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WCDMA RAN, Rel.

RU30,
Operating Documentation,
Issue 12
Flexi Direct System Description
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Approval Date 2012-10-19
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Table of contents
This document has 74 pages.
Summary of changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1 Introduction to Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi Direct System. . . . . . . . 11
2 Network architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.1 Flexi Direct architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2 Network elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.3 Network deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3.1 Greenfield scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3.2 2G/3G network overlay scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3.3 Flexi Direct external interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.4 Capacity and efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4.1 DC-HSDPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4.2 Flexible RLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4.3 Flexible Iu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4.4 HSPA 72 Users Per Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.4.5 Common Channel Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.4.6 Multi-Operator Radio Access Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.4.7 Multi-Operator Core Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3 Mobility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.1 Mobility management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.1.1 Intra-system handover with Iur. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.1.2 Intra-system handover without Iur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.1.3 Soft Handover Based on Detected Set Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.1.4 Inter-frequency handover over Iur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.1.5 Inter-system handover between the Flexi Direct and WCDMA RAN. . . 26
3.1.6 Mobility between Flexi Direct and 2G network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.1.7 Mobility between Flexi Direct and LTE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.1.8 HSPA Capability Based Handover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.1.9 Load and service based IS/IF handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.1.10 IMSI-based handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
3.1.11 Inter-frequency handover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.1.12 HSPA over Iur in Flexi Direct BTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4 Voice Service support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.1 CS AMR Voice support in Flexi Direct BTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.2 VoIP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.3 HSDPA/HSUPA with simultaneous AMR support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5 Location services (LCS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6 Paging in Flexi Direct Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6.1 Paging Optimization in Flexi Direct Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6.2 Paging Channel with data rate of 24 Kbps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7 Radio resource management in Flexi Direct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.1 MIMO feature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
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7.2 Fast Dormancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.3 HSUPA interference cancellation receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.4 Frequency Domain Equalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.5 Extension of RNC identification numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
8 Transport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
8.1 Flexi Direct transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
8.1.1 Transport interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
8.1.2 Flexi Transport Sub-Modules (FTM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8.1.3 Control plane protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8.1.4 User plane protocols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
8.1.4.1 Iu-CS higher level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.1.4.2 Iu-PS higher level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.1.4.3 Iur higher level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.1.4.4 Iu-PC and O&M interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.1.4.5 Iu-BC interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
8.1.5 IP over ATM transport option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.1.5.1 ATM Adaptation Layer 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.1.5.2 ATM Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.1.6 Basic Ethernet Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.1.7 Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.1.8 IP Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
8.1.9 Hybrid Transport solutions for Flexi Direct BTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
8.2 QoS support on IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
9 Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
9.1 Security foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
9.1.1 Security features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
9.2 User security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
9.2.1 Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
9.2.2 Authorization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
9.2.3 User event logging and log collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
10 Operability overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
10.1 Introduction to Flexi Direct System operability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
10.2 Flexi Dirext System operability architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
10.3 Flexi Direct OMS Element Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
10.4 Autoconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
10.5 Remote Commissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
10.6 Configuration management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
10.6.1 Topology management in Flexi Direct System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
10.6.2 Plan management in Flexi Direct System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
10.7 Performance management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
10.7.1 Performance management in Flexi Direct System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
10.8 Fault management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
10.8.1 Fault Management Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
10.8.2 Fault management in Flexi Direct System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
10.9 Software management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
10.9.1 Software management in Flexi Direct System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
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10.10 User management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
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List of figures
Figure 1 Flexi Direct System architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Figure 2 Flexi Direct architecture for greenfield case with no CS support . . . . . . 15
Figure 3 Flexi Direct architecture evolution to LTE; Direct Tunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Figure 4 Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi Direct OMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Figure 5 Pure Flexi Direct Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Figure 6 Flexi Direct as data overlay network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Figure 7 Flexi Direct mobility - Gn based . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Figure 8 Location services for Flexi Direct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Figure 9 Paging Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Figure 10 Iu-CS, Iu-PS and Iur Control Plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Figure 11 Iu-CS User Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Figure 12 Iu-PS User Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Figure 13 Iur User Plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Figure 14 Iu-PC interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Figure 15 O&M interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Figure 16 Protocol architecture for the Service Area Broadcast with IP over Ethernet.
42
Figure 17 ToP Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Figure 18 Protocol stack for ToP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Figure 19 Logical IP Sec Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Figure 20 Flexi Direct System operability architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Figure 21 Flexi Direct OMS Element Manager architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Figure 22 Flexi Multiradio BTS reconfiguration to Flexi Direct-BTS functionality . . 61
Figure 23 Flexi Direct topology tree view screen capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Figure 24 Fault management functionality architecture in Flexi Direct System . . . 70
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List of tables
Table 1 Flexi Direct transport scenarios overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Table 2 DSCP mapping - default values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Table 3 VLAN priority bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
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Summary of changes
Changes between issues 04E (2012-08-17, RU30) and 04F (2012-10-19, RU30)
Rebranding from I-HSPA to Flexi Direct.
2G/3G network overlay scenario (2.3.2)
Updated the explanation with:
In the second scenario, Flexi Direct data overlay network is built on top of the
existing networks.
In this case Flexi Direct works on its own radio carrier frequency or in the same fre-
quency as existing 3G network to enhance coverage and capacity.
Both CS and PS services are all supported by the Flexi Direct network. Mobility with
existing RNC-based 3G network is handled either as soft handover or hard han-
dover. Flexi Direct BTS supports 3GPP standard Iur interface towards the RNC and
thus inter-RNC soft handover and relocations between the Flexi Direct BTS and
RNC are possible.
HSDPA/HSUPA with simultaneous AMR support (4.3)
Updated the explanation with:
The UE does not need to be transitioned to the DCH transport channel for the
ongoing HSDPA/HSUPA bearers when the CS voice call is initiated. This ensures
that an AMR voice call initiation does not influence the HSDPA/HSUPA service data
flow.
Location services (5)
Removed: Broadcast of A-GPS Assistance Data enables the broadcasting of the
Assistance data of A-GPS positioning method via the SIB 15. When this feature is
enabled, the dedicated signaling towards the UE is avoided.
Topology management in Flexi Direct System (10.6.1)
Added an information: Note that OMS is labeling the Flexi Direct topology as in the
GUI as I-HSPA topology.
Changes between issues 04D (2012-03-16, RU30) and 04E (2012-08-17, RU30)
Network elements (2.2)
Number of Flexi Direct BTSs supported by OMS updated to 1200.
Voice Service support (4)
Removed section 4.2 CS Service Enabling HO
Flexi Direct System operability architecture (10.2)
Figure: Flexi Direct System Operability updated to explicitly show that BTSOM inter-
face is mediated to BTS through Flexi Direct BTS internal Iub interface.
Removed XML label in Figure: Flexi Direct System operability architecture
Added Even if NetAct is used for centralized management, OMS must be present
as an O&M mediator and aggregator.
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Summary of changes
Flexi Direct OMS Element Manager (10.3)
Changed the direction of arrows in Figure: Flexi Direct OMS Element Manager archi-
tecture.
Plan management in Flexi Direct System (10.6.2)
Removed CM Editor screenshot.
Changes between issues 04B (2011-09-23, RU30) and 04C (2011-11-25, RU30)
Flexi Direct transport (8.1)
FTM information updated. Only FTLB transport submodule is supported.
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1 Introduction to Nokia Siemens Networks
Flexi Direct System
Flexi Direct System is a cost efficient solution for packet switched (PS) and circuit
switched (CS) networks. The biggest advantage of Flexi Direct is a flat architecture of
the Radio Access Network (RAN). The WCDMA operator gains from a high capacity and
low cost RAN solution, which resolves the bottleneck for the growth of HSPA traffic. No
changes are required in the existing Core Network (CN) elements.
The flat architecture enables low latency, high capacity and low cost for PS traffic ser-
vices. It is implemented by relocating the Radio Network Controller (RNC) functionality
into the Flexi Direct RNC which is a part of Flexi Multiradio BTS. In Flexi Direct Rel4.0
the Flexi Direct RNC is a logical entity from the architecture point of view and it is a part
of the transport module of Flexi Multiradio BTS. This means that there is no separate
hardware needed to support Flexi Direct. During the commissioning procedure the Flexi
Multiradio BTS with FTLB transport module is converted into an Flexi Direct BTS with
Flexi Direct RNC functionality. This is performed through both remote and on site com-
missioning with software upgrade. After Flexi Multiradio BTS software upgrade the Flexi
Direct functionality is available. Though the Flexi Direct RNC functionality is realized as
part of Flexi Multiradio BTS Transport Hardware, Flexi Direct RNC will still remain a
separate logical entity.
The Flexi Direct RNC takes over the RNC functionality with respect to PS and CS
services. Flexi Direct RNC main functionalities are listed below:
protocol termination and handling for the following interfaces:
Iu-CS and Iu-PS control plane (RANAP)
Iu-CS and Iu-PS user plane (GTP-u/Gn-u, Iu-U)
Iur interface protocol stacks
Radio Resource Management
Security Management
Mobility
Flexi Direct uses Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway GPRS Support
Node (GGSN) network elements to handle mobility in the PS domain. The use of SGSN
and GGSN network elements allows the same IP point of attachment for traditional
WCDMA and HSPA networks. In the CS domain the Flexi Direct uses Media Gateway
(MGW) for user plane and the MSC server (MSS) for control plane signaling. Flexi Direct
supports CS AMR voice services with mobility functionality that is identical towards
WCDMA and Flexi Direct network.
Flexi Direct fulfills the following generic features:
network architecture that is optimized for the PS traffic
support for the standard compliant terminals
optimized radio interface for the Flexi Direct
optimized user plane and round trip time (RTT) for the PS
optimized control plane and connection set-up time
optimized transmission interface for the PS traffic
flexible RLC, PDU overhead reduced
multi-operator Core Network
direct resource allocation for HSPA transport channels during RAB establishment
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Introduction to Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi Direct
System
Flexi Direct uses a Direct tunnel solution that allows bypassing of the SGSN in the user
plane for PS data. This solution enables the operator to use the existing packet switched
network (PS) with optional direct tunnel optimization.
Flexi Direct flat radio access architecture offers operators the following Long Term Evo-
lution (LTE)/System Architecture Evolution (SAE) benefits:
cost benefits with fewer user plane elements
cost benefits as existing SGSNs with the Direct tunnel support can be used
performance benefits with fewer elements (lower setup delay and lower user plane
latency)
possibility to utilize cheaper transport solutions (for example, Ethernet based
transport with external Sync)
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2 Network architecture
2.1 Flexi Direct architecture
Flexi Direct System is designed and optimized for packet data transmission and can be
deployed as a data overlay network on top of an existing network architecture. It is also
possible to deploy Flexi Direct in a greenfield scenario, in case there is no existing
network available. Both PS and CS services can be provided with Flexi Direct.
Flexi Direct System comprises of traditional WCDMA network elements. Flexi Direct can
use the same MSS, MGW, SGSN and GGSN network elements with the traditional
WCDMA and HSPA networks. The Flexi Direct BTS network element is connected to
the 3GPP Core Network (CN) via the 3GPP standard Iu-PS/Gn and Iu-CS interfaces.
Figures Flexi Direct System architecture, Flexi Direct Architecture for the greenfield and
Flexi Direct architecture evolution to LTE describe the architecture solutions for Flexi
Direct System.
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Network architecture
Figure 1 Flexi Direct System architecture
g
Flexi Direct BTS consists of two NE elementary types, WCDMA BTS and Flexi Direct
RNC. On O&M level they are visible as a separate NE types. WCDMA BTS is located
under Flexi Direct RNC in the structure.
In the Flexi Direct network architecture, the role of Iur is as follows:
the interface betweenFlexi Direct BTSs, RNSAP is used.
the interface between Flexi Direct BTS and a 3G RNC, 3GPP compliant RNSAP is
used on this interface.
In Flexi Direct, that is enhanced by Direct Tunnel solution, the user plane traffic is sent
directly towards GGSN. SGSN is transparent, the user plane is carried over the Gn-u
interface between the Flexi Direct BTS and the GGSN. This solution has an impact on
Iur
IuBC
IuPS-C
Iub
Iur Iur
IuCS-U
Gn-U
Gn-C
GTP
BTSOM
NWI3
GGSN
SGSN
MGW
MSS
CBC
RNC
Go
Gi
CG
SAS
SAS NetAct OMS
WCDMA BTS
Flexi Direct BTS
Flexi Direct BTS
Content and
Connectivity
Internet + Intranet
IMS: IM, Presence,
PoC, Video Sharing
IuCS-C
IuCS-C
IuPC
IuPC
BTSOM
Iupc
WCDMA BTS
Iub
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SGSN, it has to support Direct Tunnel. The SGSN coordinates the direct tunnel estab-
lishment between the Flexi Direct BTS and the GGSN. Although it is an optional solution,
it is recommended to use Direct Tunnel for the low delay and high capacity networks,
such as Flexi Direct. NSN Core supports Direct Tunnel Solution. Flexi Direct also
supports the Iu-PS user plane (for example without Direct Tunnel solution) transmission
towards the SGSN.
