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University of Iowa

Iowa Research Online


Teses and Dissertations
2014
Belting is beautiful : welcoming the musical theater
singer into the classical voice studio
Colleen Ann Jennings
University of Iowa
Copyright 2014 Colleen Ann Jennings
Tis dissertation is available at Iowa Research Online: htp://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/1340
Follow this and additional works at: htp://ir.uiowa.edu/etd
Part of the Music Commons
Recommended Citation
Jennings, Colleen Ann. "Belting is beautiful : welcoming the musical theater singer into the classical voice studio." DMA (Doctor of
Musical Arts) thesis, University of Iowa, 2014.
htp://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/1340.


"

BELTING IS BEAUTIFUL: WELCOMING THE MUSICAL THEATER SINGER
INTO THE CLASSICAL VOICE STUDIO
by
Colleen Ann Jennings
An essay submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the Doctor of
Musical Arts degree
in the Graduate College of
The University of Iowa
August 2014
Essay Supervisor: Associate Professor Rachel Joselson




"

Copyright by
COLLEEN ANN JENNINGS
2014
All Rights Reserved


Graduate College
The University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL
_______________________
D.M.A. ESSAY
_______________
This is to certify that the D.M.A. Essay of
Colleen Ann Jennings
has been approved by the Examining Committee
for the essay requirement for the Doctor of Musical Arts
degree at the August 2014 graduation.
Essay Committee: __________________________________
Rachel Joselson, Essay Supervisor
__________________________________
John Muriello
__________________________________
Stephen Swanson
__________________________________
L. Kevin Kastens
__________________________________
William LaRue Jones


""
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Thank you to my committee, Dr. Muriello, Prof. Swanson, Prof. Kastens,
and Dr. Jones, all of you have been very supportive in seeing me through this
process, and I have enjoyed working with each of you. Dr. Joselson, in particular,
you have been my staunch supporter and have been invaluable in propelling me
to complete this degree.
Thank you to my husband, Ernest Jennings, for believing in me and
supporting me in so many ways. I love you!
Thank you to my mother and sisters and their families, for their
encouragement and the healthy competition only a house with three sopranos in
it would generate.
Thank you to my past voice teachers and vocal coaches, especially
Marguerite Gignac Hedges, Renee Skrevanos Root, Virginia Croskery, and Shari
Rhoads for giving me the tools to be a fearless vocal explorer.
Thank you to Pauline Wieland Plowman and the Graduate College staff,
including Eunice Prosser, for your support.
Thank you to my colleagues from Mahidol University, especially Daren
Robbins, Eun-Young Suh, Cassandra Fox-Percival, Servio Bona, Danny Keasler,
James Ogburn, Amy Galbraith Ogburn, Parvati Mani, Yavet Boyadjiev, Paul
Cesarczyk, Joe Bowman, and Wannapha Yannavut, for providing support,
friendship, and lots of memorable collaborations.
Thank you to my readers Dr. Cynthia Schmidt, Prof. Shari Rhoads, and
Dr. Yasmin A. Flores.
To friends from The University of Iowa, thank you for your friendship!

"""
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................. v
LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................... vi
CHAPTER 1 DEVELOPMENT OF BELTING AND ITS INFLUENCES ..................1
Purpose of This Study...................................................................................8
Historical Overview (Early 20
th
century to present).................................9
Late 1800s Early 1900s................................................................................9
Cultural Changes.........................................................................................10
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.........................................................................16
Rachel Lebon................................................................................................16
Karen S. Hall.................................................................................................19
Robert Edwin................................................................................................23
Anne Peckham.............................................................................................30
Jeannette LoVetri .........................................................................................30
Lisa Popeil.....................................................................................................32
Ingo Titze ......................................................................................................35
CHAPTER 3 APPLICATION IN THE VOICE STUDIO..........................................36
Back to Basics ...............................................................................................36
First Steps......................................................................................................36
Breath and Alignment.................................................................................37
Vocalises for Belting....................................................................................41
1. Calling-Voice Exercise .....................................................................41
2. Siren Exercise ....................................................................................41
3. Cross-Register Arpeggios................................................................42
4. Messa di voce exercise........................................................................42
5. Invention of vocal tudes from repertoire .....................................43
Mouth, Head, and Jaw Position for Belting.............................................44
Twang Resonance........................................................................................47
Methodology for Specific Repertoire........................................................48
1. Roxie, from Chicago ......................................................................49
2. On the Steps of the Palace, from Into the Woods .......................50
3. Adelaides Lament from Guys and Dolls ...................................53
4. Always a Bridesmaid from I Love You, Youre Perfect,
Now Change............................................................................................56
5. I Know the Truth from Elton John and Tim Rices Aida.........57
6. I Got Rhythm from Girl Crazy or Crazy for You........................58
7. Look at Me, Im Sandra Dee from Grease ..................................59
8. My New Philosophy from Youre a Good Man, Charlie
Brown......................................................................................................60
9. Blow, Gabriel, Blow from Anything Goes ..................................61
10. On My Own from Les Misrables ..............................................62


