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Cisco CCENT : OSI and TCP/IP


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#ppication : Responsible for identifying and establishing the availability of desired
comm partner and verifying sufficient resources exist for comm. Ex: FTP, STP

Pr$s$ntation : Responsible for presenting the data in standard formats. Some
Presentation layer standards are !PE", PE", #$#, P#%T, &uic' Time, T#FF.

S$ssion : Responsible for co(ordinating communication bet)een systems*nodes.
Some of the session layer protocols and interfaces: +FS, RP%, S&,, -SP, $+- S%P

OSI )O'E*



Transport : Responsible for multiplexing upper(layer applications, session mgmt
tearing do)n of virtual circuits, flo) control and to maintain data integrity.



TCP/IP )O'E*



#ppication : $efines T%P*#P application protocols and ho)
host programs interface )ith transport layer services to use
the net)or'. Ex: FTP, STP, Telnet

Transport : Provides communication session management bet)een
host computers. Ex: T%P, .$P

Int$rn$t : Performs routing of #P datagrams.
Ex: IP, ARP, ICMP
Som$ important port num+$rs
FTP : Port /0(/1 Telnet : Port /2 $3%P : Ports 45 and 46 P7P2 : Port 110
TFTP : Port 48 STP : Port /9 $+S : Port 92 3TTP : Port 60
N$t%or& : Responsible for sending pac'ets from the source net)or' to the destination
net)or' using routing methods. Routers )or' at net)or' layer.
'atain& : %onsists of ,,% sublayer and -% sublayer. ,,% handles error control, flo)
flo) control, framing etc. -% handles access to shared media such as ethernet.
Physica : Responsible for ultimate transmission of data over net)or' communications
media. Some of the standard interfaces at physical layer are E#-*T#-(/2/, :./;,:.29, 3SS#
Physica : %ontrols the hard)are devices and media that ma'e
up the net)or'.


Port num+$rs us$d +y TCP/,'P
0(/99 : .sed for public applications
/99(10/2 : -ssigned to companies
-bove 10/2 : .sed by upper layers to set up sessions )ith other hosts and by
T%P to use as source and destination addresses.
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Cisco CCENT : IOS
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Int!rnal m!mory compon!nts o' a cisco rout!r
(O) : Memory containing micro-code for basic functions to start and maintain the router.
()*$() : Stores the running configuration, routing tables, and packet buffers.
N+() : Memory that does not lose information when power is lost. Stores the systems
configuration file and the configuration register.
,lash )!mory : Stores the compressed IOS image.


(out!r -oot con'iguration comman.s
-oot syst!m (O) : boots from system OM
-oot syst!m 'lash /IOS 'il! nam!0 : boots
IOS from flash memory
-oot syst!m t'tp /IOS 'il! nam!0
/t'tp1a..r0 : boots IOS from a tftp ser!er

Cisco rout!r con'igura-l! locations
"onsole port, #irtual $erminals %!ty&, 'u(iliary port, $)$* ser!er and +etwork management station
(out!r mo.!s o' op!ration inclu.!
)o.!2222222222222222222222222220 %rompt
user e(ec---------------------, outer,
*ri!ileged----------------------, outer -
global config------------------, outer%config&-
Interface config--------------, outer%config-if&-


(out!r pass"or.s
.nable password
"onsole password
.nable Secret
#irtual terminal password %!ty&
'u(iliary password




Thr!! "ays rout!r l!arns to 'or"ar. pac#!ts
1. Static rout!s : "onfigured by the administrator manually. Synta( : ip route /ip-addr,/mask-addr,/ip-addr,
Ex: 0%config&-ip route 012.034.255.5 266.266.266.5 012.034.0.2
2. $!'ault rout!s : $his is used when a route is not known or is infeasible. Synta( : ip route 5.5.5.5 5.5.5.5 /ip-addr,
Ex: 0%config&-ip route 5.5.5.5 5.5.5.5 012.034.0.2
3. $ynamic rout!s : In dynamic routing, the routing tables are automatically updated.
7ynamic routing uses broadcasts and multicasts to communicate with other routers.