Flexi Direct network makes maximum reuse of existing back-office infrastructure for
services, subscriber management, and accounting. Iu/Gn based model enables fast and
cost efficient integration towards the operators existing WCDMA network. Flexi Direct
also supports a complete greenfield implementation. In this case the surrounding
infrastructure is built from the scratch. In some greenfield cases, the CS support is
omitted.
Figure 2 Flexi Direct architecture for greenfield case with no CS support
Flexi Direct is defined to be a pre-step for LTE (3GPP SAE/LTE). It uses LTE architec-
ture, the radio interface is based on HSPA.
Content &
Connectivity
Internet +
Intranets
IMS:
IM, Presence, PoC
Video sharing
VoIP, IP Centrex
SGSN GGSN
Flexi Direct BTS
Flexi Direct BTS
HSPA UE
HSPA
device
Standardized
Standardized with
vendor specific extensions
Flexi Direct
Intra-system
handover
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Network architecture
Figure 3 Flexi Direct architecture evolution to LTE; Direct Tunnel
The main benefits of Flexi Direct flat network architecture:
Cost benefits
Upgrade cost of traditional WCDMA RAN with centralized RNC is very high
compared to the flat architecture. This will be more evident with the ever growing
HSPA traffic in the 3G network.
Performance improvement
Flat network architecture with Direct Tunnel solution reduces the number of network
elements chained, thus round trip time is improved.
IP Transport reduces overhead, thus improving the transport capacity.
WCDMA BTS
Flexi Direct BTS
RNC
SGSN
MME
Gateway
Serving PDN
S4
S7
S3
SGi
S1-U
S1-MME
S11
Rx+
S2c S6a
S6b
HSS
User plane
Control plane
PCRF
Iu
Iub
Utran
Flexi Direct
LTE
Operator
Services
Internet
Corporate
Services
Gateway
S5
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2.2 Network elements
The Flexi Direct System network elements are the following:
Flexi Direct BTS (WCDMA BTS plus Flexi Direct RNC)
MSC server
MGW
SGSN
GGSN
OMS
User Equipment (UE)
NetAct
Flexi Multiradio BTS for Flexi Direct (Flexi Direct BTS)
The Flexi Direct BTS consists of a Flexi Multiradio BTS for WCDMA and Flexi Direct
RNC. The Flexi Direct RNC is integrated into the FTLB transport module. On O&M level
Flexi Direct RNC and WCDMA BTS are handled as individual objects.
Flexi Direct radio network layer uses all the Flexi Direct BTS resources, all the radio
carriers and associated logical cells supported by that particular configuration.
Flexi Direct RNC is a network element responsible for managing HSPA traffic in an Flexi
Direct network. From the network perspective, it allows moving PS and CS functionality
from a classical RNC to the Flexi Multiradio BTS site.
When the Flexi Multiradio BTS for WCDMA is commissioned to the Flexi Direct BTS, the
Iub interface becomes internal. Therefore, no external Iub is needed.
MSS
Flexi Direct supports standard MSC server, both the 3GPP compliant Iu-CS control and
user plane are supported. IP-based Iu-CS interface is supported.
MGW
Nokia Siemens Networks Multimedia Gateway (MGW) is used for transmitting and con-
verting the user plane traffic in both circuit-switched core networks and IP Multimedia
Subsystem. It is also a border element between different kinds of networks, the PSTN
and the PLMN, the IMS and the CS core network. The MGW consists of several func-
tional elements configured under the gateway architecture. A number of different con-
figurations of the MGW can be used depending on the services required by the operator.
SGSN
Flexi Direct System uses the standard SGSN interfaces. The operator can use the
existing SGSN. Flexi Direct uses any third party SGSN, but the capacity and the con-
nectivity need to be considered. Flexi Direct enables high capacity user plane and does
not need SGSN in the user plane. SGSN supports Direct tunnel solution, where it pro-
cesses only the Iu-PS control plane. The Direct tunnel solution uses standard interfaces
Iu-PS and Gn, so it can be used with the current RNCs and GGSNs.
In Flexi Direct, Direct tunnel solution allows flat user plane traffic, whereby the user
plane connects directly from the Flexi Direct BTS to GGSN. Direct tunnel solution is
suitable for the low delay and high capacity networks, such as Flexi Direct.
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GGSN
Flexi Direct uses standard GGSN interfaces and any standard based GGSN. Flexi
Direct enables high capacity with low delay, therefore GGSN capability needs to be con-
sidered. Direct tunnel solution creates a direct tunnel from Flexi Direct BTS to GGSN.
This means that while the user equipment (UE) is moving from Flexi Direct BTS to Flexi
Direct BTS (in FACH, DCH or in CELL_PCH state), it causes PDP context update to
GGSN. It is recommended that the operator checks the capacity of the third party GGSN
control plane when using the Direct tunnel solution. Nokia Siemens Networks GGSN
(Flexi ISN) is also optimized for control plane.
User Equipment, UE
All 3GPP standard compliant terminals can be used in Flexi Direct Network.
OMS
Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi Direct Operation and Management Server (OMS) is an
essential component in Flexi Direct operation and management architecture. OMS con-
solidates operation and management traffic from Flexi Direct access network elements
before NetAct processing. In addition, OMS manages Flexi Multiradio BTSs and Flexi
Direct RNC (logical unit) under the control of NetAct.
OMS is a 1U high element that can be placed into a standard 19-inch rack in indoor envi-
ronment. The Figure 4 Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi Direct OMS shows the exterior
view of OMS.
Figure 4 Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi Direct OMS
OMS connects to the Flexi Multiradio BTS and Flexi Direct RNC through a BTSOM inter-
face and to NetAct through an NWI3 interface. BTSOM and NWI3 are efficient and
reliable management protocols developed by Nokia Siemens Networks.
OMS is capable of handling an access network with 1200 Flexi Direct BTSs. In mass
operations, parallel management operations can be ongoing to several network ele-
ments.
For more information on the role of OMS in network management, see Operability Over-
view.
NetAct
NetAct is a network and service management solution that consists of many tools for
handling a number of network elements and expanding networks. It is designed to be
able to handle an increase in both complexity of the network and amount of traffic and
data. With NetAct both the network and services within the network are managed cen-
trally, which means the operator can view the network element failures, service quality
indicators, and traffic on one screen.
The main NetAct functionalities are available for Flexi Direct are as follows:
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NetAct performance management: functionality provides analysis data that indi-
cates the geographical areas where high speed data access is most needed and
used.
NetAct Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) enable the operator to analyze the use of
Flexi Direct in their network. Operators can also follow the number of active Flexi
Direct capable mobiles and the typical behavior of the Flexi Direct subscribers in
terms of, for example, throughput or connection times.
NetAct fault management and performance management functionalities together
can help operators guarantee end user access to the services through Flexi Direct,
thus improving subscriber perception of the service quality. Problems with, for
example, physical channels or priority settings, or in hard handovers (HOs), packet
transmission or serving cell changes can be detected and corrected without delay.
NetAct Configuration management functionality is used to configure the Flexi Direct
network elements. This also includes the software and hardware management func-
tionality.
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2.3 Network deployment
Flexi Direct can be deployed in two main scenarios. The first one is greenfield Flexi
Direct without any other radio network layers and the other one is the case where the
operator is already having the existing WCDMA or 2G network.
PS only network
Terminals perform Flexi Direct layer selection based on the subscription data. Flexi
Direct layer selection is implemented by using location area rejection mechanisms as
per WCDMA network selection procedures or using equivalent PLMN codes. For
example, in location area rejection method, the routing areas (RA) must be the same in
the WCDMA and Flexi Direct networks. Flexi Direct requires careful study on the RA size
as paging causes excessive load if the RA is too wide. If the RA is too narrow, then ter-
minals send RA updates very often.
The main reason for keeping the Flexi Direct and other/regular subscribers in their own
carriers or network layers is to avoid unnecessary delays in the session set-up. Such
delays occur when the terminal is first moved to the appropriate layer by using handover
and only then the data session or call starts. This is not desirable for the high-speed data
layer because it compromises the session set-up times (for example, TCP at the appli-
cation level).
2.3.1 Greenfield scenario
In this case the operator does not have any existing WCDMA/2G network and builds the
Flexi Direct network from scratch. Both CS and PS services can be fully supported in
Flexi Direct network. It is possible, however, to deploy PS only Flexi Direct network in
some of the greenfield deployment scenarios. Another option for the operators is to
convert the existing hot spot NodeB(s) to the Flexi Direct BTS(s).
Figure 5 Pure Flexi Direct Network
2.3.2 2G/3G network overlay scenario
In the second scenario, Flexi Direct data overlay network is built on top of the existing
networks.
In this case Flexi Direct works on its own radio carrier frequency or in the same fre-
quency as existing 3G network to enhance coverage and capacity.
Both CS and PS services are all supported by the Flexi Direct network. Mobility with
existing RNC-based 3G network is handled either as soft handover or hard handover.
Flexi Direct BTS supports 3GPP standard Iur interface towards the RNC and thus inter-
RNC soft handover and relocations between the Flexi Direct BTS and RNC are possible.
Flexi Direct Coverage
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Figure 6 Flexi Direct as data overlay network
2.3.3 Flexi Direct external interfaces
Flexi Direct network solution is visible to the surrounding networks by the following
standard interfaces:
Iu-PS interface divided into two parts:
Iu-PS Control Plane between Flexi Direct BTS and SGSN
Iu-PS User Plane
Gn-u interface between Flexi Direct BTS and GGSN for user plane in case of
direct tunneling functionality
Iu-CS
Iu-CS Control Plane between Flexi Direct BTS and MSC server. Supported in all
deployments except for some specific greenfield scenarios (that is, PS only
network)
Iu-CS User Plane between Flexi Direct BTS and Media Gateway (MGW),
required for CS voice support
Iur
Iur interface between Flexi Direct BTSs: vendor specific extensions on RNSAP
are used to optimize the mobility in the flat network.
Iur interface between the Flexi Direct BTS and 3G RN. 3GPP Complaint Iur
(RNSAP) over IP is used.
The maximum number of combined Iur interfaces supported by Flexi Direct is
32.
Iu-PC interface between Flexi Direct BTS and SAS for Location services
dedicated interface for O&M purposes:
NWI3 is the NSN proprietary Network Management interface between OMS and
NetAct.
BTSOM is the NSN proprietary management interface between Flexi Direct BTS
and OMS.
Iu-BC is a logical interface between RNC and a cell broadcasting centre (CBC)
g
The Iu-BC is one instance of an Iu interface and is used for cell broadcast services.
DHCP server is an optional element.
Flexi Direct supports Lawful Interception and Trace, SMS (Gd interface), and CAMEL
(Ge interfaces).
Macro Coverage (f1)
Flexi Direct Coverage (f2)
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2.4 Capacity and efficiency
In Flexi Direct, Flexi Direct BTS implements the RNC functionality in the Flexi Direct
RNC. The Flexi Direct RNC can serve a single BTS capacity, therefore, there is no need
of higher capacity. Although a considerable number of Flexi Direct RNC connects to the
SGSN, a lot of SGSN capacity is retained thanks to implementation of a direct tunnel
solution. With this direct tunnel solution user plane traffic is bypassed directly to GGSN.
The mobility inside the RAN is visible to the SGSN as SRNS relocation. In the Direct
Tunnel case, the mobility is visible also for GGSN as PDP context updates.
2.4.1 DC-HSDPA
Dual-Cell HSDPA uses two adjacent WCDMA carriers to transmit data for a single UE.
Together with 64QAM, peak bit rate is 42 Mbps.
Dual-Cell HSDPA can be used in the downlink direction for the UEs which have interac-
tive or background traffic to be scheduled. If conversational or streaming services are
needed, dynamic switching between single-carrier and dual-carrier modes is done.
2.4.2 Flexible RLC
This feature improves end user experience enabling higher bit rates for single users and
also the overall throughput in the network.
With the support of flexible RLC PDU instead of the fixed RLC PDU, the processing
requirements (UE and Flexi Direct RNC) and RLC PDU overhead are reduced. With
Flexible RLC feature, MAC-d header is not needed. The MAC-d multiplexing of logical
channels into the same transport block has been replaced by MAC-es multiplexing via
LCH-ID field.