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CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION.......................................................................................64
Areas for Further Research ........................................................................64
APPENDIX A DEFINITION OF TERMS....................................................................66
Pedagogical...................................................................................................66
Repertoire .....................................................................................................71
APPENDIX B CONTEMPORARY COMMERCIAL MUSIC 1930S -
PRESENT ......................................................................................................72
APPENDIX C REPRESENTATIVE VIDEOGRAPHY..............................................76
1. Roxie from Chicago performed by Renee Zellweger ...............76
2. On the Steps of the Palace from Into the Woods
performed by Kim Crosby ..................................................................77
3. Adelaides Lament from Guys and Dolls performed by
Vivian Blaine .........................................................................................77
4. Always a Bridesmaid from I Love You, Youre Perfect,
Now Change performed by Traci Laborde.........................................78
5. I Know the Truth from Elton John and Tim Rices Aida
performed by Sherie Ren Scott .........................................................79
6. I Got Rhythm from Girl Crazy or Crazy for You
performed by Ethel Merman ..............................................................79
7. Look at Me, Im Sandra Dee from Grease performed by
Stockard Channing...............................................................................80
8. My New Philosophy from Youre a Good Man, Charlie
Brown performed by Kristin Chenoweth..........................................81
9. Blow, Gabriel, Blow from Anything Goes performed by
Sutton Foster .........................................................................................82
10. On My Own from Les Misrables performed by Lea
Salonga...................................................................................................82
APPENDIX D REPRESENTATIVE MUSICAL SCORES .........................................84
APPENDIX E PERMISSIONS ......................................................................................85
APPENDIX F ADDITIONAL VOCALISES FOR BELTING....................................87
BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................................88





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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Roxie from Chicago. ......................................................................................50
Table 2: On the Steps of the Palace from Into the Woods........................................52
Table 3: Adelaides Lament from Guys and Dolls. ..................................................54
Table 4: Always a Bridesmaid from I Love You, Youre Perfect, Now Change. .....56
Table 5: I Know the Truth from Elton John and Tim Rices Aida.........................57
Table 6: I Got Rhythm from Girl Crazy or Crazy for You........................................58
Table 7: Look at Me, Im Sandra Dee from Grease..................................................59
Table 8: My New Philosophy from Youre a Good Man, Charlie Brown................61
Table 9: Blow, Gabriel, Blow from Anything Goes. .................................................62
Table 10: On My Own from Les Misrables. .............................................................63