(out!r Cursor Comman.s
/ctrl0 : Mo!e to the beginning of the command line
/ctrl0 E: Mo!e to the end of the command line
/ctrl0 ,: Mo!e forward one character, same as using 8ight 'rrow9
/ctrl0 &: Mo!e backward one character, same as using 8:eft 'rrow;.
/ctrl0 %: epeat *re!ious command, same as using 8<p 'rrow9
/ctrl0 N: epeat +e(t %more recent& command, same as using ;7own 'rrow;
/!sc0 &: Mo!es to beginning of pre!ious word.
/!sc0 ,: Mo!es to beginning of ne(t word.
/ctrl0(: "reates new command prompt, followed by all the
characters typed at the last one.

)or! in'o
$o enable the "isco IOS to forward packets destined for
obscure subnets of directly connected networks onto the best
route, use ;ip classless; command.
=y default, "isco routers support 6 simultaneous telnet sessions.
$his number can be configured using IOS commands.
(out!r $!'ault &oot S!4u!nc! 'or Cisco IOS
0. +#'M >. $)$* ser!er
2. )lash %se?uential& @. OM
$he router first looks at Startup "onfig file in +#
'M, if not a!ailable, it falls back to )lash, then
to $)$* and then to OM.

Con'iguration (!gist!r Comman.
(out!r5con'ig67 con'ig2r!gist!r 0x10x (where that last x is 0-F in hex), when the last ( is: 0 A boot
into OM Monitor modeB 1 A boot the OM IOSB 2 2 18 A look in startup-config file in +#'M.
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Cisco CCENT : Password Recovery
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Note : The give! procedures are ge!eric i! !ature) a!d *or e"act se+ue!ce o* steps) pease re*er to product ma!ua#







Procedure 1
Complete these steps in order to recover your password:
1. Attach a terminal or PC with terminal emulation to the console port of the router and
set terminal settings to 9600 baud rate !o parity " data bits 1 stop bit !o flow
control.
#he configuration register is usually set to 0$%10% or 0$10%. &f you can no longer
access the router you can safely assume that your configuration register is set to
0x2102.
%. 'se the power switch in order to turn off the router and then turn the router bac( on.
). Press (rea% on the terminal (eyboard within 60 seconds of power up in order to put
the router into *+,mon.
-. #ype co!*reg 0"21,2 at the rommon 1. prompt in order to boot from /lash. #his step
bypasses the startup configuration where the passwords are stored.
0. #ype reset at the rommon %. prompt.
#he router reboots but ignores the saved configuration.
6. #ype !o after each setup 1uestion or press Ctr-C in order to s(ip the initial setup
procedure.
2. #ype e!a.e at the *outer. prompt.
3ou are in enable mode and should see the *outer4 prompt.
". #ype co!*igure memory or copy startup-co!*ig ru!!i!g-co!*ig in order to copy
the nonvolatile *A, 5!6*A,7 into memory.
9. #ype co!*igure termi!a.
#he router5config74 prompt appears.
10. #ype e!a.e secret /password0 in order to change the e!a.e secret password.
/or e$ample:
router5config74e!a.e secret cisco
11. &ssue the !o shutdow! command on every interface that you use.
1%. #ype write memory or copy ru!!i!g-co!*ig startup-co!*ig in order to commit the
changes.



Procedure 2

Complete these steps in order to recover your password:
1. 8hut down the router.
%. *emove the compact flash that is at the bac( of the router.
). Power on the router.
-. +nce the *ommon1. prompt appears enter this command:
co!*reg 0"21,2
0. &nsert the compact flash.
6. #ype reset.
2. 9hen you are prompted to enter the initial configuration type No and press E!ter.
". At the *outer. prompt type e!a.e.
9. At the *outer4 prompt enter the co!*igure memory command and press E!ter in
order to copy the startup configuration to the running configuration.
10. 'se the co!*ig t command in order to enter global configuration mode.
11. 'se this command in order to create a new user name and password:
router5config74user!ame cisco password cisco
1%. 'se this command in order to change the boot statement:
co!*ig-register 0"2102
1). 'se this commnd in order to save the configuration:
write memory
*eload the router and then use the new user name and password to log in to the
router.
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Cisco CCENT : IPv4 Addressing
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IP Address Intro
1. An IP address (32 bit number, 4 bytes) consists of four octets seperated
by dots.
The octet is a binary number of eight digits, hich e!ua"s the decima" numbers
from # to 2$$.
2. The internet protoco" defines the specia" netor% address 12)$0$0$1 as a
"oca" "oopbac% address.


