Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

www.rosemount.

com
White paper: Presented to Texas A&M Instrumentation Symposium
Page 1
SELECTING PRESSRE TRANSMITTERS T! IMPR!"E
CENTRI#GAL C!MPRESS!R SA#ET$ & E##ICIENC$
Mark Menezes
Manager Pressure & PlantWeb (Americas)
Rosemount Inc.
Canassen! M" ##$1%
%E$W!R&S
Centri'u(a) *ompressor+ sa'ety+ e''i*ien*y+ transmitters+ insta))ed repeata,i)ity
A-STRACT
Centri&ugal com'ressors are wi(el) use( in te 'rocess an( oil & gas in(ustries. Correct
transmitter selection is critical &or tese a''lications in 'articular! anti*surge an( troug'ut
control. +n&ortunatel)! man) user 'ractices are base( not on ,uanti&iable engineering
meto(ologies! but on e-'erience .ali( more tan a (eca(e ago! but now obsolete. /e
ob0ecti.e is to allow te user to im'ro.e on te all*too*common 1surge*'lus*1234 rule! substituting
rigorous meto(ologies to ,uanti&) a''lication re,uirements an( s)stem 'er&ormance. /e 'a'er
will e-'lain ow transmitter 'er&ormance es'eciall) res'onse time an( installe( re'eatabilit)
a&&ects com'ressor sa&et). /en! meto(ologies an( tools will be 'resente( wic allow users to
,uickl) an( reliabl) estimate tese 'arameters! allowing te user to minimize unnecessar)
energ) cost! witout increasing sa&et) risk.
INTR!&CTI!N
15urge4 is cause( wen te &low troug a com'ressor is (ecrease( to te 'oint tat momentar)
&low re.ersals occur. 5urge is e.i(ence( b) .ibration an( 'ulsation! an( i& uncecke( can cause
se.ere com'ressor (amage. As sown in 6igure 1! i& surge is (etecte(! te surge control s)stem
will increase &low troug te com'ressor! b) ,uickl) o'ening te blowo&& .al.e &or
en.ironmentall) benign or low .alue gases! or te recirculation .al.e &or azar(ous or .aluable
gases.
1
&P
7as
6low
&P.
#)o/
8lowo&& or
Recirculate
+ser
6igure 1
5urge Control
5cematic
www.rosemount.com
White paper: Presented to Texas A&M Instrumentation Symposium
Page 9
:.en i& surge is (etecte( ,uickl)! te relati.el) slow res'onse time o& te blowo&& or recirculation
.al.e causes te com'ressor to continue to o'erate in te surge con(ition &or some 'erio( o&
time. 6re,uent c)cling o& te control s)stem in an( out o& surge can cause out'ut 'ressure
.ariation! com'ressor wear! an( 'oor e&&icienc).
Altoug s)stems wic (etect 1inci'ient surge4 base( on eiter rising tem'erature or instabilit)
o& te &low an( 'ressure measurements a.e been (esigne(! eac must be custom*(esigne( to
a certain macine an( com'ression s)stem. Worse! tese s)stems ten( to be sa&e an( reliable
onl) o.er te range o& test con(itions.
9
As result! most users o'erate o&& te com'ressor;s 1surge
line4. As sown in 6igure 9! te surge line is te minimum &low necessar)! &or eac gi.en
'ressure! to a.oi( surge. Points on te surge line wic ma) o& course be a 1cur.e4 * are
t)'icall) (etermine( e-'erimentall). I& te com'ressor is o'erating sa&et) (1)! an( &low su((enl)
(ecreases! te com'ressor can mo.e into a surge con(ition (9)! unless te blowo&& .al.e is
o'ene(! an( &low increase( ($). Wile too little blowo&& can result in surge! too muc blowo&& (<)
wastes &uel! since te com'ressor energ) is .ente( into te atmos'ere. :.en i& te gas is re*
circulate(! te energ) a((e( (uring com'ression must be remo.e( b) cooling! oterwise te
com'ressor will o.ereat.
I(eall)! te user soul( o'erate as close to surge as 'ossible! witout actuall) entering surge *
most users o'erate at 1surge = -3. Wile a smaller 1-4 )iel(s better e&&icienc)! a larger 1-4
re(uces risk o& surge. Man) users assign a &i-e( .alue
$
to - &or e-am'le! 123. >owe.er! it
soul( be 'ossible to o'timize tis .alue base( on?
Res'onse time o& te .al.e! measurement an( control s)stem! relati.e to te surge time o&
te com'ressor
+ncertainties in te 'ressure an( (i&&erential 'ressure measurements
5tabilit) o& te com'ressor loa(ing (but tis is o&ten not known at commissioning)
/e ke) .ariables! wic soul( be consi(ere( an( ,uanti&ie( &or 'ressure transmitter selection!
are?
res'onse time! relati.e to com'ressor surge time
'ressure an( (i&&erential 'ressure measurement uncertaint)
6low
Sur(e
Sa'e