2.4.3 Flexible Iu
Flexible Iu feature provides a standardized mechanism for connecting multiple MSCs
and SGSNs to an RNC within a single operator network. This feature introduces the
concept of Pool Areas. An UE roams freely within a Pool Area (in either connected or
idle mode) without the need to change the CN serving node. Pool Area configurations
are made in the CN nodes. Pool Areas themselves are not visible to the RAN, but the
RNC configuration has to be configured according to the CN Pool Area configurations
so that the RNC is able to route signaling messages to any CN node within a Pool Area.
The NAS Node Selector function (NNSF) is used for selecting the CN node for the UE.
The UE derives the value of the parameter NRI from the P-TMSI or IMSI and sends the
NRI to the RNC in the Initial Direct Transfer message. The RNC selects the CN node
corresponding to the NRI value configured in its database. The NNSF in the RNC
contains also the CN node recovery functionality, which balances the load between the
CN nodes of a pool in different cases, for example, with CN node failure, SW/HW update
or adding or removing a CN node to/from the pool.
2.4.4 HSPA 72 Users Per Cell
This feature increases the number of simultaneous HSPA (HSDPA and HSUPA) users
to 72 per cell, both with dedicated and shared scheduler. To allow scheduling and
control of increased number of HSPA users in a cell, the number of HS-SCCH channels
is increased to four.
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2.4.5 Common Channel Setup
In this feature the SRBs will be mapped to the RACH/FACH (CELL_FACH RRC state)
and this leads to the processing improvement in the BTS and Flexi Direct RNC. Also the
setup times are reduced as no dedicated radio links are activated during the RRC con-
nection setup procedure phase.
2.4.6 Multi-Operator Radio Access Network
Multi-Operator RAN (MORAN) allows up to four operators to share radio access
network. Operators use their own frequencies and own PLMN-id. Solution is compatible
with 3GPP standard and it is supported with all 3G terminals. MORAN solution allows
independent control of traffic for each operator; they have dedicated cell level parame-
ters. They can also add own BTSs under the shared RNC where needed. All operators
have their own interfaces towards the CS and PS core network. The subscribers of dif-
ferent operators use cells in different carrier layers (frequencies). The differentiation is
based on the Mobile Country Code (MCC) and Mobile Network Code (MNC) of the cell.
Each cell has MCC and MNC corresponding to the operator. This feature is compatible
with R99 and R4 Core Networks. This solution allows operators to individually plan and
optimize their own cell parameters whereas planning and dimensioning of global RNC
parameters, BTS, RNC, and transmission capacity need to be handled in cooperation.
Sharing the RAN gives the operators freedom in defining the scope of their cooperation
and determining when and where they want to provide additional capacity or coverage
of their own.
2.4.7 Multi-Operator Core Network
Multi-Operator Core Network (MOCN) is a 3GPP solution for RAN sharing. The PLMN-
identities of available CN operators are broadcasted to UEs in the system information
messages. The 3GPP R6 capable UEs choose the PLMN to which the Flexi Direct RNC
should start the signaling connection. The chosen PLMN is signaled to the Flexi Direct
BTS in the Initial Direct Transfer Message and based on the selected PLMN the signal-
ing connection is routed directly to the appropriate CN.
In this release Adapter can be connected to 16 SGSNs in the PS domain and up to 16
MSC/MGW in the CS domain. These can be shared between 1 to 4 operators.
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Mobility
3 Mobility
3.1 Mobility management
Flexi Direct is a fully mobile solution. Flexi Direct supports the following kinds of mobility:
Intra-system handover within the Flexi Direct
Intra-system handover with Iur
Intra-system handover without Iur
Inter-system handover between the Flexi Direct and a traditional 3G network
Inter-system handover between Flexi Direct and 2G
The basic feature set for mobility includes:
intra-system handover between Flexi Direct BTSs
Soft handover based on detected set reporting
3G inter-system Handover the same as normal RNC relocation
HSUPA handover
Paging for terminals in URA_PCH state
HSPA capability based handover
Inter-frequency handover
load and service based IS/IF handover
IMSI based handover
Inter-system handover between Flexi Direct and the traditional WCDMA RAN is the
same as the normal RNC relocation in the WCDMA network. Inter-system handover
from the Flexi Direct to the other IP-based access networks, such as WLAN, takes place
on the IP level.
Flexi Direct uses standard terminal SIM or U-SIM cards that support normal global
roaming. In case of non-Flexi Direct WCDMA networks of other operators the Flexi
Direct user or a terminal uses normal roaming procedures and agreements between the
operators. While the terminal moves inside the Flexi Direct, the PDP address always
remains the same and the IP stack of the terminal does not need to notice the mobility.
Terminal mobility in Flexi Direct uses standard Iu-PS interface towards SGSN and Iur
interfaces in case of mobility between Flexi Direct BTSs. This allows efficient reuse of
SGSN and GGSN. SGSN supports Direct tunnel solution where it processes only the Iu-
PS control plane. The Direct tunnel solution uses the standard interfaces Iu-PS and Gn,
therefore it can be used with the existing SGSN and GGSN.
Figure 7 Flexi Direct mobility - Gn based illustrates Gn based mobility in the Flexi Direct
System.
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Figure 7 Flexi Direct mobility - Gn based
3.1.1 Intra-system handover with Iur
In Flexi Direct System the intra-system handover procedure for the HSPA bearers is dif-
ferent from the 3GPP standardized SRNS relocation procedure. The main difference is
that radio links between UE and initial Source Adapter are not released after SRNS relo-
cation is completed. However, the radio links are actually retained after relocation for
bearers mapped to the DCH transport. The Idea behind this solution is to keep UE in UL
synchronization on those radio links to facilitate fast backward relocation if it is required.
This means that while there is a hard handover switching of user DL traffic on HS-DSCH,
soft handover state for bearers mapped to DCH transport is still maintained after com-
pletion of Serving Adapter change (SRNS relocation).
This feature is not standardized in 3GPP and requires extensions in RNSAP to support
this handover.
3.1.2 Intra-system handover without Iur
This feature enables basic mobility between Flexi Direct RNC without Iur interfaces. This
feature enables direct mobility between the high speed downlink shared channel (HS-
DSCH) in one cell to the other. Flexi Direct uses standard Hard Handover between the
Flexi Direct BTSs (UE involved Inter Adapter Relocation).
3.1.3 Soft Handover Based on Detected Set Reporting
A detected set is a set of cells that are detected by the UE, but are not included in the
neighbor cell list of the UE or the current active set. Detected set reporting is a 3GPP
functionality where the network commands the UE to report the detected set. Detected
set reporting is applicable to intra-frequency measurements made by the UE in the
Cell_DCH state.
This feature allows the operator to define 32 additional neighbors. These additional
neighbors are added on the top of the up to 32 normal neighbors that are signaled to the
UE. Additional neighbor list is not signalled to the UE, but if UE reports one or more of
these additional neighbor cells' scrambling code in the detected set report, RNC consid-
ers those as soft handover target cells in addition to normal neighbors. This means that
effectively each cell can have 64 neighbors: 32 neighbors that are signaled to the UE
and additional 32 ones which are not signaled.
SGSN
Flexi Direct BTS
Flexi Direct BTS
GGSN
Iur
Gn (GTP-C)
Gn (GTP-U)
IuPS (C)
Gi
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Mobility
3.1.4 Inter-frequency handover over Iur
This feature is useful when the D-RNC or CN does not support SRNS relocation.
Case 1: The Iur interface between the two Flexi Direct BTSs is used when the CN (MSC
/SGSN) to which it is connected does not support SRNS relocation.
Case 2: The Iur interface between the Flexi Direct BTS and RNC is used when CN or
D-RNC does not support the SRNS relocation. Flexi Direct BTS always supports SRNS
relocation. Inter-frequency handover over Iur is needed when there are isolated cells,
for example indoor cells, in a carrier under the DRNS or if carrier has a dedicated RNC.
The Serving Flexi Direct RNC (SRNC) and Drift Flexi Direct RNC (DRNC) support the
following inter-frequency handover signaling procedures over Iur:
inter-frequency handover within DRNS when all radio links in the active set are con-
trolled by the target DRNC
inter-frequency handover from the SRNS to the DRNS when one or more radio link
in the active set is controlled by the target DRNC
inter-frequency handover from the SRNS to the DRNS when no radio link in the
active set is controlled by the target DRNC
inter-frequency handover from the DRNS back to the SRNS
inter-frequency handover between two DRNSs when no radio link in the active set
is controlled by the target DRNC
3.1.5 Inter-system handover between the Flexi Direct and WCDMA RAN
Flexi Direct RAN can be in the same or different frequency layer. Its interface to WCDMA
RNCs based on standardized Iur interface. The intra-frequency and inter-frequency
mobility procedures are supported between the Flexi Direct and the WCDMA RAN.
When the Iur interface is commissioned between the Flexi Direct and WCDMA RAN, soft
handover procedures shall be supported for the Signaling Radio Bearers (SRB) and
Radio Bearers (RB) mapped to the DCH transport channel.
When the Iur interface is not commissioned, UE involved SRNS relocation is triggered
in all the scenarios involving only PS RAB(s). When the UE is allocated both CS and PS
RAB(s), the PS RAB(s) are reconfigured to the DCH/DCH before the relocation is trig-
gered.
3.1.6 Mobility between Flexi Direct and 2G network
The mobility procedures supported between WCDMA RNC and 2G network will be
applicable also for Flexi Direct RAN and the 2G Network.
Multiple BSIC Identification function is used as well. When an inter-system handover
from WCDMA to GSM may fail if the initial BSIC identification of the best GSM cell
(according to the GSM RSSI measurements) fails, or the target GSM cell is fully loaded.
Instead of waiting the penalty period and then retrying the handover with new com-
pressed mode measurements, the BSIC identification for more than one GSM cell is per-
formed. This increases the probability of successful BSIC identification and allows
another handover attempt to the second or third best cell without repetitive GSM mea-
surements if the first handover attempt fails.
In order to enable the handover attempt to the second or third best GSM cell, the RNC
selects two or three GSM target cells which meet the required radio link properties.
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3.1.7 Mobility between Flexi Direct and LTE
During LTE rollout phase interworking is supported and WCDMA services can be
provided for LTE users in the areas where LTE is not yet available. LTE interworking
feature introduces priority based algorithm for idle mode cell reselection. Operator is
able to prioritise WCDMA, LTE and GSM with eight distinct priorities (different Radio
Access Technologies must have different priorities). UE currently camped in WCDMA
will periodically measure any higher priority RATs. Any priority RATs will be measured
when WCDMA quality criteria fall below a threshold.
LTE to WCDMA PS handover functionality allows for service continuity of data services
with minimal interruption time when changing from a LTE cell to a WCDMA cell. LTE is
controlling when the handover is triggered and what are the possible WCDMA targets.
Multi-RAB handover from LTE to WCDMA is supported.
3.1.8 HSPA Capability Based Handover
This feature enables UE-and-cell-capability-based handover to HSPA layer. The inter-
frequency handover is periodically triggered for the HSPA capable UEs if the source cell
has suitable target candidates in the inter-frequency neighbor list. The candidates for
the handover are defined by the operator and they can be also from another BTS. The
HSPA capability of the source cell does not have impact, that is, source cell can be with
or without HSPA capability.The handover measurements for handover to HSPA layer
are triggered only in case the UE has an active service, which is allowed to perform
HSPA-capability-based handover. These services are defined by the operator. The
handover is performed directly to the HSPA channels on another frequency layer.
3.1.9 Load and service based IS/IF handover
Load- and-service-based handovers (HOs) handle load sharing and service differentia-
tion inside the WCDMA system as well as between WCDMA and GSM/GPRS systems.
Both load and service are taken into account simultaneously, but the measured load
defines the way of operation.
The load indicators that can be measured are uplink (UL)/downlink (DL) interference,
non-real time (NRT) traffic delay, DL spreading code availability and HW/logical
resource usage.
This feature also enables the operator to set different HO profiles for the service classes.
The service classes are split according to the traffic classes specified for radio access
bearers (RABs), separating the speech and data services from the CS and PS domains.
The Flexi Direct-RNC-based HO profile defines the preferred system (WCDMA, GSM)
or WCDMA hierarchical cell layer (GSM, WCDMA macro, WCDMA micro, none).
3.1.10 IMSI-based handover
The purpose of the IMSI-based handover feature is to be able to command a mobile
subscriber visiting another network to make handover measurements only to cells which
belong to specified PLMNs. Accordingly, in such a scenario the mobile subscriber can
only be handed over to those specified (home or authorized) PLMNs. The input for the
selective measurement control is the PLMN id that is included in the IMSI of the sub-
scriber.
