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# AERSYS

KNOWLEDGEUNIT
AERSYS1001
Author: AsierRuizdeAguirreMalaxetxebarria Date: 31/12/2010
FEM X HAND LIN X NOLIN X BUCK FAT STATIC X COMP MET X
STRESSCONCENTRATIONSINMETALLICPARTS

1
AERSYSAERONAUTICAS.L.2011Allrightsreserved

1. INTRODUCTION

When performing a linear analysis of a metallic part that is prone to have stress
concentrations (such as those created by holes) the stress peak obtained with the FEM is
unrealistic. The plastic behavior of the metallic material will relieve the stress level in the
surroundings of the concentration source. The problem is to determine if this stress peak
that has been calculated by FEM (or by handcalculations, i.e. Petersons handbook) will
provide a Reserve Factor above one when taking into account the plasticity. In general
remember that this plastic relief will not be applicable to fatigue problems which
commonlyaredealingwithstressesintheelasticrange.

The first approach to the problem would be to run the FEM with a nonlinear solution
(NASTRAN SOL 106) adding the plastic behavior of the material. This solution is reliable
and will provide the real stress level in the nearby of the stress concentration and
intheareaaffectedbytheyieldingofthematerial.

Thesecondsolution(basedonNeuberhyperbola)isanapproximateapproachtobeused
whenthelevelofaccuracydesiredisnothigh.Thenonlinearanalysisisnotnecessaryon
thisapproach.

The third possibility is to calculate the stress concentration factor on the plastic range.
UsuallythestressconcentrationfactorontheelasticrangecanbeeasilyevaluatedbyFEM
or by using the Petersons handbook. This Kt can be extrapolated to the plastic range by
meansofasimpleapproach.
2. FEMNONLINEARANALYSIS

InordertorunanonlinearanalysisincludingplasticityontheFEMfivechangeshavetobe

SOL106hastobeused.
on the MAT1 referencing the metallic material with plastic behavior. The third
field of this card will reference the ID of a TABLES1 card. The fourth field of this
card has to be NLELAST (PLASTIC option would be used if the analysis would
have to take into account the hardening effect of successive loading and

AERSYS
KNOWLEDGEUNIT
AERSYS1001
Author: AsierRuizdeAguirreMalaxetxebarria Date: 31/12/2010
FEM X HAND LIN X NOLIN X BUCK FAT STATIC X COMP MET X
STRESSCONCENTRATIONSINMETALLICPARTS

2
AERSYSAERONAUTICAS.L.2011Allrightsreserved

TABLES1 card has to be added to define the stressstrain curve of the material.
Thestressstraincurveofthematerialcanbedefinedbyseveralapproaches:

1. Elasticperfectlyplasticbehavior:
Thismodelofthematerialcanberepresentedbyusingthreepoints:

## Point Stress Strain

A 0 0
B Ftu Ftu/E
C Ftu Ftu/E+e

Where:
Ftu:UltimateStrengthofthematerial.
E:Elasticmodulusofthematerial.
e:Ultimatestrainofthematerial.

Themaindrawbackofthismodelofthematerialisthatthestresscannot
be used as a method to evaluate the Reserve Factor (RF) because all the
plastic range of the chart has the same stress level. In order to evaluate
thecriticalityofthestructurethestrainshouldbeused:

AERSYS
KNOWLEDGEUNIT
AERSYS1001
Author: AsierRuizdeAguirreMalaxetxebarria Date: 31/12/2010
FEM X HAND LIN X NOLIN X BUCK FAT STATIC X COMP MET X
STRESSCONCENTRATIONSINMETALLICPARTS

3
AERSYSAERONAUTICAS.L.2011Allrightsreserved

RF
s
=
F
tu
E
+ c
e
PLM

2. ElasticPlasticbehaviorwithlinearhardening:
Thismodelofthematerialcanberepresentedbyusingthreepoints:

## Point Stress Strain

A 0 0
B Fty Fty/E
C Ftu Ftu/E+e

Where:
Fty:Yieldingstressofthematerial.
Ftu:UltimateStrengthofthematerial
E:Elasticmodulusofthematerial
e:Ultimatestrainofthematerial

