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CriminalCourtSummonsesinNewYorkCity

______________________________________________________________________________
700,000
650,000
600,000
550,000

NYC
Criminal
Court
Summonses

500,000
450,000
400,000
350,000

NYC
Misdemeanor
Arrests

300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000

NYCFelony
Arrests

50,000
0

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

_________________________________________________________________________

Presented at the public event: "Summons: The Next Stop and Frisk,"
CUNY School of Law, Long Island City, NY, April 24, 2014

Harry Levine & Loren Siegel

The Marijuana Arrest Research Project


http://marijuana-arrests.com

20YearsofNYPD
CriminalCourtSummonsesandArrests
19932012
NYCCriminalCourt NYCMisdemeanor
Summonses
Arrests

NYCFelony
Arrests

2012

510,370

236,857

88,362

2011

528,618

249,250

89,335

2010

577,664

251,288

92,027

2009

600,034

245,400

95,597

2008

563,157

233,482

99,955

2007

601,457

231,193

103,023

2006

602,944

206,307

97,210

2005

648,638

196,166

95,086

2004

581,734

190,346

92,676

2003

609,526

189,629

89,381

2002

505,331

189,718

99,676

2001

534,586

194,495

104,160

2000

581,841

224,670

113,248

1999

467,591

197,365

116,989

1998

488,651

215,251

130,215

1997

384,434

205,032

130,348

1996

326,708

181,807

132,630

1995

282,676

181,622

135,145

1994

221,000*

169,810

138,052

1993

160,000

129,458

125,699

- Source for misdemeanor and felony arrests: New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services
- Source for summons violations: New York City Criminal Court annual reports
- Source for 1993 violations is from "Police Announce Crackdown On Quality-of-Life Offenses,"
New York Times, By Norimitsu Onishi, March 13, 1994
http://www.nytimes.com/1994/03/13/nyregion/police-announce-crackdown-on-quality-of-life-offenses.html

- * 1994 summons violations estimate

15MOSTFREQUENTLYCHARGEDSUMMONSOFFENSES
INNEWYORKCITY

2010

2009

AC10125(b)ConsumptionofAlcoholonStreet

140,425

132,225

PL240.20DisorderlyConduct

81,036

87,788

AC19176BicycleonSidewalk

25,148

22,136

PRR103(c)(2)FailuretoComplywithSign/Park

17,309

16,693

HC153.09OffensiveMatterinStreet/PublicPlace

16,196

16,206

PL140.0500Trespass

15,834

15,749

TL140.02OperatingMotorVehicleViolationofSafetyRules

13,339

23,176

VTL1212RecklessDriving

12,887

13,714

AC16118(6)LitterLiquids,[Noxious]

11,833

11,246

10

PRR103(a)UnlawfullyinPark/AfterHours

11,570

11,377

11

PL221.0500UnlawfulPossessionMarijuana

8,342

8,629

12

AC24218UnreasonableNoise

8,331

7,044

13

AC19506(b)UnlicensedOperationofMotorVehicle

8,073

7,227

14

AC20453UnlicensedGeneralVendor

5,682

5,914

15

VTL512OperatingMotorVehiclewithSuspendedRegistration

4,446

5,564

Thetopsevensummonsesaccountforabouthalfofthesummonseswrittenineachyear.

AC=AdministrativeCode
HC=HealthCode
PL=PenalLaw[criminallaw]
PRR=ParksandRecreation
TL=TrafficLaw
VTL=VehicleandTrafficLaw
The web page of the New York City Criminal Court is here:
http://www.nycourts.gov/courts/nyc/criminal/index.shtml
The annual reports are here:
http://www.nycourts.gov/COURTS/nyc/criminal/annual-reports.shtml
The above information comes from the reports for 2010 and 2009
The information page for the courts is here:
http://www.nycourts.gov/courts/nyc/criminal/generalinfo.shtml
List of different sections of NY State law is here:
http://law.justia.com/codes/new-york/2006/also here: http://law.onecle.com/new-york/
This is another good list of NY State laws:
http://ypdcrime.com/index.htm
the penal law part is here: http://ypdcrime.com/penal.law/index.htm

This is document is on line at:


http://marijuana-arrests.com/summonsNYPD.html

NewYorkCityCriminalCourt,SummonsCourt
346Broadway,NewYork,NY10013,entranceonLeonardStreet

Peopleissuedasummonsearlierlineupoutsidewaitingtobeadmittedto
thecourttoappearbeforeajudge,usuallywithoutanattorney.