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Mobility
IMSI-based handover benefits the geographical sharing and common shared RAN
concepts by enabling directed handovers from the shared WCDMA network to either the
subscriber's home network or to another authorized WCDMA or GSM network when
coverage becomes available. The functionality in these RAN-sharing concepts without
IMSI-based handover is that the same handover paths are allowed for all users and
mobiles have to find the correct network outside the active call state.
3.1.11 Inter-frequency handover
This feature introduces inter-frequency compressed mode measurement and handover
capability directly from HSDPA to HSDPA. This feature improves the user experience
because of faster HSDPA inter-frequency handover and higher data throughput during
the compressed mode. The target cell can be in the same Flexi Direct RNC or the neigh-
boring one, that is both Intra and Inter Adapter scenarios are supported. This feature is
also supported towards the 3G RNC.
Without this feature, the IF handover would require reconfiguration of the UE to the DCH
transport. This is required to start the compressed mode for the inter-frequency mea-
surements in the UE.
The following cases are possible:
DCH/HSDPA to DCH/DCH
DCH/HSDPA to DCH/HSDPA
DCH/DCH to DCH/HSDPA
DCH/DCH to HSUPA/HSDPA
3.1.12 HSPA over Iur in Flexi Direct BTS
This feature improves end-user performance by enhancing the data throughput in case
of inter-Flexi Direct BTS mobility.
The UE's intra-frequency measurements indicate that the strongest cell in the active set
is under the DRNC, HSDPA and HSUPA serving cell change over Iur is performed. After
the serving cell change, HSDPA and HSUPA data is transmitted over the Iur using
HSPA congestion control. The serving cell change over the Iur can also be performed
between cells controlled by DRNC. When the last active set cell in the SRNC is deleted,
UE not involved SRNS relocation is triggered while HSPA service is in use. In case of
failure or no SRNS relocation supported by DRNC/core network, channel type switch to
DCH is triggered. Also HSDPA with DCH in UL configuration is supported if HSUPA
cannot be used.
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Flexi Direct System Description Voice Service support
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4 Voice Service support
Flexi Direct provides voice services through the following ways:
CS AMR Voice support in Flexi Direct BTS
VoIP
4.1 CS AMR Voice support in Flexi Direct BTS
Flexi Direct System provides a basic CS AMR voice support. It is required for the voice
services that the Flexi Direct System supports the IuCS user plane over IP with the
Media Gateway (MGW).
Flexi Direct network supports the following codec sets:
AMR Codec Sets:
(12.2, 7.95, 5.90, 4.75)
(5.90, 4.75)
Wideband AMR Codec Set:
(12.65, 8.85, 6.6)
Flexi Direct network supports HSDPA/HSUPA with Simultaneous AMR Voice Call.
When the Terminal establishes CS AMR services, mobility procedures applied are as
per traditional WCDMA RAN (for example anchoring and UE NOT Involved Relocation).
Mobility with CS AMR service will be the same towards WCDMA network as inside the
Flexi Direct network.
The CS Voice over HSPA feature extends the UE talk time more than 50%, improving
the end user experience and increasing the operator's voice call revenues. End user
experience is also improved thanks to faster call set-up times. Voice over HSPA reduces
the call set up time by approximately 50%. Using the high spectral efficiency of HSPA
channels for AMR calls can increase the radio interface capacity up to 50%, leading to
CAPEX savings.
4.2 VoIP
Flexi Direct implements a PS optimized network, which can be used also for Voice over
IP (VoIP). It is possible to provide VoIP services in Flexi Direct network with different
messenger applications. These services are handled as non real-time call in the radio
interface.
4.3 HSDPA/HSUPA with simultaneous AMR support
The UE does not need to be transitioned to the DCH transport channel for the ongoing
HSDPA/HSUPA bearers when the CS voice call is initiated. This ensures that an AMR
voice call initiation does not influence the HSDPA/HSUPA service data flow.
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Location services (LCS)
5 Location services (LCS)
Location services (LCS) provide the operators with mechanisms to locate the mobile
subscribers, thus enabling the provision of location applications. The network provides
location applications with the geographical area (shape) that describes the location of
the UE. The location application processing this information resides either within or
outside the wireless network, for example Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP). The
network or an external application initiates a request for Flexi Direct capable UE posi-
tioning.
Flexi Direct supports some of the 3GPP UTRAN LCS methods. The methods provide
different levels of accuracy in different environments. Flexi Direct uses following LCS
methods:
Cell coverage-based with geographical coordinates. It is used as a fallback method
if A-GPS method fails. This CI+RTT method covers also Service Area Identifier
(SAI) method. The CI+RTT position is also used as a reference position for deter-
mining appropriate assistance data needed for A-GPS (therefore, CI+RTT is a pre-
requisite for A-GPS).
Assisted GPS. Flexi Direct supports UE-and-network based solution and IuPC inter-
face to Stand-alone A-GPS SMLC (SAS).
LCS Support in Drift RNC introduces positioning information transfer over the Iur in
the RNSAP radio link handling response messages. Serving RNC/Flexi Direct BTS
may use the information to provide location report towards the CN when anchoring
concept dominates. If the positioning is required in the serving RNC/Flexi Direct
BTS, in anchoring cases, the serving RNC/Flexi Direct BTS always uses the cell
identifier (CI) based method and passes the coordinates received from the drift
RNC/Flexi Direct BTS to the CN.
SAS-centric Iupc mode is 3GPP R7 Positioning Calculation Application Part (PCAP)
protocol feature. SAS-Centric Iupc allows a new functional split between RNC/Flexi
Direct RNC and Stand-alone SMLC (SAS). In the SAS-centric mode of operation the
SAS selects the used positioning method, triggers the required measurements and
determines the positioning result. A set of new procedures has been defined to
enable the positioning method selection and calculation in the SAS. This new func-
tional split is not visible to the BTS or the UE.
The above methods ensure the full service coverage and availability for all the environ-
ments.
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Flexi Direct System Description Location services (LCS)
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Figure 8 Location services for Flexi Direct
Position activation and reporting messaging are supported over Lg and IuPS interfaces
between GMLC, SGSN and Flexi Direct RNC. LCS system sees Flexi Direct RNC as
RNC that supports only single Flexi Direct BTS. Flexi Direct RNC supports also IuPC,an
LCS-specific interface, providing support for location services.
Iu-PC, which is a point-to-point logical interface, connects external GPS data reference
network node (SAS) to Flexi Direct BTS. LCS signaling is performed in the following
sequence:
1 PSAP requests UEs location from GMLC.
2 GMLC seeks the correct SGSN node and requests UEs position from SGSN with
MAP: Provide Subscriber Location.
GPS reference
Network
HLR Stand-Alone
SMLC (SAS)
IuPC/ADIF
Flexi Direct BTS
GMLC SGSN Flexi Direct BTS
RDF
LRF
ECS
GPS reference
from satellite
E2
PSAP
Lg
Gr
Iu-PS
3 5
2
1
4
1. PSAP sends location update request to GMLC.
2. GMLC requests SGSN address.
3. GMLC sends MT-LR to RAN via SGSN.
4. Flexi Direct RAN sends A-AGP MT-LR to the terminal with assistant
GPS location information from GMLC. Terminal responses with location
information as (,Y) and it is sent to the SGSN.
5. GMLC receives location information and sends it to PSAP. Location
information is in (X,Y) format.
SIP
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Location services (LCS)
3 SGSN receives the request from GMLC and SGSN verifies that UE privacy is over-
ridden by the emergency services provider.
4 After proper user position requestor authentication, SGSN sends RANAP: Location
Reporting Control to Flexi Direct RNC indicating the start of location procedure.
5 Flexi Direct RNC verifies if UE is in dedicated channel and initiates cell-based
location procedure to achieve initial estimate of UEs location. If cell-based location
procedure cannot provide sufficiently accurate position estimate, Flexi Direct RNC
initiates GPS assistance data retrieval procedure from SAS, which is based on initial
UE location estimate.
6 The assistance data received from SAS is forwarded to UE in RRC Measurement
Control. The data contains a command to initiate UEs internal positioning measure-
ment that uses given assistance data and UE integrated GPS capabilities.
7 The received UE position estimate with RRC Measurement report, based on GPS
System, is returned to PSAP via Flexi Direct RNC, SGSN, and GMLC. If GPS
system is unable to calculate UEs position for any reason, cell-based positioning
estimate is used instead.
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Flexi Direct System Description Paging in Flexi Direct Network
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6 Paging in Flexi Direct Network
Flexi Direct supports all the RRC states including URA_PCH state. URA_PCH state is
supported in Flexi Direct network to decrease the mobility load for the core and Flexi
Direct BTS. In the URA_PCH state the UE can change the cell in the UTRAN Registra-
tion Area (URA) without generating any mobility event towards the core network. Paging
over Iur is also supported for handling overlapping URA across adapters.
The concept of URA overlapping across Flexi Direct BTS borders is used, where neigh-
boring Flexi Direct BTS cells can belong to the same URA-IDs. If the URA does not
change, the fast moving UE in URA_PCH state crosses Flexi Direct BTS borders without
informing the network about its current cell. The use of overlapping URAs prevents
some unnecessary SRNC relocations. Also a relocation "ping-ponging" of the mobiles
(in RRC states other than Cell_DCH) can be avoided when the source Flexi Direct RNC
relocation procedure is not initiated immediately after the UE has moved to the drift Flexi
Direct RNC.
6.1 Paging Optimization in Flexi Direct Network
In normal paging, MSC/SGSN has to distribute the RANAP paging message to all the
Flexi Direct BTS part of the LA/RA to initiate paging for the UE in the RRC IDLE mode.
This leads to the increase in the signaling load in the Core network. To reduce the
paging load in the core network, Flexi Direct RAN supports paging optimization solution.
The Paging Optimization solution happens according to the following scheme:
Each Location Area/Routing Area is divided into paging groups where each Paging
Group has one Paging Master(PM) and one Paging Standby (PS).
Several Flexi Direct BTSs are grouped to form a paging group.
One of the Flexi Direct BTSs in the paging group is configured as paging master.
For the redundancy purposes, another Flexi Direct BTS in the paging group is con-
figured as paging standby.
Both paging master and paging standby need to have Iur connection to other Flexi
Direct BTSs in the paging group.
The MSC and SGSN are also configured with the paging group Information.
MSS/SGSN sends RANAP Paging to all the paging masters (if they are available)
in the Location Area Code (LAC)/Routing Area Code (RAC).
If a paging master in a certain paging group is down, MSS/SGSN sends RANAP
paging to the paging standby Flexi Direct BTS.
If both paging master and paging standby Flexi Direct BTSs in a certain paging
group is down, MSS/SGSN sends RANAP paging to all the alive Flexi Direct
BTSs in that paging group.
Each paging master/standby coordinates paging and sends paging to own cells. In
case UE is not found in the paging Flexi Direct BTS, the RNSAP paging message is
forwarded over the Iur interface to other Flexi Direct BTSs in its own paging group.
Flexi Direct BTSs receiving Iur paging messages coordinate paging and send to
their own cells.
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Paging in Flexi Direct Network
Figure 9 Paging Optimization
g
The Paging Optimization is a Nokia Siemens Networks proprietary feature that works
only with the Nokia Siemens Networks Core(MSC/SGSN).
6.2 Paging Channel with data rate of 24 Kbps
In Flexi Direct, the Paging Channel data rate is increased to 24 Kbps. This eases paging
message congestion and thus improves the end-user experience when the number of
subscribers and call attempts increases.
The PCH data rate is increased to 24 kbps. This is achieved by using 240 bits Transport
Block Size (TBS) with 10 ms Transmission Time Interval (TTI).
With the 24 Kbps configuration, the PCH is mapped on a dedicated Secondary Common
Control Physical Channel (SCCPCH). This means that two SCCPCHs are needed in a
cell: one for Forward Access Channels (FACHs) and other for Paging Channel (PCH).
SCCPCH for 24Kbps PCH requires SF128 code channel.
Flexi Direct BTS
MSS
MT transation
(CS call, SMS)
Paging Group (1)
Iur Paging
Paging Group (2)
Iur Paging
Paging Group (n)
Iur Paging
LAC1
LAC1:
Flexi Direct BTS1, Flexi Direct BTS2, ...
Flexi Direct BTS100
Flexi Direct BTS Flexi Direct BTS
Iu Paging
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Flexi Direct System Description Radio resource management in Flexi Direct
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7 Radio resource management in Flexi Direct
Flexi Direct brings benefits to both the operators and the end users. In practice, Flexi
Direct offers higher data rates to end users, larger coverage areas especially for high bit
rates, lower delay in case of transmission failures, larger capacity in the radio network,
and the opportunity for the operator to deliver services the existing ones and the new
ones at a lower cost of bit. Most of the benefits are guaranteed thanks to radio
resource management functionalities which is a set of Flexi Direct system functions
used for the establishment, maintenance, and release of radio connections needed by
the system.
