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GERMAN

ATV-DVWK RULES AND STANDARDS


ADVISORY LEAFLET
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
Pipelines for the Field
of the Technical Equipping
of Wastewater Treatment Plants
May 2001
ADVISORY LEAFLET
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
Pipelines for the Field
of the Technical Equipping
of Wastewater Treatment Plants
May 2001
ISBN 978-3-937758-73-2
GERMAN
ATV-DVWK RULES AND STANDARDS
Publisher/Marketing:
Deutsche Vereinigung fr Wasserwirtschaft, Abwasser und Abfall e.V.
German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste
Theodor-Heuss-Allee 17 53773 Hennef Germany
Tel.: +49 2242 872-333 Fax: +49 2242 872-100
E-Mail: kundenzentrum@dwa.de Internet: www.dwa.de
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 2









The German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste, DWA (former ATV-DVWK), is the spokesman
in Germany for all universal questions on water and is involved intensely with the development of reliable
and sustainable water management. As politically and economically independent organisation it operates
specifically in the areas of water management, wastewater, waste and soil protection.
In Europe the DWA is the association in this field with the greatest number of members and, due to its spe-
cialist competence it holds a special position with regard to standardisation, professional training and infor-
mation of the public. The ca. 14,000 members represent the experts and executive personnel from munici-
palities, universities, engineer offices, authorities and businesses.
The emphasis of its activities is on the elaboration and updating of a common set of technical rules and
standards and with collaboration with the creation of technical standard specifications at the national and
international levels. To this belong not only the technical-scientific subjects but also economical and legal
demands of environmental protection and protection of bodies of waters.
Imprint
Publisher and marketing:
DWA German Association for
Water, Wastewater and Waste
Theodor-Heuss-Allee 17
D-53773 Hennef, Germany
Tel.:
Fax:
E-Mail:
Internet:
+49 2242 872-333
+49 2242 872-100
kundenzentrum@dwa.de
www.dwa.de


Translation:
Richard Brown, Wachtberg
Printing (English version):
DWA
ISBN-13: 978-3-937758-73-2

The translation was sponsored by the
German Federal Environmental Foundation (DBU)
Printed on 100 % Recycling paper.
DWA Deutsche Vereinigung fr Wasserwirtschaft, Abwasser und Abfall e.V., Hennef 2006
(DWA German Association of Water, Wastewater and Waste)
All rights, in particular those of translation into other languages, are reserved. No part of this Advisory Leaflet may be reproduced in
any form by photocopy, microfilm or any other process or transferred into a language usable in machines, in particular data proc-
ssing machines, without the written approval of the publisher.
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 3
Foreword
Pipelines form a crucial point in the technical equipment of wastewater treatment plants. They serve for the
conveyance of the media which is to be treated and utilised (liquids with and without solid matter component,
gases). Pipelines are to be found in all areas of the technical equipment of wastewater treatment plants.
Pipelines can be subjected to widely differing stresses (static and dynamic), corrosion (caused by the me-
dium and/or the environment), abrasion, erosion, temperature (heat, cold) etc. The selection of the pipe
material and the dimensioning of the pipelines with regard to diameter and wall thickness demand a high
degree of specialist knowledge above all with regard to the type of stress, the material characteristic values,
the possibilities for processing and not the least the comprehensive standard specifications and regulations
associated with this field.
With this Advisory Leaflet planners, those inviting tenders and those responsible for decisions are to be
provided with assistance in achieving professional and economic solutions.
In many cases proven solutions can be recommended, in other cases reference has to be made to techni-
cal documents and regulations in order to develop proper standards for invitation to tender and for the im-
plementation in terotechnology.
Authors
This Advisory Leaflet has been elaborated by the ATV-DVWK Working Group KA-11.2 Mechanical engi-
neering within the ATV-DVWK Specialist Committee KA-11 Technical equipping and construction of
wastewater treatment plants.
Members of the Working Group are:
Dipl.-Ing. John Becker, Worpswede
Dipl.-Ing. Wolf-Dieter Blackert, Taunusstein
Dr.-Ing. Rdiger Hohmann, Essen (Chairman)
Dipl.-Ing. Erwin Klauwer, Essen (Chairman up to 9/2000)
Dr.-Ing. Hans-Herrmann Niehoff, Gladbeck
Dipl.-Ing. Joachim Maow, Rohrbach
Dipl.-Ing. Christian Schnatmann, Essen

ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 4
Contents
Foreword.................................................................................................................................................. 3
Authors .................................................................................................................................................. 3
User Notes............................................................................................................................................... 6
1 Area of Application ................................................................................................................ 6
2 Abbreviations Used................................................................................................................ 6
3 Stressing of the Pipelines by the Media .............................................................................. 7
4 Selection of Material .............................................................................................................. 8
4.1 Pipelines Made from Mild or Low Carbon Steel ....................................................................... 8
4.1.1 General..................................................................................................................................... 8
4.1.2 Processing of Pipelines Made from Mild or Low Carbon Steel ................................................ 8
4.2 Pipelines Made from Stainless Steel........................................................................................ 9
4.2.1 General..................................................................................................................................... 9
4.2.2 Corrosion Resistance of Pipelines Made from Stainless Steel ................................................ 9
4.2.3 Processing of Pipelines Made from Stainless Steel................................................................. 10
4.3 Pipelines Made from Non-ferrous Metals................................................................................. 10
4.4 Pipelines Made from Plastic..................................................................................................... 11
4.4.1 General..................................................................................................................................... 11
4.4.2 Processing of Pipelines Made from Plastic.............................................................................. 12
5 Dimensioning of Pipelines .................................................................................................... 12
5.1 Flow Rates and Minimum Nominal Diameters......................................................................... 13
5.2 Pressure Losses with the Transport of Viscous Liquids .......................................................... 13
5.3 Selection of Pipelines............................................................................................................... 14
5.3.1 Pipelines Made from Steel and Stainless Steel ....................................................................... 14
5.3.2 Pipelines Made from Plastic..................................................................................................... 14
6 Laying of Pipelines................................................................................................................. 15
6.1 Expansion and Settling Compensation .................................................................................... 15
6.2 Connection of Pipelines............................................................................................................ 16
6.2.1 Permanent Connections of Pipelines made from Metallic Materials........................................ 16
6.2.1.1 Welding and Brazing ................................................................................................................ 16
6.2.1.2 Press Fittings............................................................................................................................ 17
6.2.2 Permanent Connections Plastic............................................................................................... 17
6.2.2 Separable Connections............................................................................................................ 17
6.2.3.1 Flange Connections for Steel Pipelines ................................................................................... 17
6.2.3.2 Flange Connections for Plastic Pipelines................................................................................. 18
6.2.3.3 Pipe Couplings ......................................................................................................................... 18
6.2.3.4 Bolts, Nuts, Washers................................................................................................................ 18
6.2.3.5 Seals......................................................................................................................................... 18
6.3 Fittings...................................................................................................................................... 19
6.4 Pipe Supports and Fixtures...................................................................................................... 19
6.5 Emptying, Ventilation and Cleaning ......................................................................................... 20
6.6 Wall Leadthroughs ................................................................................................................... 20
6.7 Lubrication Lines ...................................................................................................................... 21
ATV-DVWK M 275E
May 2001 5
7 Other Matters........................................................................................................................... 21
7.2 Insulation................................................................................................................................... 21
7.1.1 Execution of Hot Protective Insulation ...................................................................................... 21
7.1.2 Execution of Cold Protective Insulation .................................................................................... 22
7.1.3 Insulation to Prevent Condensation Water ............................................................................... 22
7.1.4 Frost Protective Insulation ........................................................................................................ 22
7.1.5 Insulation for Pipes Made from Stainless Steel ........................................................................ 22
7.1.6 Insulation Thicknesses.............................................................................................................. 22
7.1.7 Insulation Cladding.................................................................................................................... 22
7.2 Equipotential Bonding............................................................................................................... 22
7.3 Measurements .......................................................................................................................... 23
7.4 Marking ..................................................................................................................................... 23
7.5 Tests.......................................................................................................................................... 24
Bibliography............................................................................................................................................. 25
Appendix .................................................................................................................................................. 26
Appendix A: Tables ................................................................................................................................... 26
Appendix B: Normative References .......................................................................................................... 35
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 6

1 Area of Application
In this Advisory Leaflet information is provided for
the planning, execution and testing of pipelines for
the area of technical equipment in wastewater
treatment plants. With this, the special require-
ments of wastewater treatment plant-specific me-
dia on metal and plastic pipes are taken into ac-
count. This Advisory Leaflet can also be applied
analogously for pipelines in wastewater treatment
facilities and pumping stations outside wastewater
treatment plants.
There are numerous standard specifications and
regulations on the dimensions, materials, require-
ments on testing, planning and execution of pipe-
lines. With this Advisory Leaflet the handling of
these comprehensive standard specifications and
standards is to be made easier through limitation
to the wastewater treatment plant-specific applica-
tion case.
Furthermore, experience is to be passed on as to
which materials, designs etc. have proved them-
selves for the respective cases of application in
wastewater treatment plants (e.g. medium, tem-
perature, pressure).
The following are not dealt with in this Advisory
Leaflet:
inlet and outlet sewers,
sewers within the wastewater treatment plant,
pipelines made from mineral construction ma-
terials (e.g. concrete, cement fibres, vitrified
clay etc.),
building services pipelines,
cable protection pipes.
Below are given solutions as to how technical re-
quirements can be met. They do not exclude other
at least equally secure solutions such as, for ex-
ample, are contained in the technical rules of other
member states of the European Union or other
partner states of the Agreement on the European
Economic Area.
2 Abbreviations Used
[Translators note: with one exception all German abbrevia-
tions are used in the translation]
AFP Asbestos-free fibrous material slabs
AGI German Working Group for
Industrial Construction
ATV-DVWK German Association for Water,
Wastewater and Waste
CE
(designation)
EC Mark of Conformity
CSM Chlorosulphonated polyethylene
DampfkV German Ordinance on Steam
Boiler Installations
DIN DIN-German Institute for
Standardisation
EN European Standard
DruckbehV German Ordinance on Pressure
Vessels, Compressed Gas Tanks
and Filling Facilities
DVGW German Technical and Scientific
Association for Gas and Water
User Notes
This Advisory Leaflet is the result of honorary, technical-scientific/economic collaboration which has been
achieved in accordance with the principles applicable therefore (statutes, rules of procedure of the ATV-
DVWK and the Standard ATV-DVWK-A 400). For this, according to precedents, there exists an actual
presumption that it is textually and technically correct.
The application of this Advisory Leaflet is open to everyone. However, an obligation for application can
arise from legal or administrative regulations, a contract or other legal reason.
This Advisory Leaflet is an important, however, not the sole source of information for correct solutions.
With its application no one avoids responsibility for his own action or for the correct application in specific
cases; this applies in particular for the correct handling of the margins described in the Advisory leaflet.
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 7
DVS German Welding Society
EG (Directive) European Community
EPDM Ethylene-propylene diene monomer
(Ethylene-propylene-terpolymer)
ISO International Standardisation
Organisation
KRV German Plastics Association
LAWA German Federal State Working
Group Water
NBR Acrylnitrile-butadiene rubber
NPSH
(-value)
Net positive suction head,
a measure for the minimum suc-
tion head of a centrifugal pump
(American source)
PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene
RAL
(-colour register)
German Institute for Quality
Assurance and Marking
TRB Technical Rules for Pressure
Vessels
TRR Technical Rules for Pipelines
UVV German Accident Prevention
Regulation
VAwS German Ordinance on Facilities for
the Handling Water Hazardous and
on Specialist Operations
VbF German Ordinance on Combustible
Liquids
VDE Association of German Electrical
Engineers
VdTV German Federation of Technical
Surveyance Associations
VOB German Contract Procedures
for Construction Works
WHG German Water Resources
Management Law