5urge @ine
Control @ine

6igure 9
Com'ressor
Anti*5urge
Control
5a&et) Margin (1-4)
AP
www.rosemount.com
White paper: Presented to Texas A&M Instrumentation Symposium
Page $
MATC0ING TRANSMITTER RESP!NSE TIME T! SRGE TIME
Wile transmitters an( control s)stems t)'icall) res'on( muc more ,uickl) tan .al.es! it is
essential tat te measurement (inclu(ing transmitter an( controller u'(ate) be u'(ate( at
least as &ast as te com'ressor surge rate. /e reason &or tis is illustrate( in 6igure $. I&
te measurement (oes not u'(ate as &ast as te com'ressor surges! ten surges ma) occur
between u'(ates! in wic case surge ma) 'ersist &or a se.eral c)cles be&ore being
(etecte(! 'ossibl) lea(ing to com'ressor (amage. Bnce! owe.er! te measurement is &ast
enoug! &urter re(uctions in res'onse time are not use&ul! since te o.erall s)stem
res'onse time is limite( b) te .al.e.
Ai&&erent com'ressors surge at (i&&erent rates! an( e.en te same com'ressor will surge at
(i&&erent rates in (i&&erent a''lications. Wile actual surge rates are (etermine( e-'erimentall)!
generall)?
5urge time &lowrate C (ownstreamD.olume
A com'ressor wit a .er) ig &lowrate into a small .olume will surge .er) ,uickl)! wile one wit
a relati.el) lower &lowrate into a larger .olume will surge more slowl). Wile te relationsi' is
not e-act enoug to be use( &or ,uanti&)ing actual surge rates! it (oes allow users to 're(ict
weter a gi.en com'ressor soul( surge &aster in one a''lication tan in anoter.
Man) users use .en(or s'eci&ications to (etermine res'onse time. It is im'ortant to un(erstan(
tat res'onse time &or an) transmitter is (e'en(ent on te (e.ice;s u''er range. /ransmitters
(esigne( to measure .er) low 'ressures must a.e .er) sensiti.e! an( ence loose! (ia'ragms.
/ese ten( to res'onse slowl). /ransmitters (esigne( to rea( ig 'ressures a.e sti&&
(ia'ragms! an( res'on( relati.el) more ,uickl).
In a((ition to te res'onse time o& te mecanical com'onents (lag time E )! a &i-e( res'onse
time is a((e( b) te micro'rocessor o& a smart transmitter ((ea( time E t(). /is means tat! all
else being e,ual! a smart transmitter will be slower tan an analog (1(umb4) transmitter.
>owe.er! all else is rarel) e,ual! an( it is not unusual &or smart transmitters to be &aster tan
analog. 6or e-am'le! 6igure < sows res'onse times &or analog an( smart transmitters &rom a
lea(ing 'ressure transmitter su''lier. /e smart transmitter as &aster mecanical com'onents
Pressure
& AP
!%
Enter Sur(e
Measurement Update
6igure $
/ransmitters
"ot 6ast
:noug
www.rosemount.com
White paper: Presented to Texas A&M Instrumentation Symposium
Page <
(ue to &aster sensor (esign! sti&&er (ia'ragms! re(uce( .olume o& oil &ill! etc. At 'ressure ranges
were te mecanical res'onse is &ast an( te micro'rocessor u'(ate rate (ominates total
res'onse time in oter wor(s! at iger 'ressures te analog transmitter is &aster. >owe.er!
at 'ressure ranges were te mecanical res'onse is slow an( (ominates total res'onse time
in oter wor(s! at lower 'ressures te smart transmitter is &aster. /is is signi&icant! since i&
&ast enoug * smart transmitters can 'ro.i(e signi&icant im'ro.ements in re'eatabilit).
1ANTI#$ING TRANSMITTER REPEATA-ILIT$
Bnce te transmitter selecte( is &ast enoug to (etect surge! a((itional im'ro.ements in
res'onse time (o not 'ro.i(e user bene&it! an( te user soul( instea( tr) to o'timize
re'eatabilit). Returning to te surge line (originall) sown in 6igure 1)! 6igure # sows te im'act
o& measurement uncertaint) in 'ressure an( (i&&erential 'ressure measurement. I& te true &low is
less tan te measure( &low! an( te error e-cee(s te sa&et) margin
(1-4 in surge = -3 control scemes)! te s)stem will une-'ecte(l) enter a surge con(ition. I&! on
te oter an(! te true &low e-cee(s te measure( &low! an( te com'ressor is o'erating close
to te surge line! te control s)stem will call &or unnecessar) blowo&&! wasting energ). Minimizing
measurement uncertaint) allows te user to o'erate closer to te surge line (smaller 1-4)! wit no
increase in surge risk! an( re(uce energ) costs &rom unnecessar) blowo&&.
Response Time
2
#2
122
1#2
922
9#2
$22
$#2
9# in>9B 9#2 in>9B 1222 in>9B $22 'si 9222 'si