7.1 MIMO feature
MIMO feature enables high HSDPA bit rates. It leads to subscription differentiation and
additional data service revenue. The feature leads not only to the enhancement of single
user peak rate, but it also increases the average cell throughput. Thus, both end-user
experience and overall network efficiency get improved.
2x2 MIMO uses two transmit antennas at the BTS and two receive antennas at the UE.
MIMO has two operational modes. In dual stream mode two parallel data streams carry
different data. This allows two times higher peak bit rate compared to same case but
without MIMO. In single stream mode MIMO does not increase the peak rate. However,
it improves the radio conditions for MIMO UEs, as UE can choose from four different
beams from the NodeB. The beams are created with a phase shift in the signal between
the two transmitting antennas.
HSDPA Rel8 terminal categories 19 and 20 support MIMO with 64QAM. For supporting
UEs, NodeB will use MIMO single stream mode in bad and average radio conditions.
With good radio conditions, NodeB switches to dual stream mode. In extremely good
conditions dual stream mode is used together with 64QAM modulation, enabling the
best possible bit rates up to 42 Mbps.
7.2 Fast Dormancy
Fast Dormancy feature saves signaling load compared to proprietary "fast dormancy"
implemented in many smart phones. Also user experience is improved thanks to faster
setup from Cell_PCH state compared to idle. Battery saving is similar to proprietary "fast
dormancy".
Fast dormancy is an optional feature for UEs in 3GPP Release 8. There is a new UE
"Signaling Connection Release Indication Cause" in SIGNALLING CONNECTION
RELEASE INDICATION. This cause indicates to the network that the UE has deter-
mined it has concluded active PS data transfer.
Upon reception of this Information Element the RNC will trigger an RRC State transition
to Cell_PCH instead of letting the UE to go to idle mode. URA_PCH state may be
selected for fast moving UE. Cell_PCH has a very low battery consumption, and send-
ing/receiving data requires only a fraction of the signaling compared to starting from idle
state. Also HSPA setup is faster from Cell_PCH or URA_PCH state compared to RRC
idle.
Some smart phones ignore network timers to move to Cell_PCH state, and instead
move directly to idle. Such terminals cause a huge unnecessary signalling load to the
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Radio resource management in Flexi Direct
network. UEs supporting fast dormancy can be controlled by network and yet save bat-
teries.
7.3 HSUPA interference cancellation receiver
HSUPA Interference Cancellation enables higher HSUPA throughput especially in
typical data and voice mixed scenario. It allows high Ec/No for a high data rate 2 ms
HSUPA user while keeping the noise rise within the planned limits. Cell coverage is
therefore not compromised due to the high rate user.
Without IC even a single 2 ms user either could not reach a high bit rate or would shrink
the cell easily by 6 dB beyond the planned minimum coverage. Note that IC reduces
interference caused by other users on own signal, while RAN1702 Equalizer reduces
interference caused by own signal in multipath channel.
HSUPA Interference Cancellation removes the interference originating from other UEs
in 2 ms TTI UEs. The 2 ms TTI UEs are first received with a regular rake receiver or with
FDE. Next, turbo decoding is performed and the decoded data, seen as interference by
other users is used to reconstruct the original signal. Reconstruction includes turbo
encoding, spreading and modulation. The reconstructed signal, interpreted as interfer-
ence to the other UEs, is subtracted from the original antenna signal. thus, the UEs
received from the residual signal benefit from lower interference level. As a result,
coverage and capacity gains for the cell can be achieved.
7.4 Frequency Domain Equalizer
Frequency Domain Equalizer (FDE) is an enabler for high uplink data rates up to 11
Mbps (with 5 MHz) or 23 Mbps (with 10 MHz) with 16QAM. FDE reduces the interfer-
ence from multipath components of user signal. This solution is especially beneficial to
HSUPA with short spreading codes.
FDE is the same solution as in 3GPP LTE utilizing frequency domain equalization. FDE
is simpler compared to traditional time domain equalizer. It captures the energy from all
multi paths and offers robust performance in all channel conditions with up to 2x higher
16QAM data rate compared to Rake receiver.
FDE efficiently removes inter-symbol interference arising from user's own signal due to
multipath propagation. Rake receiver is unable to receive high data rates even in total
absence of other cell interference, since the short spreading codes with high HSUPA
data rates are vulnerable to inter-symbol interference. FDE can remove the inter-symbol
interference, leaving other users of the same cell and surrounding cells to be the main
limiting factors for UL data rates.
Interference from other users of the own cell can be alleviated with HSUPA interference
cancellation. FDE and IC can be operated in the same cell at the same time.
7.5 Extension of RNC identification numbers
This is a 3GPP Release 7 enhancement for flat architecture to enable up to 64 thousand
Flexi Direct BTS/Flexi Direct RNC in the network. RNC ID limit is increased from 4 to 64
thousand network elements. In Flexi Direct system the RNC ID defines Flexi Direct RNC
ID and RNC ID limit defines maximum number of Flexi Direct RNC in the network. For
the enhancement to be functional only the core network needs to support the RNC ID
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limit extension. Other elements such as mcRNC and IPA-RNC do not need to support
the extension for the feature to take effect.
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Transport
8 Transport
8.1 Flexi Direct transport
Flexi Direct uses IP-based transport interfaces. It supports Iu-PS, Iu-CS, Iur, Iu-PC, Iu-
B, and DCN interfaces over IP. Flexi Direct handles terminal mobility by utilizing Iur inter-
faces between Flexi Direct BTSs, and between Flexi Direct BTS and RNC. Standard Iu-
PS and Iu-CS interfaces are used towards the core network. The concept allows efficient
reuse of MSS, MGW, SGSN and GGSN. Flexi Direct System also supports the Flexi-
Packet Radio microwave system which can be connected directly to the Flexi Direct BTS
ethernet interface.
8.1.1 Transport interfaces
In Flexi Direct RU30 logical Interfaces (that is Iu-PS, Iu-CS, Iur, Iu-PC, Iu-BC and DCN)
are all supported with the FTLB tranport module. Network operator can select among
the following transport options for them:
all logical interfaces mapped as IP over Ethernet
all logical interfaces mapped as IP over AAL5/ATM/PDH (Iu-BC interface is not sup-
ported in this transport option)
Synchronization
In any case ToP will be available only as IP over Ethernet. Synchronous Ethernet is not
supported in Flexi Direct RU30.
For the ATM transport option, the network synchronization is usually delivered to the
BTS via PDH interfaces.
Ethernet and ATM transport interfaces
The interface towards the transport network can be established over Ethernet or
TDM/ATM. The Flexi Transport sub-module FTLB in Flexi Direct BTS utilizes both trans-
port options.
Ethernet
For an Flexi Direct BTS without activated Basic Ethernet switching, one GE port of the
FTLB unit is used for Iu-PS, Iu-CS, Iur, Iu-BC, DCN, and Iu-PC. In case Basic Ethernet
switching is used all three external Ethernet ports of the FTLB can be activated. The
actual port(s) to be used is/are arbitrarily configurable in the BTS.
Local Management of the BTS and of the adapter is done via the BTS local management
port.
No physical layer redundancy (board or port) is provided at transport level.
Ethernet link aggregation is also not supported. However, SCTP multi-homing is a sup-
ported functionality that has self-healing capabilities in case of connectivity loss for C-
Plane.
ATM
The ATM transport option is supported only on PDH interfaces: up to 4 E1/T1/JT1 ports
are present on the FTLB unit in addition to the Ethernet ports.
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When using E1, T1 or JT1, it is possible to use Inverse Multiplexing ATM (IMA) within
suitable subsets of the physical ports on the respective Exchange Termination (ET).
The IMA functionality which that is included in all interfaces can be set on and off by
software settings. It is supported according to ATM Forum Recommendation AF-PHY-
0086.001.
The ATM support consists of a configurable number of AAL5 PVCs encapsulated in a
single ATM VP.
8.1.2 Flexi Transport Sub-Modules (FTM)
FTLB is the Flexi Transport submodule used for the Flexi Direct BTS. It has 2xGEe,
1xGEo and 4xE1/T1/JT1 interfaces. It supports ToP and IPsec as well.
8.1.3 Control plane protocols
Figure 10 Iu-CS, Iu-PS and Iur Control Plane represents the control plane protocol
stacks for Iu-CS, Iu-PS, and Iur interfaces. The higher layers protocol applies to both IP
over Ethernet and IP over ATM transport solution. The lower protocol layers are dif-
ferent for IP over Ethernet and for the IP over ATM transport option. These two alter-
natives are represented by different colors.
The Control Plane provides:
control signaling protocols for packet-switched/circuit-switched service manage-
ment, user management and resource management.
transport signaling protocols for the allocation of the bearers between the Flexi
Direct BTS and the MSC in the case of a circuit-switched domain.
transport signaling protocols for the activation of the PDP context between the Flexi
Direct BTS and the SGSN in the case of a packet-switched domain.
Figure 10 Iu-CS, Iu-PS and Iur Control Plane
8.1.4 User plane protocols
The figures reported in this subsection represent the Iu-CS, Iu-PS, and Iur interfaces
protocol stacks for both IP over Ethernet and IP over ATM transport options.
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Transport
8.1.4.1 Iu-CS higher level
Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) is supported according to IETF RFC3350 and
3GPP TS25.414. Encryption is not required for RTP as, it is provided by the lower layers.
The transmitter indicates that RTP version 2 is used. The receiver reports an error if the
version number is different and ignores the packet. The receiver accepts packets that
contain padding.
Figure 11 Iu-CS User Plane
8.1.4.2 Iu-PS higher level
GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) at the Iu-PS interface: a connection-oriented data
bearer is obtained forming a tunnel between the Flexi Direct BTS and the SGSN. This
tunnel is then extended from the SGSN to the GGSN. If the direct tunnel feature is
active, this tunnel is established directly between the Flexi Direct BTS and the GGSN.
Figure 12 Iu-PS User Plane
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8.1.4.3 Iur higher level
The Flexi Direct BTS at Iur uses multiple local UDP ports, one per bearer. The selected
UDP ports are used as destination and source ports in the ingress and egress directions
respectively.
Figure 13 Iur User Plane
8.1.4.4 Iu-PC and O&M interfaces
Both the Iu-PC interface, between Flexi Direct BTS and the Stand-alone A-GPS Serving
mobile location centre (SAS), and the O&M interfaces, between Flexi Direct BTS and
OMS/NetAct, are based either on IP over Ethernet or IP over ATM (IPoA) transport
option as shown in the following figures:
Figure 14 Iu-PC interface
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Transport
Figure 15 O&M interfaces
For Iu-PC there is one single-homing association between the Flexi Direct RNC and
SAS. Please note that Iu-PC is only control plane, no separate user plane connection is
needed. Iu-PC can use the same source IP and network path as for example Iur CP in
Flexi Direct RNC.
8.1.4.5 Iu-BC interface
The Iu-BC interface is a logical interface between an Flexi Direct RNC or RNC in the
radio access network and a cell broadcast centre (CBC) in the core network, in its broad-
cast domain. Iu-BC is one instance of the Iu interface and is used for the cell broadcast
services.
Operator can run Iu-BC interface directly over Ethernet without any additional equip-
ment, like for example ATM based IP router.
Figure 16 Protocol architecture for the Service Area Broadcast with IP over Ethernet.
The Iu-BC interface protocol architecture consists of two functional layers:
the radio network layer containing the user plane protocol service area broadcast
protocol (SABP),
the transport network layer contains protocols related to transporting the user data.
In the transport network user plane, the path protocol used is TCP/I. It is used as the
bearer for the radio network layer protocol over the Iu-BC, IPv4 is supported.
In the radio network layer SABP is used between the Flexi Direct RNC or RNC and CBC
for both data transfer and signaling. There is no clear separation of control and user
planes.
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8.1.5 IP over ATM transport option
As an alternative to the IP transport option, it is possible to send control and user data
from the Flexi Direct BTS towards the Network by using an ATM over PDH infrastruc-
ture. Only AAL5 encapsulation is supported for all types of traffic.
8.1.5.1 ATM Adaptation Layer 5
The ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5), defined in ITU-T I.363.5 and on top of the ATM
layer, maps higher layer protocols to ATM layer.
An association must be made between the peer nodes IP address and the encapsulat-
ing permanent virtual circuit (PVC), for example Flexi Direct BTS and Router. This asso-
ciation can be made by using either O&M (that is by local configuration) or Inverse ATM
Address Resolution Protocol (InATMARP).