3 Stressing of the
Pipelines by the
Media
The media in the pipelines dealt with here are es-
sentially wastewater and its sludge, process and
drinking water, water in heating circuits, air, com-
bustible gases as well as chemical additives for
precipitation and flocculation. The temperatures of
the surroundings or of the medium do not in gen-
eral place any special requirements on metallic
pipe materials. With the employment of plastics
their permitted limiting temperature is, however, to
be observed (e. g. with pipelines for pressure ven-
tilation systems). The pipeline pressures apart
from a few exceptions, for example with water
hammer, transport of sludge, explosion or detona-
tion endangered pipeline sections lie below 6 bar
and place no increased demands on stability or
wall thickness. The pressure level to be selected
results from the maximum operating pressure
which occur taking into account all particular oper-
ating conditions. With pipelines endangered by
water hammer a pressure surge calculation is to
be carried out in cases of doubt.
Taking into account the service life the following
are to be named as the most important selection
criteria for the pipe materials, steel and plastic,
most frequently employed in wastewater treatment
plants:
the resistance to corrosion and
the resistance to wear against abrasive content
substances.
Table 1 (Appendix) gives an overview on media
and pipe materials in wastewater treatment plants
and the recommended proven combinations.
(Note: in this Table pure oxygen is not listed as
medium as, due to increased tendency to oxidation
and possible fire hazard in connection with oils,
greases, seal materials etc., the selection of mate-
rials should be assessed by specialist firms.)
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 8
4 Selection of Material
With the selection of pipeline materials, from the
point of view of operations, the media and the in-
fluences on the environment are decisive. Accord-
ing to economic aspects the costs for delivery, lay-
ing, operation, maintenance and for other operating
factors (converted to annual costs) have a consid-
erable influence.
4.1 Pipelines Made from Mild
or Low Carbon Steel
4.1.1 General
For numerous cases of application mild steel is
well-suited as pipe material due to its high stability,
easy joining and laying techniques and due to its
favourable price. For reasons of corrosion such
pipes can be galvanised and/or coated with ce-
ment mortar or plastic (for this see ATV Advisory
Leaflet M 263 (not yet available in English)) or be
jacketed. Steel pipes are produced either without
seams through rolling or mechanically from plates
or strip welded with a longitudinal seam or, with
larger diameters, welded in spiral form. The quality
of welding seams of mechanically welded pipes is
very high so that, as a rule, they satisfy the de-
mands placed on them. The reduction of the mate-
rial properties is laid down in the relevant delivery
standard specifications (e.g. DIN 1626 and DIN
1628). Due to their significantly higher price seam-
less pipes only are used in exceptional cases only
(see Table 2, Appendix). Spiral welded pies can
be economic from DN 500 upwards.
Due to the new European standardisation, in ac-
cordance with EN 10027-1 the abbreviations for
steels are formed according to their employment
and the mechanical or physical properties. For
wastewater treatment plants inter alia the following
main symbols are of interest:
S = steels for general structural steel work
P = steels for the construction of pressure
vessels
L = steels for the construction of pipelines
E = engineering steels
These main symbols have appended the minimum
yield strength in N/mm
2
.
The previously employed steel designations St
37.0 or RSt 37.2 are thus L 235 and S 235JRG2.
Unfortunately this new classification system has
not been taken over uniformly for all steels and in
individual cases are, for example, to be ascer-
tained from the manufacturers.
Material quality L 235 (previously: St 37.0) is normal
in accordance with EN 10027-1 for welded pipes.
As today steel plates of the same continuous high
quality are produced, the previous normal quality
specification, for example for fully killed cast steel
with verified suitability for welding, is unnecessary.
Mild or low carbon steels with specially verified
properties are necessary only for high strength re-
quirements or for creep resistant pipelines.
In the following Sections (4.2 ff) the selection crite-
ria are given which make the employment of
stainless steel qualities or plastics as pipe material
appear as advisable or necessary.
4.1.2 Processing of Pipelines Made
from Mild or Low Carbon Steel
EN 25817 (previously DIN 8563-3) applies for the
assessment of the welding seam quality. For
slightly stressed pipelines, with which in cases of
damage or leakage no hazards due to the medium
occur, the lowest Assessment Group (D) can be
sufficient as limit for irregularities in the welding
seams. For higher requirements, for example with
pipelines laid underground and with dynamic
stresses as well as for the internal seam surface
(towards the medium) at least Assessment Group
C is to be called for. The required welding seam
quality is to be laid down.
For pipelines in the area of application of the
DVGW as well as of the Pressure Vessel Ordi-
nance the regulations applicable there are to be
observed.
For the technical welding processing only qualified
welders may be used for manual and partly me-
chanical welding processes who can produce a
valid welding test certificate in accordance with EN
287-1 for the required welding process. The firm
carrying out the work should meet the technical
welding quality requirements in accordance with
EN 729-1 to EN 729-4.
The following quality assurance measures are
recommended and are to be laid down in the re-
quest for tenders:
welding inspection,
documentation of the welding tasks carried out
by each welder,
testing of welding seams (test method, possible
welding specialist, size of random samples,
documentation of the tests etc.).
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 9
4.2 Pipelines Made from
Stainless Steel
4.2.1 General
Stainless steels are employed if particularly corro-
sive stresses are present for which other materials
are longer equal to the situation or if there are spe-
cial advantages according to other assessment
criteria, for example if a pipeline made from
stainless steel is more economic than one made
from normal steel with corrosion protection. The
corrosion resistance of stainless steels with their
high alloy components of chromium and nickel is,
however, only guaranteed if the selection of mate-
rial to meet the application and the processing to
match the material has been observed.
Stainless steels are in particular to be recom-
mended if
increased corrosion resistance against aggres-
sive substances, in particular against the con-
tent substances of wastewater,
resistance with higher temperatures
(no oxidation),
high resistance against corrosion erosion in
flowing media,
low wear and through this low pollution of the
medium (product cleanliness) is promoted.
Typical areas of employment and cases of applica-
tion are, for example:
digester gas pipes,
exhaust pipes,
air pipes in activated sludge and grit chamber
facilities, particularly in the underwater area,
pipelines for chemicals.
Further cases of application can be taken from Ta-
ble 1 (Appendix).
Straight bead welded circular pipes in accordance
with DIN 17455 are sufficient as pipelines made
from stainless steel the weld factor 0.8 is, as a
rule, sufficient from hot or cold rolled strip, in
each case non-heat-treated (D1/K1), matt pickled
and rendered passive full bath, with tolerances
D2/T3 for the external diameter and the wall thick-
ness in accordance with DIN EN ISO 1127 as well
as tolerances F2/S1 according to ISO 5252 (see
Table 2 in the Appendix).
4.2.2 Corrosion Resistance of Pipelines
Made from Stainless Steel
The corrosion resistance of stainless steels de-
pends on a thin, invisible surface layer which forms
spontaneously through the reaction between the
chromium in the alloy and the oxygen from the sur-
roundings. This chromium oxide layer, the so-
called passive layer, prevents corrosive attacks on
the metal lying below. Mechanical damage or other
impairment of the passive layer is only harmless if
a spontaneous repassivation can form. Stainless
steels are thus resistant against surface corrosion
in oxygen-rich environments.
Nevertheless stainless steels can also be impaired
in their durability and resistance through corrosion.
The following types of corrosion are frequently to
be observed:
pitting corrosion (pitting),
crevice corrosion,
stress corrosion cracking,
corrosion fatigue,
stress and corrosion fatigue.
Pitting and crevice corrosion are caused mainly by
high chloride concentrations in the medium. The
resistance against pitting and crevice corrosion
grows with increasing alloying component. In addi-
tion to the chromium content, above all the molyb-
denum content and, with the higher alloyed steels,
also the nitrogen content have an influence on the
resistance. The effect of these alloying components
is expressed simplified in the working sum
= % Cr + 3.3 % Mo + 16 % N. The resistance to
corrosion increases with increasing working sum.
Under ideal conditions (inter alia no stagnant flow
conditions) as well as with ambient temperatures,
the following guidance values for the stability ap-
ply: stainless steels with the material number
1.4301 (X5 CrNi 18-10) and similar (Working sum
18) in (non-sensitised) delivery condition up to ca.
100 mg/l chloride, the material 1.4571 (X6 CrNiMoTi
17-12-2 with the working sum 25) and similar up to
800 mg/l chloride are seen as stable. With normal
hot water temperatures (e.g. 60 C 80 C) lower
values are to be set. With higher chloride ion con-
tents more corrosion resistant qualities such as, for
example 1.4439 (X2 CrNiMoN 17-13-5 with the
working sum 35) must be employed.
In narrow gaps such as, for example, of flange gas-
kets or press fittings, due to a lack of flushing effect
(stagnant flow conditions) there are concentrations
of chloride ions, so that there pitting and crevice
corrosion can occur to an increased degree.
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 10
Note:
With a later heating up to temperatures between
ca. 425 C to 870 C, for example wit welding in
the area of the heat affected zone, a so-called
sensitisation takes place through structural trans-
formation, i.e. corrosion can already occur with
lower chloride concentrations.
4.2.3 Processing of Pipelines Made
from Stainless Steel
For the technical welding processing of high alloy
Cr-Ni steels only certified welders can be em-
ployed for manual and semi-mechanical welding
processes, who can produce a valid welding test
certificate in accordance with EN 287-1 for the re-
quired welding process, semi-finished products
(plate or in this case for pipes), the type of seam,
material group (here W11), welding position and
seam design. Attention is drawn to 4.1.2 with re-
gard to quality assurance measures.
The highest resistance to corrosion is provided
with a clean, smooth and metallically polished sur-
face. Cracks, scratches and crevices are weak
points and encourage the creation of crevice cor-
rosion. Therefore, to maintain the resistance to
corrosion, the annealing colours, scaling and slag
residues must be removed as they, as imperfec-
tions in the passive layer, lead to corrosion dam-
age at the welding seams. Equally metallic abra-
sion, in particular that of normal steel, has to be
eliminated, which occurs on the surface of the ma-
terial with the processing by tools. Resistance to
corrosion is equally reduced through adhesive de-
posits of all types, for example from metallic oxides
and metallic hydrated oxides (extraneous rust).
In general, with the handling of stainless steels the
following requirements apply:
with the storage and processing of stainless
steels spatial separation from normal steel and
unalloyed steels (otherwise formation of extra-
neous rust, initial easily removable rust).
avoidance of any contact with unalloyed or low
alloy steels (bearing and tensioning elements,
means for fastening, brushes etc.).
In the case that these requirements cannot be met
reliably, not only the welding seams but also the
complete workpiece is to be pickled and, if re-
quired rendered passive after processing.
As a rule only welding processes using protective
gas, such as, for example, the wolfram-inert gas
(WIG welding, Code No. 141 in accordance with
EN 24063) or metal-active gas welding (MAG
welding, Code No. 135), are employed.
The employment of electric arc manual welding
(E-Hand welding, Code No. 111) is to be agreed in
individual cases with the customer.
The statements under Sect. 4.1.2. apply for the
assessment of the quality of welding seams.
With pipelines carrying digester gas the Assess-
ment Group C should be specified.
Ignition points next to welding seams and weld
spatter are to be avoided and must be eliminated
through grinding and polishing. Only those abra-
sives which are approved for high alloy Cr-Ni steels
are to be employed.
Through suitable forming processes (i.e. rinsing of
the weld on the inside of the pipe using special
inert gas mixtures, no forming pastes) and forming
installations it must be ensured that, in particular in
the area of the root no inadmissible annealing col-
ours appear. (Note: on welding seams which are
produced on site, even with the best possible weld-
ing seam preparation and using sufficient quanti-
ties of forming gases there are, nevertheless,
straw yellow annealing colours; therefore welded
joints should as far as possible be carried out un-
der factory conditions).
With the occurrence of inadmissible annealing col-
ours (e.g. blue or even brown) it is necessary for
the seams to be post-treated until free of annealing
colours. Grinding using suitable abrasives, pickling
or shot blasting with micro-glass beads is recom-
mended. With pickling using pickling paste the rins-
ing water is to be disposed of correctly.
4.3 Pipelines Made from
Non-ferrous Metals
For water pipelines, inter alia seamless copper
pipes in accordance with EN 1057 are employed
(material Cu-DHP in accordance with EN 12449,
previously SF-Cu). For pipes according to the stan-
dard specifications there are internationally stan-
dardised pipe connections and fittings. These pipes
can also be used for lubrication lines (see Sect.
6.7). Copper and copper alloys (e.g. brass or red
brass) have only limited resistance against hydro-
gen sulphide and ammoniac, above all in wet media
(e.g. digester gas). The resistance as a rule reduces
further with increasing copper content. For example
black copper sulphide is formed with the presence
of hydrogen sulphide. With the presence of the trig-
gering constraints, in addition to the corrosion strip-
ping an uncontrolled failure of the components (e.g.
fittings) is caused. Therefore, for digester gas, non-
ferrous metal designs are to be used.
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 11
For pipelines in technical ventilation facilities the
aluminium alloy AlMg 3 is suitable (see also Ta-
ble 1, Appendix).
4.4 Pipelines Made from Plastic
4.4.1 General
For numerous application cases there are avail-
able pipelines made from plastic due to the follow-
ing advantage:
small weight,
very good resistance to chemicals,
low maintenance costs,
easy shaping and economic working properties.
These advantages are opposed by disadvantages
which are to be taken into account with the respec-
tive application case, for example:
as a rule low mechanical resistance,
low dimensional stability and resistance to the
effects of heat,
susceptibility to ageing due to the effects of light
(UV radiation) and heat,
to a high degree combustible (under certain cir-
cumstances toxic combustion products),
limited possibility of recovery,
tendency to shrink and creep,
danger of static electricity charging,
large thermal coefficient of elongation.
Plastics are divided into thermoplastics, duroplastics
and elastoplastics. Essentially plastic in accordance
with Table 1 are employed as pipeline materials.
Table 1: Plastics for pipelines
Thermoplastic plastics: Abbreviation
Polyvinyl chloride,
unplasticised
PVC-U
Polyvinyl chloride, chlorinated PVC-C
Polyethylene PE
Polypropylene PP
Polybutene PB
Polyvinylidene fluoride PVDF
Polyamide PA
Duroplastic plastics:
Unsaturated polyester resin,
glass-fibre reinforced
UP-GF
Phenacrylate resin, glass-fibre
reinforced
PHA-GF
Epoxy resin, glass fibre rein-
forced
EP-GF
The choice of materials and the pressure level of
the pipeline components are of decisive signifi-
cance for operating safety and achievement of a
planned minimum service life. The following apply
as relevant influencing factors: the operating pres-
sure, the operating temperature, the medium to be
transported and different to metallic materials
also the duration of the loading. In particular to be
observed is, due to the lower stability also the wa-
ter hammer behaviour of plastic pipes, above all
with regard to possible underpressure conditions.
With the selection of plastics fundamentally the
employment of secondary plastics should also be
investigated.
The suitable material dependent on pressure and
temperature can be taken from Fig. 1. In this the
influence of temperature on the material stability is
clearly identifiable. Reductions in stability are al-
ready to be taken into account from 25 C 30 C.
For example, for the material PVC-U, in general
designated as PVC, the limits of the employment ca-
pability are achieved already at 60

C and with PVC-C
at 90

C.

Fig. 1: Application limiting values for pipes
made from thermoplastic materials [1]
(25 years service life with safety factor
included)
Included in all cases are the normal material safety
factors. Deviating requirements due to shorter or
longer service lives, deviating operating tempera-
tures and special media conditions require an indi-
vidual calculation.
For pipes, fittings and accoutrements made from
plastic the pressure levels for an operating tem-
perature of 20 C applies. In accordance with ISO
4065 the pipes are divided into series whereby
pipes of the same serial number are approved for
the same loading capability, which comparatively is
the case with the designation according to the
nominal pressure levels. The series is marked by
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 12
the letter S (see Table 4, Appendix). With plastic
pipes the external diameter d
e
1)
is given. Particular
attention is to be paid with the calculation of flow
rates and pressure surges that, with larger wall
thicknesses as a result of high stability require-
ments, significantly smaller internal diameters re-
sult. Large wall thicknesses also signify a jump in
nominal diameter with the changeover to metallic
pipelines if the internal diameter is to remain more
or less the same (e.g. transition steel wall pipe to
PE earth pipe).
4.4.2 Processing of Pipelines
Made from Plastic
The Standard DVS 2210-1 is to be applied for the
fabrication of pipelines made from thermoplastic
plastics. The Standard DVS 2201-1 applies for the
assessment of the quality of the welding seam con-
nections made from thermoplastic plastics. Assess-
ment Group I should be specified for underground
pipelines as these pipelines can no longer be moni-
tored at a later date. For surface pipelines Assess-
ment Group II can be agreed as sufficient. Only for
lightly loaded pipelines, with which in the case of
damage or leakage, no hazards from the medium
occur, Assessment Group III can also be agreed.
The required quality of welding seams is to be laid
down.
Only qualified welders who can produce a valid
welding certificate in accordance DVS 2212-1 for
the required welding process may be employed for
the technical welding processing for manual and
semi-mechanical welding processes.
A certificate of qualification in accordance with
VdTV MB K 001 or in accordance with DVS
2221-1 is to be produced for the execution of ad-
hesive joints.
The KRV Standard A 9.8.4 is to be used for the
fabrication of pipelines made from glass reinforced
plastics (GRP)
2)
.
For pipelines within the area of application of the
DVGW as well as the (German) Pressure Vessel
Ordinance if required in deviation to the above
given statements the there applicable regulations
are to be observed.

