
v v is swept into B through a smaller angle

B Direction of v x B: Downward (-y).

F = qv´B
q is -e, so F is still in –y direction.

Jy =0
Bz
y
VH V + + + +eE +
H
z x
Jx Ex Jx
vdx
EH
evdxBz
A
Bz
V
+ 37
The accumulation of electrons near the bottom results in an internal electric field EH
in the –y direction. This is called Hall field and gives rise to Hall voltage VH
between the top and the bottom.

Two forces will be balanced at last:

eEH = evdx Bz 1-30

However, Jx = envdx. Therefore,

⎛ 1⎞
E H = ⎜ ⎟ J x Bz 1-31
⎝ en ⎠

A useful parameter called the Hall coefficient RH is defined as,

Ey
RH = 1 32
1-32
J x Bz
38
The quantity RH measures the resulting Hall field, along +y, per unit transverse
applied current and magnetic field. The larger RH, the greater Ey for a given Jx and
Bz. Therefore,
Th f RH is
i a gauge off the
h magnitude
i d off the
h hall
h ll effect.
ff A comparison
i off 1-
1
31 and 1-32 shows that for metal,

Ey
RH = 1-32
J x Bz
EH = − E y

⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞
E H = ⎜ ⎟ J x Bz − ⎜ ⎟ J x Bz
en
⎝ en ⎠ RH = ⎝ ⎠
J x Bz

1
RH = − 1-33
en

39
40
Application of Hall effect

Wattmeter - measure the power dissipated in


the load
Bz∝ IL

IX= VL/R

Hall voltage VH = Ehw=wRHJxBz


∝IxBz ∝VLIL

41
6. The conduction of thin metal film

Criteria for defining bulk metal material


and thin metal film

Mean free path for electron scattering

Bulk metal material Thin metal film

Any dimension of the The thickness or average grain


specimen is much larger than size is comparable with the
th mean free
the f path th mean free path for electron
scattering

Thermal scatteringg and Thermal scattering and impurity scattering


impurity scattering Grain boundary scattering and surface
scattering 42
Grain boundary scattering Assumption: after one grain boundary scattering,
electrons are randomized.

Average grain size -d corresponds to the mean free


path-uτ. According to Matthiessen’s rule
1 1 1
= +
l λ d

Where λ is the mean free path of the conduction


electron in the single crystal.

1 1 1 1 1
ρ crystall ∝ ∝ ρ film ∝ = +
τ λ l λ d

ρ film
Elastic scattering = 1 + 1.33β ;
ρ film λ from boundary ρ crystal
= 1+ ( )
ρ crystal d λ⎛ R ⎞
β= ⎜ ⎟
11-34
34 d ⎝1− R ⎠

Where R is probability of 1-35


43
elastic scattering
Surface scattering
Assumption: the scattering from surface is
inelastic- nonspecular.
inelastic

The mean free path lsurf of the electrons depends


on its direction after the scattering.
scattering

lsurf = D / (cos θ )

Since the electrons cannot escape from the thin


film, it therefore take two collisions to randomize
the velocity.

As a result, the effective mean free path is twice as


long that is
long,

lsurf = 2D / (cos θ )

44
According to Mathiessen’s rule, the overall mean free path-l, λ is the mean free
path of bulk crystal (no surface scattering)

1 1 1 1 cos θ
= + = +
l λ lsurf λ 2 D

Average for all possible θ values per scattering, θ


is from -π/2 to π/2

⎛ π2 ⎞
⎜ ∫ π cos θdθ ⎟
⎛ 2D ⎞ ⎜ −2 ⎟
lsurf =⎜ ⎟ = 2 D /⎜ π ⎟ = πD
⎝ cos θ ⎠ ⎜ ∫ 2π dθ ⎟
⎜ − ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠

λ λ Elastic scattering
= 1+ (specular scattering)
lsurf πD ρ 8λ 1 λ
= 1+ (1 − p ), > 0.3, 1-37
ρ 1⎛λ⎞ ρ bulk 3D π D
= 1+ ⎜ ⎟
ρ bulk π ⎝D⎠ 1-36 where p is fraction of elastic scattering from
surface 45
Examples
35 300
(a) (b) As deposited
Annealed at 100 C
30
100 Annealed at 150 C

25 50

20
ρbulk = 16.7 n m
15 10
5 10 50 100 500
0 0.05 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025
Film thickness (nm)
1/d (1/micron)
(a) ρfilm of Cu polycrystalline films (b) ρfilm of Cu polycrystalline films
versus reciprocal mean grain size. Film versus film thickness. Annealing the
thi k
thickness D=250-900nm
D 250 900 ddoes nott affect
ff t fil tto reduce
film d th
the polycrystalline
l t lli does
d
the resistivity. not affect the resistivity since ρfilm is
controlled by surface scattering.
Interception with Y axis and slope can deduce the
single crystal resistivity and mean free path of
single crystal
7. Application of metal film: Interconnects in microelectronics

Why Cu interconnect has replaced Al interconnect with increase of the chip speed?