8.1.5.2 ATM Layer
The ATM Layer is structured as two levels: the Virtual Path (VP) and the Virtual Circuit
(VC) level respectively.
The Flexi Direct BTS supports both permanent Virtual Path Connections (VPC) and per-
manent Virtual Channel Connections (VCC) as defined in ITU-T I.361. The term perma-
nent means that the Virtual Paths (VP) and the Virtual Channels (VC) are established
via Management plane (that is DCN).
8.1.6 Basic Ethernet Switching
The Basic Ethernet Switching feature extends the transport connectivity options at Flexi
Direct BTS site via the Layer 2 Ethernet Switching functionality for the FTLB transport
sub-module embedded in the Flexi Direct BTS Flexi.
Even though the FTLB provides up to three Ethernet ports connected to an internal
Ethernet Switch, initially only one is enabled for usage. A license activates the additional
Ethernet ports to be used to switch-in the traffic from other sources, such as other
chained Flexi Direct BTS. When the Basic Ethernet Switching function is enabled, it is
possible to connect another Flexi Direct BTS (leaf Flexi Direct BTS) to the first one
(chaining BTS) and create a chain. The "leaf Flexi Direct BTS" itself could be "chaining
Flexi Direct BTS" for another Flexi Direct BTS. Enabling the switching function is
license-controlled. The license is neither port nor capacity based, that is, when the
license is available, EIF1 to EIF3 can be used with their port speed.
The Ethernet Switch chip supports the L2 Switching functionality according to IEEE
802.1D. This working group provides rules for forwarding an Ethernet frame from one
port to another according to the destination address of the frame. Maximum Ethernet
Frame Size supported is 1632 bytes.
8.1.7 Synchronization
The Flexi Direct BTS site configuration is a critical issue for the operator. The operator
must be able to re-use the existing infrastructure, when available and reasonable (for
example, synchronization from co-sited BTS).
The following synchronization solutions are possible:
synchronization from GPS
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synchronization from 2.048MHz G.703 signal
synchronization from TDM traffic interfaces
synchronization from Ethernet interface: Timing-over-Packet
Timing over Packet synchronization
Timing over Packet (ToP) feature is provided as Flexi Direct BTS Network Element
needs a reference clock for running air interface with the required frequency accuracy
when Ethernet transport interfaces are used instead of PDH ones.
ToP synchronization feature permits to distribute timing references in Ethernet/IP
Networks (PSNs): the Flexi Direct BTS (Timing Slave) is remotely frequency synchro-
nized by means of a proper sequence of timing packets generated by an external source
(that is ToP Master).
The ToP Master Clock, which is responsible for the synchronization of the Flexi Direct
BTSs, is the Symmetricoms TimeProvider5000 equipment, or alternatively SSU2000
equipped with a unit providing master clock functionality.
The ToP Master Clock serving a large number of slave clocks is the most critical part of
the ToP solution. Therefore, ToP Master Clock can have fully redundant units (that is
hot standby) for ToP processing; the Flexi Direct BTS slaves see the fully redundant
master as a single master with one address.
The ToP packets, which should be treated in the transport network with the highest
priority (EF PHB), have to be forwarded between the ToP Master, located in the Core
Network (CN), and the Flexi Direct BTS with the lowest jitter.
ToP solution implementation is compliant to IEEE 1588v2 standard. It defines the Pre-
cision Time Protocol (PTP) which enables multi-vendor distributed systems (that is
network communications) with clocks of various inherent precision, resolution and sta-
bility, to synchronize to a grandmaster clock.
The following features and functions of IEEE 1588 v2 are supported for ToP solution:
Master clock acts as timing master for the slave clocks.
Slave clock recovers the timing based on the communication between the master
and the slave.
Sync message carries the basic timing information from the master to the slaves.
Unicast is the communication mode between the master and the slaves in Flexi
Direct ToP application.
Unicast Discovery is used for configuring the slave with the address of the master.
Unicast Negotiation is used to start unicast communication between the master and
the slaves.
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Figure 17 ToP Architecture
Figure 18 Protocol stack for ToP
8.1.8 IP Security
IPSec is a feature that enables securing the traffic sent over an IP network. In the
networks where RNCs are in separate secure core network sites there is no possibility
to eavesdrop the packet. As the Flexi Direct RNCs are moved towards Flexi Direct BTS
sites and thus exposed to security breach, the support of IPsec is essential for informa-
tion security.
In the networks where RNC is used and a secure transmission pipe is needed, the
Security Gateway (SGW) is installed in the RNC site. In Flexi Direct network, it is not
feasible to install SGW per each Flexi Direct BTS as that would increase cost of the
network. Therefore, IPSec encryption and authentication is introduced in Flexi Direct
RNC.
IPSec is used to protect the following interfaces in Flexi Direct BTS:
IuPS-c
Iu-PS-u
IuCS-c
IuCS-u
Iur-c
Iur-u
Timing over Packet
Eth
Eth
Eth
Ethernet/IP
Flexi Direct BTS
Flexi Direct BTS
Switch/Router
Top Master
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Transport
M-plane
The feature allows remote configuration of IPsec parameters, both by direct administra-
tion commands and via plan download. A separate secure connection using SSH/SFTP
is used for configuration, so that potential problems in the IPsec tunnel synchronization
can be fixed without the necessity of sending service personnel to the Flexi Direct BTS
site.
The logical representation of connections between network elements is presented in the
Figure 19 Logical IP Sec Architecture..
Figure 19 Logical IP Sec Architecture.
g
For more information on IP Security, see IP Security feature description in Transmission
and Transport Feature Descriptions.
MGW
MSS
CBC
SAS
SAS
NetAct
OMS
CA User Plane
Control Plane
Management Plane
CMP/LDAP
Ipsec Tunnel
RNC
Flexi Direct BTS
ToP Master
SGSN
GGSN
SGW
SGW
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8.1.9 Hybrid Transport solutions for Flexi Direct BTS
Hybrid Transport functionality is a hybrid mobile backhaul concept for enabling selective
use of E1/TDM or IP/ETH on the Iu (IuCS & IuPS) and IuR interfaces. This allows to
benefit from simultaneous use of ATM and Ethernet infrastructure. By doing so the con-
gestion of each interface is decreased.
The two hybrid scenarios are presented in the Flexi Direct transport scenarios overview
table below.
The characteristics of two hybrid transport scenarios are as follows:
1. Hybrid Transport Scenario 1
The main characteristics of transport network considered in this scenario are as
follows:
Transport network configuration uses a single virtual path (VP) per Flexi Direct
BTS.
Transport network consists of a single virtual channel connection (VCC) carrying
Iu-CS control and user plane traffic.
Possible cross-connections in the transport network are based on VCC cross-
connections.
The ATM layer configuration between the Flexi Direct BTS and core site can be
made using VCC. The proposed VCC configuration is as follows:
1*VCC for user and control part traffic on all interfaces
The use of different VCCs makes it possible to configure dedicated resources for
each traffic type and enables the efficient use of the bandwidth.
With traffic separation, all traffic demands are dimensioned according to the input
traffic type mix and have dedicated VCC bandwidth to convey data between Flexi
Direct BTS and operators core site. Enabling the UBR+ ATM service category for
HSPA traffic allows more flexible use of the available bandwidth comparing to CBR.
2. Hybrid Transport Scenario 2
The main characteristic of Hybrid Transport Scenario 2 is the same as Hybrid Trans-
port Scenario 1.
g
For more information see Hybrid Transport Solutions for Flexi Direct BTS feature
description in Transmission and Transport Feature Descriptions.
Interface
Homogenous Homogenous Hybrid Scenario 1 Hybrid Scenario 2
IP/Ethernet IP/ATM/PDH IP/Ethernet IP/ATM/PDH IP/Ethernet IP/ATM/PDH
Iu-CS (CP&UP) X X - X - X
Iu-PS (CP&UP) X X X - X -
Iur (CP&UP) X X X - - X
Iu-PC X X X - X -
DCN X X X - X -
Table 1 Flexi Direct transport scenarios overview
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8.2 QoS support on IP
For IP Transport option, the Quality of Service (QoS) at transport layer can be provided
with:
DSCP mapping according to DiffServ architecture
VLAN priority bits
VLANs separation
QoS for ATM Transport option at transport layer can be provided with traffic managem-
net functions like service category, traffic shaping, buffer management, and scheduling.
DSCP mapping
The traffic classification is based on DSCP information contained in the IP packets. All
traffic sourced from the Flexi Direct BTS in uplink direction is marked with a proper
DSCP value, inserted into the type of service (Type of Service) field in IPv4 header, to
allow a proper prioritization of the packet towards external NEs. The DSCP value
assigned to each IP packet is used to map it into a Per-Hop-Behavior (PHB) in the
network according to IETF RFC2474.
The Flexi Direct BTS binds the allocated DSCP value to a PHB value according to a
table configurable by NetAct. Table 2 DSCP mapping - default values reports the default
mapping between DSCP and PHB values.
The transport scheduler sends the IP packets to the relevant queue according to the
PHB value and the weight associated with the traffic class.
Traffic Type DSCP Default values PHB
UMTS Traffic
ConversationalTCToDSCP 46 EF
StreamingTCToDSCP 34 AF4
InteractiveTHP1ToDSCP 26 AF3
InteractiveTHP2ToDSCP 18 AF2
InteractiveTHP3ToDSCP 10 AF1
BackgroundToDSCP 0 BE
Signaling
Control Plane (RANAP; RNSAP) 34 AF4
GTP-U 34 AF4
Network Control Traffic
OSPF 48 EF
ICMP 0 BE
Synchronization
ToP 46 EF
Table 2 DSCP mapping - default values
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In case some traffic is encrypted with IPsec (tunnel mode), the DSCP value to consider
is that of the outer IPsec IP header. This DSCP value is copied from the header of the
inner IP packet.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) monitoring and Bidirectional Forward-
ing Detection (BFD)
Flexi Direct RU30 supports BFD (CD release) and ICMP echo replying (ping reply). In
the next releases for ICMP Ping in Flexi Direct BTS, a DSCP value for the ICMP packets
will be recommended with a default value.
VLAN priority bits
In an L2 network scenario it is assumed that the traffic prioritization is based on VLAN
priority bits of Ethernet frame according to IEEE 802.1p.
The Table 3 VLAN priority bits reports the default mapping between VLAN P-bits and
PHB values.
VLAN support
According to IEEE 802.1Q, VLANcan be optionally supported in case of IP over Ethernet
interfaces.
Optionally, a mixture of Ethernet frames with and without VLAN headers are supported
with the same Ethernet interface. The priority bits in the VLAN header are supported.
VLANs can be used for:
Control Plane and User Plane resources separation at Iu interface.
Separation of logical interface instances of Iur and Iu: Iu-PC, Iu-BC, ToP and O&M.
traffic classification
In Flexi Direct BTS the VLAN option can be used for traffic separation and classifi-
cation based on DSCP value. Traffic separation is performed for the different logical
interface instances. Mapping of traffic into separate VLAN ID can be used in the
transport network can be used in transport network by Service Level Agreement
(SLA) and lead to to finer traffic classification.
Traffic management via ATM virtual channel separation
A traffic contract specifies the desired ATM service category, the desired QoS, the traffic
parameters, and the associated tolerance values.
VLAN P-bits PHB default
7 ARP (not configurable)
6 EF
5 AF4
4 AF3
3 AF2
2 -
1 AF1
0 BE
Table 3 VLAN priority bits
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The ATM service categories "CBR", "UBR" are implemented according to the ATM
Forum specification document AF-TM-0121.000 version 4.1. The ATM service category
UBR has been extended by ATM Forum standard [Addendum to Traffic Management
v4.1 for an Optional Minimum Desired Cell Rate for UBR; AF-TM-0150; July 2000) to
support an additional parameter Minimum Desired Cell Rate (MDCR). An UBR imple-
mentation that supports the MDCR parameter (that is when MDCR value is set to more
than "0") is commonly denoted as UBR+. The UBR+ service category includes the UBR
service category as well.
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9 Security
9.1 Security foundations
Protection of a public telecommunication network against unauthorized reconfiguration
or malfunctioning, and privacy of user communication are mandatory practically in all
countries according to governing laws and regulations. Although the laws may differ
operators are usually obliged to secure their networks and provide privacy of communi-
cation. They can either constrain physical access to their networks or implement tech-
nical barriers to non-authorized access. In WCDMA, for example, 3GPP decided to
require cryptographic means for the air interface and the last-mile network between
NodeBs and RNCs, but to consider the transport network between RNCs and core as a
secure network domain, where operators can guarantee that network access is com-
pletely under their control.
The purpose of the system is:
protect the system against misuse
detect the misuse, and react to it
Protection, detection, and reaction complement each other; the stronger protection
mechanisms you have, the less you have to invest in reaction and detection mecha-
nisms, and the other way round.