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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: An open glottis from Henry Gray, Anatomy: Descriptive and ....................5
Surgical, 20th ed. (Grammercy Books, New York, 1918):
Figure 956. The 20th edition of Grays Anatomy is available in
public domain in the USA.
Figure 2: Jo Estills comparison of spectra for three qualities: speech, opera, ........6
and belting at five frequencies: 196, 294, 392, 587, and 784 Hz.
Each envelope represents the average of all tokens for that
condition. The horizontal line in each cell is the amplitude of the
fundamental. The hatched vertical line is the 3 kHz marker for the
area in the spectrum to which the ear is most sensitive. Acoustic
energy where the two lines intersect is a measure of relative
loudness. From Belting and Classic Voice Quality Some
Physiological Differences , Medical Problems of Performing Artists
Volume 3, March 1988, page 39. Used with permission from the
publisher. Permission in Appendix C.
Figure 3: The Atlanto-Occipital Joint, Henry Gray, Anatomy: Descriptive .............39
andSurgical, 20th ed. (Grammercy Books, New York, 1918): Figure
305. The 20th edition of Grays Anatomy is available in public
domain in the USA.
Figure 4: Siren Exercise. ................................................................................................42
Figure 5: Cross-register arpeggios................................................................................42
Figure 6: Messa di voce Exercise. ....................................................................................43
Figure 7: The author demonstrating a classical mouth position, taken by . ..........44
Brian Kastens with Nikon D-60. July 21, 2014. Photography
Copyright Release in Appendix C.
Figure 8: The author demonstrating a belting mouth position, taken by ..............45
Brian Kastens with Nikon D-60. July 21, 2014. Photography
Copyright Release in Appendix C.
Figure 9: The author in profile singing classical style, taken by Brian ..................45
Kastens with Nikon D-60. July 21, 2014. Photography Copyright
Release in Appendix C.
Figure 10: The author in profile, singing belt style, taken by Brian Kastens ........46
with Nikon D-60. July 21, 2014. Photography Copyright Release
in Appendix C.
Figure 11: The author singing classical style, taken by Brian Kastens with...........46
Nikon D-60. July 21, 2014. Photography Copyright Release in
Appendix C.


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Figure 12: The author singing belting style, taken by Brian Kastens with.............47
Nikon D-60. July 21, 2014. Photography Copyright Release in
Appendix C.
Figure 13: The aryepiglottic fold, Henry Gray, Anatomy: Descriptive and...............48
Surgical, 20th ed. (Grammercy Books, New York, 1918): Figure
953. The 20th edition of Grays Anatomy is available in public
domain in the USA.
Figure 14: The larynx, Henry Gray, Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical, 20th..........70
ed. (Grammercy Books, New York, 1918): Figure 959. The 20th
edition of Grays Anatomy is available in public domain in the
USA
Figure 15: Additional vocalises for belting. Use [] or [i]. .......................................87

1
CHAPTER 1
DEVELOPMENT OF BELTING AND ITS INFLUENCES

Belting, long disparaged by many in musical academia, has grown over
the past 100 years or more to be a more important and respected component of
contemporary commercial music. Contemporary Commercial Music (CCM) is a
descriptor by Jeannette LoVetri, vocal pedagogue, to describe all types of non-
classical singing. CCM styles are cabaret, country, experimental, gospel, jazz,
musical theater, pop, rock, and rhythm and blues. The term was developed to
call CCM styles by what they are rather than what they are not non-classical.
1

It has also, to some extent, crept into modern classical music. This essay will
establish the importance of belting on todays musical scene, dispel certain fears
associated with belting, and offer a basic methodology for teaching belting
technique.
Belting is one of many vocal techniques demanded of the 21st-century
singer. The American publics ear has become accustomed to various styles of
belting, now a firmly established as a mainstream vocal technique. Belting style
has expanded a new standard of what many consider beautiful singing and
has become an important area for research. In a study conducted in 2003, LoVetri
and Edrie Weekly, instructors at Shenandoah Conservatory
2
concluded that
many teachers of musical theater and responders, 19 percent had no professional


1
Hall, Karen Sue, Music Theater Vocal Pedagogy and Styles: An Introductory Teaching
Guide for Experienced Classical Singing Teachers (Ed.D. diss., Columbia University, 2006): 14.


2
Both are founders of Contemporary Commercial Music (CCM) Vocal Pedagogy
Institute at Shenandoah Conservatory.

2
experience or training in this style of singing, and while 66 percent use the term,
only half actually teach the technique.
3

Belting is a powerful voice quality; some believe it is foreign to classical
singing. An under-studied part of the science of singing, and much knowledge of
belting is yet to be discovered.
Belting must be regarded and presented as high-efficiency
phonation that is, it exacts tremendous energy, sustained
projection and support, and thus optimal vocal technique,
control, and efficiency. An integral part of belting pedagogy
must therefore include explanations that foster knowledge
of the vocal mechanism, awareness of what constitutes
vocal abuse and misuse, and strategies to produce the
vocal sounds that are demanded, efficiently, with the
objective of vocal endurance. Equipped with this factual
information, the professional singer would be better able
to deal with the pressures placed on vocalists who are
often made to feel that they are being prima donnas or
labeled as difficult when they are merely exercising
good vocal maintenance.
4