OnthismodelofthematerialthestressobtainedthroughtheFEMcanbe
directlyusedtoevaluatetheRF.ThisRF(asinthepreviousmodel)willnot

RF
c
=
F
tu
o
PLM

AERSYS
KNOWLEDGEUNIT
AERSYS1001
Author: AsierRuizdeAguirreMalaxetxebarria Date: 31/12/2010
FEM X HAND LIN X NOLIN X BUCK FAT STATIC X COMP MET X
STRESSCONCENTRATIONSINMETALLICPARTS

4
AERSYSAERONAUTICAS.L.2011Allrightsreserved

Von Mises that NASTRAN uses to search on the material curve) or the
stress tensor Von Mises stress. Both can be considered as valid
approaches.

3. RambergOsgoodCurve:
Thismodelofthematerialneedsseveralpointssincetheequationofthe
curve is not polylineal. According to the level of accuracy desired the
number of points will vary. The best option is to select the number and
locationofpointsthatwillfitcorrectlythecurveofthematerialbyvisual
inspection.

TheequationoftheRambergOsgoodapproachfollows:
e =
o
E
+ u.uu2 _
o
F
t
_
n

Where:

Fty:Yieldingstressofthematerial.
n:RambergOsgoodparameter.Thisvaluecanbecalculatedas:

n =
ln [
c
u.uu2

ln _
F
tu
F
t
]

Where:
e:Ultimatestrainofthematerial.
Ftu:Ultimatestrengthofthematerial.

AERSYS
KNOWLEDGEUNIT
AERSYS1001
Author: AsierRuizdeAguirreMalaxetxebarria Date: 31/12/2010
FEM X HAND LIN X NOLIN X BUCK FAT STATIC X COMP MET X
STRESSCONCENTRATIONSINMETALLICPARTS

5
AERSYSAERONAUTICAS.L.2011Allrightsreserved

OnthismodelofthematerialthestressobtainedthroughtheFEMcanbe
directlyusedtoevaluatetheRF.ThisRF(asinthepreviousmodel)willnot

RF
c
=
F
tu
o
PLM

Von Mises that NASTRAN uses to search on the material curve) or the
stress tensor Von Mises stress. Both can be considered as valid
approaches.

ThetypicalNASTRANinputwilllooklikethis:

SOL106
CEND

NLPARM=1

SUBCASE1

BEGINBULK
\$1111111222222223333333344444444555555556666666677777777
NLPARM1
MAT1170000.0.3
MATS111NLELAST
TABLES11
0.00.00.004286300.00.105714400.0ENDT

3. NEUBERAPPROACH

The Neuber approach states that the product of the stress and strain in the plastic
rangewillequaltotheproductofthestressandstrainintheelasticsolutioncalculated
with a linear approach (since the strain energy should be similar). This way the
followingrelationcanbewritten:

AERSYS
KNOWLEDGEUNIT
AERSYS1001
Author: AsierRuizdeAguirreMalaxetxebarria Date: 31/12/2010
FEM X HAND LIN X NOLIN X BUCK FAT STATIC X COMP MET X
STRESSCONCENTRATIONSINMETALLICPARTS

6
AERSYSAERONAUTICAS.L.2011Allrightsreserved

o
N0NLINLAR
e
N0NLINLAR
= o
LINLAR
e
LINLAR

e
LINLAR
=
o
LINLAR
E

Therefore:

e
N0NLINLAR
=
(o
LINLAR
)
2
Eo
N0NLINLAR

ReplacingthisequationontheRambergOsgoodmodelofthematerial:

(o
LINLAR
)
2
Eo
N0NLINLAR
=
o
N0NLINLAR
E
+ u.uu2 _
o
N0NLINLAR
F
t
_
n

Thenonlinearstresscanbecalculatedusingtheexpressionabovefromtheconstants
ofthematerialandtheVonMisesstressresultingfromalinearanalysis(suchaslinear
FEM).ThebestwaytosolvethisexpressionistosweepallthestressesfromFtytoFtu
with successive slight increments of stress till the equation is fulfilled. The iterative
processesinthiskindofequationstendtooscillateandarenotrecommended.

