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Water treatment

UNSUR Filter filter Softener RO


SEDIMEN CARBON
Aluminium v
Arsenic v
Barium v
Cadmium v
Calcium v v
Chloramines v v
Chlorine v v
Chromium v
Copper v
Fluoride v
Lead v
Magnesium v v
Mercury v
Nitrate v
Potassium v
Selenium v
Silver v
Sodium v
Sulfate v
Zinc v
VIRUS v v
PENCEMARAN v v
ENDOTOXIN v
BACTERIA v
PARTICLES v v
STANDARD AIR Cairan Dialisis
Dapat hidup Endotoxin Dapat hidup Endotoxin
European Pharmacopoeia (1997) < 100 < 0.25 IU/ml n.s n.s
German Dialisis standard (1993) < 200 n.s < 2.000 Bebas pyrogen
Japanese society for dialisis (1995) n.s n.s <100 < 0.25
Swedish pharmacopoeia (1997) < 100 < 0.25 IU/ml < 100 < 0.25
Canadian standard Association (1986) < 200 < 1 ng/ml n.s n.s
AAMI standard USA (1996) < 200 n.s < 2,000 n.s
Standard kualitas Product Air Consentrate Dialisate Dialisate
Microbiological TANPA DIASAFE
DIASAFE
Hasil Microbial ( dalam CFU / ml ) < 100 < 1000 < 1000 < 1
Hasil Endotoxin ( dalam IU / ml ) < 0.25 < 1 < 1 < 0.03
Water Quality in hemodialysis, 1998 vol 1
AAMI : Association for the Advancement Of Medical Instrumentation

Akibat yang terjadi jika Air RO tercemar :
NO Tercemar Keadaan Akut Keadaan kronis
1 Aluminium Neurological symptoms Dialysis dementia, osteomalacia
Aplastic bone disease
Abnormal myocardial function
Anemia
2 Aromatic hydrocarbons ? Carcinogen ?
3 Arsenic ? Contribution to uremic symptoms and
neurological damage discussed
4 Barium ? ?
5 Cadmium ? Contribution to Anemia
6 Calsium Hard water syndrom : Weak progressive lethargy , weakness
Nausea , Hypertensi , Headache ,
Confusion , Seizures , memory loss,
Judgment defect
7 Chloramines Hemolysis , methemoglobinemia Vomiting, Hypotensi , Lethargy , death
8 Chlorine Oxidative blood damage ? Via generation of chloroform :
Ability to form chloramine Carcinogen ?
9 Copper Hemolysis , fever Metallic taste , gastrointestinal discomfort
refractory hypotensi , liver damage
10 Chromium ? ?
11 Fluoride Nausea , vomiting , arrythmias , tetany Osteomalacia, osteoporosis
Hemorragic petechiae , ventilatory effort ,
Cardiac arrest, hypocalsemia , hyperkalemi
Acidosis
12 Formaldehyde Hemolysis ?
13 Iron ? ?
14 Hydrogen Peroxide Hemolysis ?
15 Hypochlorite Hemolysis ?
16 Lead Colic, Obstipation, vomiting, Nervous system disorders , anemia
Nervous system disorders
17 Magnesium Hard water syndrom : Burning skin sensation
18 Mercury ? ?
19 Monochloramines Methemoglobinemia ?
20 Nitrate , nitrite Hemolysis , methemoglobinemia ?
21 Nitrosamine ? Carcinogen ?
22 Peracetic Acid Hemolysis ?
23 Pesticides ? Polyneuropathy ?
24 Potasium Hyperkalemia : Bradyarrythmia ?
Hypokalemia : Tachyarrythmia
25 Selenium ? ?
26 Silicon ? Contribution to neuropathy
Bone and chest disease , anemia
27 Silver ? ?
28 Sodium Hypernatremia: hypertensi Hypertensi
Severe : intracellular dehydration Augmented interdialytic weight gain
( nausea , vomiting, disorientasi , coma )
Hyponatremia : Hypotensi
Severe : Water poisoning
( Cerebral edema , hemolysis )
29 Sodium Azide Hypotensi , Blurred vision Neurotoxic
Abdominal pain , headache ( damage in the white and grey matter )
Loss of consciousness
30 Sulfate Nausea , vomiting , arrythmias , tetany ?
31 Zinc Hemolysis Anemia , nausea , fever
Water Quality in hemodialysis 1998, vol 1
KUALITAS AIR RO KUALITAS AIR BERSIH
Parameter AAMI European Parameter Standard
Pharmacopoeia AIR BERSIH
Unsur yang terkandung dalam cairan dialisis Sifat fisik :
Calsium 2 ( 0.1 mEq/l ) 2 Keadaan -
Magnesium 4 ( 0.3 mEq/l ) 2 Bau -
Potasium 8 ( 0.2 mEq/l ) 2 Rasa -
Sodium 70 ( 0.3 mEq/l ) 50 Suhu 0C Udara
Kekeruhan NTU 25
Unsur yang mengandung RACUN Warna Pt-Co 50
terdapat dalam AIR MINUM
Arsenic 0.005 - Sifat kimia :
Barium 0.01 m - pH 6.5 - 9.0
Cadmium 0.001 - Jumlah zat padat mg/l 1500
Chromium 0.014 - Karbon dioksida bebas -
Lead 0.005 - Alkalinitas
Mercury 0.0002 0.001 a. Phenolpthalin mg / l -
Selenium 0.009 - b. Total mg / l 500
Silver 0.005 - c. Hidroksida mg / l -
d. Karbonat mg / l -
Unsur lain yang mengandung RACUN e. Bikarbonat mg / l 500
terdapat dalam DIALISIS Kesadahan mg / l 500
Almunium 0.01 0.01 Kalsium mg / l -
Ammonium - 0.2 Magnesium mg / l -
Chloramines 0.1 - Besi 1.0
Free Chlorine 0.5 0.1 Mangan 0.5
Chloride - 50 Almunium -
Copper 0.1 - Nitrit 1.0
Nitrat 10
Angka Permanganat 10
Fluoride 0.2 0.2 Khlorida 600
Nitrate 2 2 Sulfat 400
Sulfate 100 50
Zinc 0.1 0.1
Logam berat - 0.1
Standard AAMI menggunakan nilai maximum
mg / l = ppm
CFU : Colony Forming Units
IU : International Units
Water Quality in hemodialysis, 1998 vol 1
AAMI : Association for the Advancement Of Medical Instrumentation