1) Translator`s note: d
e
, the index used reflects the English
translation of the German index d
a

2) Translator`s note: GRP is equivalent to GFK in the
German version
The following quality assurance measures are rec-
ommended and are to be laid down in the request
for tenders:
supervision of the laying tasks (e.g. supervision
of welding),
documentation of the work of the respective
performer (e.g. welding tasks, bonding tasks),
testing of welding seams, bonding etc. (test
method, possible experts, size of random sam-
ples, documentation of the tests etc.).
5 Dimensioning of
Pipelines
A first preliminary dimensioning of the pipeline can
take place in accordance with the specified
recommended values for normal rates and mini-
mum nominal diameters. The selection of the de-
sired flow rate is limited through technical flow lim-
iting data (e.g. danger of blockage, deposits, vibra-
tions, development of noise, erosion etc.).
The first dimensioning in particular with longer
pressure lines should follow a determination of
the economical diameter including material vari-
ants. Here it applies that the annual costs (capital
and operating costs are to be compared with each
other and are to be optimised. The methods to be
applied here as well as proposals for service lives
to be applied are, for example, described in [2].
As one has to assume an ageing of the material
with plastic pipelines the service life must be speci-
fied for the determination of the creep strength.
With this, in addition to the pressure and tempera-
ture, the desired service life also has a certain,
however, only small influence on the dimensioning
and selection of material.
The operating costs are essentially determined by
the electrical work to be used for the transport. This
results from the flow quantity, the delivery head hy-
draulic losses in the pipe plus the geodetic height
difference, the pump efficiency, the annual operat-
ing hours and the price for electricity.
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 13
5.1 Flow Rates and Minimum
Nominal Diameters
For the transport of water and wastewater with low
solid matter contents the economical flow rates of
Table 2 can serve as reference values [3].
Table 2: Economic flow rates
DN 25 40 65 100 150 200 300 500
V [m/s] 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.9
Q [m
3
/h] 2.5 7 21 56 140 270 660 2050
In suction pipelines the flow rate is to be so se-
lected, taking into account the pump characteristic
(NPSH value), that cavitation can be avoided with
certainty.
With raw wastewater and in particular water-sand
mixtures minimum flow rates 2 m/s are to be
sought in vertical pressure pipelines, in order to
avoid deposits and demixing.
To avoid blockages the following minimum nominal
diameters are laid down in accordance with Table 3
for the conveyance of certain media in wastewater
treatment plants in accordance with DIN 19569 1
3)

(for this compare also EN 12255-1):
Table 3: Minimum nominal diameters
Medium Minimum nomi-
nal diameter
Water-sand mixture, sus-
pended solids, activated
sludge
DN 80
Raw sludge DN 100
1)
Thickened digested sludge,
thickened raw sludge
DN 100
1)
Thermally conditioned sludge DN 65
1)
With upstream fine screens, comminution or screen facilities
and with short delivery stretches smaller minimum nominal
diameter can be selected.
Conveyance of gases:
In areas in which the pressure losses are covered
from the system pressure, flow rates of 3.0 m/s to
5.0 m/s are to be recommended for digester gas.
Ventilating ducts should have a maximum velocity
of 8 m/s.

3) Authors afternote: In the meantime DIN 19569 has been
withdrawn and replaced by EN 12255-1
The design velocity in air pipes for activated sludge
plants and similar is to be limited with full blower
performance to 15 m/s, with very short pipe lengths
(e.g. directly after the compressor) to 25 m/s.
Note:
With the determination of the flow rates the values
in compressed condition are to be applied.
5.2 Pressure Losses with the
Transport of Viscous Liquids
The methods for the determination of pressure
losses with the transportation of water are also to
be applied for wastewater, sludge liquor and simi-
lar with solid matter contents up to ca 2 %. With
higher shares of solid matter there are significant
differences with regard to hydraulic conditions. The
parameters for the description of the pressure
losses are essentially dependent on the type of
sludge and on the dry solids content. But also the
share of organic substances of the solid mass and
the treatment process can influence the transporta-
tion conditions.
The fundamental difference therefore is due to the
fact that sludge with a high share of solid matter
does not follow Newtons laws. With this the ratio of
the so-called shear rate to the shear strain exercised
is not constant as the dynamic viscosity is depend-
ent on the shear forces operating on the sludge.
The complex conditions demand that each individ-
ual case of a transportation of sludge over greater
distances is examined carefully, in particular if
thickened excess sludge is to be transported. To
this belongs a viscometric determination of the flow
curve of the original sludge (so far as it exists),
which describes the relationship between shear
rate and sear strain.
The changes of the pressure losses dependent on
dry solids content of a mechanically thickened
sludge are shown as an example in Fig. 2. Addi-
tional literature is contained in [4, 5].
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 14

Fig. 2: Pressure losses of sludge in
pipelines [6]
5.3 Selection of Pipelines
The wall thicknesses of pipelines are to be suffi-
ciently dimensioned taking into account corrosion
and abrasion which occurs and with high pres-
sures according to the maximum pressure of the
medium. With the transportation of heavily abrasive
substances (e.g. sand-water mixtures, primary
sludge etc.) possibly larger wall thicknesses are to
be selected as wear reserve.
Due to the required resistance the employment of
plastic is necessary as pipeline material with chemi-
cals such as, for example, FeCl
3
as precipitant.
With unavoidable laying of underground pipelines
for water-hazardous liquids double pipe systems are
to be employed (see 19 WHG). With this the coun-
try-specific regulations are to be taken into account.
To reduce pressure losses and to avoid deposits fit-
tings are to be so selected that hydraulically favour-
able conditions result. The radius of curvature of
pipe bends should not be less than 1.5 d.
5.3.1 Pipelines Made from Steel
and Stainless Steel
With the selection of the diameter of steel pipelines
as far as possible fall back on Series 1 in accor-
dance with ISO 4200; this also corresponds with
Series 1 in DIN 2458 for welded steel pipes as well
as in EN ISO 1127 for welded pipes made from
austenitic stainless steel.
As wall thickness for these pipes the following suf-
fice in the normal case (compare also Table 2,
Appendix):
Preferred Wall Thickness Series D according to
ISO 4200 for steel pipes,
Preferred Wall Thickness Series A according to
ISO 4200 for pipes made from stainless steel
(see also DIN 19569-5 and DIN 19569-6)
4)
. De-
pending on the individual case, in particular with
larger pipeline cross-sections, larger wall thick-
nesses are recommended.
For pipes with a diameter greater than DN 1000
wall thicknesses are to be laid down in the invita-
tion to tender.
For smaller nominal diameters (e.g. up to DN 40)
the employment of threaded pipes can be eco-
nomical for water, hot water, air etc. In these cases
threaded pipes according to DIN 2440 or to DIN
2441 are to be used.
5.3.2 Pipelines Made from Plastic
First the suitable pipe material is chosen according
to the chemical resistance to the medium. Along
with this the resistance to UV is also to be consid-
ered. (Therefore, with outside facilities and endan-
gered areas PE should be used in preference to
the more favourably priced PVC). Following this,
via the employment conditions taking into account
a medium-related safety factor, the so-called
diameter/wall thickness ratio (SDR) and thus sub-
sequently the wall thickness and the external di-
ameter are laid down. For practical implementa-
tion, E DIN 8074:1997
5)
can, for example, be called
upon for pipes made from polyethylene (PE). First,
depending on the temperature, years of operation
and permitted operating pressure from Tables 5 - 13,
the SDR values (or pipe series S) for various mate-
rials (PE 63, PE 80, PE 100) and safety factors are
to be determined. For the determination of the pipe
dimensions (external diameter d
e
, wall thickness s)
one can fall back on Table 2 of the same draft
standard specification.
As medium-related safety factors the following val-
ues are to be applied:
(Clean) water 1.25
Chemicals 1.6
Gases and water-hazardous substances 2.0
With the determination of the wall thickness the fol-
lowing maximum pressure loading should be as-

4) Author`s afternote: In the meantime DIN 19569 has been
withdrawn and replaced by EN 12255-1
5 ) Author`s afternote: In the meantime DIN 8047 has been
published; Date of issue: August 1999
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 15
sumed, unless special operating conditions allow
higher pressures to be expected, for example earth
pressure with underground pipelines, increased
pressure with pipeline scrapers, with water hammer,
with the transport of thickened sludge, endangering
through explosion/detonation:
Medium Operating pressure
Process water 10 bar
Wastewater 3.2 bar
Sludge 6 bar
Digester gas 6 bar
(see DIN 19569-5)
6)

Compressed air for the
aeration 2.5 bar
Example:
Transport of process water using a DN 100 pipe-
line
Selected material PE 80
Maximum temperature 20 C
Years of operation 25 years
Maximum overpressure 10 bar
Using the safety factor of 1.25 for water, there re-
sults from Table 8, E DIN 8074: 1997
7)
for a
permitted operating overpressure = 10 bar a SDR
value of 13.6.
According to Table 2 of this draft standard
specification the required wall thickness of s = 8.1
mm can be determined (internal diameter = 93.8
mm) from this with an external diameter of = 110
mm. Under completely the same conditions a wall
thickness of 12.3 mm (SDR = 9) results with the
transportation of a water-hazardous liquid with a
safety factor of 2.0, whereby the internal diameter
would only be 85.4 mm.

6) Author`s afternote: In the meantime DIN 19569 has been
withdrawn and replaced by EN 12255-1
7) Author`s afternote: In the meantime DIN 8047 has been
published; Date of issue: August 1999
6 Laying of Pipelines
With the laying of pipelines, extension compensat-
ing members, flanges, fittings, detachable fittings,
supports, sampling-, flushing-, emptying connec-
tions etc. are necessary for the securing of correct
assembly, function and maintenance depending on
task and requirement.
For the laying of pipelines underground attention is
drawn to the relevant regulations, such as, for ex-
ample, ATV-DVWK, DVGW, DIN, German Plastic
Pipe Association. Basically the laying guidelines of
the manufacturer are always to be observed.
6.1 Expansion and Settling
Compensation
As every pipeline, depending on the loading and
temperature changes, changes its length, a natural
or artificial expansion compensation is to be pro-
vided. This is to be taken into account particularly
with plastic pipelines as, for example, the longitu-
dinal coefficient of expansion of PE is ca. 17 times
greater than that of steel.
A natural expansion compensation is, for example,
achieved using compensating tube [lyre-shaped]
bends. Their overhang from the axis of the pipe
depends on the expansion to be expected (be-
tween two fixed points), on the diameter and on
the material of the pipeline.
An artificial expansion compensation is achieved, for
example, with the help of compensators. Depending
on the required expansion one differentiates be-
tween axial, angular and lateral compensators.
Combinations of types of movement are also possi-
ble. For axial expansion compensation, stuffing box
expansion compensators can also be employed.
With the design of compensators degree and
type of movement, nominal diameter, maximum
pressure, temperature and the type of medium
are to be taken into account with regard to abra-
sion and corrosion.
With plastic pipes it is recommended as afar as
possible to employ expansion bends and not com-
pensators for linear compensation. At least it must
be ensured that no deformation in the plastic pipe
occurs through the restoring forces of the compen-
sator. Thus, as a rule, no metal compensators are
used here.
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 16
In particular with heating pipes and air pipes for
activated sludge plants, the lateral change due to
the high temperature of the medium is to be taken
into account.
With soft material compensators one differentiates
between single-layer rubber compensators and
multi-layer fabric compensators. The rubber com-
pensators as a rule have the advantage of greater
impermeability. The disadvantage is, however,
their limited service life (observe manufacturers
details). The material and, in particular, the seal
face are dependent on the medium and other con-
straints such as, for example, compressive stress,
operating temperature, resistance to UV or con-
densate produced and are therefore to be deter-
mined before construction. Below in Table 4 are
the normal areas of employment of soft material
compensators in wastewater treatment plants.
The compensators should be realised with a flange
connection.
Support rings in soft material compensators are
only required when, for example, an unacceptable
under pressure for the compensators can occur in
the suction line of pumps.
Metal compensators, usually realised with an ex-
pansion bellows, made from several layers of
metal bands, are employed with special demands
on sealing and temperature. In pipelines for
digester gas metal compensators are always to be
installed.
Compensators are to be designed with lateral lim-
iters, in case the exceeding of the permitted lateral
change is possible.
For settling compensation, for example between a
structure threatened by settling and an under-
ground pipeline, on many occasions compensators
are not sufficient. For this articulated pipe joints or
similar pipe fittings are to be employed.
6.2 Connection of Pipelines
With the connection of single pipes one differenti-
ates between permanent and non-permanent
connections.
6.2.1 Permanent Connections of
Pipelines Made from Metallic
Materials
6.2.1.1 Welding and Brazing
Welding is the most frequent method of connecting
pipes permanently (for this see Sects. 4.1.2 and
4.2.3). Due to this economic connection technol-
ogy, the brazing of pipelines today is still used only
with copper pipes in the area of heating.


Table 4: Areas of application of materials for soft material compensators
Wastewater/process wa-
ter:
EPDM Ethylene-propylene diane monomer (terpolymer),
not suitable for oils and media containing grease
CR: Chloroprene rubber (Brand-name for example Neopren

)
Application for process water and wastewater if laying of the
pipeline takes place within the building (limited UV resistance)
Gas/mineral oil/digester
gas:
NBR: Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (Brand-name for example Perbu-
nan-N

. With digester gas the resistance is dependent on the


concentration of gas content substances, in particular of H
2
S
Chemicals: CSM: Chlorosulphonated polyethylene (Brand-name for example Hy-
palon

)
FPM: Fluorinated rubber (Brand-name for example Viton

)
PTFE: Polytetrafluoroethylene (Brand-name for example Teflon

)
Drinking water: IIR: Butyl rubber
NR: Natural rubber
Hot water: EPDM: Ethylene-propylene diane monomer (terpolymer), rubber mix-
ture matched for application areas up to ca. +130 C.

ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 17
6.2.1.2 Press Fittings
Pipelines made from stainless steel up to a nominal
diameter of DN 100 can be joined to each other
permanently using pressed sleeves. This connec-
tion technique is very interesting economically due
to the small amount of time with assembly. The
slight undercutting of the preferred wall thickness
Series A in accordance with ISO 4200 is, as a rule,
justifiable. Attention is drawn to the manufacturers
instructions with regard to application.
6.2.2 Permanent Connections of
Pipelines Made from Plastic
Pipeline components made from plastic can be
connected together permanently using gluing,
welding or laminating. In particular with these
work steps trained and qualified personnel with
appropriate technical equipment are be employed
(welding test and similar, see Sect. 4.4.2).
Connections to PVC pipes are mainly glued.
(PVC pipes normally to be found in building in-
stallations have bell joints).
Pipe connections made from PE, PP and PVDF
are welded (for this see also DVS 2207-1),
whereby essentially the following welding meth-
ods are used:
heated tool sleeve welding,
heated tool butt welding,
(butt welding with heat reflectors),
heated spiral welding.
Laminating is employed for connections of pipeli-
nes made from GRP
8)
with each other as well as
with other materials.
6.2.2 Separable Connections
Separable connections for pipelines made from
metallic materials and plastic can be provided
using threaded joints, flanges, pipe couplings and
clamping joints. For plastic pipelines clamp cou-
plings and bell joints can be used.
With smaller diameters threaded joints in place of
flange couplings are normal.
Attention is drawn to DVS 2210-1 for the design
of separable connections for plastic pipelines
and to KRV A 9.8.4 for thermoplastics and for
GFP pipelines.