Asinthesephotos,thepeoplelinedupforatthesummonscourtsare
mostlyyoungblackandLatinomen,andsomeMiddleEasternmen,
especiallyatthecourtsforsummonsesissuedinBrooklyn,theBronx,
andManhattan.

BicycleonSidewalkCriminalCourtSummonsesbyNYPDPrecinct

15Lowestand15HighestNumberofSummonsesaYear,20082011
123Tottenville(SI)
111Bayside,Douglaston(Q)
072SunsetPark,WindsorTerrace(BK)
076RedHook,CarrollGdns(BK)
078ParkSlope(BK)
018MidtownNorth,TheatreDist(M)
122NewDorp(SI)
014MidtownSouth,GarmentDist(M)
001Tribeca,WallStreet(M)
050Riverdale,Fieldston(BX)
094Greenpoint(BK)
108LongIslandCity,Sunnyside(Q)
006GreenwichVillage(M)
100Rockaway(Q)
112ForestHills(Q)

0
6
6
6
8
13
14
17
19
36
45
52
57
57
57

MostResidentsareBlacksandLatinos
MostResidentareWhitesandOthers

043 Soundview,Parkchester(BX)
113St.Albans,SpringfieldGdns(Q)
083Bushwick(BK)
081BedfordStuyvesant(east)(BK)
019UpperEastSide(59to96St)(M)
103Jamaica,Hollis(Q)
067EastFlatbush(BK)
040MottHaven,Melrose(BX)
115JacksonHeights(Q)
023EastHarlem(South)(M)
075EastNewYork,StarretCity(BK)
073OceanHIllBrownsville(BK)
114Astoria,LongIslandCity(Q)
090Williamsburg(BK)
079BedfordStuyvesant(west)(BK)

503
523
545
555
599
635
646
654
663
734
1,004
1,062
1,134
1,706
2,050
0

200

400

600

800

1,000

1,200

1,400

1,600

1,800

2,000

Source:NewYorkCriminalCourtand2010U.S.Census.Summonsesfor violatingNYCAC19176,averagenumber 20082011.


HarryG.Levine,SociologyDepartment,QueensCollege,CityUniversityofNewYork,andTheMarijuanaArrestResearchProject:http://marijuana-arrests.com/

6
DisorderlyConductCriminalCourtSummonses byNYPDPrecinct

15Lowestand15HighestNumberofSummonsesinNYPDPrecincts,20082011
Pct#,Neighborhoods(Boro)

076 RedHook,CarrollGardens(BK)
078 ParkSlope(BK)
072 SunsetPark,WindsorTerrace(BK)
018 MidtownNorth,TheatreDist(M)
010 Chelsea(M)
112 ForestHills(Q)
111 Bayside,Douglaston,LittleNeck(Q)
123 Tottenville(SI)
094 Greenpoint(BK)
014 MidtownSouth,GarmentDist(M)
062 Bensonhurst(BK)
100 Rockaway(Q)
104 Ridgewood,MiddleVillage(Q)
105 QueensVillage,Rosedale(Q)
020 UpperWestSideto86St.(M)

14
19
33
84
89
134
140
176
201
204
229
236
343
347
353

MostResidentsareWhitesandAllOthers
MostResidentsareBlacksandLatinos

025 EastHarlem(North)(M)
115 JacksonHeights(Q)
042 Morrisania,Tremont(BX)
032 HarlemNorth(M)
079 BedfordStuyvesant(west)(BK)
044 MorrisHeights(BX)
075 EastNewYork,StarretCity(BK)
023 EastHarlem(South)(M)
073 OceanHIllBrownsville(BK)
033 WashingtonHeights(M)
034 Inwood,WashingtonHeights(M)
041 HuntsPoint(BX)
052 BedfordPark,Norwood(BX)
047 Wakefield,Williamsbridge(BX)
040 MottHaven,Melrose(BX)

1,915
1,926
2,034
2,134
2,200
2,255
2,594
2,611
2,717
2,733
2,818
3,142
3,195
3,543
4,361
0

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

3,500

4,000

Source:NewYorkCriminalCourtand2010U.S.Census.Summonsesfor violatingNYSPL240.20,average 20082011.


