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CODES USED IN THE TABLES:

MXCD: maxillary complete denture, MDCD mandibular complete denture CD complete denture Imp: Impression PT: patient is asked to do, DR: doctor does on patient,
Ant: Anterior, Post: posterior **: see notes below SBA: Stress bearing area= support area Limiting area= border area PPS: Posterior palatal seal
Structure Classification Histological
features
Extensions Opposing structures Test Age
change
Anatomical
variations CD Imp CD Imp
Labial Frenum Limiting
Borders
MXCD
Mucous
membrane
over Fibrous
band no
muscle
fibres
(passive
frenum)
In midline,
from labial
of residual
ridge to lip
labial notch V notch &
border
moulding
material
PT:
Excessive Whistle motion,
Inward Suction of the lip and
cheek borders forcefully

DR: stretch lip down

Becomes
closer to
crest of
ridge
Narrow & deep
Wide, Fibrous
& tough
(Diastema in
teeth and alveolar
bone)
Preprosthetic
surgery if close
to ridge or tight
and fibrous
Labial Vestibule Limiting
MXCD
borders
Covered by
the lining
mucosa &
loose CT
Residual
ridge of
premaxilla
& lip,
labial &
buccal
freni
Labial flange
border
Labial flange
of tray &
border
moulding
material
PT:
Excessive Whistle motion,
Inward Suction of the lip and
cheek borders forcefully

DR: stretch lip down

Shallowe
r in
length,
wider
Deep
shallow
Preprosthetic
surgery if very
shallow
Orbicularis oris Limiting
labial flanges
polished
surface,
Anterior teeth
Mucosa over
Horizontal
muscle
fibres in the
lip
Left &
right
modulus
Labial flange
polished
surface,
Anterior teeth
Labial flange,
tray handle
PT: Smile

Flabby
Wrinkled
Tight or loose
Short or long lip
line
Buccal Freni Limiting
MXCD buccal
flange border
Lining
mucosa over
Muscle att.
lev.Lab.or.
Orbicularis
oris
Buccinator
Labial &
buccal
vestibule
Buccal notch Buccal notch
& border
moulding
material
PT:
Excessive Whistle motion,
Inward Suction of the lip and
cheek borders forcefully
Smile widely
DR: hold modulus & pull back
& forth
Becomes
closer to
crest of
ridge
Multiple or
single
Wide or narrow
Preprosthetic
surgery if very
close to the
residual ridge
Buccal Vestibule
Has two parts (Anterior,
Posterior [disto-buccal
pouch/post zygomatic
vestibular sulcus]
Limiting
posterior
MXCD buccal
flange border
Covered by
the lining
mucosa &
loose
connective
tissue
From
buccal
frenum to
the
hamular
notch
Posterior
MXCD buccal
flange

Posterior
buccal flange
of tray &
border
moulding
material
Ant:
DR: Stretch cheek down & in
Post
PT: (thickness) Move mandible
sideways (Coronoid process,
ramus)
Open maximum Masseter
Shallowe
r, wider
Shallow or deep
Wide or narrow
Preprosthetic
surgery if very
shallow
Structure Classification Histological
features
Extensions Opposing structures Test Age change Anatomical
variations
CD Imp CD Imp
Hamular
notch
Limiting
posterior lateral
MXCD border
soft areoler
tissue
covered by
the mucous
membrane
Maxillary
tuberosity &
hamulus of
sphenoid
bone
Posterior
distolateral
flange,
Posterior
distolateral
tray border
& border
moulding
material
PT: Open mouth maximally

Constant anatomical
landmark: does not move
location with aging, but
as the ridge
becomes shorter
so it appears to be
shallower
Shallow or deep
Posterior
palatal Seal
Area
(Postdam)
Limiting
posterior central
MXCD border
Masticatory
mucosa over
adipose
tissue,
aponeurosis
junction
Tens. V pal.
Soft palate,
vibrating
line,
Posterior
palatal seal
Fitting tray
surface,
border
moulding
material
Say ah
while
displacin
g MXCD