8) Translator`s note: GRP is equivalent to GFK in the Ger-
man version
6.2.3.1 Flange Connections for
Steel Pipelines
The flange is the most frequently employed con-
nection technique for joining pipelines non-
permanently.
Welding neck flanges (DIN 2630
9)
to DIN 2633
9)
),
lapped or slip-on flanges (DIN 2641
9)
and DIN
2642
9)
) as well as plain face flanges for brazing or
welding (DIN 2573
9)
and DIN 2576
9)
) are laid
down in DIN Standard Specifications.
Within the area of application of this Advisory
Leaflet pressure level PN 10 as a rule is suffi-
cient. With large nominal diameters (> DN 1000)
as far as possible, PN 6 is used.
Basic standard specification for flanges is DIN
2501-1, in which the connection dimensions are
laid down. Requests for tender must contain the
note Flange connection dimensions in accor-
dance with DIN 2501-1 together with the nominal
pressure level (e.g. PN 10), in order to define the
interfaces clearly. For nominal diameters up to
DN 1000 and nominal pressures up to 10 bar
flanges with connecting dimensions PN 10 are to
be used for standardisation. Flanges for fittings
are to be described analogously.
The previously frequently used welding neck
flanges are, particularly with stainless steel pipe-
lines, being more and more being supplanted by
lapped pipe ends or welding neck collar. The
material of the lapped flanges is to be matched to
the corrosive stress of the external medium.
Coated lapped flanges should not be employed:
in underwater areas,
underground,
in corrosive atmospheres.
The smooth flange represents a simple form of
flange connection and can be seen as being of
equal value to connections with welding neck
flange connections. It, however, has the disad-
vantage that the welded seams cannot be x-
rayed. If the realisation of flange connections us-
ing smooth flanges is to be excluded then this is
to be included in the request for tenders.
The flange leaf thicknesses given in the individual
DIN Standard Specification are basically to be
observed, a verification of the flange connection

9) Author`s afternote: In the meantime these standard speci-
fications have been withdrawn and replaced by EN 1092-1
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 18
is then as a rule not required. If flanges with re-
duced leaf thickness are to be employed a verifi-
cation of the connection in accordance with DIN
V 2505
10)
or EN 1591 is to be produced by the
contractor.
6.2.3.2 Flange Connections for
Plastic Pipelines
Welding neck flanges and loose flanges are laid
down in sets of rules and standards.
Flange connections are to be realised in the
pressure stage of the continuing pipeline or the
subsequent fittings.
The material of loose flanges is to be matched to
the corrosive stress by the external medium.
Coated loose flanges should not be employed:
in underwater areas,
underground,
in corrosive atmospheres.
6.2.3.3 Pipe Couplings
Through the employment of pipe couplings the
assembly time in comparison with flange connec-
tions can be shortened and repair work more sim-
ply carried out. Pipe couplings are suitable for the
cospecific connection of thin- and thick-walled
pipes made from metal or plastic as well as for
the connection of pipes made from different ma-
terials. With transition from steel to plastic and
with more or less the same internal diameters, a
connection using pipe couplings is not possible
due to the in general different external diameters
(only ca. 1 mm divergence allowed!).The material
1.4301 is common for pipe couplings; special ma-
terials are available. The installation torques are
given on the couplings.
The realisation of the pipe coupling is to be
matched to the required operating pressure. For
the transfer of axial forces tensile resistant con-
nections are, depending on manufacturer, avail-
able up to nominal diameter DN 600, flexible and
thrust-free connections up to nominal diameter
DN 2000. The selection of material for the base
structure as well as for the fastening/locking de-
vice is dependent on the surrounding conditions
only and not on the medium as these compo-
nents do not come into contact with the medium.

10) Authors afternote: This DIN standard specification has
been withdrawn and replaced by EN 1591-1
If required, the necessary steel band inserts are
to be matched to the medium. This applies also
for the material of the sealing collars. As normal
sealing materials the following are, for example,
employed: for wastewater EPDM and for gases
and hydrocarbons NBR. With digester gas with
H
2
S-contents > 5 mg/m
3
the guidance value for
the gas properties in accordance with the ap-
proval by the DVGW is exceeded. (See Area of
Application of the DVGW Standard 260 Part 1).
Therefore, above this guidance value, due to the
lack of stability of the sealing material NBR, cur-
rently the employment of pipe couplings is not to
be recommended or is to be released in individ-
ual cases by the manufacturer.
6.2.3.4 Bolts, Nuts, Washers
Materials for bolts, nuts and washers are to be
planned according to the pipeline materials as
well as the surrounding conditions. In the un-
derwater area one selects them from stainless
steels of the quality A2 or A4 in accordance with
EN ISO 3506-1 to EN ISO 3506-3, in rooms
with small corrosion stress from hot or electro-
galvanised steel and in outside and wet room
atmospheres from stainless steel (A2) or in hot
galvanised qualities. Due to the tendency to
seize, in particular with machine cut screw
threads, and to counter rusting in, the applica-
tion of thread lubricants is recommended. Vibra-
tions can lead to the loosening of non-positively
screwed connections. The tightening of the
screwed connection using the correct preload-
ing force is therefore important. The securing of
screwed connections with suitable adhesive is
effective.
6.2.3.5 Seals
As seal material synthetic rubbers, for water and
sludge EPDM and for gas NBR have proved
themselves due to there previous, long-term em-
ployment under the same or similarly conditioned
operating conditions. Furthermore, seals made
from asbestos-free fibrous material slabs (AFP)
are used which have replaced the seals known
under the abbreviation IT.
The selection of the sealing material is dependent
on the medium and other constraints such as, for
example, compression stresses, operating tem-
perature or resistance to UV, and therefore is to
be laid down before realisation. Below is listed a
selection of sealing materials with abbreviations:
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 19
EPDM: Ethylene-propylene diene monomer
(terpolymer)
NBR: Acrylnitrile-butadiene rubber
(brand name e.g. Perbunan-N

)
AFP: Asbestos-free fibrous material slabs
(successor of the so-called IT seals)
PTFE: Polytetrafluoroethylene
(brand name e.g. Teflon

)
CSM: Chlorosulphonated polyethylene
(brand name e.g. Hypalon

)
Seals made from metal are to be preferred for
high compression stress; seals made from graph-
ite for individual cases with requirements for fire
protection.
The thickness of seals made from AFP, due to
the lower compressive creep stability, are deter-
mined with only 2/3 of the normal seal thickness
of the IT seals. With seals made from PTFE the
flow of this material is to be taken into account
and therefore the seal thickness is to be selected
as small as possible.
Compared with EPDM, as a rule NBR has a
higher gas imperviousness against hydrocarbons.
The resistance to digester gas of the NBR mix-
tures to be used for sealing materials is, as a rule
proven due to the available operating experience.
The hydrogen sulphide normally contained in di-
gester gas and the weak acids resulting from the
solution of hydrogen sulphide in the condensate,
dependent on the concentrations can, under cer-
tain circumstances lead to a decomposition of the
seals. Seals made from AFP, for example using
carbon fibres, are considered as resistant against
methane and hydrogen sulphide.
Sealing materials with low water absorption such
as, for example, NBR are preferred for the em-
ployment of stainless steels.
Normally with larger diameters or higher pressure
seals with fabric or steel inserts or made from
AFP are installed due to the high stiffness.
With flange connections on PE pipes it is recom-
mended that profile flange seals are used and
that the bolts are tightened using a torque wrench
in accordance with manufacturers details.
6.3 Fittings
Fittings take on important functions in process
and operating technology, for example shutting,
opening, regulating, aerating and ventilating etc.
The following are differentiated:
valves with straight-lined movement of the
sealing component parallel to the local direc-
tion of flow,
slide valves with straight-lined movement of
the sealing component vertically to the flow
direction,
stopcocks and butterfly valves with rotating or
slewing movement of the sealing component.
The type of fitting is to be determined depending
on the application purpose (closure, regulation,
type of medium, volume flow, pressure and tem-
perature etc.). With the selection of the fittings the
pressure ratings are to be chosen according to
the respective application case. A summary for
the selection of suitable fittings for the respective
media is given by Table 8 in the Appendix.
The connecting flange of the fitting is to be de-
scribed analogous to Sect. 6.2.3.1. In addition,
the required closure pressure, against which the
fitting must close securely, is to be stated in the
invitation to tender documents.
The dead weight and the operating forces of the
installed fittings may not load the pipelines unac-
ceptably, this applies in particular for plastic pipe-
lines.
With the planning of the pipelines attention is to
be paid to easy operation and dismantling of the
fitting. Normally, all hand operated fittings above
an operating height of 1.80 m are to be
equipped with chain wheel and chain, spindle
extension or similar.
6.4 Pipe Supports and Fixtures
Permitted spans L of filled and unfilled steel pipes
in the range of diameters from DN 25 to DN 500
and a flowing medium with the density of water
(1,000 kg/m
3
) can be extracted from Table 9.1
(Appendix).
With plastic pipelines, due to the low strength
values, the significantly differing modulus of elas-
ticity and the effects of temperature which are not
to be ignored, there are smaller separations be-
tween supports.
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 20
Permitted spans for thermoplastic plastic pipes
filled with water can be taken from Table 9.2
(Appendix); those made from duroplastic plastics
from Table 9.3 (Appendix).
In the main pipe clips in accordance with DIN
3567 and round steel stirrups in accordance with
DIN 3567 are employed.
The supports are, for example, produced as
welded construction, galvanized and in accor-
dance with Table 10 (Appendix). They are to be
divided into sliding and fixed bearings. Design
and assembly must ensure an arrangement con-
forming in alignment and angle, free of deforma-
tion and tension. The freedom of movement of
the pipeline must be ensured taking into account
the variation of the media and ambient tempera-
tures. The working surfaces of the sliding bear-
ings are to be so designed that edge pressure is
excluded. Fixed bearings are to be so developed
that forces and moments can be taken up in three
axes and be fed into the structure.
Pipe racks are also used as standardised attach-
ment system as an alternative to the normal
welded structures. An advantage of these systems
as a rule lies in the simplified verification of the
static dimensioning and the significantly lower
weight.
6.5 Emptying, Ventilation and
Cleaning
The following information is to be taken into ac-
count with the planning and laying of pipelines for
the emptying, ventilation and cleaning of pipe-
lines:
high points are to be avoided or fitted with ven-
tilation devices (interruption of delivery through
gas bubbles at the high points),
low points are to be avoided and, with the
danger of deposits, precautions are to be
taken for the flushing of the system,
minimum nominal diameters of emptying facili-
ties are to be observed (danger of blockages);
the following have proved themselves:
DN 20 for condensate and other liquids
without solid matter
DN 50 for viscous pumping media e.g.
sludge,
drainage pipelines are to be laid to pump pits,
floor drains etc.,
pipelines which, due to the medium to be
pumped (e.g. thickened sludge), tend particu-
larly to blockages, are to be fitted with flushing
connections, cleaning ports, connections for
cleaning brushes or similar.
For pipeline systems in the field of gas the follow-
ing are to be observed:
as far as possible no rise in the direction of
flow as condensate is produced. In the case
that this cannot be avoided an appropriate di-
mensioning must be carried out.
low points are to be provided with condensate
interceptors for drainage.
6.6 Wall Leadthroughs
Often walls and ceilings have to be penetrated in
the course of the laying of pipelines. The so-
called wall leadthroughs are to be designed in
accordance with the generally recognised rules of
technology. The following criteria are, in particu-
lar, to be observed:
sealing against gas with neighbouring explo-
sive areas,
fire protection,
corrosions protection (with aggressive atmos-
pheres),
sealing against water under pressure,
time of implementation (during construction
work or later).
Wall leadthroughs can be realised as chases for
subsequent casting or as fairleads with subse-
quent sealing by means of annular seals.
If annular seals are used in core bore holes par-
ticular value is to be placed on the execution of
the boring. Scoring due to blunt tools can usually
no longer be compensated by the seals. Borings
must be carried out perpendicular in order that no
unbalanced forces act on the seal, otherwise the
sealing ability and service life of the annular seal
is influenced negatively. The weight of the pipe-
line may not be taken up by the annular seal. An
additional sheathing pipe is, as a rule, not re-
quired.
Annular seals are to be avoided if wall or ceiling
penetrations are no longer accessible or accessi-
ble only with difficulty following assembly as a
further tightening with leakages is no longer pos-
sible. With penetration of digesters one should, in
general, avoid annular seals. The leadthrough is
to be designed as installation pipe with wall
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 21
flange or as equivalent solution. The wall or ceil-
ing leadthrough is to be considered structurally as
fixed restraint and is to be dimensioned as fixed
bearing. Axial or angular changes which occur
are taken up by the pipelines leading outside or
by pipe installation components such as, for ex-
ample, compensators. If wall flanges are used
with PE pipelines the flange should be reinforced
with an additional steel ring in order to improve
sealing.
The provisions of DVGW Standard G 600 for wall
and ceiling leadthroughs of pipelines carry gas
are to be applied analogously. (It can be as-
sumed that with reinforced concrete the dangers
due to gas conducting layers as, for example,
occur with brickwork, do not exist.)
In accordance with DIN 1988-7 in general no cor-
rosion protection is required with surface or bur-
ied laying. Before the plastering-in of galvanised
steel pipes, protective bandages or protective
foils are to be employed as corrosion protection.
With stainless steel pipelines chloride-free mortar
and, in case of need (e.g. with winter building
measures), a building supervisory approved con-
crete additive (control of the chloride content) is
to be employed.
Provisions resulting from fire protection are to be
observed. The constructor of the pipeline is there-
fore to be given which walls and ceilings, from the
aspect of fire protection, are to be classified as
firewalls and/or complex dividing wall. In accor-
dance with the recommendations of the German
Association of Property Insurers (VdS 2234)
openings in firewalls are not permitted. If they are
necessary for operating reasons they must be fire
resistant protected. Pipelines may not produce
any inadmissible forces on the wall. The following
designs have, inter alia, proved themselves:
in firewall level movable pipelines with bush-
ings made from non-combustible material, with
which the remaining intermediate space is
stuffed with non-combustible material of build-
ing material class A 1 with a melting point
above 1000 C, e. g. rock wool,
in firewall level fixed pipes, with which the in-
termediate space between pipeline and wall is
to be completely filled using mortar or fire pro-
tection mortar, and a compensator is to be lo-
cated before and after the firewall.
Leading pipelines made from combustible mate-
rial through firewalls is basically to be avoided. If
this is not possible then they are to be compart-
mentalised using [German) Fire Resistance Class
R 90 systems with general construction supervi-
sory approval (e.g. R 90 bulkheads).
6.7 Lubrication Lines
Unalloyed steel or copper (see Chap. 4.3) is rec-
ommended for the production of lubrication lines
in dry spaces, in the open and in wet spaces
stainless steel with Material No. 1.4301 or
1.4571. Lubrication lines made from Polyamid,
e.g. PA 12 in accordance with DIN 73378, are
also possible. The pipelines are to be so laid that
they cannot be mechanically damaged. All lubri-
cation points should be easily accessible. Where
this is not possible then they are to be brought
together at easily accessible positions. The indi-
vidual lubrication points and lines are to be
marked.
7 Other Matters
7.1 Insulation
With pipe insulation one differentiates between
insulation as heat and cold protection and insula-
tion as corrosion protection or as sound proofing.
Here only the area of heat and cold insulation is
to be considered.
Pipelines in which cold or warm media are
transported are to be provided with pipe insula-
tion for the reduction of the cold or heat losses,
taking into account economic efficiency, operat-
ing safety and protective quality. For this, as
insulation materials, there are available fibre or
powder formed insulation matter, plastic foams
and natural organic matter.
7.1.1 Execution of Hot Protective
Insulation
As a rule, for heat protective insulation, mineral
substances made from rock wool are employed
as insulation material. This material can be em-
ployed in the form of
mineral fibre mats for the insulation of pipe-
lines, containers and devices,
mineral fibre shells for the insulation of pipe-
lines,
short floccy fibres for stuffing insulation.
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 22
7.1.2 Execution of Cold Protective
Insulation
As a rule, foam materials are employed for the
rather seldom cold protective insulation in waste-
water treatment plants.
7.1.3 Insulation to Prevent
Condensation Water
Moisture precipitation on cold pipelines should be
prevented though a sufficient insulation of the
pipeline (surface temperature of the insulation
greater than the temperature of the dew point of
the surrounding atmosphere). Particularly suitable
for such condensation water insulation are insula-
tion materials which are resistant to the penetra-
tion of moisture (foamed materials), although also
here the employment of mineral fibres is possible
and normal.
In addition to the demands on the mechanical
properties an especially high demand is to be
placed on the steam-tight design of the insulation.
7.1.4 Frost Protective Insulation
Water pipes in which, over long periods, the water
does not flow can freeze up in winter. Cooling can
be delayed through an insulation and thus the
danger of a freezing up can be reduced. In order
fundamentally to prevent freezing up, the pipelines
must be provided with secondary heating and in-
sulation. With the use of mineral fibre products
normal here special value is also to be placed on
the steam-tight closure of the insulation cladding.
7.1.5 Insulation for Pipes Made
from Stainless Steel
Insulation materials for heat protective and cold
insulation of stainless steel pipes may not have a
percentage by mass of water soluble chloride
ions which exceeds 0.05 % (insulation material
with AS Quality in accordance with Standard
AGI Q 135 are suitable).
7.1.6 Insulation Thicknesses
For the determination of sufficient insulation
thickness there are tables available, both for heat
and cold protective insulation as well as for con-
densation and frost protective insulation, which,
depending on the nominal pipe diameters, the
temperatures which occur and other relevant pa-
rameters give information on the required mini-
mum insulation thickness.
If required, consideration of economic efficiency
for insulation thickness (costs) in comparison to
the heat energy saved (benefits) is also to be car-
ried out.
Insulation thicknesses of heat protective insula-
tion on heating pipes are to be produced accord-
ing to the details of the heating plant ordinance.
7.1.7 Insulation Cladding
All insulation is to be provided with cladding for
protection against external stresses. With this gal-
vanised thin sheet, aluminium sheet, stainless steel
sheet and, in heating systems also PVC foil with a
thickness of 0.5 mm 1.0 mm can be employed.
Flanges, valves, other fittings and pipe accesso-
ries must be clad for insulation using a cap made
up from two or more parts and made in the form
of the fitting to be clad. Removal and replacement
of the insulation cap must be possible at all times
with ease and rapidly.
7.2 Equipotential Bonding
All electrical conducting pipelines, independent of
other electrical protective measures, are to be
integrated into a equipotential bonding system.
The equipotential bonding can be carried out on a
central equipotential bonding rail or between
each other.
Suitable terminal lugs are to be planned on pipe-
lines, flanges, containers etc. for connection to an
equipotential bonding system. If non-conducting
fittings or adapters are installed into the pipeline
system these integrated items must be bridged
using suitable lines. The electrically non-
conducting properties of plastic pipes are to be
noted in explosion endangered areas and with
easily combustible pumping media. Here there is
the possibility of employing special conducting
raw materials (e.g. PE 80 el.).
Equipotential bonding of pipeline systems is to be
integrated into the overall system equipotential
bonding. Depending on the structure of the protec-
tive measure and taking into account the valid
VDE regulations for this, the foundation earth con-
nection, null or earth conductor, earthling conduct-
ers for antenna and telephone systems as well as
earth conducters or lightning protection must be
integrated into the system. The linkages and con-
nections to the equipotential bonding lines are to
be correctly and permanently carried out by the
installer of the electrical system in accordance with
the valid provisions and regulations.
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 23
7.3 Measurements
With invitations to tender (ITTs), which concern
the VOB [German Conditions Concerning Con-
tracts], in addition to DIN 18299: 1996
11)
, Section
5, DIN 18381: 1998
9)
, Section 5, also applies with
regard to measurements and settlement. In this
case, with measurements, mouldings and fittings
and are overmeasured.
7.4 Marking
It is recommended to mark pipelines within sys-
tems in accordance with the medium which flows
through them using coloured emphasis or
through labelling.
If, with the media, one is concerned with hazard-
ous substances within the meaning of the [Ger-
man] Chemical Law, there can be an obligation
for marking in accordance with the [German]
Hazardous Substance Ordinance. In accordance
with 23 (Packaging and Marking) there have to
be markings at sufficient frequency on visibly laid
pipelines and clearly visible close to potentially
hazardous points such as gate valves and con-
nection points.
Attention is drawn to the Chemical Law and Haz-
ardous Substance Ordinance with regard to the
media as examples are given digester gas,
acids, caustic solutions and details of marking.
Where no regulations for marking exists, DIN
2403 should be applied. (Marking in accordance
with DIN is laid down as generally applicable,
special media of wastewater treatment are not
given there.)
In accordance with DIN 2403 pipelines can be
marked according to the substance which flows
through them using signs, adhesive labels, col-
oured rings or through coloured cladding. Signs
have the advantage that, in addition to the sub-
stance flowing through, they can also hold impor-
tant details (e.g. direction of flow, markings corre-
sponding to flow diagram, serial number for main-
tenance). Labelling, which is obtainable on the
market as ready-made article, should be written
simply, easily and permanently readable as well
as being secure and simple to attach.