The demand for belting, and for singers who can belt, continues to grow.
Singers who are only classically trained are often at a disadvantage in the job
market. A balanced, holistic, and efficient approach to healthy vocal function is
crucial, regardless of idiom.
The musical theater industry indeed the contemporary commercial
music industry in general is currently promoting the idea that bigger and
more powerful are better when it comes to vocal production. The key driver of
this idea is the wave of massively popular televised reality shows and talent
contests (American Idol, The Voice, et al.) whose judges have little or no musical


3
Edrie Means Weekly and Jeannette LoVetri, Contemporary Commercial Music (CCM)
Survey: Whos Teaching What in Nonclassical Music, Journal of Voice 17, no. 2 (June 2003): 208-9.


4
Lebon. The Professional Vocalist: A Handbook for Commercial Singers and
Teachers. Lanham, Md. and London: The Scarecrow Press, 1999: 117.
S
education. The judges assessments of the performances displayed on these
shows have placed too many misconceptions in the minds of many young
singers. Aspiring young singers are guided only by these TV shows, or by star
judges, many of whom proclaim themselves vocal experts. A lack of sound vocal
training can result in bad habits and vocal problems. The popularity of these
television reality illustrates the need for better training in belting. A thorough
understanding of belting techniques will provide the necessary tools for
vocalists/teachers to better fulfill the demands of current trends in musical
theater.
As a result of the demand for the big and powerful, as well as the ever-
rising popularity of show tunes and popular songs that require the technique,
belting has become an indispensable weapon in a singers arsenal. For many
classically trained vocal instructors, belting remains an elusive and mysterious
term. A large number of experienced vocal coaches and voice teachers disparage
belting, believing that it will damage the voice, lead to bad singing habits, and is
incompatible with classical training. Singing for musical theater is enormously
demanding, writes singing technique pioneer Joan Melton. It requires the
ability to handle a wide variety of vocal genres, as well as the robust good health
to do eight shows a week on a regular basis.
5
Musical theater is the only singing
genre that demands a successive weekday performance schedule. Classical
singers and singers of other Contemporary Commercial Music (CCM) styles such
as pop, rock, rhythm and blues (R & B), and country schedule days off during


5
Joan Melton, Singing in Musical Theatre: The Training and Singing of Singers and Actors,
(New York, New York: Allworth Press, 2007): xiii.

4
their performance weeks. Many vocal pedagogy texts
6
are classically focused
with belting often only briefly mentioned. Regrettably, numerous textbooks
intended for class voice contain little or no mention of belting.
Belting extends naturally from speech and is an aggressive, visceral, and
intense technique of vocal production used for dramatic effect. It is a vocal skill
that must be cultivated with the discipline required of classical singers. Jeannette
LoVetri, one of the leading experts on belt defines it thus:
Belting is just a label given to a certain aspect of
chest register function. This definition is supported
by decades of use in the theatrical community to
characterize a specific type of singing and singer
who could be heard at the back of the house long
before there was electronic amplification.
7


Many pedagogues, including LoVetri, Karen S. Hall, Anne Peckham, and Mary
Saunders Barton, have attempted to agree on a definition for belting. Susan
Boardman, emeritus faculty of voice at Pennsylvania State University, defines it
as a tense, rough, driving, bright, vibrato-less, assertive yell.
8
Beth Miles and
Harry Hollien, authors of the article Whither Belting?, describe belting as a
mode of singing that is typified by unusually loud heavy phonation that exhibits
little or no vibrato but a high level of nasality.
9
Harm K. Shutte and Donald G.
Miller, authors of Belting and Pop, Non-Classical Approaches to the Female


6
Such as: William Vennards Singing: The Mechanism and Technic; Richard Millers
Structure of Singing: System and Art in Vocal Technique; and Oren Browns Discover Your Voice.