Compressive imp
PT: Blow nose while
closing nostrils,
Cough
Try to swallow
say AAAHHH
- Narrow or wide
May have tori
remove.
Angles with
attached palate 10-
45-75
Hard Palate Primary MXCD
stress bearing
area (SBA)
Masticatory
mucosa over
palatine
shelves
maxilla
Vibrating
line, &
residual ridge
Fitting
surface of
MXCD
Fitting tray
surface &
spacer or
no spacer
Pressure
indicatin
g paste
Reportin
g pain
Compressive
impression material,
preferably no spacer
Thinner mucosa High medium of low
vault
U, v or flat
Rugea area Secondary
MXCD (SBA)
Masticatory
mucosa over
premaxilla
From canines
to incisive
papilla,
Anterior
teeth
Fitting
surface of
MXCD
Fitting tray
surface &
spacer
Pressure
indicatin
g paste
Reportin
g pain
Mucostatic
impression material
with spacer relief or
opposite tray
perforations
Thinner mucosa,
fixed incisive
papilla
Rough or smooth
**Residual
Ridge
Crest

Secondary
MXCD
(SBA)**
Masticatory
mucosa over
residual
ridge
Lips & palate Fitting
surface of
MXCD
Fitting tray
surface &
spacer,
stoppers
Pressure
indicatin
g paste
Reportin
g pain
Mucostatic
impression material
with spacer relief or
opposite tray
perforations

Thinner mucosa,
height, knife
edge,
Preprosthetic
surgery if very
resorbed, or contain
bony spicules
Large, small
Square/ tapered/
oval
High/ flat, knife
edge/Reversed ridge
in lower
**Posterio-
lateral slopes
of residual
ridge
Primary MXCD
(SBA)**
Masticatory
mucosa over
cortical bone
of residual
ridge
Lips & palate Fitting
surface of
MXCD
Fitting tray
surface &
spacer,
Pressure
indicatin
g paste
Reportin
g pain
Compressive
impression material
with minimum or no
spacer

Wider & more
horizontal
undercut
Preprosthetic
surgery if severe
undercuts

Structure Classification Histological
features
Extensions Opposing structures Test Age change Anatomical
variations
CD Imp CD Imp
**Maxillary
tuberosity
Secondary
MXCD
SBA**
May become
relief**
Masticatory mucosa
over residual ridge.
residual ridge of
6 7, 8
Fitting
surface of
MXCD
Fitting tray
surface &
spacer,
Pressure
indicating
paste
Reporting
pain
Compressive imp with no
spacer
Preprosthetic surgery if
fibrous or large
Larger &
may contain
air sinus
space
Shallow to
bulbous
Bony or
fibrous
undercuts
**mid-
palatine
suture
MXCD relief
area**
Masticatory mucosa
over thin submucosa
& mid-palatine
suture
Junction of
palatine
processes in
midline suture
Fitting
surface of
MXCD
Fitting tray
surface &
spacer,
Pressure
indicating
paste
Reporting
pain
Mucostatic impression
material with spacer relief
or opposite tray
perforations

Constant
anatomical
landmark: does
not move with
aging
May be
sharp
Preprosthet
ic surgery If
Prominent:
Incisive
papilla
MXCD relief
area
Masticatory mucosa
over incisive
foramen & nerves
mid palatine
raphae over
incisive foramen
Fitting
surface of
MXCD
Fitting tray
surface &
spacer,
Pressure
indicating
paste, Pt
reporting
parasthesia
in area
Mucostatic impression
material with spacer relief
or opposite tray
perforations
Constant
anatomical
landmark: does
not move with
aging