11) Authors afternote: DIN 18299, DIN 18381: New edition,
date of issue: October 2006
For the coloured marking of pipelines it is rec-
ommended that coloured rings or adhesive labels
if required with additional naming of the me-
dium are provided but not, however, to choose
a continuous coat of paint as many pipe materials
for the avoidance of corrosion must not be addi-
tionally coated.
A proposal for the selection of colour for the
marking of the media, based on DIN 2403 is con-
tained in Table 5.
It is proposed that:
1. fundamentally, marking is in accordance with
the above given colour groups.
2. rings and/or adhesive labels or similar are to
be selected in the basic colours and are to be
provided additionally with written details and
direction arrows.
3. all water (e.g. wastewater, process water,
sludge liquor 2 % dry solid matter (DS)) are
to be assigned to Group 1. Heating water is
also to be listed under Group 1. Here, if
necessary, DIN 2404 is to be observed.
4. all sludge > 2 % DS is to be assigned to
Group 9.
5. all other substances (e.g. flocculation aids or
flocculants, inert gases etc.) are to be
assigned to obvious groups (e.g. FeCl
3
, FeCl
2

Group 6, milk of lime Group 7, nitrogen
Group 5 etc.).

ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 24

Table 5: Classification of colours to the flowing substances in accordance with DIN 2403
Substance flowing Group Colour name Nearest colour sample
in the RAL colour
register
RAL 840 HR
Water 1 Green RAL 6018
Steam 2 Red RAL 3000
Air 3 Grey RAL 7001
Combustible gases 4 Yellow
or
yellow
with additional colour
red
RAL 1021


RAL 3000
Non-combustible gases 5 Yellow
with additional colour
black
RAL 1021

RAL 9005
Acids 6 Orange RAL 2003
Alkaline solutions 7 Violet RAL 4002
Combustible liquids


8

Brown
or
brown
with additional colour
red
RAL 8001



RAL 3000
Non-combustible liquids


9 Brown
with additional colour
black
RAL 8001

RAL 9005
Oxygen 0 Blue RAL 5015

7.5 Tests
Pipelines for an overpressure of more than
0.5 EG bar as a rule fall under the EC Directive
Pressure equipment.
In accordance with the basic concept of the EG
Directive Pressure equipment the direct respon-
sibility of the manufacturer is emphasised, i.e. the
specialist no longer establishes the correctness
of the pressure equipment, for example the pipe-
line, but rather the manufacturer. The manufac-
turer declares the conformity with the European
Standards and, if required, affixing the CE marks
Until common basic European standards are
available, for example for pipelines, national
standards and technical specifications, for exam-
ple DruckbehV with [German] Technical Rules for
Pressure Vessels (TRB) and [German] Technical
Rules for Pipelines (TRR) are to be enlisted.
Depending on the hazard potential (pressure, vol-
ume, dangerousness of the liquid) there are differ-
ent categories for the assessment of conformity to
be carried out by the manufacturer specified in the
EG Directive Pressure Equipment.
For the lowest category of conformity evaluation,
i.e. application cases which come under Article 3,
Para. 3, equipment and pipelines must be de-
signed and produced in agreement with good
engineering practice applicable in one of the
Member Countries. This means that the national
standards and provisions in these cases can be
used unlimited, but then, however, must without
fail be specified in the invitation to tender.
(Note: a large part of the pipelines in wastewater
treatment plants fall under the category in accor-
dance with Article 3, Para. 3.)
Below the controlled region of 0.5 bar national
regulations apply and acceptance and test criteria
for the individual case are to be laid down, inter
alia, in accordance with
the [German] Pressure Vessel Ordinance
(DruckbehV),
the [German] Ordinance on Combustible
liquids (VbF),
the [German] Ordinance on Facilities for the
handling of Water Hazardous Substances
(VAwS),
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 25
the Standards of the German Technical and
Scientific Association for Gas and Water
(DVGW),
the applicable Accident Prevention Regula-
tions ([German] UVV),
the [German] Steam Boiler Ordinance
(DampfkV),
the respective building regulations etc.
Pipelines which are operated within the frame-
work of the public water and/or gas supply with
an overpressure of at the most 16 bar, are to be
allocated to the area of application of the DVGW.
Under this fall the pipelines of the works network,
fed from the public network of the supply com-
pany, with the connection up to and including the
consumer facilities, e.g. the gas burners.
Furthermore, it is to be recommended, in the ex-
amination of the pipeline, to also include a check
that the laying is correct with regards to planning
and material. In the first instance this concerns
the possibility of the unhindered absorbing
changes is length, the functionally correct instal-
lation of device for changes of length as well as
the arrangement of pipe mountings.
If fittings with actuators or also measurement,
control and monitoring devices are installed the
correct and planned function of the equipment is
also to be examined.
Bibliography
[1] DVS 2210 Part 1: 1987
Deutscher Verband fr Schweitechnik und
verwandte Verfahren e. V., Deutscher Verlag
fr Schweitechnik GmbH, Dsseldorf
[German Association for Welding Technolo-
gy and Related Processes]
[2] LAWA: Leitlinien zur Durchfhrung von Kos-
tenvergleichsrechnungen
Lnderarbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser, 1998
[German Federal State Working Group Wa-
ter (LAWA): [Guidelines for the carrying out
of cost comparison calculations]
[3] Wagner, W.: Rohrleitungstechnik
Vogelverlag und Druck KG, Wrzburg 1993
[Pipeline technology]
[4] Proff, E.; Lohmann, H. J.: Rheologische Cha-
rakterisierung flssiger Klrschlmme
Korrespondenz Abwasser (44), No. 9, 1997
[Rhealogical characterisation of liquid sewa-
ge sludge]
[5] Proff, E.; Lohmann, H. J.: Schlammfrderung
Korrespondenz Abwasser (44), No. 10, 1997
[Conveyance of sludge]
[6] Klauwer, E. u. a.: Druckverluste bei Frde-
rung von Klrschlmmen in Rohrleitungen.
Untersuchungen des Ruhrverbandes,
unverffentlicht
[Pressure losses with the conveyance of
sewage sludge pipelines. Investigations of
the Ruhr Association, unpublished]
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 26
Appendix
Appendix A: Tables
A1 Table 1: Media and pipe materials in wastewater treatment plants
A2 Table 2: Dimensions of steel and stainless steel pipelines
A3 Table 4: Pipe wall thicknesses for plastic pipes
A4 Table 8: Media in wastewater treatment plants and fittings employable for these
A5 Table 9.1: Permitted supporting spans steel pipes
A6 Table 9.2: Permitted supporting spans thermoplastic plastic pipes
A7 Table 9.3: Permitted supporting spans duraplastic plastic pipes
A8 Table 10: Design of supports and securing material

ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 27
A1 Table 1: Media and pipe materials in wastewater treatment plants
Steels Nonferrous metals Plastics









No.










Group
Material



Re commendations
x = applicable
0 = limited applicable
L = danger of pitting corrosion


Medium
U
n
a
l
l
o
y
e
d

s
t
e
e
l
s

C
r
e
e
p

r
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
t

s
t
e
e
l
s

S
t
e
e
l
,

h
o
t

g
a
l
v
a
n
i
s
e
d

A
u
s
t
e
n
i
t
e

s
t
a
i
n
l
e
s
s

s
t
e
e
l

w
i
t
h
o
u
t

m
o
l
y
b
d
e
-
n
u
m
,

e
.
g
.

1
.
4
3
0
1

A
u
s
t
e
n
i
t
e

s
t
a
i
n
l
e
s
s

s
t
e
e
l

2
%

m
o
l
y
b
d
e
n
u
m
,

e
.
g
.