9.1.1 Security features
Security requirements
The basic security requirements are as follows:
Confidentiality ensures that information is available only to the authorized users.
Information may be confidential for various reasons: because of its private, commer-
cial, or political nature. Attacks on confidentiality can be prevented by using proto-
cols that offer encryption, such as TLS, and SSH.
Integrity prevents information from being changed by unauthorized persons. Attacks
on integrity, such as man-in-the middle-attacks, can be prevented with signed cer-
tificates during the distribution of public keys in connection with a certain public key
infrastructure (PKI).
Authentication is the process of determining users identity. Authentication based on
the username/password method takes place on the server side; typically, the server
is also authenticated based on the certificates. Mutual authentication requires
secure deployment of public keys to clients.
Authorization allows resources, such as services, to be used only by the authorized
resource consumers (users).
Accountability (or non-repudiation) ensures that actions that modify the system
behavior are traceable to the user who initiated the action. Misuse of this security
feature can be avoided through authentication, or can be detected through audit
trail.
Availability ensures that information and information processing systems are avail-
able when they are required. Attacks on availability, such as denial-of-service (DoS),
attacks can be prevented or their effect can be reduced by:
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providing the external SSH service in a single node that is preferably not crucial
for the functioning,
implementing overload control in connection with the bearer network (DoS
attacks within the O&M network can be considered less likely),
DoS attacks, and the distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks at the IP level
especially, are difficult to counter.The best example is the situation where the
attacker broadcasts a large amount of forged Internet Control Message Protocol
(ICMP) echo packets with the IP address of the victim server as source address. As
result, the victim server is overloaded with ICMP echo replies.
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9.2 User security
Flexi Direct user security involves authentication, authorization, user event logging and
log collection, and user accounts and groups.
9.2.1 Authentication
Adapter C-plane
Authentication is based on the standard username/password pairs. Authentication
involves the following events:
MMI sessions over telnet or SSH (MML command line)
HTTP
FTP
BTS Operation and maintenance
For all the above events, authentication uses the same program block. User is
authenticated with a local username/password file, or with a NetAct LDAP server.
Adapter U-plane
In Flexi Direct, there is no authentication on the U-plane. The users are authenticated
through O&M plane.
OMS
Flexi Direct uses standard Linux username/password authentication.
Remote authentication
Flexi Direct RNC, OMS, and Flexi Direct BTS support centralized user information man-
agement, where the remote authentication server at the NetAct site authenticates users.
OMS contains its own LDAP server that is synchronized with NetAct through NWI3.
NWI3 sessions are authenticated with own username/password pair for each network
element.
If NetAct is not present in the system, remote authentication is not possible, and
therefore, the system uses local authentication.
Password requirements
Password requirements include length, complexity level, and the aging policy.
Passwords for local users follow the NET Security Hardening Guide. NetAct controls
password for the NetAct users.
9.2.2 Authorization
Authorization of local users
In Flexi Direct RNC control plane and user plane, authority requirement assigns the
MML commands, the number from 1 to 250. This is a predefined number that can be
changed during the runtime. Users profile contains the authority level of the user. If this
authority level is not lower than the authority requirement level of a command, the user
can execute the command. The system does not differentiate between the types of file
access: user can either access to all files, or have no access at all.
In OMS, Flexi Direct uses standard Linux authorization.
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Centralized User Information Management
Centralized User Information Management defines an authorization mechanism that the
remote authentication server at the NetAct site manages. It is an optional feature and
can be present only when NetAct is present in the system.
9.2.3 User event logging and log collection
Flexi Direct System employs Centralized User Event Log Management feature that
implements support for user event log collection in the Flexi Direct RNC. It is managed
by NetAct.
g
There is no support for centralized log management in the Flexi Direct BTS.
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10 Operability overview
10.1 Introduction to Flexi Direct System operability
Operability is the ability of a system to operate. Flexi Direct System is affected by various
Network Elements (NEs) and to guarantee a faultless and undisturbed functioning,
these NEs need to be configured and managed accordingly. The NEs needed for Flexi
Direct System to operate are:
Flexi Multiradio BTS
Flexi Direct RNC integrated into FTLB transport module
Flexi Direct OMS (Operation and Management Server)
Flexi Direct System offers support of centralized management by means of NetAct
Network Management System (NMS). NetAct is optional element of the network, not
required by the system to be operational. Flexi Direct Operability documentation covers
aforementioned network elements roles related to the entire system operability. These
roles are covered in the context of what is rather than how to.
The operability functional area of Flexi Direct consists of the following subfunctionalities:
configuration management (including topology and plan management)
performance management
fault management
software management
security management
user management
HW management (BTS)
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10.2 Flexi Dirext System operability architecture
Flexi Direct System has been introduced to flatten the existing HSPA (HSDPA/HSUPA)
network architecture. In this solution, packet-switched and circuit-switched functionality
of a classical RNC is moved to Flexi Multiradio Base Station and performed by the Flexi
Direct RNC.
Two solutions for operating the Flexi Direct System are available: operability solution
with NetAct and without NetAct, using only OMS. However, solution with NetAct is pre-
ferred and in this case OMS acts as a mediator between Flexi Direct RNC and NetAct.
Operability solution with NetAct
NetAct is a network and service management solution that consists of many tools for
handling a number of network elements and expanding networks. It is designed to
handle an increase in both complexity of the network and amount of traffic and data. The
NetAct solution is very useful in large networks, where centralized management is
essential.
NetAct offers efficient management of different network technologies with an integrated
and interworking tool. It provides the operator with a tool for controlling costs while rede-
ploying competencies and resources from 2G to 3G, HSDPA, HSUPA, and Flexi Direct.
In addition, due to its pre-integrated and process-based nature, it is possible to visualize
network element failures, service quality indicators, and the traffic flows on a screen.
These, among other characteristics, allow the operator to optimize and deliver higher
network and service quality to the end user.
Operability solution with OMS only
Network management based on OMS only is a solution recommended to the operators
of small networks. Flexi Direct OMS offers a local management interface towards
network elements with basic centralized alarm and performance management capabili-
ties. Flexi Direct OMS participates as a centralizing node to all key management tasks,
such as fault, performance, configuration, topology, and software management.
Full-scale fault management, performance reporting, configuration and software
management are provided by NetAct.
The Figure 20 Flexi Direct System operability architecture pictures operability solution
for Flexi Direct System.
Even if NetAct is used for centralized management, OMS must be present as an O&M
mediator and aggregator.
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Figure 20 Flexi Direct System operability architecture
Network elements in the radio network necessary for Flexi Direct System management
are:
Flexi Multiradio BTS for WCDMA
Flexi Direct BTS
Iub
BTSOM
WBTS
IuPS-U
Flexi
Direct
RNC
IuCS
IuPS-C
BTSOM
SGSN
OMS NetAct
3rd party NMS
Gi
MSS
NE3S
Q3
Q3
NWI3
Note: Iub is an internal interface in Flexi Direct system.
GGSN
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Flexi Direct RNC integrated into FTLB transport module
Flexi Direct Operation and Management Server (OMS)
NetAct (centralized management)
Flexi Multiradio BTS with an Flexi Direct RNC functionality is an Flexi Direct enabled
wideband WCDMA base station (Flexi Direct BTS). Although Flexi Direct RNC in Flexi
Direct RU30 is not a HW unit, it is visible as a separate logical entity in the network. It
means that the Flexi Direct RNC is managed as own NE in the topology from Netact or
Flexi Direct OMS (I-OMS).
OMS is a single NE used to manage higher number of Flexi Direct RNCs. However, you
can decide to use centralized management system. This possibility is provided by
NetAct.
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10.3 Flexi Direct OMS Element Manager
Flexi Direct OMS element manager (EM) is a tool for performing operational tasks in the
network element (NE) using graphical user interface (GUI) applications. EM consists of
an application launcher (AL) and EM applications that are downloaded and installed
from the OMS located in the network element to the client computer (EM workstation).
Even if OMS is not used as an Element Manager, it is required as a O&M mediator and
aggregator.
The application launcher is used for downloading other EM applications, for example
parameter tool, from the network element and for launching these applications. The AL
runs on the Java virtual machine (JVM) on the client side, as shown in the EM architec-
ture Figure 21 Flexi Direct OMS Element Manager architecture. Parameter tool is used
for managing the parameters stored in the OMS internal LDAP database.
The following figure presents the Flexi Direct OMS EM architecture:
Figure 21 Flexi Direct OMS Element Manager architecture
The AL and other EM graphical user interface software is delivered as part of the Flexi
Direct OMS software package. AL is the only EM application that has to be installed to
the client PC. The AL client installation is started from the EM workstation using a web
browser. The AL then downloads the other EM applications to the client workstation from
the Flexi Direct OMS, using HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) over Secure Sockets
Layer (SSL), also called HTTPS protocol.
The following protocols are in use:
HTTPS for downloading EM software from the web server in the NE and for logging
to the NE using AL
Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP) for using CORBA services (for example NWI3
adapter services)
LDAPS for communicating with the LDAP Directory
Web browser
Application
Launcher /
Parameter
Tool
EM
GUIs
JVM
Client
HTTPS
IIOP
(CORBA)
JVM
Web Server
LDAP Server
C
O
R
B
A
s
e
r
v
e
r
OMS
LDAPS
Platypus
Element Manager
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10.4 Autoconnection
Autoconnection is a feature which enables the automated connection of the new or
uncommissioned Flexi Multiradio BTS WCDMA to a server in the network through which
commissioning may be automatically performed. The benefit for the operator is cost
effective and quick network rollout.
Autoconnection in Flexi Direct works as follows. A newly installed Flexi Direct BTS auto-
matically retrieves its IP Address via DHCP and establishes IP connectivity with the Flexi
Direct OMS. The operator uses the information logged in OMS in order to establish Site
Manager connectivity with the Flexi Direct BTS and remotely commissions the BTS,
without the need for a site visit by the commissioning engineer.
For more information on autoconnection mode in Flexi Direct, see Enable autoconnec-
tion in Commissioning Flexi Direct BTS.
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10.5 Remote Commissioning
In Flexi Direct System RU30, it is possible to convert Flexi Multiradio BTS to Flexi Direct
BTS through remote commissioning.
BTS to Flexi Direct BTS mode switching is done with BTS O&M interface using the exist-
ing, active M-Plane transport network connectivity. BTS Commissioning is performed by
executing a script file that is responsible for downloading and commissioning Flexi
Direct RNC software and configuring the IP addresses. This procedure is executed on
the Octeon processor of the FTLB transport module (additional processor for Flexi
Direct RNC functionality).
High level flow of events during the BTS to Flexi Direct BTS switching is shown in Figure
22 Flexi Multiradio BTS reconfiguration to Flexi Direct-BTS functionality.
Figure 22 Flexi Multiradio BTS reconfiguration to Flexi Direct-BTS functionality
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10.6 Configuration management
Configuration management is a set of functions used to configure network elements and
other entities in the radio network.
In Flexi Direct System, configuration management is performed with the use of NetAct
and/or OMS. OMS provides a log where user-originated operations can be viewed.
10.6.1 Topology management in Flexi Direct System
Topology management enables to view and manage the network topology of the Flexi
Direct system. Topology means the hierarchy of connections between the functional and
logical objects.
Primary work flow
The primary work flow of topology management is handled through NetAct. It means
managing the hierarchy of connections between the network elements (NEs) connected
to NetAct. These NEs with their functional elements are stored in the NetAct Topology
Database. They can be viewed with the CM Editor application, accessible from Config-
urator.
CM editor enables to:
display the whole network stored in the NetAct database or user-defined network
sections in form of a list.
search for NEs of your choice.
view managed network object details.
create new objects and delete existing ones.
mass-edit the parameters.
Secondary work flow
If needed, topology management can be performed through OMS. OMS provides con-
venient topology management of the Flexi Direct network elements that are hierarchi-
cally underneath. Topology management is performed through topology browser.
Topology browser is a web-based application that enables browsing the structure of the
network topology directly from the OMS database called the master data repository. You
can also see topology changes and state changes in nearly real time. Furthermore, you
can see the relationships of managed objects and attributes along with their values for
a selected item. Also various table views of topology objects and ongoing O&M opera-
tions are available. You are able to execute privileged O&M operations for the managed
Flexi Direct RNCs and Flexi Multiradio BTSs and objects. Topology browser allows to:
delete Flexi Direct RNC from topology tree.
request reset for Flexi Direct RNC.
lock or unlock WCEL.
view ongoing and completed configuration management operations.
After logging in to web based user interface, there are two ways of browsing and
managing network topology with topology browser. These are: tree view and list view.