R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

T
i
m
e

2
m
s
e
*
3
$2#1 * @ag /ime
$2#1 * Aea( /ime t(

11#1 * Analog
5mart is &aster Analog is &aster

6igure <
/ransmitter
Res'onse
/ime
(msec)
6low
Sur(e4
nne*essary
-)o/o'' 2553
6igure #
Measurement
+ncertaint)
5a&et) Margin (1-4)
AP
Measurement
+ncertaint)
www.rosemount.com
White paper: Presented to Texas A&M Instrumentation Symposium
Page #
>ow can te user (etermine i& te uncertaint) will e-cee( te sa&et) marginF Consi(er! &or
e-am'le! a AP transmitter wit 12.13 re&erence accurac)4 installe( on an ori&ice 'late will te
com'lete measurement s)stem 'ro.i(e 2.13! 13 or 123 &low re'eatabilit)F /e &irst ste' is to
i(enti&) &actors tat will cause a transmitter to be less accurate an( re'eatable outsi(e o& a
laborator). 6or a AP transmitter! ke) &actors inclu(e?
Am,ient Temperature "ariation? In te .ast ma0orit) o& 1real*worl(4 &low measurements! te
transmitter can o'erate at a .er) (i&&erent ambient tem'erature tan te one at wic it was
calibrate(. In some out(oor a''lications! ambient tem'eratures can .ar) more tan #2
o
6
&rom calibration. /ese .ariations can a.e a signi&icant e&&ect! wic is easil) simulate( on
te benc blow warm air o.er a transmitter! an( watc its out'ut cange.
0i(h Stati* Line Pressures? A ig line 'ressure common in com'ressor a''lications
can signi&icantl) a&&ect te AP transmitter use( to in&er &low. /o simulate tis e&&ect on te
benc! te user soul( a''l) a small AP across a transmitter. /en! a(( se.eral un(re(
'oun(s o& a((itional static 'ressure to both si(es o& te transmitter. In teor)! te measure(
(i&&erential 'ressure soul( not cange. In realit)! it (oes.
&ri't6Sta,i)ity? /e out'ut o& an) analog com'onent will .ar) o.er time. As wit te ambient
tem'erature e&&ect (escribe( abo.e! tis can a&&ect all &low tecnologies. 8etter! smart
transmitters are more stable! re,uiring less &re,uent calibration tan ol(er! analog
transmitters or trans(ucers! witout an) sacri&ice in accurac) an( re'eatabilit).
"e-t! ,uanti&) te im'act o& tese real*worl( con(itions &or te gi.en a''lication an( transmitter o&
interest! using 'ublise( s'eci&ications. 6igure 1 sows tis at 1223 &low &or tree (i&&erent
transmitters?
18etter4 2.2%#3 smart transmitter
1Worse4 2.2%#3 smart transmitter
Analog transmitter
6igure G 6low :rror 6rom Ai&&erential Pressure /ransmitter
<
:.en toug te two 12.2%#34 transmitters a.e te same 1re&erence4 accurac)! te 1better4
transmitter is less a&&ecte( b) tese 1real*worl(4 e&&ects. "ote also tat te real*worl( e&&ects &or
all tree transmitters o.erwelm teir re&erenceClaborator) accuracies.
2 2.1 2.9 2.$ 2.< 2.# 2.G 2.% 2.H
Analog (.93 re& acc))
IWorseI .2%#3 re& acc)
I8etterI .2%#3 re& acc)
#)o/ Error at 7889 #)o/ 293
Re&erence Accurac) Ambient /em' (=C* 9#o6) @ine Pressure ($22 'sig) Ari&t (19 monts)
www.rosemount.com