Converting (in"ry to 'ecim"!
&inary is a base 2 system ith on"y to numbers # or 1.
The eightage of binary digits from right most bit position to the "eft most bit
position is gi'en be"o.
E#"mp!e :
(on'ert 1##111#1 into a decima" 'a"ue.
There are eight bits in the binary number. The decima" 'a"ue for each bit position
is gi'en be"o*
To con'ert, you simp"y ta%e a 'a"ue from the top ro here'er there is a 1 be"o,
and then add the 'a"ues together.
i.e, 1*2) + 0*2, + 0*2
-
+ 1*24 + 1*2
.
+ 1*22 + 0*2
1
+ 1*20

+ 12, - # - # - 1. - , - 4 - # - 1
/ 1-) 0decim"! v"!e1




Converting 'ecim"! to (in"ry
/ecima" is a &ase 1# system ith 1# possib"e 'a"ues (# to 0)
To con'ert decima" to binary, simp"y di'ide the decima" 'a"ue by 2 and then rite
don the remainder, repeat this process unti" you cannot di'ide by 2 anymore.
1or e2amp"e, ta%e the decima" 'a"ue 1-)*
1$3 4 2 + 3, ith a remainder of 1 3, 4 2 + 30ith a remainder of #
30 4 2 + 10 ith a remainder of 1 10 4 2 + 0 ith a remainder of 1
0 4 2 + 4 ith a remainder of 1 4 4 2 + 2 ith a remainder of #
2 4 2 + 1 ith a remainder of # 1 4 2 + # ith a remainder of 1

To con'ert, rite this remainder first555555555556

7e2t rite don the 'a"ue of the remainders from bottom to top (in other ords
rite don the bottom remainder first and or% your ay up the "ist) hich
gi'es*

10011101 / 1-)
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Cisco CCENT : IPv4 Addressing
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IP Address Intro
1. An IP address (32 bit number, 4 bytes) consists of four octets seperated
by dots.
The octet is a binary number of eight digits, hich e!ua"s the decima" numbers
from # to 2$$.
2. The internet protoco" defines the specia" netor% address 12)$0$0$1 as a
"oca" "oopbac% address.




IP Address C!"sses 0 P2!ic IP r"nge1
C!"ss 3orm"t 4e"ding52it5p"ttern Net%or&5"ddr5r"nge 6"#5net% 6"#5hosts
A 7.8.8.8 # #512. 123 1.,333,214

& 7.7.8.8 1# 12,5101 1.,3,4 .$,$34
( 7.7.7.8 11# 102 5223 2,#03,1$2 2$4
("ass / addresses are used for mu"ticasting, they begin ith 9111#: and the addr range is 2245230.
("ass ; addresses are reser'ed addresses that begin ith 91111#: and the range is 24#52$4.
IPV4 Header


Priv"te "ddr r"nge * C!"ss A * 1#.#.#.# to 1#.2$$.2$$.2$$, C!"ss ( * 132.1..#.# to 132.31.2$$.2$$,
C!"ss C * 102.1.,.#.# to 102.1.,.2$$.2$$





S2net 6"s& "nd CI'7 not"tion
A <ubnet mas% is a 325bit number that mas%s an IP address, and di'ides the IP address into netor%
address and host address.
<ubnet =as% is made by setting netor% bits to a"" >1>s and setting host bits to a"" >#>s.

'e8"!t S2net 6"s&s

C!"ss A : 2--$0$0$09 C!"ss ( : 2--$2--$0$09 C!"ss C : 2--$2--$2--$0
CI'7 Not"tion * ("ass"ess Inter /omain ?outing ((I/?) is a method for assigning IP addresses ithout
using the standard IP address c"asses "i%e ("ass A, ("ass & or ("ass (.
In (I/? notation, an IP address is represented as A.&.(./ @n, here >@n> is ca""ed the IP prefi2 or netor%
prefi2. The IP prefi2 identifies the number of significant bits used to identify a netor%.
E#* 21..3.12,.12, ith subnet mas% of 2$$.2$$.2$$.12, may be ritten as 21..3.12,.12@2$ using
CIDR Notation.