Tree view of a Flexi Direct topology run in topology browser is pictured in the following
figure.
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Figure 23 Flexi Direct topology tree view screen capture
g
Note that OMS is labeling the Flexi Direct topology as in the GUI as I-HSPA topology.
The tree view enables browsing the network and parameters (such as IP address,
network ID, software version) within a view that reflects actual network topology. This
view provides easy access to elements structured underneath a given element (child
objects) and to their parameters.
Topology list view enables browsing the network elements which are specified in a list.
Using the list view you have also access to objects parameters.
You can perform every topology browser operation from either tree view or list view.
10.6.2 Plan management in Flexi Direct System
Plan management downloads and uploads plan files to network elements in a coherent
way. Plan files consist of a set of parameter values needed to configure a given network
element or network element type.
Plan management is needed for making possible changes on system level. There are
several types of plans: Radio Network Plan (RNW), FTM Plan, IP Plan, and Signaling
Plan.
Primary workflow
The primary work flow of plan management is handled through NetAct. Plan manage-
ment is performed with CM Operations Manager, CM Editor, CM Analyzer, and Plan
Editor. The first three applications are accessible from Configurator. The characteristics
of those applications is as follows:
Plan Editor
Plan Editor is intended for offline data modification, not directly for implementation
to the network. The implementation to the network is done with network manage-
ment systems, such as NetAct, after the parameter data is imported into the NetAct
databases.
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CM Operations Manager
If a larger set of parameters is modified as part of the configuration management
process, a plan must be implemented. This functionality is provided by CM Opera-
tions Manager. CM Operations Manager makes it possible to implement planned
configurations in the network. The operations can be performed immediately or
scheduled for a specified time. When plans are activated, the plan values are taken
into use in the network. CM Operations Manager has the following functionalities:
Plan Import
Radio network plans can be transferred from the planning applications to Con-
figurator; once the plan is in the NetAct database, it can be modified and
prepared for pre-activation or activation in the network.
Plan Export
With which it is possible to transfer planned configurations to an external tool.
pre-activation and activation of the plan
Plans are created or modified using an external application (for example Planner,
Plan Editor) as a.csv or.xml file. Then, they are imported to configurators database.
Only after importing the plans to Configurator, it is possible to activate them in an
NE.
CM Editor
CM Editor is an application for editing and creating radio network and core network
plans and templates and for directly modifying the actual ones in the network. CM
Editor is generally used for creating plans, while CM Operations Manager's role is
to implement the plans to the network. However, CM Editor also allows online
parameter modifications. CM editor is a tool that:
gives an online access plans and parameters on-line in the database.
supports all radio network parameters and objects.
modifies parameter values and object data, creates new objects, and deletes the
existing ones.
provides parameter mass editing, that enables effective modification of a
number of managed objects.
supports configuration of a parameter view to contain only the information that
is relevant for the current tasks.
enables fast plan creation and systematic plan management by making it
possible to use previously defined and tested parameter settings for setting up
new sites.
CM Analyzer
CM Analyzer enables checking of radio network parameters and managed objects.
It also ensures that the parameters and plans are defined according to consistency
rules and no essential information is missing. You can check for discrepancies both
in actual configuration and in planned configurations. When checking planned con-
figurations, the operational network parameters are taken into account, as needed,
to reflect the situation that would exist in the network after downloading the plan.
Secondary workflow
If needed, plan management can be handled through OMS. The plan management
application in OMS enables deploying different kinds of plan files to the NEs. The plans
can be created with NetAct Plan Editor application. However, if plan management is
handled through OMS, it is OMS that delivers plan files to network elements. OMS can
distribute multiple plans and activate plans carrying out parallel mass operations.
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Plan management deals with the following operations:
download and activation of configuration plan files
uploading network configuration under OMS
When the plan is ready and copied from the client computer to the OMS, the OMS vali-
dates the plan and delivers its content to the network elements defined in the plan file.
Then, the plan is automatically activated.
Uploading configuration means copying a network configuration of all the network
elements under OMS to the client computer.
It is also possible to browse plan operations from OMS plan management application,
according to time, type, and status.
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10.7 Performance management
Performance management functionality consists of processing, storing, and
administering of performance-related statistical data. This is required before it can be
further used by various network and service management applications. The feature
includes the following:
performance data management
measurement administration
threshold monitoring
data transfer reliability assurance
The aim of any performance management activity is to collect data to support the
following activities:
verifying the physical and logical configuration of the telecommunications network
continuously monitoring how the network functions
localizing potential problems as early as possible
monitoring subscriber behavior
providing optimum services to mobile subscribers
Depending on how the performance management applications use the collected data,
they can be divided into two main types: performance monitoring and performance
reporting applications.
10.7.1 Performance management in Flexi Direct System
Primary workflow
The primary work flow of performance management is handled through NetAct
Reporter. This tool is a group of applications for monitoring and reporting. The Flexi
Direct Network Elements send measurement data to NetAct PM database. These data
is then visualized in the NetAct reporting applications and distributed to end users.
Reporting applications available both on global and regional level are:
Report Browser
KPI Browser
Report Builder
They allow:
create adequate reports for each group within the operator organization.
create own report sets.
evaluate the reliability of the generated reports.
design advanced web interfaces for filtering, highlighting and visualizing all kinds of
data.
For more information, see Reporter and Performance Management Principles in NetAct
product documentation.
OMS role
If needed, performance management can be handled through OMS. OMS provides the
following performance management functionalities:
RNW Measurement management GUI for the management of the following
measurements:
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Flexi Direct RNC RNW measurements
Flexi Direct RNC Transport and HW measurements
WCDMA BTS RNW measurements
FTM measurements
collecting measurement data from Flexi Direct RNC, WCDMA BTS Operations and
Maintenance, FTM
storing measurement data in the OMS database (except FTM measurements) and
viewing it with RNW Measurement Presentation application in the OMS Element
Manager
mediating measurement data to NetAct
mediating subscriber data to NetAct
threshold monitoring
KPI calculation in OMS Element Manager
With the RNW Measurement management GUI, you can manage Flexi Direct RNC and
WCDMA BTS measurements. Measurement data transfer mechanism from network
element to OMS is the same for Flexi Direct RNC and WCDMA BTS.
Using the RNW Measurement Presentation GUI, you can view results of measurements
in a graphical and textual format. The application gets data from OMS database and
shows measurement data from the past seven days.
You can make threshold rules using OMS NE Threshold Management application that
is based on counters and KPIs. Thresholds make it possible to react to abnormal
network behavior in time. The threshold monitoring application in OMS sets an alarm
when a threshold rule is exceeded. In addition to threshold monitoring, the NE Threshold
Management application can be used to create KPI formulas based on the raw counters
of Flexi Direct RNC and WCDMA BTS RNW measurements. The calculated KPI values
can be reported in the RNW Measurement Presentation application along with the raw
counter values.
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10.8 Fault management
Fault management means employing a set of functions with which a fault situation in a
system is detected and corrected. Fault management is a process consisting of several
steps. First, the fault is detected. Next step is on-line diagnosis, which determines the
cause of the fault. After the online diagnosis, the fault is isolated. Next step of the
process is the recovery of the system and, if needed, off-line diagnosis of the fault. Only
then the faulty parts of the system can be replaced with the working ones. This replace-
ment repairs the system.
10.8.1 Fault Management Architecture
In Flexi Direct System, fault management allows monitoring the faults. Faults are indi-
cated to the user as alarm notifications that have a certain basic characteristics in each
network element for identifying and correcting the fault. Each network element keeps
track of its own alarm situation and provides interfaces for viewing the alarms or
managing the network element alarm system. These interfaces are provided both to
local users and to NetAct through local user interfaces.
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Figure 24 Fault management functionality architecture in Flexi Direct System
10.8.2 Fault management in Flexi Direct System
Primary workflow
The primary workflow of fault management is handled through NetAct Alarm Monitor.
This application is a part of the NetAct Monitor functionality. The Alarm Monitor presents
the active alarm status on the network in the form of a list. This list is updated
automatically at a time interval which can be set by the user. The user has different
viewing choices, either all the alarms can be seen in the same pane or each alarm is
shown in an alarm-class-specific pane. The Alarm Monitor is also equipped with the
NetAct
Alarm
monitor
FMGUI
WCDMA BTS
Flexi Direct
RNC
Flexi Direct OMS
NWI3 interface
BTSOM interface
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Flexi Direct BTS
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Audible Alarm function that generates a sound when an alarm belonging to a certain
alarm class arrives.
For more information on the fault management system in NetAct, see the Monitoring
Principles in NetAct product documentation.
Secondary work flow
Although main purpose of the OMS alarm system is to act as a mediator between
network elements and NetAct fault management can be handled only through OMS.
Fault management is then performed with OMS fault management GUI.
Fault management allows executing alarm system administration operations such as:
viewing and canceling active alarms
The view can be filtered with rules, such as alarm number, and/or object.
uploading alarms
managing alarm indication preventions
Alarm indication can be prevented so that alarm is not sent to NetAct.
managing alarm parameters
viewing alarm history
Alarm history can be filtered with object, alarm number or time interval; graphical
presentation of alarm history is also available.
reducing alarm flow with History Analysis Graph
As a part of the Flexi Direct alarm system, the OMS alarm system manages and stores
Flexi Direct alarms and makes them available for NetAct and Element Manager's fault
management application (FM GUI). The OMS alarm system also processes and stores
the alarms raised in the OMS itself.
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10.9 Software management
Software management takes care of the software in the network elements in a controlled
way. SW management consists of a set of functions that provide strictly controlled
means for manipulating the software in NE. It also allows scalable updating of SW from
the level of one individual software component up to the entire software build of the SW
system running in NE. With the help of SW management, the needed changes to the
SW of the network element can be made systematically while maintaining the integrity
and traceability of the SW configuration throughout the NE software release life cycle on
field.
Common SW management features are:
SW download to NE
SW upgrade and activation in NE
NE SW configuration upload
NE SW backup
10.9.1 Software management in Flexi Direct System
Primary workflow
The primary workflow of software management is handled through NetAct. It is per-
formed with Software Manager application accessible from Administration folder in the
NetAct GUI.
Software Manager allows remote management of software configurations in network
elements. It allows uploading the software configuration information from NE to NetAct,
importing the NE software from NE to NetAct, importing NE SW and activating the NE
SW. You can easily search and examine software configuration data from a remote loca-
tion. The system saves the software configuration information in the NetAct database
that you can update regularly. An important feature of this application is also that you
can save the software to the NetAct disk and download to the managed objects from a
remote location. The task status can be also viewed.
With the Software Manager application, you can perform the following:
view the SW status
view software configurations in network elements
upload software configuration information from NE to NetAct
download NE SW from NetAct to NE
import NE SW to NetAct
activate NE SW in NE
create new tasks based on:
any available information about NEs - using Network SW Status view
any available information related to existing tasks - using Tasks view
predefined NE set
schedule tasks
modify, cancel and delete tasks
manage SW packages in centralized SW archive
For more information, see Software Manager Help in NetAct product documentation.
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Secondary workflow
If needed, the software management application in OMS can be used. Software man-
agement enables delivering software packages to multiple NEs and performing optional
software package activation after the download.
Software management has the following operations:
download and activate software to Flexi Direct RNC and WCDMA BTSs
view software operations
inquiry of software version
With the software management application you are able to download software to NEs of
your choice (ones selected in the application). This download is performed directly from
the client computer to OMS and then the OMS delivers the package to the selected NEs
(Flexi Direct RNCs or WCDMA BTSs) where it is then activated.
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10.10 User management
User management means administering user accounts in the system.
Users are authorized to establish sessions and to execute commands in the system,
depending on their authorization level. User accounts can further be divided into differ-
ent user groups according to their operating tasks and expertise. It is possible for the
same user account to be part of several user groups.
Primary workflow
The primary workflow of user management is handled through NetAct. For more infor-
mation about administering user accounts in Flexi Direct System with NetAct, see
System Administration Principles in NetAct product documentation.
Secondary workflow
If needed, user management can be handled through OMS. The user interface to
manage the user accounts and user groups is command line interface (CLI).
With respect to user management, the CLI can:
create new user accounts and user groups.
assign privileges to user accounts and user groups.
modify privileges of existing user accounts and user groups.
delete existing user accounts and user groups.
With the exception of Linux system accounts and two fallback accounts _nokfsoperator
and _nokfssysemoperatorfallback that are stored in the operating system, all user
accounts (for humans) and service accounts (for process-to-process communication)
are stored in the LDAP server. As a consequence, each user is assigned only a single
username and password, no matter how the user is accessing the services or where the
user account information is stored. Shared user accounts are not permitted, since it is
difficult to trace the actions if users are allowed to log in using shared accounts.