1
4
5
7
1

C
o
p
p
e
r

A
l
u
m
i
n
i
u
m

a
l
l
o
y
s


P
V
C

(
m
a
x

6
0

)
1
)

H
D
P
E

(
m
a
x

6
0

)
1
)

P
P

(
m
a
x

9
0

)
1
)

E
P
-
G
F
/
U
P
-
G
F

P
B

(
m
a
x

9
0

)
1
)

P
V
D
F

(
m
a
x

1
2
0

)
1
)

P
o
l
y
a
m
i
d
e

(
m
a
x

7
0

)
1
)


1 Drinking water x x X x x x x x x x x
2 Process water (wells) x x X x x x x x x x
3
Water
Heating water x x X x x
4 Untreated wastewater x x xL x x x x x x x
5 Treated wastewater x x xL x x x x x x x
6
Wastewater
Sludge liquor o xL x x x x x x
7 Primary sludge x o xL x x x x x x x
8 Secondary sludge o o xL x x x x x x x
9 Sludge from chemical precipitation xL x x x x x x x
10 Faecal sludge xL x x x x x x x
11 Stabilised sludge x o xL x x x x x x x
12
Sludge
Dewatered sludge x o xL x x x x x x x
13 Natural gas X X x x
14 Propane (gaseous) x x x x x x x x x
15 Digester gas x x
2)
x x x x
16 Flue gas / off gas from combustion of digester
gas

x x
17
Gases
Off gas from digester gas combustion in gas
engines

x
4)
x x
18 Compressed for fine bubble aeration xL
4)
x x x
19 Compressed air for pneumatic systems x x x x x x x
20 Waste air from processes x x x x x x x x
21
Air
Air for aeration and ventilation x
6)
x x x x
22 Steam Steam up to 10 bar / steam condensate x x x x
23 Flue gas condensate x x x
24
Condensates
Digester gas condensate x x x
25 Lubrication oil x
7)
x x x x
26 Old oil x x x
27 Heating oil / diesel oil x x x
28 Hydraulic oil x
7)
x
29
Oil/greases
Lubricating grease x x x
30 Aqueous polymer solution x x x x x x
31 Aluminium chloride x x x x x x
32 Aluminium sulphate x x x x x x x
33 Ferric chloride x x x x x x
34 Ferric sulphate o x x x x x x x
35
Dosing agents/
precipitants
Milk of lime x x x x x x x x
36 Caustic soda solution x x x x x x x x
37
Chemicals
Hydrochloric acid x x x x x x
38 Sand/water mixture x x x
39 Methanol (methylalchohol x x x x x x x
40 Ethanol (Ethyalchohol) x x x x x x x x x
41
Other media
Aceticacid / formic acid x x x x
1) Maximum standard temperature in C 3) Not within buildings 5) Note underwater zone 7) Only in non-corrosive atmospheres
2) Depends on the sludge composition
and conditioning
4) With high temperatures without
condensation
6) Other type of galvanisation

A
T
V
-
D
V
W
K
-
M

2
7
5
E
M
a
y


2
0
0
1

2
7
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 28
A2 Table 2: Dimensions of pipelines made from steel and stainless steel



12) Authors afternote: DIN 2440 has been withdrawn and replaced by EN 10255
Steel pipes Stainless steel pipes
Nominal
diameter
DN
Threaded pipe
medium gauge
DIN 2440
12)

Steel pipe,
welded

Welded or seamless
6
8
10
15
20
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
10.2 x 2.00
13.5 x 2.35
17.2 x 2.35
21.3 x 2.65
26.9 x 2.65

13.5 x 1.6
17.2 x 1.6
21.3 x 1.8
26.9 x 1.8
10.2 x 1.6
13.5 x 1.6
17.2 x 1.6
21.3 x 1.6
26.9 x 1.6
25
32
40
50
65
80
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
33.7 x 3.25
42.4 x 3.25
48.3 x 3.25
60.3 x 3.65
76.1 x 3.65
88.9 x 4.05
33.7 x 2.0
42.4 x 2.3
48.3 x 2.3
60.3 x 2.3
76.1 x 2.6
88.9 x 2.9
33.7 x 1.6
42.4 x 1.6
48.3 x 1.6
60.3 x 1.6
76.1 x 1.6
88.9 x 2.0
100
125
150
200
250
4 114.3 x 4.50 114.3 x 3.2
139.7 x 3.6
168.3 x 4.0
219.1 x 4.5
273.0 x 5.0
114.3 x 2.0
139.7 x 2.0
168.3 x 2.0
219.1 x 2.0
273.0 x 2.0
300
350
400
450
500
323.9 x 5.6
355.6 x 5.6
406.4 x 6.3
457.0 x 6.3
508.0 x 6.3
323.9 x 2.6
355.6 x 2.6
406.4 x 2.6
457.0 x 3.2
508.0 x 3.2
600
700
800
900
1,000
610.0 x 6.3
711.0 x 7.1
813.0 x 8.0
914.0 x 10
1,016.0 x 10
610.0 x 3.2
711.0 x 4.0
813.0 x 4.0
914.0 x 4.0
1,016.0 x 4.0
Notes:
The external diameters are classified in accordance with ISO 4200 Series 1.
With wall thicknesses for the steel pipes one is concerned with the Preferred Wall
Thickness
Series D from ISO 4200.
With wall thicknesses for the stainless steel pipes one is concerned with Preferred Wall
Thickness Series A from ISO 4200. Depending on the individual case, in particular with
larger pipe cross-sections, greater wall thicknesses are to be recommended.
With these measurements, commercially the wall thickness is 3.0 mm instead of the value in
ISO 4200.
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 29

A3 Table 4: Wall thicknesses for plastic pipes (extract for various materials and nominal pressures)
Material PE 80
(DIN 8074)
PE 100
(DIN 8074)
PP-H Type 1
(DIN 8078)
PVC-U
(DIN 8062)
PVC-C
(DIN 8079)
PA
(DIN 16982)
PVDF
(based on DIN 8062)
ABS
(DIN 16891)
*)

PB
(DIN 16969)
UP-GF
(DIN 19565-1)
**)

PN1) 6
1)2)
10
1)2)
6
1)2)
10
1)2)
6 10 6 10 10 16 - 10 16 6 16
3)4)
6
5)
10
5)
6
6)
10
6)

Row
SDR 17.6 22 13.6 34.33
S 8.3 10.5 6.3 16.67
d
e
s s s s s s s s s s d
e
s d
e
s s s s DN d
e
Row s s s s
6 - - - - - - - - - - - 6 - - - - 100 116 2 - - 2.9 2.9
8 - - - - - - - - - - - 8 - - - - 125 142 2 - - 3.9 3.9
10 - - - - - - - - - - - 10 - - - - 150 168 2 - - 4.1 4.1
12 - - - - - - - - - 12 1.5 12 - - - - 200 220.5 2 - - 5.3 5.3
16 - 1.8 - - - 1.8 - - - 1.8 15 1.5 16 - 1.5 1.5 2.2
3)
250 272.1 2 - - 6.4 6.4
20 - 1.9 - 1.8 1.8 1.9 - - - 2.3 18 2 20 - -1.9 1.65 2.8
3)
300 324.5 2 5.2 5 6.4 6.3
25 - 2.3 - 1.9 1.8 2.3 - 1.5 - 2.8 22 2 25 - 1.9 1.95 2.3
3)
350 376.4 2 6.1 5.7 7.5 7.2
32 1.9 2.9 1.8 2.4 1.9 3- - 1.8 - 2.4 35 2.5 32 - 2.4 2.15 3.0
3)
400 427.3 2 6.8 6.4 8.4 8.1
40 2.3 3.7 1.9 3 2.3 3.7 1.8 1.9 - 3 42 2.25 40 - 2.4 2.7 3.7
3)
450 478.2 2 7.5 7.1 9.3 9
50 2.9 4.6 2.3 3.7 2.9 4.6 1.8 2.4 - 3.7 - - 50 - 2.9 3.3 4.6
3)
500 530.1 2 8.3 7.8 10.2 10.1
63 3.6 5.8 2.9 4.7 3.6 5.8 1.9 3 - 4.7 - - 63 2.5 3 4.24 5.8
3)
600 617 1 9.6 9 11.7 11.5
75 4.3 6.8 3.5 5.6 4.3 6.9 2.2 3.6 3.6 5.6 - - 75 2.5 3.6 4.9 6.8
4)
700 719 1 10.9 10.3 13.6 13.4
90 5.1 8.2 4.1 6.7 5.1 8.2 2.7 4.3 4.3 6.7 - - 90 2.8 4.3 6 8.24) 800 821 1 12.4 11.7 15.4 15.2
110 6.3 10 5 8.1 6.3 10 3.2 5.3 5.3 8.2 116 7 110 3.5 5.3 7.2 10.0
4)
900 923 1 13.8 13.1 17.2 17
125 7.1 11.4 5.7 9.2 7.1 11.4 3.7 6 - - 165 8 125 3.9 - - - 1000 1025 1 15.3 14.5 19 19
140 8 12.7 6.4 10.3 8 12.8 4.1 6.7 6.7 - 196 7 140 4.4 - - -
160 9.1 14.6 7.3 11.8 9.1 14.6 4.7 7.7 7.7 11.9 215 8 160 5 - - -
180 10.2 16.4 8.2 13.3 10.2 16.4 5.3 8.6 - - 265 9 180 5.6 - - -
200 11.4 18.2 9.1 14.7 11.4 18.2 5.9 9.6 - - 316 10 200 6.2 - - -
225 12.8 20.5 10.3 16.6 12.8 20.5 6.6 10.8 10.8 - 382 13 225 7.1 - - -
250 14.2 22.7 11.4 18.4 14.2 22.8 7.3 11.9 - - 472 16 250 - - - -
280 15.9 25.4 12.8 20.6 15.9 25.5 8.2 13.4 - - - - 280 - - - -
315 17.9 28.6 14.4 23.2 17.9 28.7 9.2 15 - - - - 315 - - - -
355 20.1 32.2 16.2 26.1 20.1 32.3 10.4 16.9 - - - - 355 - - - -
400 22.7 36.3 18.2 29.4 22.7 36.4 11.7 19.1 - - - - 400 - - - -
450 25.5 40.9 20.5 33.1 25.5 41 13.2 21.5 - - - - 450 - - - -
500 28.3 45.4 22.8 36.8 28.3 - 14.6 23.9 - - - - 500 - - - -
560 31.7 50.8 25.5 41.2 31.7 - 16.4 26.7 - - - - 560 - - - -
630 35.7 57.2 28.7 46.3 35.7 - 18.4 30 - - - - 630 - - - -
710 40.2 64.5 32.3 52.2 40.2 - 20.7 - - - - - 710 - - - -
800 45.3 - 36.4 58.8 45.3 - 23.3 - - - - - 800 - - - -
900 51 - 41 66.1 51 - 26.3 - - - - - 900 - - - -
1000 56.6 - 45.5 - 56.6 - 29.2 - - - - - 1000 - - - -

Explanatory notes:
SDR: Standard Dimension Ratio:
SDR = 2S + 1 d
e
/s
S: Pipe series number, taken from ISO 4065
SN: Nominal stiffness (N/m
2
),
referred to the mean pipe diameter
1) PN as given at 20 C
2) SF = 1.6 safety factor
3) PN 10 at 90 C
4) PN 6 at 90 C
5) SN = 5000
6) SN = 10000

*) Authorts afternote: In the meantime DIN 16891 has been withdrawn
**) In the meantime DIN 19565-1 has been withdrawn and replaced by DIN EN 14364
A
T
V
-
D
V
W
K
-
M

2
7
5
E
M
a
y


2
0
0
1

2
9
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 30
A4 Table 8: Media on wastewater treatment plants and fittings employed for these
1)
In corner and straight-way design Note: Valves and cocks are used preferably up to a nominal diameter of DN 80
2)
Double clack valve with spindle , if required with lever and weight Double clack valves and slide valves are used preferably for nominal diameters > DN 80
3)
Shuttle valves or double check valves, swing check valves
4)
Designed as oval-body wedge gate valve or wedge-type flat wedge valve
5)
Annular piston valve also possible
Valves
1)
Double clack valves Stop-cocks Slide valves









No.










Group
Fitting



preferred
xx = employment normal
x = employment possible
kE = employment not normal


Media
S
h
u
t
-
o
f
f

v
a
l
v
e
s

C
h
e
c
k

v
a
l
v
e
s

B
a
l
l

c
h
e
c
k

v
a
l
v
e
s

D
i
a
p
h
r
a
g
m

v
a
l
v
e
s

B
u
t
t
e
r
f
l
y

v
a
l
v
e
s

T
h
r
o
t
t
l
e

v
a
l
v
e
s

N
o
n
-
r
e
t
u
r
n

v
a
l
v
e
s

2
)

N
o
n
-
r
e
t
u
r
n

v
a
l
v
e
s
3
)

B
a
l
l

v
a
l
v
e
s

T
a
p
r

p
l
u
g

v
a
l
v
e
s

S
e
l
e
c
t
o
r

v
a
l
v
e
s

S
l
u
i
c
e

v
a
l
v
e
s
4
)
,

m
e
t
a
l
l
i
c

s
e
a
l
i
n
g

S
l
u
i
c
e

v
a
l
v
e
s
4
)
,

s
o
f
t

s
e
a
l
i
n
g

P
a
r
a
l
l
e
l

s
l
i
d
e

g
a
t
e

v
a
l
v
e

D
i
a
p
h
r
a
g
m

g
a
t
e

v
a
l
v
e

I
r
i
s

d
i
a
p
h
r
a
g
m

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

v
a
l
v
e


1 Drinking water xx xx xx xx xx xx xx x xx x x x xx kE x x
2 Process water (wells/ xx xx xx x xx xx xx x xx x x x xx x x x
3
Water
Heating water xx xx xx kE xx xx x xx kE xx xx x kE kE kE kE
4 Untreated wastewater kE kE kE kE kE x xx kE xx kE kE kE x xx x kE
5 Treated wastewater xx xx xx x xx xx xx x xx x x x x xx x X
6
Wastewater
Sludge liquor kE kE kE x x x xx kE xx kE kE kE xx xx x kE
7 Primary sludge kE kE kE kE kE kE xx kE xx kE kE kE xx xx x kE
8 Secondary sludge kE kE kE kE x kE xx kE xx kE kE kE xx xx x kE
9 Sludge from chemical precipitation kE kE kE kE kE kE xx kE xx kE kE kE xx xx x kE
10 Faecal sludge kE kE kE kE kE kE xx kE xx kE kE kE xx xx x kE
11 Stabilised sludge kE kE kE kE kE kE xx kE xx kE kE kE xx xx x kE
12
Sludge
Dewatered sludge kE kE kE kE kE kE kE kE xx kE kE kE x xx kE kE
13 Natural gas xx xx xx kE xx xx kE xx xx x kE xx x kE kE X
14 Propane (gaseous) xx xx xx kE xx xx kE xx xx x kE xx x kE kE X
15 Digester gas xx xx xx kE xx xx kE xx xx x kE xx x kE kE x
16 Flue gas / off gas from combustion of digester gas kE kE kE kE xx xx kE xx kE kE kE kE kE kE kE kE
17
Gases
Off gas from digester gas combustion in gas engines kE kE kE kE xx xx kE xx kE kE kE kE kE kE kE kE
18 Compressed for fine bubble aeration xx kE kE x xx xx kE xx xx x x kE x x X Xx
5)