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Cisco CCENT : Subnetting
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Subnetting Scenario 'uestion 1
You want X number of subnets, what is the subnet mask ? (Assume we need 10 subnets, i.e, X=10)
Tip : Convert X to binar, determine how man !ow order bits need to make the number, that man bits is number of hi"h order bits that make u# our subnet mask, $onvert hi"h order bits to
de$ima! va!ue.




Solution :
Consider the C!ass C address % &.&.&.' where & is the &etwork #ortion and ' is the host #ortion. 'ost (ortion is as shown )))))*
Step 1: Convert 10 to binar. +inar e,uiva!ent of 10 is as shown )))))))))*
Step 2: &umber of !ow order bits re,uired to make the number is - (from the fi"ure shown above)
Step (: .herefore - hi"h)order bits make u# the subnet mask, i.e, 1/0, 1-, 2/, 11
Add - hi"h order bits to $reate subnet mask i.e. 1/031-32/311=/-0 (11110000). .he subnet mask is 2)).2)).2)).2)).2*0
/44./44./44./-0 is re#resented as ))))))))*
+e,uirement -or #%.* Subnetting
1. 5ffi$ient use of avai!ab!e 6( address s#a$e
/. &etwork traffi$ iso!ation
2. 6m#roved se$urit
-. 7imitin" broad$ast messa"es

Subnetting Scenarios
.he subnettin" s$enarios ma broad! be divided in to two $ate"ories:
1. 8#timi9e for a "iven number of hosts
/. 8#timi9e for a "iven number of subnets
:ina!!, determine the host address ran"e for ea$h avai!ab!e subnet.
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Cisco CCENT : Subnetting
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Subnetting Scenario 'uestion 2
How many subnet bits are required for X number of hosts ? (Assume X value to be 5 in this case)
Tip : Convert X (for the subnets) to binary, determine the number of bits needed for the host ortion, additionally determine the subnet mas! from the remainin" bits, usin" formula #$, find the
relevant number of subnets in this scenario%
%






Solution :
Step 1: Consider the Class C address &%&%&%H, where H is the host ortion whose binary and decimal reresentation is as shown ''''(
Convert 5 to binary% )inary equivalent of 5 is as shown '''''''''(
Step 2: As shown in the fi"ure above, the number of bits needed for the host ortion are *% +herefore, #
bits
'#,#*'#,- (-(5)
* bits are required for the host ortion for 5 hosts%

Step ( )**itional+: +o !now the subnet mas! , add the decimal value of the remainin" 5 bits i%e, (.#/0-10*#0.-0/) , #1/
2ubnet 3as! is #55%#55%#55%#1/ (........%........%........%.....444)
&umber of subnet bits: #5, here 5 bits are used from the host ortion of our subnet mas!
+herefore number of subnets required is (#n), where 6n6 is the number of bits bein" used from the host ortion of our subnet mas! i%e% 5
+herefore, #5,*# is the number of subnets
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Cisco CCENT : Subnetting
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Subnetting Scenario 'uestion (
Determine the range of valid IP Addresses for an X subnet mask ? (Assume X value to be 240 in this case)
Tip !onvert X to binar" and determine the decimal value of lo#est high order bit$ start the range of addresses at that value$ and increment the range b" that value%
%





Solution
Step 1 !onvert 240 to binar"% &inar" e'uivalent of 240 is as sho#n ((((((((()
Step 2 *he decimal value of lo#est high order bit is +, (2
4
) as seen from the figure above% *herefore$ this number becomes the increment value to determine the IP address ranges%
-ubnet .ask 2//%2//%2//%240
-ubnet &its 20 1ost &its 4
2umber of -ubnets +, 1osts 3er -ubnet +4
*he range of addresses for the given mask is as sho#n (((((()
Note All 4eros and all ones host addresses cannot be used%
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Cisco CCENT : Routing Protocols
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Classl!ss Routing Protocols
In classless routing protocols, subnet information is exchanged during routing updates.
This results in more efficient utilization of IP addresses. The summarization in classless networks
is manually controlled. Ex: IP !", EI#P, $%P&, '#P !(, and I%)I%

Routing Protocols

outing protocols *ob is to maintain routing tables
and route packets appropriately.
Examples of routing are IP, I#P, EI#P, $%P&.

Rout!' Protocols
outed protocols are used to transport user traffic
from source node to destination node.
Examples of routed protocols are IP, IP+ and
,ppleTalk.