HarryG.Levine,SociologyDepartment,QueensCollege,CityUniversityofNewYork,andTheMarijuanaArrestResearchProject:http://marijuana-arrests.com/
April2014

4,500


http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/17/opinion/sunday/inside-the-warped-world-of-summons-court.html?_r=0

THENEWYORKTIMES/June16,2012

InsidetheWarpedWorldofSummonsCourt
byBrentStaples,EditorialBoard,NYTimes


StepintothedingyhallwaysofNewYorkCitysummonscourtinLowerManhattanandyou
areinstantlystruckbytheracializednatureofthissystem.NewYorkisamultiracialcity,but
judgingfromthefacesincrampedcourtrooms,onewouldthinkthatwhitesscarcelyever
committhepettyoffensesthatleadtothemorethan500,000summonsesissuedinthecity
everyyear.
JudgeNoachDearofBrooklynCriminalCourtmadethispointinabluntlywordeddecision
lastweek,notingthateverydefendantwhohasevercomebeforehimchargedwithdrinking
alcoholinpublichadbeenblackorLatino.AshardasItry,hewrote,Icannotrecallever
arraigningawhitedefendantforsuchaviolation.
Ononerecentmorningatcourt,a19yearoldblackmanseemedalmostinshockthathehad
beenticketedandrequiredtoattendcourtfordroppingapieceofpaperontheground.
Anotherblackman,withaheavyFrenchaccent,saidthathehadreceivedasummonsfor
recklessdrivingwhenhewastrappedbytrafficandforcedtodrivethroughanintersection
whenthelightturnedred.Hetooktheticket,hesaid,becauseyoudontarguewithacopon
Fridaynight.Andiftheyareouttogetyou,heasked,whatcanyoudo?
Morethanafifthofthesummonsesissuedlastyearwerethrownouteitherfordefectson
theticketorforlackoflegalsufficiency.Butthatleftabout400,000NewYorkersfacinga
dateinsummonscourt,andfailuretoappearcanleadtoalegalnightmare.
Inotherwords,summonscourtwhichhandlesoffenseslikepublicdrinking,ridingbicycles
onthesidewalkortalkingbacktothecops,otherwiseknownasdisorderlyconductis
anythingbutpetty.Itisaplacewherelowleveloffensescanleadtopermanentcriminal
historiesandlifelongencumbrances.Thesystemisnowthesubjectofaclassactioncivil
rightslawsuitunfoldinginfederalcourtinNewYork.
Thepeoplewhoshowupinsummonscourtarethefortunateones;themajoritywillhave
theircasesdismissedbecausethechargeisnotsubstantiatedorbecausethejudgethinksitis
nonsense.Somedefendantspleadguiltyandpayfines.
Butwoetothosewhoforgetthedate,eveniftheviolationseemsminor,likelittering.The
summonscourtwillthenissueawarrant,whichmeansthatthedefendantstandsagood

chanceofbeinghandcuffed,fingerprintedandtakentojail,wherehecouldspenddays
beforegoinginfrontofaCriminalCourtjudge.
In2011,morethan170,000warrantswereordered.Onceawarrantisissuedandrecordedin
adatabase,thedefendantisatgreaterriskofhavingacitizenshipapplicationdeniedorbeing
turnedawaybypotentialemployers.
TheNewYorkCityPoliceDepartmenthaslongdescribedthesummonsoperationascrucialto
thequalityoflifeinitiativethatitsaysdiscouragesseriouscrimebycomingdownhardon
nuisanceoffenses.Cityofficialsmakethesameclaimforthecontroversialstopandfrisk
program,thoughcrimehasalsofalleninrecentyearsincitiesthathavenotadoptedsuch
approaches.
Thehugenumberofsummonsdismissalsisattheheartofthecivilrightssuit,Stinsonv.City
ofNewYork,thatwasgrantedclassactionstatusinAprilbyJudgeRobertSweetofFederal
DistrictCourtinManhattan.Theplaintiffschargethatthehighdismissalrateisevidencethat
bogussummonsesareissuedwithoutprobablecausebyofficerspressuredtomeet
departmentquotas.Thesepractices,theysay,violatedtheirconstitutionalrightsand
subjectedthemtolosttimefromworkandschool,andinmanycases,toarrestanddetention
forcrimesthathadnotbeencommitted.
Theplaintiffsalsoallegethatsummonsesaredisproportionatelyissuedinminority
neighborhoods.Civilrightslawyerssaysummonsesforpublicdrinkingthemostcommon
offenseareoftenhandedoutintheseneighborhoods,wherepoliceofficersroutinely
demandtosmellpeoplesjuicecontainersorcoffeecups.
Disorderlyconductisthecatchallcategory,onethatcaneasilymaskasummonsissuedforno
reason.Theleadplaintiffinthesuit,SharifStinson,sayshewaswalkingoutofhisaunts
apartmentbuildinginUpperManhattanonDec.31,2009,whenseveralofficersstoppedand
searchedhimwithoutcause,thenheldhiminaprecinctcellforfourhours.Hewasthengiven
adisorderlyconductsummonsthatwasdismissedthreemonthslater.
ThecityhasdisputedtheplaintiffschargesandaskedJudgeSweettoreconsiderhisruling.
Butthelitigationhasthrownaspotlightonthesummonssystem,raisinggravequestions
aboutitsfairnessandlegality.