7
Jeannette LoVetri, Voice Pedagogy: Female Chest Voice, Journal of Singing 60, no. 2
(November/December 2003): 162.


8
Susan D. Boardman, Voice Training for the Musical Theater Singer, (Ann Arbor, Mich.:
UMI Research Press, 1987), 25.


9
Beth Miles and Harry Hollien, Whither Belting? in Journal of Voice. 4:1 (March 1990),
69.

S
Middle Voice further specify belting as a manner of loud singing that is
characterized by consistent use of chest register (less than 50 percent closed
phase of glottis Figure 1) in a range in which larynx elevation is necessary to
match the first formant with the second harmonic on open (high F1) vowels, that
is G4-D5 in female voices.
10





Figure 1: An open glottis from Henry Gray, Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical,
20th ed. (Grammercy Books, New York, 1918): Figure 956. The 20th edition of
Grays Anatomy is available in public domain in the USA.



This process is known as formant tuning. Rachel Lebon, Professor of Jazz Vocal
Performance at The University of Miami Frost School of Music, characterizes
belting as vocal production that proceeds out of the speaking range, with the


10
Harm K. Schutte and Donald G. Miller, Belting and Pop, Nonclassical Approaches
to the Female Middle Voice: Some Preliminary Considerations, in Journal of Voice 7:2 (1993), 147.

6
prosody of speech, and that promotes a sense of spontaneity and
aggressiveness.
11
(Figure 2)




Figure 2: Jo Estills comparison of spectra for three qualities: speech, opera, and
belting at five frequencies: 196, 294, 392, 587, and 784 Hz. Each envelope
represents the average of all tokens for that condition. The horizontal line in each
cell is the amplitude of the fundamental. The hatched vertical line is the 3 kHz
marker for the area in the spectrum to which the ear is most sensitive. Acoustic
energy where the two lines intersect is a measure of relative loudness. From
Belting and Classic Voice Quality Some Physiological Differences , Medical


11
Rachel L. Lebon, The Effects of a Pedagogical Approach Incorporating Videotaped
Demonstrations on the Development of Female Vocalists Belted Vocal Technique. PhD. Diss.
University of Miami, 1986, 80.
7
Problems of Performing Artists Volume 3, March 1988, page 39. Used with
permission from the publisher. Permission in Appendix C.



In her dissertation, Lebon asked undergraduate students to articulate their
concepts of belting. The following are some of the responses:
A louder sound a clearer sound. Strong and loud, but clear, not
distorted.
Chest voice loud singing big voice musical
comedy.
Broadway, but not legit chest voice more
forward.
Im scared of the word I really tense up.
Whenever I try to belt or hear someone trying it,
it sounds like theyre yelling and pushing I
think of nodes.
Pop style Broadway.
Loud projection powerful.
Loud, sometimes strident a real musical
comedy type of sound.
Musical theatre very straight tone.
Stretching chest voice up to where it should be
head screaming.
Something negative pushed heavy sound.
12


This author asserts that belting is a pragmatic technique, essential to the
study of voice for musical theater students. As more and more classical singers
consider the possibility of branching out into non-classical singing and as actors
acknowledge the very real possibility of getting more work if they can sing
musical theatre, belting becomes a particularly attractive option for both
groups, Melton writes.
13
Belting, with proper instruction, can be sung without
danger of damaging the voice or losing range.


12
Ibid. (These responses are not credited to specific students in the dissertation.)


13
Melton, xiii.
8
Purpose of This Study

This essay provides an historical perspective on the art of belting, reviews
the physiological function of the vocal instrument during belting, attempts to
establish that belting increases the stamina and strength of the classical singer,
and reinforces the benefit of classical vocal training for musical theater singers.
One major goal of this essay is to mitigate the fears associated with belting, both
from the perspective of voice quality and vocal technique. Another goal is to
provide a teaching method for belting, develop neutral terminology, and review
pedagogical writings of belting experts, including Rachel Lebon, Karen S. Hall,
Robert Edwin, Jeannette LoVetri, and Lisa Popeil.
This author perceives a distinct disconnect between the majority of
university vocal training programs and the stylistic and technical demands
placed on young singers who move on to professional careers. Many university
voice teachers offer lessons in classical technique exclusively.
14
However, in the
21st century, vocalists must perform in a variety of styles and idioms. Female
singers must be able to not only sing in head voice, but to belt, if they aspire to
sing musical theater. Versatile crossover artists have many more employment
opportunities than singers who know only classical technique.