Fovea
Palatina
MXCD border
area
Relief, if thick
saliva
Coalescence of
minor salivary gland
ducts
mid palatine
raphae posterior
area
Just before,
on or after
PPS
Fitting tray
surface &
spacer,
Pressure
indicating
paste
Compressive imp or tray
border
PT: Blow nose while
closing nostrils, swallow,
cough say AAAHHH
Constant
anatomical
landmark: does
not move with
aging
Just before,
on or after
vibrating
line
**Cuspid
eminence
MXCD
Support.
relief area if
prominent,
Masticatory mucosa
over bony eminence,
Thin if undercuts are
present
Alveolar ridge
buccal to canines
Fitting
surface of
MXCD
Fitting tray
surface,
spacer,
Pressure
indicating
paste
Reporting
pain
No undercuts:
Compressive imp
If Prominent & thin:
mucosa Mucostatic
impression material with
spacer relief or opposite
tray perforations

resorbs May have
severe
undercut
Preprostheri
c surgery: If
very
prominent
undercut

LOWER
Structure Classificatio
n
Histological
features
Extensions Opposing structures Test Age change Anatomical variations
CD Imp CD Imp
Labial Frenum Limiting
MDCD
borders
Mucosa &
Fibrous band
affected by
orb. Oris &
incisivus
(active)
In midline,
from labial of
residual ridge
to lip
labial notch V notch &
border moulding
material
PT:
Excessive Whistle
motion,
Inward Suction of
the lip and cheek
borders forcefully

DR: stretch lip up

Constant anatomical landmark:
does not move location with
aging, but as the ridge
becomes shorter so it
appears to be closer to
crest residual ridge
Narrow & deep
Or wide Preprostheric
surgery: If High
Attachemnt close to the
ridge
Labial
Vestibule
Limiting
MDCD
borders
Covered by
the lining
mucosa over
loose
connective
tissue
Residual ridge
of canines &
lip, labial &
buccal freni
Labial flange Labial flange of
tray & border
moulding
material
PT:
Excessive Whistle
motion,
Inward Suction of
the lip and cheek
borders forcefully
DR: stretch lip up

Shallower, wider Deep, shallow
Preprostheric surgery: If
shallow
Orbicularis
oris
Labial flange
& Anterior
teeth
Mucosa &
Horizontal
muscle fibres
Left & right
modulus
Labial flange,
Anterior
teeth
Labial flange,
tray handle
PT: Smile

Flabby
Wrinkled
Tight or loose
Short or long lip line
Buccal Freni Limiting
MDCD
buccal flange
border
Mucosa &
Muscles
attachments
Depressor
anguli oris
Buccinator
Labial &
buccal
vestibule
Buccal notch Buccal notch &
border moulding
material
PT:
Excessive Whistle
motion,
Inward Suction of
the lip and cheek
borders forcefully
Smile widely
DR: hold modulus &
pull back & forth

Constant anatomical landmark:
does not move location with
aging, but as the ridge
becomes shorter so it
appears to be closer to
crest residual ridge
Multiple or single
Wide or narrow
Preprostheric surgery: If
High Attachment close to
the ridge
Buccal
vestibule
Has two parts
(Anterior,
external
oblique
vestibular
sulcus
Posterior
[disto-buccal
massetric plane
or massetric
notch,]
Limiting
posterior
MDCD
buccal flange
border
Covered by
the lining
mucosa
From buccal
frenum the
posterior of
retro molar pad
Posterior
MDCD
buccal
flange,
massetric
plane or
notch on
posterior end
Posterior buccal
flange of tray &
border moulding
material
Ant:
DR: Stretch cheek up
& in
Post
PT: (thickness) Move
mandible sideways/
clench
Open maximum
Masseter

Shallower, wider Shallow or deep
Wide or narrow
Preprostheric surgery: If
resorbed ridge or if
massetric muscle is close
to the ridge



Structure Classification Histological
features
Extensions Opposing structures Test Age change Anatomical
variations CD Imp CD Imp
Lingual Frenum
Incisors & canine
area
Limiting
MDCD
borders
Muscle
fibres
(active),
geniohyoid
bony
process
In midline, from
lingual of residual
ridge to tongue
Lingual
notch
V notch &
border
moulding
material
PT: Raise tongue backwards
on soft palate, touch Lt &Rt
tuberosities, move tongue
Anterior to touch upper lip
-thickness