Lower resistivity Heavier atom

Lower RC time Superior


S i resistance
it to
t
Lower power
constant-favoring high electromigration
consumption- I2R 47
operation speed Any metal better than Cu?
RC time constant induced by interconnects

(a) A single line interconnect surrounded by


dielectric insulation. (c) An interconnect has
(b) Interconnects crisscross each other. There vertical and horizontal
are three levels of interconnect: capacitances Cv and CH.
M – 1,
1 M,
M andd M + 1

Resistance of an interconnect is R = ρL / (TW )

The interconnects couples with other interconnets around it


From the simple parallel plate capacitance formula,

εA ε 0ε rTL εA ε 0ε rWL
CH = = ; CV = = 1-38
d X d H

The four capacitances are in parallel, the effective capacitance is

⎛T W⎞
Ceff = 2(C H + CV ) = 2ε 0ε r L⎜ + ⎟ 1-39
⎝X H⎠
⎛ L2 ⎞⎛ T W ⎞
RC = 2ε 0ε r ρ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎜ + ⎟ 1-40
⎝ TW ⎠⎝ X H ⎠

Three important factors affect the RC and thus the chip speed,

(1) Resistivity of (2) Permeability of (3) Geometry of the


interconnects dielectronic material interconnects-architecture
of the interconnects

49
Electromigration

(a) Electrons bombard the metal ions and force them to slowly migrate
(b) Formation
i off voids
id andd hillocks
hill k ini a polycrystalline
l lli metall interconnect
i b the
by h
electromigration of metal ions along grain boundaries and interfaces. (c) Acceler-
ated tests on 3 mm CVD (chemical vapor deposited) Cu line. T = 200 oC, J = 6
MA cm-2: void formation and fatal failure (break),
(break) and hillock formation.
formation
|SOURCE: Courtesy of L. Arnaud et al, Microelectronics Reliability, 40, 86, 2000. 50
8. Electrical Conductivity of Nonmetals

Insulators Semiconductors Conductors


Many ceramics
Superconductors
Alumina
Diamond Inorganic Glasses
Mica Metals
Polypropylene
Soda silica glass Degenerately
PVDF
PET Borosilicate Pure SnO2 Doped Si Alloys
Amorphous Intrinsic Si
SiO2 Intrinsic GaAs Te Graphite NiCr Ag
As2 Se3

10-18 10-15 10-12 10-9 10-6 10-3 100 103 106 109 1012
Conductivity (Ωm)-11

51
(1) Semiconductors
E

hole
e-

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 1-9

Suppose that n and p are the concentrations of electrons and holes in a


semiconductor crystal. If electrons and holes have drift mobilities of μe and μh,
respectively, then the overall conductivity of the crystal is given by

σ = epμ h + enμe 1-41


52
(2) Ionic crystals and glasses

S
Sources off mobile
bil charges:
h

E
1. Crystal defects: vacancies and interstitial
V
Vacancy aids
id the
th diffusion
diff i off positive
iti ion
i impurities which are often ionized or
charged.

22. Derivations from stoichiometry in


compound solids: mobile electrons or holes.

Anion vacancy
acts as a donor Interstitial
I t titi l cation
ti diffuses
diff

53
Glasses

Na+

Many glasses and polymers contain a certain concentration of mobile ions


in the structure.

54
Conductivity σ of the material depends on all the conduction mechanisms with
eachh species
i off charge
h carrier
i making
ki a contribution,
t ib ti so it is
i given
i b
by

σ = ∑ qi ni μi 1-42

Where ni is the concentration,, qi is the charge


g carried byy the chargeg carrier species
p
of type i (for electrons and holes qi = e), and μi is the drift mobility of these carriers.

55
For many insulators, whether ceramic, glass or polymer, the conductivity follows
an exponential or Arrhenius-type temperature dependence so that σ is thermally
activated,

⎛ Eσ ⎞
σ = σ 0 exp⎜ − ⎟ 1-43
⎝ kT ⎠

Where Eσ is the activation energy for conductivity.

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