19 Compressed air for pneumatic systems xx xx xx x x x kE x xx x x kE kE kE kE kE
20 Waste air from processes kE kE kE kE xx xx kE xx x x x kE x kE x kE
21
Air
Air for aeration and ventilation kE kE kE kE xx xx kE xx kE kE kE kE kE kE kE kE
22 Steam Steam up to 10 bar / steam condensate xx xx xx kE kE kE kE x x kE kE xx kE kE kE kE
23 Flue gas condensate xx xx xx x x kE xx kE xx x xx x kE kE kE kE
24
Conden-
sates Digester gas condensate xx xx xx x x kE xx kE xx x xx x kE kE kE kE
25 Lubrication oil xx xx xx kE x kE kE kE xx x x x x kE x kE
26 Old oil xx xx xx kE x kE kE kE xx x x x x kE x kE
27 Heating oil / diesel oil xx xx xx kE x kE kE kE xx x x x x kE x kE
28 Hydraulic oil xx xx xx kE x kE kE kE xx x x x x kE kE kE
29
Oil/greases
Lubricating grease kE kE kE kE x kE kE kE xx kE kE kE kE kE kE kE
30 Aqueous polymer solution x x x xx x kE xx x xx kE kE kE x kE xx kE
31 Aluminium chloride x x x xx x kE x xx xx kE kE kE x kE xx kE
32 Aluminium sulphate x x x xx x kE xx xx xx kE kE kE x kE xx kE
33 Ferric chloride x x x xx x kE xx xx xx kE kE kE x kE xx kE
34 Ferric sulphate x x x xx x kE x xx xx kE kE kE x kE xx kE
35
Dosing
agents/
precipitants
Milk of lime kE kE kE xx x kE x x xx kE kE kE kE kE xx kE
36 Caustic soda solution xx xx xx xx x kE xx x xx x x kE kE kE xx kE
37
Chemicals
Hydrochloric acid xx xx xx xx x kE xx x xx x x kE kE kE xx kE
38 Sand/water mixture kE kE kE xx x kE xx kE kE kE kE kE x xx kE kE
39 Methanol (methylalchohol xx xx xx kE x kE kE x xx x x kE kE kE x kE
40 Ethanol (Ethyalchohol) xx xx xx kE x kE kE x xx x x kE kE kE x kE
41
Other
media
Aceticacid / formic acid xx xx xx kE x kE kE x xx x x kE kE kE x kE
A
T
V
-
D
V
W
K
-
M

2
7
5
E
M
a
y


2
0
0
1

3
0
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 31
A5 Table 9.1: Permitted support separations steel pipes

Explanatory notes:
The table is a summary of the table from TRR 100:1993 and amendments 1997. It contains only the two
respectively listed load case-related minimum and maximum values.
General: Explanatory notes in detail can be looked up in TRR 100:1983 and amendments 1997.
With the mass q related to the length the following data was taken into account:
Medium:
M
= 1000 kg/m
3
Heat insulation:
D
= 120 kg/m
3

Pipe material:
R
= 7900 kg/m
3
Metal jacket:
B x
s
B
= 10 kg/m
2

s
B
= metal jacket thickness
The spans between supports L1 were determined according to the criterion limitation of deflection. The
limiting deflection f, with regard to the avoidance of possible formation of puddles, was here assumed as
follows:
for DN 50 f = 3 mm for DN > 50 f = 5 mm.
With the determination of the cantilever lengths L6 a disturbed pipeline with a T-piece at the rigid support
was assumed with I = 0.9/(2 s/d
m
). (See Appendix 2 of the TRR 100:1993 and amendments 1997).
The selection of two limiting cases serves for the representation of the possible range of the span between
supports.
Pipe dimensions Empty pipe without
insulation
Water-filled pipe,
Without insulation
Water-filled pipe,
insulation thickness
DD40
Water-filled pipe,
insulation thickness
DD80
DN d
e
s q L1 L6 q L1 L6 q L1 L6 q L1 L6
mm mm mm kg/m m m kg/m m m kg/m m m kg/m m m
25 33.7 2.0 1.6 2.9 1.5 2.3 2.7 1.2 7.0 2.0 7.0 11.8 1.8 0.5
25 33.7 4.0 2.9 2.9 1.8 3.5 2.8 1.7 8.1 2.2 1.1 13.0 2.0 0.9
40 48.3 2.0 2.3 3.5 1.6 3.9 3.1 1.2 9.2 2.5 0.8 14.3 2.3 0.6
40 48.3 4.0 4.4 3.5 1.9 5.7 3.3 1.7 11.0 7.8 1.2 16.1 2.5 1.0
50 60.3 2.0 2.9 4.5 1.6 5.4 3.9 1.2 11.3 3.2 0.8 16.6 2.9 0.7
50 60.3 4.5 6.2 4.4 2.1 8.3 4.1 1.8 14.2 3.6 1.4 19.4 3.3 1.2
80 88.9 2.3 5.0 5.5 1.8 10.6 4.6 1.3 17.8 4.0 1.0 23.5 3.7 0.8
80 88.9 5.6 11.5 5.4 2.4 16.3 5.0 2.1 23.5 4.5 1.7 29.2 4.3 1.5
100 114.3 2.6 7.3 6.3 2.0 16.6 5.1 1.3 25.0 4.6 1.1 31.1 4.4 1.0
100 114.3 6.3 16.8 6.2 2.7 24.9 5.6 2.2 33.3 5.2 1.9 39.4 5.0 1.7
150 168.3 2.6 10.8 7.6 2.2 31.7 5.8 1.3 42.6 5.4 1. 1 49.5 5.2 1.0
150 168.3 7.1 28.2 7.5 3.0 46.9 6.6 2.3 57.8 6.3 2.1 64.7 6.1 2.0
200 219.1 2.0 15.7 8.7 2.3 51.4 6.5 1.3 64.7 6.1 1.1 72.3 5.9 1.1
200 219.9 7.1 37.1 8.7 3.1 70.1 7.4 2.3 83.4 7.1 2.1 91.0 6.9 2.0
250 273.0 2.9 19.6 9.7 2.4 75.6 6.9 1.2 91.5 6.6 1.1 99.9 6.5 1.1
250 273.0 7.1 46.6 9.7 3.3 99.2 8.0 2.2 115.0 7.7 2.1 123.4 7.6 2.0
300 323.9 2.9 23.3 10.6 2.5 102.7 7.3 1.2 120.9 7.0 1.1 130.1 6.9 1.1
300 323.9 8.0 62.3 10.6 3.5 136.8 8.7 2.4 155.0 8.4 2.2 164.2 8.3 2.2
350 355.6 3.2 28.2 11.1 2.6 123.9 7.7 1.3 143.6 7.4 1.2 153.3 7.3 1.1
350 355.6 8.8 75.3 11.1 3.7 165.0 9.1 2.5 184.7 8.8 2.3 194.3 8.7 2.3
400 406.4 3.2 32.2 11.9 2.7 157.9 8.0 1.2 179.9 7.7 1.1 190.4 7.6 1.1
400 406.4 10.0 97.8 11.8 3.9 215.0 9.7 2.6 237.0 9.5 2.5 247.5 9.4 2.5
500 508.0 4.0 50.4 13.3 3.0 246.7 8.9 1.4 273.4 8.7 1.3 285.4 8.6 1.3
500 508.0 11.0 134.8 13.2 4.7 320.3 10.7 2.7 347.1 10.5 2.6 359.1 10.4 2.6
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 32
A6 Table 9.2: Permitted spans between supports thermoplastic pipes
(Water filled pipes, safety factor 1.25, without insulation)

1) PN 16 Pipes, otherwise PN 10
2) Wall thicknesses s in accordance with Table 4
Explanatory notes:
The table is a summary of the table from DVS 2210-1. It contains only the two respectively temperature-
related minimum and maximum values.
General: Explanatory notes in detail can be looked up in TRR 100:1983 and amendments 1997.
With the determination of L1 the following data are taken into account:
Medium:
M
= 1000 kg/m
3
Pipe material:
R
= material dependent
The spans between supports L1 were determined according to the criterion limitation of deflection taking
into account the permitted bending stress. L1/500 to L1/750 is assumed as guidance value for the permitted
deflection. The selection of two limiting cases serves for the representation of the possible range of the
span between supports. The value for t = 25 years is the basis for the modulus of creep E
ZL
(German sym-
bol E
C
).
Pipe dimensions PVC-U, PN10 PE-80, PN 10 PP Type 1, PN 10 PVDF, PN 10
DN d
e
s
2)
q L1 L1 q L1 L1 q L1 L1 q L1 L1
mm mm mm kg/m m m kg/m m m kg/m m m kg/m m m
T1 =
20 C
T2 =
50 C
T1 =
20 C
T2 =
50 C
T1 =
20 C
T2 =
50 C
T1 =
20 C
T2 =
50 C
10 16 0.95
1)
0.75
1)
0.50 0.40 0.65 0.77 0.72
1)
0.57
1)
15 20 1.10
1)
0.90
1)
0.575 0.45 0.70 0.62 0.85
1)
0.70
1)
20 25 1.20 0.95 0.65 0.55 0.80 0.72 0.95 0.75
25 32 1.35 1.10 0.75 0.65 0.95 0.87 1.10 0.90
32 40 1.45 1.25 0.90 0.75 1.10 1.00 1.20 1.00
40 50 1.60 1.40 1.05 0.85 1.25 1.15 1.40 1.15
50 63 1.80 1.55 1.20 1.00 1.45 1.35 1.40 1.20
65 75 2.00 1.70 1.35 1.10 1.55 1.40 1.50 1.30
80 90 2.20 1.85 1.50 1.25 1.65 1.50 1.60 1.40
110 2.40 2.05 1.65 1.45 1.85 1.70 1.80 1.55 100
100
125 2.55 2.20 1.75 1.55 2.00 1.80 1.90 1.65
125 140 2.70 2.30 1.90 1.65 2.10 1.90 2.00 1.75
160 2.90 2.50 2.05 1.75 2.25 2.00 2.15 1.85 150
150
180 3.10 2.65 2.15 1.85 2.35 2.10 2.30 1.95
200 3.25 2.80 2.30 2.00 2.50 2.20 2.40 2.10 200
200
225 3.45 2.95 2.45 2.15 2.65 2.35 2.55 2.20
250 3.65 3.10 2.60 2.30 2.80 2.50 2.65 2.30 250
250
280 3.75 3.30 2.75 2.40 2.95 2.65 2.85 2.45
300 315 4.10 3.50 2.90 2.55 3.15 2.85 3.00 2.60
350 355 4.30 3.70 3.10 2.75 3.35 3.00 3.20 2.75
400 400 4.60 3.95 3.30 2.90 3.55 3.20 3.40 2.95
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 33
A7 Table 9.3: Permitted support spans pipes made from thermoplastics
(Water filled pipes made from UP-GF, without insulation,
calculation temperature 50 C)
1) Pipe types and wall thicknesses in accordance with DIN 16965-2, 16965-4, 16965-5
Explanatory notes
The table is a summary of the tables from the [German] Directive PuK GFK (Laying directive for pipe-
lines made from textile glass fibre reinforced reaction moulding materials - Notes on planning and design*
of the German Plastic Pipe Association (KRV)). It contains only the respectively listed pressure level-related
values.
General: for explanatory notes in detail see Directive PuK GFK of the KRV.
With the determination of L1 the following data are taken into account:
Medium:
M
= 1000 kg/m
3

Pipe material
R
= material dependent
The spans between supports L1 were determined in accordance with the criterion Limitation of deflection
taking into account the permitted bending stress. As limiting value for the deflection in the midspan a value
of F 0 5 mm was assumed. The value for the employment time and the employment temperature are the
basis for the modulus of creep E
ZL
(German symbol E
C
).

Pipe dimensions Pipe Type B
1)
Pipe Type D
1)
Pipe Type E
1)

d
e
s
1)
L1 L1 L1 L1 L1 L1 L1 L1 L1
mm mm m m m m m m m m m
PN 6 PN 10 PN 16 PN 10 PN 16 PN 4 PN 6 PN 10 PN 16
25 2.1 2.0 2.3
32 2.3 2.2 2.4
40 2.4 2.3 2.6
50 2.6 2.5
See
PN 16
2.8
65 2.7 2.7 3.0 3.0
80 2.9 2.8 3.2 3.4
100 3.0 3.0
See
PN 16
3.4 3.7
125
See
PN 16
3.1
See
PN 16
3.2 3.7 3.8 4.1
150 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.9 4.1 4.5
200
See
PN 10
3.6 3.9 3.6 3.8
See
PN 16
4.3 4.7 5.2
250 3.8 3.9 4.4 4.0 4.4 4.5 4.8 5.3 5.8
300 4.0 4.4 4.9 4.3 4.8 4.8 5.2 5.8 6.4
350 4.2 4.7 5.2 4.7 5.2 5.1 5.6 6.2 6.9
400 4.4 5.0 5.6 5.0 5.6 5.5 6.0 6.6 7.3
500 5.1 5.6 6.2 5.6 6.3 6.1 6.6 7.4 8.2
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 34
A8 Table 10: Design of supports and mounting material

Environmental influences
on the pipeline

Material
of the pipeline
Aggressive, moist atmosphere
e.g.
Screen buildings
Container halls
Components lying immediately
above water 8aeration pipelines
etc.)
Non-aggressive, in part moist
atmosphere
e.g.
External facilities
Pipe cellar
Machine rooms
Non-aggressive, dry air
Stainless steel
Material
No.: 1.4301/1.4541/1.4571
Consoles and mounting material
made completely of stainless steel
(as a rule Material No.:
1.4301/1.4541 sufficient).
Consoles and mounting material
made completely of stainless steel
(as a rule Material No.:
1.4301/1.4541 sufficient).
Consoles and mounting material
(e.g. clips) made completely of gal-
vanised steel. Pins, nuts and bolts
made from electrogalvanised steel
(galvanic separation not required).
Galvanised / black Pipelines hot galvanised or black
should not be employed here. If
nevertheless used, consoles and
mounting material made completely
of stainless steel (as a rule Material
No.: 1.4301/1.4541 sufficient) with
galvanic separation.
Consoles and mounting material
made completely of stainless steel
(as a rule Material No.:
1.4301/1.4541 sufficient).
Establish galvanic separation be-
tween mounting and pipeline.
Consoles and mounting material
(e.g. clips) made completely of gal-
vanised steel. Pins, nuts and bolts
made from electrogalvanised steel.
Plastic / non-ferrous metals Consoles and mounting material
made completely of stainless steel
(as a rule Material No.:
1.4301/1.4541 sufficient).
Establish galvanic separation with
non-ferrous metals between mount-
ing and pipeline.
Consoles and mounting material
made completely of stainless steel
(as a rule Material No.:
1.4301/1.4541 sufficient).
Establish galvanic separation with
non-ferrous metals between mount-
ing and pipeline.
Consoles and mounting material
(e.g. clips) made completely of gal-
vanised steel. Pins, nuts and bolts
made from electrogalvanised steel
(galvanic separation not required).