RP




,ddress esolution Protocol -,P. is used to resol!e a hosts IP
address to its physical address -such as /,0 address., to
allow communication on a multi)access medium such as ethernet.
e!erse ,P -,P. is used to obtain an IP address from physical
address -such as /,0.. ,P broadcast may be used to obtain IP
address to boot by diskless workstations o!er a network.


Typ!s o( Routing Protocols

Distance Vector: 1istance !ector routing determines the direction
and distance to any link in the internetwork. %maller the metric,
better the path. 1istance !ector routing is useful for smaller
networks. Ex: IP and I#P.
)in# Stat!: ,lso known as %P& algorithms, %P& generates the
exact topology of the entire network for route computation by
listening to the first hand information. 'andwidth and delay
are the most widely used metrics. Ex: $%P& and 23%P.

&alanc!' *y+ri': 'alanced 4ybrid combines some aspects of
3ink %tate and 1istance 5ector routing protocols. It uses
distance !ectors with more accurate metrics to determine the
best paths to destination networks. Ex: EI#P
%!(ault 'ministrati,! 'istanc!s

1irectly 0onnected Interface))))))6 7 External '#P))))))))))6 "7
%tatic oute))))))6 8 Internal '#P)))))))))))6 "77
Internal EI#P))))))6 97
I#P))))))6 877
$%P&))))))6 887
IP))))))6 8"7
I%)I%))))))6 88:
;nknown "::
,n administrati!e distance of 7 represents highest trustworthiness of the route.
,n administrati!e distance of ":: represents the lowest trustworthiness of the route.



Class(ul Routing Protocols
0lassful routing protocols do not exchange subnet information during routing information exchanges.
The summarization is always done automatically at ma*or network boundaries.
Ex: IP !8, I#P
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Cisco CCENT : NAT
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&'erloa(ing
A special case of dynamic NAT that maps multiple unregistered IP addresses to a single registered (globally
unique) IP address by using different port numbers.
Dynamic NAT with oerloading is also !nown also as PAT (Port Address Translation).



Static NAT
"aps an unregistered IP address to registered IP (globally unique) addresses on one#to#one basis.
The command$ ip nat insi(e source static )local ip* )glo+al ip* configures address translation for
static NAT.



Con,iguring NAT

%hen configuring NAT$ NAT should be enabled on at least
one inside and one outside interface.
&. The command for enabling NAT on inside interface is'
-1.con,ig/i,01ip nat insi(e
(. The command for enabling NAT on the outside interface
is'
-1.con,ig/i,01ip nat outsi(e
)emember to enter into appropriate configuration modes
before entering the commands.
*sually$ the inside NAT will be configured on an +thernet
interface$ whereas the outside NAT is configured on a
serial interface.





A((ress Classi,ication


"nsi(e 2ocal ' An actual address assigned to an inside host
"nsi(e 3lo+al ' An inside address seen from the outside
&utsi(e 3lo+al ' An actual address assigned to an outside host
&utsi(e 2ocal ' An outside address seen from the inside

NAT $ool ' A pool of IP addresses to be used as inside global or
outside local addresses in translations
#e,ining an "$ NAT $ool

&. Defining an IP NAT pool for the inside networ! using the command'
ip nat pool )pool/name* )start/ip* )en(/ip* 4netmas! )net/mas!* 5 pre,ix/length )pre,ix/length*6 7type/
rotary8 Ex: ip nat pool pool1 200.200.200.3 200.200.200.4 netmask 255.255.255.0
Note that type#rotary is optional command. It indicates that the IP address range in the address pool identifies
hosts among which T,P load is distributed.
(. "apping the access#list to the IP NAT pool by using the command'
ip nat insi(e source list )access/list/num+er* pool )pool/name* Ex: ip nat inside source list 1 pool pool1