Constant anatomical
landmark: does not
move location with
aging, but as the
ridge becomes
shorter so it
appears to be
closer to crest
residual ridge
Can be wide or
be tight tied
tongue
Preprostheric
surgery: If High
Attachment
close to the
ridge
Alveololingual
sulcus
From canine to
molar area
Ant: Caine areas
Middle: premolar
areas
Post: molar areas
Limiting
lingual
MDCD
borders
Covered by
the lining
mucosa
Lingual frenum to
retro-mylohyoid
fossa
Anterior 2/3
of lingual
flange,
shallow
horizontal
part
Lingual
flange of
tray &
border
moulding
material
Ant: (premylohyoid fossa),
PT: Raise tongue
posteriorly, touch Lt &Rt
tuberosities -reduces height
Tongue Out & touch upper
lip- reduces thickness
Middle (mylohyoid ridge)
raise posterior of tongue to
palate & Press against palate
by base of tongue/ move
tongue tip to touch maxillary
tuberosities, left & right
Post: Swallow, say KKKK
forcefully
Shallower, wider Deep, shallow
Retromylohyoid
fossa (lingual pouch)
has
Ant wall
Floor
Posterior curtain
Limiting
MDCD
Lingual
borders
Covered by
the lining
mucosa
Retromylohyoid
curtain, superior
constrictor,
submandibular
gland,
Posterior 1/3
of lingual
flange

Lingual
flange,
border
moulding
material
PT: Swallow, Raise tongue
out & touch upper lip
say KKKK forcefully

Shallow Deep or shallow
Retro molar pad

Limiting
MDCD
posterior
flange border
Non
keratinised
mucosa over
adipose,
glandular
tissue
Buccinator laterally,
sup. Const .ph,
medially,
pterygomandibular
raphe posteriorly
Posterior
edge of
MDCD. only
Ant2/3 are
covered by
fitting
surface
Posterior
border,
border
moulding
material
cover full
pad
PT: Maximum opening
Constant anatomical
landmark: does not
move with aging, but
as the ridge
resorbs away, it
appears to be
higher, on ramus
body in elderlies



Structure Classification Histological
features
Extensions Opposing structures Test Age change Anatomical
variations
CD Imp CD Imp
pterygo
mandibular
raphe
Close to the
Limiting
posterior MDCD
flange border
Covered by
the lining
mucosa,
raphe of
superior
constrictor &
buccinator
Medial
ptyregoid
plate of
hamular
process &
to the
mylohyoid
ridge.
Posterior
edge of
MDCD
Posterior
edge of
tray &
border
moulding
material
Complete
denture
should not
reach this
area
Maximum opening
Constant anatomical landmark:
does not move with aging,
May produce a
notch in
MDCD
Buccal shelf
area
Primary MDCD
stress bearing
area (SBA)
Thick
mucosa over
cortical bone.
Crest of
ridge,
retromolar
pad,
external
oblique
ridge
Fitting
surface
of
MDCD
Fitting
tray
surface
Pressure
indicating
paste
Patient
reporting
Compressive impression
material preferably no spacer
Increase in size. Ridge
becomes more
horizontal when
resorbing close to it


**Residual
Ridge
Crest

Secondary
MDCD stress
bearing area
(SBA)
**relief area
Masticatory
mucosa over
spongy bone
of residual
ridge
Lips &
tongue
Fitting
surface
of
MDCD
Fitting
tray
surface &
spacer,
stoppers
Pressure
indicating
paste
Patient
reporting
Well developed: Compressive
impression material with spacer
or opposite perforations in tray
Knife edge ridge: Mucostatic
impression material with spacer
relief or opposite tray
perforations or
Post:
Thinner mucosa, lower
height, knife edge,
wider in buccal region-
closer to buccal shelf
area
Ant:
Smaller labial , but then
wider once it comes
closer to the mental
(chin area)
Large,
medium, small
Square,
tapered or oval
High, flat,
round or knife
edge, undercut
Preprosthetic
Surgery if
severe
undercut or
knife edge
ridge


Structure Classification Histological
features
Extensions Opposing structures Test Age change Anatomical variations
Imp CD Imp CD
Mylohyoid
ridge
MDCD relief
area
Thin
mucosa over
a bone edge
Lingual
surface of
mandible
body- rising
till flush
with ridge
Lingual
edges of
MDCD
Lingual
edges of
tray
Pressure
indicating
paste
Patient
reporting
Mucostatic
impression material
with spacer relief or
opposite tray
perforations.