BicycleonSidewalkCriminalCourtSummonses
NYPDPrecinctsWithLowestandHighestNumberPerYear
15PrecinctsandNeighborhoodswiththe
LowestNumberofCriminalCourt
SummonsesforBicycleonSidewalk
(Peryear,average20082011)
Precinct#Neighborhood
123Tottenville(SI)
111Bayside,Douglaston,LittleNeck(Q)
072SunsetPark,WindsorTerrace(BK)
076RedHook,CarrollGardens(BK)
078ParkSlope(BK)
018MidtownNorth,TheatreDistrict(M)
122NewDorp(SI)
014MidtownSouth,GarmentDist(M)
001Tribeca,WallStreet(M)
050Riverdale,Fieldston(BX)
094Greenpoint(BK)
108LongIslandCity,Sunnyside(Q)
006GreenwichVillage(M)
100Rockaway(Q)
112ForestHills(Q)

Lowest#of
Bicycleon
Sidewalk
Summonses
peryear
0
6
6
6
8
13
14
17
19
36
45
52
57
57
57

TotalsandaveragesforHowest15pcts

T392/A26

%of
%of
RateofBicycleon
Residents Residents
Sidewalk
Blacks+ Whites+
Summonsesper
Latinos
AllOthers 100,000residents
9%
91%
0
13%
87%
4
48%
52%
5
34%
66%
14
24%
76%
13
13%
87%
45
16%
84%
11
21%
79%
27
11%
89%
29
52%
48%
37
19%
81%
89
36%
64%
45
9%
91%
65
37%
63%
112
16%
84%
50
24%

76%

30

Population
ofPrecinct/
Neighborhood
159,102
128,944
121,307
42,009
61,334
27,502
131,920
63,962
64,963
96,363
50,997
114,354
86,881
50,596
113,298
1,313,532

The15lowestprecinctshave16%ofNYC'sresidentsandreceived1.6%ofbikeonsidewalksummonses.

Highest#of
15PrecinctsandNeighborhoodswiththe
Bicycleon
%of
RateofBicycleon
%of
HighestNumberofCriminalCourt
Sidewalk
Population
Residents Residents
Sidewalk
SummonsesforBicycleonSidewalk
Summonses
Blacks+
Summonsesper
Whites+
ofPrecinct/
(Peryear,average20082011)
peryear
Latinos
AllOthers 100,000residents Neighborhood
Precinct#Neighborhood
043Soundview,Parkchester(BX)
503
87%
13%
275
183,110
113St.Albans,SpringfieldGdns(Q)
523
93%
7%
543
96,338
083Bushwick(BK)
545
86%
14%
496
109,769
081BedfordStuyvesant(east)(BK)
555
93%
7%
856
64,814
019UpperEastSide(59to96St.)(M)
599
10%
90%
284
210,904
103Jamaica,Hollis(Q)
635
77%
23%
526
120,669
067EastFlatbush(BK)
646
95%
5%
428
151,081
040MottHaven,Melrose(BX)
654
97%
3%
736
88,893
115JacksonHeights(Q)
663
69%
31%
386
171,560
023EastHarlem(South)(M)
734
68%
32%
921
79,704
075EastNewYork,StarretCity(BK)
1,004
89%
11%
579
173,473
073OceanHIllBrownsville(BK)
1,062
96%
4%
1,224
86,787
114Astoria,LongIslandCity(Q)
1,134
34%
66%
635
178,544
090Williamsburg(BK)
1,706
39%
61%
1,384
123,224
079BedfordStuyvesant(west)(BK)
2,050
79%
21%
2,279
89,956
T: 13,102