Oncethenonlinearstressisobtained,theReservefactorcanbeestimatedas:

RF
c
=
F
tu
o
N0NLINLAR

Another possibility is to calculate the maximum stress that can be obtained on the
linearmodelwithaRFaboveone.Onthelimit:

o
LINLAR
MAX
e
LINLAR
= F
tu
_
F
tu
E
+ c]

o
LINLAR
MAX
=
_
E _F
tu
_
F
tu
E
+ c]_
AndthereforetheRFiscalculatedas:
RF =
o
LINLAR
MAX
o
LINLAR

AERSYS
KNOWLEDGEUNIT
AERSYS1001
Author: AsierRuizdeAguirreMalaxetxebarria Date: 31/12/2010
FEM X HAND LIN X NOLIN X BUCK FAT STATIC X COMP MET X
STRESSCONCENTRATIONSINMETALLICPARTS

7
AERSYSAERONAUTICAS.L.2011Allrightsreserved

This RF is related with the loads since the analysis is linear. The value of the linear
stressmustbetheVonMisesstresstotakeintoaccountanypossiblemultiaxialstress
state.

The application of the Neuber approach is possible if the following assumptions are

Thenonlinearstrainshouldneverbehigherthana10%oftheultimatestrain.
Ifthisvalueispassedtheaccuracyofthemethodtendstodecayquickly:
e
N0NLINLAR
=
(o
LINLAR
)
2
Eo
N0NLINLAR
< u.1c
Theareaofthecrosssectionaffectedbyyieldingshouldbelowerthana10%
ofthetotalcrosssection
The geometry and the loads allow a redistribution of the load path when the
partisontheplasticrange.
4. PLASTICSTRESSCONCENTRATIONFACTOR

Thestressconcentrationfactorintheplasticrangecanbeobtainedbyusingthefollowing
generalexpression:

Kt
pIustc
= 1 +(Kt
cIustc
-1)
E
s
E

Where:

Kt
plastic
:Stressconcentrationfactorontheplasticrange.
Kt
elastic
:stressconcentrationfactorontheelasticrange(calculatedorobtained
throughtables).
E
s
: Secant Modulus of the material at the stress level where the Kt has to be
evaluated.
E: Secant Modulus far from the stress concentration source (in general this
valueequalstoE)

## Thesolution ofthisexpressionisnotexplicit becausethevalueofE

s
cannotbeevaluated
withoutthevalueofKt
plastic
.TheexpressiontoevaluatetheE
s
is:
E
s
=
E
1 +
u.uu2E
F
t
_
o
F
t
]
n-1

Thenewstresswillbeevaluatedas:

o = Kt
pIustc
o

AERSYS
KNOWLEDGEUNIT
AERSYS1001
Author: AsierRuizdeAguirreMalaxetxebarria Date: 31/12/2010
FEM X HAND LIN X NOLIN X BUCK FAT STATIC X COMP MET X
STRESSCONCENTRATIONSINMETALLICPARTS

8
AERSYSAERONAUTICAS.L.2011Allrightsreserved

Where:

:Stressfarfromthestressconcentrationsource(VonMisesstress).

The solution of the expressions above (as the Neuber approach) tends to oscillate if
iterative methods are used. Hence, it is recommended to sweep all the range of
stresses from Fty to Ftu with successive slight increments on the stress till all the
equationsarefulfilled.

TheRFforthisapproachwillbeevaluatedas:

RF
c
=
F
tu
o

Thevalidityofthisexpressionisin generalconstrainedbythesameassumptionsthat
theNeuberapproach.

The peak strain should never be higher than a 10% of the ultimate strain. If
thisvalueispassedtheaccuracyofthemethodtendstodecayquickly:
e =
o
E
+ u.uu2 _
o
F
t
_
n
< u.1c
Theareaofthecrosssectionaffectedbyyieldingshouldbelowerthana10%
ofthetotalcrosssection
The geometry and the loads allow a redistribution of the load path when the
partisontheplasticrange.