#ynamic NAT
"aps an unregistered IP address to a registered (globally unique) IP address from a group of registered
(globally unique) IP addresses.
The command$ ip nat insi(e source list )access/list/num+er* pool )name*
is used to map the access#list to the IP NAT pool during the configuration of Dynamic NAT.
&'erlapping
This occurs when your internal IP addresses belong to global IP address range that belong to another
networ!.
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Cisco CCENT : Configuration Commands
A. Setting Passwords
Sl. No. Task Commands
1 Configure router console password as "ciscocs"
R1(config)#line console 0
R1(config-line)#login
R1(config-line)#password ciscocs
2 Configure router vty password as "ciscovty"
R1(config)#line vty 0 4
R1(config-line)#login
R1(config-line)#password ciscovty
3 Configure router auiliary password as "ciscoau"
R1(config)#line au 0
R1(config-line)#login
R1(config-line)#password ciscoau
4 !et t"e encrypted ena#le password as "cisco" R1(config)#ena#le secret cisco
$ !et t"e unencrypted ena#le password as "ccna" R1(config)#ena#le password ccna
B. Router Cop Commands
% Copy t"e running-configuration to startup-configuration (&R'( to )*R'() R1#copy running-config startup-config (copy run start)
+ Copy t"e startup-configuration to running-configuration ()*R'( to &R'() R1#copy startup-config running-config (copy start run)
, Copy t"e startup-configuration to a -.-/ server R1#copy startup-config tftp (copy start tftp)
0 Copy t"e running-configuration to a -.-/ server R1#copy running-config tftp (copy run tftp)
10 !ave a #ac1up of t"e 23! to a -.-/ server R1#copy flas" tftp
11 4pgrade t"e 23! fro5 a -.-/ server R1#copy tftp flas"
C. Routing Commands
12 6na#le R2/ version1 on all 10271%,77 interfaces
R1(config)#router rip
R1(config-router)#networ1 10271%,7070
13 6na#le R2/ version 2
R1(config)#router rip
R1(config-router)#version 2
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Cisco CCENT : Show Commands
Router Show commands
Sl. No. Command Explanation
1. show access-list Displays all accesslists from all protocols present in a specified router.
2. show banner Displays the banner set on the router.
3. show cdp Shows the status of CDP such as holdtime value,no.of pacets for every !"sec.
#. show cdp interface $t tells the CDP confi%uration on an interface-by-interface basis.
&. show cdp nei%hbor'detail Displays info on directly connected nei%hbors.
!. show cdp traffic Displays the CDP traffic info.
(. show cloc Displays the cloc )time, date*.
+. show flash ,sed to view all $-S ima%es and file stored in flash)Default location of $-S ima%es is in flash*.
.. show history Shows the previously e/ecuted commands.$-S device stores the last ten commands that are e/ecuted.
1". show hosts Displays the host table.
11. show interfaces 0o view interfaces,status,and statistics for an interface.$f u don1t lists a specific interface,all of the interfaces on the router are listed.
12. show ip interfaces Displays status and %lobal parameters associated with the interfaces on the router.
13. show ip interface brief Displays the interface operational status and $P addresses for all router interfaces.
1#. show ip nat statistics Displays 230 statistics.
1&. show ip nat translations Displays the 230 translations.
1!. show ip route Displays the $P routin% table.
1(. show protocols Displays the routin% protocols that have been confi%ured and runnin% on a specified router.
1+. show runnin%-confi% Shows the current confi% stored in 435.
1.. show sessions Shows the telnet sessions that are currently suspended.
2". show startup-confi% Shows the confi%uration stored in 26435.
21. show version Display version information for the hardware and firmware.
22. show arp Displays entries in the 34P table.
23. show ip protocols Displays parameters and current state of the active routin% protocol process.
2#. show users Displays users connected to the router.
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Cisco CCENT : Show Commands
Switch Show commands
Sl. No. Command Explanation
1. show banner Displays the banner.
2. show flash Displays the file contents of the flash.
3. show history Displays the last 1" commands entered.
#. show interfaces 0o view interfaces,status,and statistics for an interface.
&. show interfaces vlan 1 Displays the 6732 status and the $P address of 6732 1.
!. show ip interface brief 6erifies the $P confi%uration.
(. show runnin%-confi% Displays the confi% held in D435.
+. show startup-confi% Displays the 26435 confi%.
.. show users Displays the users currently lo%%ed on.
1". show version Display $-S version information for the hardware and firmware.
11. show vlan Displays vlan information.
12. show vlan-membership Displays vlan membership information.
13. show mac-address-table Displays mac-address-table information.
1#. show vtp status Displays vtp status information such as vtp mode, vtp domain etc.
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CCN" Networ# Simulator CCN" Exam Simulator CCENT Exam Simulator CCN" $CN%2 Exam Simulator CCN& 'SC$ Exam Simulator