White paper: Presented to Texas A&M Instrumentation Symposium
Page G
Wile tese errors ma) seem small at 1223 &low! since te errors are &i-e( o.er te entire
transmitter range! an( AP &low
9
! small errors at 1223 * an( small (i&&erences in transmitter
accurac) * are ma(ni'ied at lower &lowrates! as seen in 6igure %.
6igure % 6low :rror 6rom Ai&&erential Pressure /ransmitter
6lowrate (sc&m) AP
:-etter: ;8<=9
IWorseI .2%#3 Analog
1222 122 2.2J3 2.913 2.G#3
%#2 #2 2.1G3 2.$H3 1.1G3
#22 9# 2.$%3 2.H#3 9.G23
>=8 G.9# 7;?@9 A;?89 78;>89
Conclusions &rom tis t)'ical a''lication?
Com'ressor &low measurements are o& greatest im'ortance at low &lows! were surge can
occur. At a &low o& 9#3! te analog transmitter contributes 789 re'eatabilit).
/e 1re&erence accurac)4 o& a transmitter is not use&ul &or 're(icting installe( re'eatabilit).
6rom 6igure 9! wen installe( te two 12.2%#34 transmitters (i&&er b) nearl) 93 at a &low o&
9#3.
/e user can control some o& te &actors a&&ecting installe( re'eatabilit). 6or e-am'le! more
&re,uent calibration or calibration to a iger AP range will im'ro.e re'eatabilit). >owe.er!
bot will increase o'erating costs. An ob.ious corollar) is tat better transmitters can be
calibrate( less &re,uentl) re(ucing maintenance cost an(Cor calibrate( to a iger AP
re(ucing energ) costs )et still 'ro.i(e acce'table re'eatabilit).
/e user bene&it o& re(uce( uncertaint) is a smaller 1-4 in 1surge = -34 control s)stems. Consi(er
a gi.en com'ressor in a gi.en a''lication in wic -E123 'ro.i(es acce'table surge risk! wen
using an analog transmitter wit re'eatabilit)E123 at surge &low. I& tat transmitter is u'gra(e( to
a smart transmitter wit re'eatabilit)E1.#3! it soul( be 'ossible to o'erate wit -E#3! &or
e-am'le! wit no increase in surge risk. /is will signi&icantl) re(uce unnecessar) blowo&& an(
recirculation! an( re(uce energ) cost.
As sown in 6igure H! so&tware tools are a.ailable tat allow users to ,uanti&) installe(
re'eatabilit) &or s'eci&ic transmitters in user*(e&ine( a''lication con(itions.
www.rosemount.com
White paper: Presented to Texas A&M Instrumentation Symposium
Page %
6igure H 5o&tware /ool Pre(icts Installe( Re'eatabilit)
#
C!NCLSI!N B -EST PRACTICES
6or best sa&et) an( e&&icienc)! users soul(?
5elect transmitters wic! un(er te a''lication con(itions s'eci&ie(! res'on( at least as
,uickl) as te com'ressor surge time. >owe.er! once te transmitters are 1&ast enoug4!
a((itional im'ro.ements (o not 'ro.i(e a((itional .alue.
Calculate an( o'timize installe( re'eatabilit)! un(er te s'eci&ie( a''lication con(itions. /is
soul( allow te user to minimize unnecessar) blowo&& an(Cor recirculation! wit no a((e(
surge risk! an(Cor to re(uce maintenance an( energ) costs.
Tota) Pro,a,)e #)o/ Error &ue to &P Transmitter
(oes not inclu(e e&&ect o& 'rocess 'ressureCtem'erature .ariation or 'rimar) element