TotalsandaveragesforHighest15pcts
69%
31%
675
A:867
The15highestprecinctshave24%ofNYC'sresidents andreceived54%ofbikeonsidewalksummonses

1,928,826

Source: New York Criminal Court and 2010 U.S. Census. Summonses for violating AC 119-176, average 20082011.
Harry Levine, Sociology Department, Queens College, CUNY / Marijuana Arrest Research Project / April 2014 / http://marijuana-arrests.com/

10

DisorderlyConductCriminalCourtSummonses
NYPDPrecinctsWithLowestandHighestNumberPerYear
15PrecinctsandNeighborhoodswiththe
LowestNumberofCriminalCourt
SummonsesforDisorderlyConduct
(Peryear,average20082011)
Precinct#Neighborhood
076RedHook,CarrollGardens(BK)
078ParkSlope(BK)
072SunsetPark,WindsorTerrace(BK)
018MidtownNorth,TheatreDistrict(M)
010Chelsea(M)
112ForestHills(Q)
111Bayside,Douglaston,LittleNeck(Q)
123Tottenville(SI)
094Greenpoint(BK)
014MidtownSouth,GarmentDist(M)
062Bensonhurst(BK)
100Rockaway(Q)
104Ridgewood,MiddleVillage(Q)
105QueensVillage,Rosedale(Q)
020UpperWestSideto86St.(M)

YearlyAveragesforlowest15
Total

Lowest#of
Disorderly
Conduct
Summonses
peryear
14
19
33
84
89
134
140
176
201
204
229
236
343
347
353

%of
%of
Residents Residents
Blacks+ Whites+
Latinos
AllOthers
34%
66%
24%
76%
48%
52%
13%
87%
23%
77%
16%
84%
13%
87%
9%
91%
19%
81%
21%
79%
14%
86%
37%
63%
36%
64%
67%
33%
12%
88%

173

28%

2,601

72%

15PrecinctsandNeighborhoodswiththe
HighestNumberofCriminalCourt
SummonsesforDisorderlyConduct
(Peryear,average20082011)
Precinct#Neighborhood
025EastHarlem(North)(M)
115JacksonHeights(Q)
042Morrisania,Tremont(BX)
032HarlemNorth(M)
079BedfordStuyvesant(west)(BK)
044MorrisHeights(BX)
075EastNewYork,StarretCity(BK)
023EastHarlem(South)(M)
073OceanHIllBrownsville(BK)
033WashingtonHeights(M)
034Inwood,WashingtonHeights(M)
041HuntsPoint(BX)
052BedfordPk,Fordham,Norwood(BX)
047Wakefield,Williamsbridge(BX)
040MottHaven,Melrose(BX)
YearlyAveragesforHighest15
Total

Highest#of
Disorderly
Conduct
Summonses
peryear
1,915
1,926
2,034
2,134
2,200
2,255
2,594
2,611
2,717
2,733
2,818
3,142
3,195
3,543
4,361
2,678
40,176

%of
%of
Residents Residents
Whites+
Blacks+
Latinos
AllOthers
88%
12%
69%
31%
97%
3%
90%
10%
79%
21%
95%
5%
89%
11%
68%
32%
96%
4%
85%
15%
76%
24%
96%
4%
84%
16%
88%
12%
97%
3%
86%
14%

Rateof
Disorderly
Conduct
Population
ofPrecinct/
Summonsesper
100,000residents Neighborhood
34
42,009
31
61,334
25
128,944
304
27,502
184
48,499
118
113,298
115
121,307
111
159,102
395
50,997
319
63,962
127
181,079
466
50,596
205
167,323
188
184,582
379
93,030
174

99,571

1,493,564

Rateof
Disorderly
Population
Conduct
ofPrecinct/
Summonsesper
100,000residents Neighborhood
4,455
42,995
1,123
171,560
2,417
84,136
2,937
72,639
2,446
89,956
1,596
141,216
1,495
173,473
3,275
79,704
3,131
86,787
3,580
76,341
2,308
122,102
4,877
64,422
2,332
137,012
2,215
159,930
4,906
88,893
2,525
106,078

1,591,166

Source: New York Criminal Court and 2010 U.S. Census. Summonses for violating NYSPL 240.20, average 20082011.
Harry Levine, Sociology Department, Queens College, CUNY / Marijuana Arrest Research Project / April 2014
http://marijuana-arrests.com

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