Constant anatomical landmark: does
not move location with aging, but
as the ridge becomes
shorter so it appears to be
closer to crest residual
ridge
Usually at border,
Prominent & sharp with
aging
If prominent:
Preprosthetic surgery
Mental
foramen
MDCD relief
area
Thin
mucosa over
mental
foramen
Buccal
surface of
mandible
body
between 4
& 5
Fitting
surface of
MDCD
Fitting tray
surface
Pressure
indicating
paste
Patient
reporting of
electrical
shock
Mucostatic
impression material
with spacer relief or
opposite tray
perforations.

Constant anatomical landmark: does
not move location with aging, but
as the ridge becomes
shorter so it appears to be
closer to crest residual
ridge
Usually under at border,
or under denture flange.
Opening may become
prominent & sharp with
aging
If prominent:
Preprosthetic surgery
Genial
tubercles
MDCD relief
area
Thin
mucosa over
sharp
prominence
Lingual
surface of
mandible
body
between
centrals
Lingual
edges of
MDCD
Lingual
edges of
tray
Pressure
indicating
paste
Patient
reporting of
pain
Mucostatic
impression material
with spacer relief or
opposite tray
perforations.

Constant anatomical landmark: does
not move location with aging, but
as the ridge becomes
shorter so it appears to be
closer to crest residual
ridge
Usually at border,
Prominent & sharp with
aging
If prominent:
Preprosthetic surgery
Torus
mandibulari
s
MDCD relief
area
Thin
mucosa over
big
prominence
Lingual
surface of
mandible
body
between
centrals
opposite to
456
Fitting
surface of
MDCD
Fitting tray
surface &
spacer,
stoppers
Pressure
indicating
paste
Patient
reporting of
electrical
shock
Mucostatic
impression material
with spacer relief or
opposite tray
perforations.

Constant anatomical landmark: does
not move location with aging, but
as the ridge becomes
shorter so it appears to be
closer to crest residual
ridge
Usually not present, if
present may be shallow
projection or Prominent
& large covered by thin
mucosa
If prominent:
Preprosthetic surgery



Maxilla
Limiting Border Structures
Labial frenum
Labial vestibule
Buccal frenum
Buccal vestibule
Hamular notch
Posterior palatal seal area.
Supporting Structures
Primary stress-bearing areas:
Hard palate
The posterior-lateral slopes of the residual alveolar ridge
(May become relief if it has large undercuts)
Secondary stress-bearing areas:
Rugae
Maxillary tuberosity,
(May be primary support if wide, well formed, good thickness of attached mucosa
(May be relief area if fibrous, flabby, or has bone spicules or large undercuts)
alveolar Ridge
(May be primary support if wide, well formed, good thickness of attached mucosa).
(May be relief area if fibrous, flabby, or has bone spicules, large undercuts, or knife edge ridge)
Relief Areas
Incisive papilla
Cuspid eminence
Mid-palatine raphe
Fovea palatina.

Mandible
Limiting Structures
Labial frenum
Labial vestibule
Buccal frenum
Buccal vestibule
Lingual frenum
Alveololingual sulcus
Retromylohyoid fossa
pterygo mandibular raphe

Supporting Structures
Primary stress-bearing areas
Residual ridge slopes
(May be primary support if wide, well formed, good thickness of attached mucosa
(May be relief area if fibrous, flabby, or has bone spicules or large undercuts)
buccal shelf area
Relief Areas
crest of residual ridge
(May be secondary support area if well developed & rounded with good quality thick mucosa)
Mental foramen