2 * 122 in >92 Ma-imum 6low? 1222 sc&Cmin
#2 (eg 6 "ormal 6low? 9#2 sc&Cmin
$22 'sig Kalue o& 6lui(? .22J L C sc&
19 monts
Annual Kalue o& $2#1
6low :rror 6low :rror Im'ro.ementM
Rosemount $2#1C 1.<G3 L 1%9H# * MAnnual Re(uce(
Rosemount 11#15 <.<H3 L #$291 L $#%$G &low uncertaint)
Analog (t)'ical) 12.1J3 L 192#$< L 12$9<J (accurac)Cre'eatabilit))
$2#1
Im'ro.ement
Rosemount $2#1C .
Rosemount 11#15 5 A=<A@
Analog (t)'ical) 5 78A>?C
6low :rror
"atural 7as to 8oiler N1
AP /ransmitter &low error at normal &low (9#2 sc&Cmin)
6low error at normal &low (9#2 sc&Cmin)
6lui( C 5er.ice?
/ransmitter Calibrate( 5'an?
Ambient /em'. Kariation?
5tatic @ine Pressure?
Calibration 6re,uenc)?
AP /ransmitter
2.23 9.23 <.23 G.23 H.23 12.23 19.23
Drift (Stability) Static Press. Ambient Temp. Ref. Accuracy
www.rosemount.com
White paper: Presented to Texas A&M Instrumentation Symposium
Page H
RE#ERENCES
1. McMillan! 7.O.! Centrifugal and Axial Compressor Control! Instrument 5ociet) o& America!
Researc /riangle Park! "C! 1JH$.
9. 8otros! O.O.! >en(erson! P.6.! 1Ae.elo'ments in Centri&ugal Com'ressor 5urge Control A
/ecnolog) Assessment, Transactions of the ASME Journal of Turbomachinery! A'ril 1JJ<.
$. Wite! M.>.! 15urge Control &or Centri&ugal Com'ressors4! Chemical Engineering! Aec. 1JJ9.
<. Menezes! M.! 1Calculating & B'timizing Re'eatabilit) o& "atural 7as 6low Measurements4!
ipeline ! "as Journal! Pul) 9221.
#. /e /P6:.-ls s'rea(seet calculates te re'eatabilit)Cuncertaint) contribution o& te AP
transmitter un(er user*s'eci&ie( a''lication con(itions! an( is 're*loa(e( wit 'er&ormance
s'eci&ications &or a wi(e .ariet) o& transmitters &rom lea(ing su''liers. 5ee
www.Rosemount.com to obtain a co').