A
T
V
-
D
V
W
K
-
M

2
7
5
E
M
a
y


2
0
0
1

3
4
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 35
Appendix B: Normative References
DIN 1626 (withdrawn)
13)
:
Welded circular unalloyed steel tubes not subject to
special requirements; Technical delivery conditions
DIN 1628 (withdrawn)
14)
:
Welded circular unalloyed steel tubes subject to
special requirements; Technical delivery condi-
tions
DIN 1988-7:
Drinking water supply systems; Prevention of cor-
rosion (DVGW Code of Practice)
DIN 2403:
Identification of pipelines according to the fluid
conveyed
DIN 2404:
Identification colour code for heating systems
pipelines
DIN 2440 (withdrawn)
15)
:
Steel tubes; Medium weight suitable for screwing
DIN 2441 (withdrawn)
15)
:
Steel tubes; Heavy weight suitable for screwing
DIN 2458 (withdrawn)
16)
:
Welded steel pipes and tubes; Dimensions, con-
ventional masses per unit length
DIN 2501-1:
Flanges; Connecting dimensions
DIN V 2505 (withdrawn)
17)
:
Flanged joint calculation
DIN 2573 (withdrawn)
18)
:
Plain face flanges for brazing or welding; Nominal
pressure 6
DIN 2576 (withdrawn)
18)
:
Flanges, slip on type for brazing or welding;
Nominal pressure 10
DIN 2614 (withdrawn)
19)
:
Cement mortar linings for ductile iron and steel
pipes and fittings; Applications, requirements,
testing

Authors afternote:
13) DIN 1626 has been withdrawn and replaced by DIN EN
10208-1, DIN EN 10217-1, DIN 1615, DIN EN 10224,
DIN EN 10296-1
14) DIN 1628 has been withdrawn and replaced by DIN EN
102178-1 and DIN EN 10296-1
15) DIN 2440, DIN 2441 have been withdrawn and replaced
by DIN EN 10255
16) DIN 2458 has been withdrawn and replaced by
DIN EN 10220,
17) DIN V 2505 has been withdrawn and replaced by EN
1591-1
18) These DIN standard specifications have been withdrawn
and replaced by EN 1092-1
19) DIN 2614 has been withdrawn and replaced by DIN 2880,
DIN EN 545 and EN 10298
DIN 2630 (withdrawn)
18)
:
Welding neck flanges, nominal pressure 1 and
2.5
DIN 2631 (withdrawn)
18)
:
Welding neck flanges, nominal pressure 6
DIN 2632 (withdrawn)
18)
:
Welding neck flanges, nominal pressure 10
DIN 2633 (withdrawn)
18)
:
Welding neck flanges, nominal pressure 16
DIN 2641 (withdrawn)
18)
:
Lapped flanges, welding neck flanges, plain col-
lars, nominal pressure 6
DIN 2642 (withdrawn)
18)
:
Slip-on flanges, upturned welding flanges, plain
collars, nominal pressure 10
DIN 2880:
Application of cement mortar for lining iron pipes,
steel pipes and fittings
DIN 3567:
Pipe brackets for DN 20 to 500
DIN 3570:
Steel straps for tubes of DN 20 to 500
DIN 8062:
Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U, PVC-
HI); Dimensions
DIN 8074:
Polyethylene (PE); PE 63, PE 80, PE 100, PE-HD,
HDPE; Dimensions
DIN 8078:
Types 1, 2 and 3 polypropylene (PP): General
quality requirements and testing
DIN 8079:
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) pipes;
Dimensions
DIN 16891 (withdrawn):
Pipes of acrylnitrile-butadiene styrene (ABS) or
crylnitrile-styrene acrylester (ASA); Dimensions
DIN 16965-2:
Wound glass fibre reinforced polyester resin
(UP-GF) pipes, Type B pipes; Dimensions
DIN 16965-4:
Wound glass fibre reinforced polyester resin
(UP-GF) pipes, Type D pipes; Dimensions
DIN 16965-5:
Wound glass fibre reinforced polyester resin
(UP-GF) pipes, Type E pipes; Dimensions
DIN 16969:
Pipes made of polybutene (PB) PB 125;
Dimensions
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 36
DIN 16982:
Polyamide tubes of circular cross-section (PA);
Dimensions
DIN 17455
20)
:
General purpose welded circular stainless steel
tubes; Technical delivery conditions
DIN 18299:1996 (new edition: 2006)
German construction contract procedures Part C;
General general technical specifications for buil-
ding works
DIN 18381:1998 (new edition: 2006)
German construction contract procedures Part C;
General technical contract conditions for building
services; Gas, water and sewage plumbing works
inside buildings
DIN 19565-1 (withdrawn)
21)
:
Centrifugally cast and filled polyester resin glass
fibre reinforced (UP-GF) pipes and fittings for bur-
ied drains and sewers; Dimensions and technical
delivery conditions
DIN 19569-1
22)
:
Principles for the design of structures and techni-
cal equipment for sewage treatment plants; Part
1: General principles
DIN 19569-5:
Klranlagen; Baugrundstze fr Bauwerke und
technische Ausrstungen; Teil 5: Besondere
Baugrundstze fr Anlagen zur anaeroben Be-
handlung von Klrschlamm und Abwasser
[Principles for the design of structures and tech-
nical equipment for sewage treatment plants; Part
5: Special principles for plants for the anaerobic
treatment of sewage sludge and wastewater]
DIN 19569-6
22)
:
Klranlagen; Baugrundstze fr Bauwerke und
technische Ausrstungen; Teil 6: Besondere
Baugrundstze fr Anlagen zur getrennten aero-
ben Klrschlammstabilisierung
[Principles for the design of structures and techni-
cal equipment for sewage treatment plants; Part 6:
Special principles for plants for the separate
aerobic stabilisation of sewage sludge]

Authors afternote:
20) DIN 17455 has been withdrawn and replaced by DIN EN
10296-2 Welded circular steel tubes for mechanical and
general engeneering purposes Technichal delivery
21) DIN 19565-1 has been withdrawn and replaced by DIN
EN 14364 Plastics piping for drainage and sewage with
or without pressure Glassreinforced thermosetting
plastics (GRP) based on unsaturated polyester resin (UP)
Specifications for pipes, fittings and joints
22) In the meantime DIN 19569, Part 1 and 6 have been
withdrawn and replaced by EN 12255-1
DIN 30670:
Polyethylene coatings of steel pipes and fittings;
Requirements and testing
DIN 30671
23)
:
Thermoset plastic coatings for buried steel pipes
DIN 30678:
Polypropylene coatings for steel pipes
DIN 73378:
Polyamide tubing for motor vehicles
EN 287-1:
Qualification test of welders Fusion welding
Part 1: Steels (includes Amendment A1)
EN 729-1
24)
:
Quality requirements for welding fusion welding
of metallic materials Part 1: Guidelines for selec-
tion and use
EN 729-2
25)
:
Quality requirements for welding fusion welding
of metallic materials Part 2: Comprehensive qual-
ity requirements
EN 729-3
26)
:
Quality requirements for welding fusion welding
of metallic materials Part 3: Standard quality re-
quirements
EN 729-4
27)
:
Quality requirements for welding fusion welding
of metallic materials Part 4: Elementary quality
requirements
EN 1057:
Copper and copper alloys seamless round cop-
per pipes for water and gas pipelines for sanitary
installations and heating systems
EN 1092-1 (2001): Flanges and their joints Cir-
cular flangs for pipes, valves, fittings and acces-
sories Part 1: Steel, flanges, PN designated

23) DIN 30671 has been withdrawn and replaced by DIN EN
10289 Steel tubes and fittings for onshore and offshore pi-
pelines External liquid applied epoxy and epoxy-modified
coatings and DIN EN 10290 Steel tubes and fittings for
onshore and offshore pipelines External liquid applied po-
lyurethane and polyurethane-modified coatings.
24) DIN EN 729-1 has been withdrawn and replaced by DIN
EN ISO 3834-1 Quality requirements for fusion welding
of metallic materials Part 1: Criteria for the selection of
the appropriate level of quality requirements
25) DIN EN 729-3 has been withdrawn and replaced by DIN
EN ISO 3834-2 Quality requirements for fusion welding
of metallic materials Part 2: Comprehensive quality re-
quirements
26) DIN EN 729-3 has been withdrawn and replaced by DIN
EN ISO 3834-3 Quality requirements for fusion welding of
metallic materials Part 3: Standard quality requirements
27) DIN EN 729-4 has been withdrawn and replaced by DIN EN
ISO 3834-4 Quality requirements for fusion welding of me-
tallic materials Part 4: Elementary quality requirements
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 37
EN 1591-1:
Flanges and their connections Design rules for
gasketed circular flange connections Part 1:
Calculation method
EN 10027-1:
Designation systems for steels; Part 1: Steel
names and principal symbols
EN 10240:
Internal and/or external protective coatings for
steel tubes; Specifications for hot dip galvanised
coatings applied in automatic plants
EN 12255:
Wastewater treatment plants
EN 12449:
Copper and copper alloys seamless round
tubes for general purposes
EN 24063
28)
:
Welding, brazing, soft soldering and braze weld-
ing; List of procedures and indenture numbers for
graphic representation (ISO 4063)
EN 25817
29)
:
Arc-welded joints in steel; Guidance on quality
levels for imperfections (ISO 5817:1992)
EN ISO 1127:
Stainless steel tubes Dimensions, tolerances
and conventional masses per unit length (ISO
1127:1992)
EN ISO 3506-1:
Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant
stainless steel fasteners Part 1: Bolts, screws
and studs (ISO 3501-1:1997)
EN ISO 3506-2:
Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant
stainless steel fasteners Part 2: Nuts
EN ISO 3506-3:
Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant
stainless steel fasteners Part 3: Set screws and
similar fasteners not under tensile stress (ISO
3501-3:1997)
ISO 4065:
Thermoplastic pipes Universal wall thickness
table
ISO 4200:
Plain and steel tubes, welded and seamless;
general tables of dimensions and masses per unit
lenght

28) DIN EN 24063 has been withdrawn and replaced by DIN
EN ISO 4063 Welding and allied process Nomenclature
of processes and reference numbers
29) DIN EN 25817 has been withdrawn and replaced by DIN
EN ISO 5817 Welding-Fusion-welded joints in steel, ni-
ckel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded)
Quality levels for imperfections
ISO 5252:
Steel tubes; tolerance systems
AGI Q 135:
Dmmarbeiten Wasserlsliche Chloride in Min-
eralwolledmmstoffen Bestimmung, Grenzwerte,
Kennzeichnung
[Insulating work water soluble chloride in min-
eral wool insulation regulation, limiting values,
marking
Merkblatt [Advisory Leaflet] ATV-DVWK-M 263:
Empfehlungen zum Korrosionsschutz von Stahl-
teilen in Abwasserbehandlungsanlagen durch
Beschichtung und berzge
[Recommendations on corrosion protection of
steel components in wastewater treatment facili-
ties using coating and protective layers]
DVGW G 260:
Teil 1: Gasbeschaffenheit
[Part 1: Gas characteristics]
DVGW G 600:
Technische Regeln fr Gas-Installationen
DVGW TRGI (gendert durch DVGW G 600
Ergnzungen)
[Technical Rules for Gas Installations (Amended
by DVGW G 600 Supplement)]
DVS 2201-1:
Testing of semi-finished products made of ther-
moplstics, basics, indications
DVS 2207-1, -11, -15:
Schweien von thermoplastischen Kunstoffen
Projektierung und Ausfhrung Oberirdische Rohr-
systeme
[Welding of thermoplastics project planning and
implementation surface pipe systems]
DVS 2210-1:
Industrierohrleitungen aus thermoplastischen
Kunststoffen Projektierung und Ausfhrung
Oberirdische Rohrsysteme
[Industrial pipelines made of thermoplastics - pro-
ject planning and implementation surface pipe
systems]
DVS 2212-1:
Prfen von Kunststoffschweiern Prfgruppe I
Warmgas-Fchelschweien (WF), Warmgas-
Ziehschweien (WZ), Heizelementstumpfschweien
(HS) [Examination of plastic welding Group I]
DVS 2221-1:
Examination of plastics-bonders Group I
Pipe-/socket-joints made of PVC-U, PVC-C and
ABS with solvent adhesives
EC Directive Pressure equipment:
ATV-DVWK-M 275E
May 2001 38
Directive 97/23/EC of the European Parliament
and of the Council dated 29 May 1997 on the
alignment of the legal requirements of the Mem-
ber Countries on pressure equipment (published
in the Official Gazette of the European Commu-
nity No. 97/L 181 dated 09 July 1997)
KRV-Arbeitsblatt A 9.8.4: Verlegeanleitung, GFK-
Industrierohre (Rohrleitungen aus GFK mit und
ohne Auskleidung im Industriebereich)
[KRV Standard A .8.4: Laying instructions, GRP
industrial pipes (pipelines made of GRP with and
without cladding in the industrial field)]
TRR 100:1993
Bauvorschriften; Rohrleitungen aus metallischen
Werkstoffen
[Building regulations; pipelines made from metal-
lic materials]
TRR 100 nderungen:
1997 Bauvorschriften; Rohrleitungen aus metalli-
schen Werkstoffen
[Amendments: 1997 Building regulations; pipeli-
nes made from metallic materials]
VdS 2234:
Brandwnde und Komplextrennwnde; Merkblatt
fr die Anordnung und Ausfhrung
[Technical rule: Firewalls and complex divider
walls; Advisory Leaflet for arrangement and
implementation]
VdTV MB K 001:
Prfung von Kunststoffklebern; Prfgruppe I; Rohr-
/Muffen-Verbindungen aus PVC-U, PVC-C und
ABS mit lsenden Klebstoffen
[Testing of plastic adhesives; Group I; pipe-
/sleeve-joints made of PVC-U, PVC-C and ABS
with soluble adhesives]

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