14
Bethany Barber, Pedagogical Approaches to Belting, D.M. diss., Indiana University,
2011, 4.

9
Historical Overview (Early 20
th
century to present)

Musical theater has absorbed many musical and cultural influences in the
past century. It is a popular form of public entertainment and is easily accessible
to the general public. Musicals have become standard repertoire in many
American opera companies. This brief overview will introduce several theater
and commercial music genres that have influenced the art of belting.

Late 1800s Early 1900s
Minstrelsy, vaudeville, and burlesque shows, popular in the late 1800s
and early 1900s, were the earliest forerunners of the American musical. Shows of
this type required performers to project their voices outdoors without
amplification, a departure from the European classical vocal tradition in which
vocal projection is achieved through enhancement of resonance or ring in the
voice.
15
Emphasis on singing in the speaking range is an inherent characteristic of
singing in these idioms.
16
Belting consisted of white performers imitating the
singing style of blacks, inspiring laughter by caricaturing the manner or spirit of
serious works and/or by ludicrous treatment of their subjects.
17
May Irwin, a
Canadian actress and singer, became a popular burlesque/vaudeville performer
in the 1890s, the foremost coon shouter of her time. Coon shouters were


15
William Vennard. Singing: The Mechanism and Technic. (New York: Carl Fischer, Inc,
1967): 89.


16
Lebon, Ph.D. diss., 9.


17
Burlesque, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, [website]
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/burlesque Accessed
March 12, 2014.

1u
typically white female performers portraying black female caricatures. Pre-
dating electronic amplification, the vocal delivery was shouted and aggressive.
Irwin was a versatile and gifted performer, not limited to such roles. She
recorded several Broadway hit numbers from the 1890s to 1900s in other vocal
styles and influenced future musical theater belters such as Celeste Holm and
Bernadette Peters.
18

Another major transformation occurred in the 1880s with the emergence
of Tin Pan Alley music publishers. The name refers to a neighborhood in New
York City, where many of these publishers had offices. Songs performed by May
Irwin or Sophie Tucker emphasized the consonants and clarity of vowels rather
than the beauty of tone.
19


Cultural Changes
Before the 1920s, the lines between opera, operetta, musical theater, and
popular music were not as clearly drawn as they later became. Metropolitan
Opera divas were the celebrated popular music singers of the day. Between the
1930s and 1950s, the stars of the Met often crossed over into musical theater and
starred in Hollywood movies.
20

Up to about 1920, a singer was a singer. That is, he was
someone with a highly polished and sizable voice that
gave evidence of having been trained. The leading singers


18
Mark N. Grant, The Rise and Fall of the Broadway Musical (Boston: Northeastern
University Press, 2004), 20.


19
Ibiu.


20
Robin Lee Morales, A Performers Guide to the American Musical Theater Songs of
Kurt Weill (1900-1950), DMA University of Arizona, 2008, 41.

11
were often borrowed from the Metropolitan Opera.
In Victor Herberts Mlle. Modiste there was Fritzi Schieff,
who became a bigger star on Broadway singing
Kiss Me Again than she had been at the Met singing
Musetta in La bohme. Later, Herbert used Emma
Trentini (coloratura) of the Manhattan Opera House
and Orville Herrold (the Mets Parsifal) in Naughty
Marietta. In a sense, the vocal requirements of the time
were nearly synonymous with those of opera.
21


The changes in American cultural tastes necessitated a new approach to musical
theater. The average American had become more interested in jazz, radio, and
the latest dances. Plot started to play a more important part of musical theater,
and song lyrics became more integral to the story line. The works of Victor
Herbert, Sigmund Romberg, and Rudolf Friml had featured an operatic singing
style. In the 1920s, Broadway shows gave way to a more natural and speech-like
way of singing.
22
This necessitated the lowering of vocal range and tessitura. In
musicals of the late 1800s and early 1900s, higher tessitura were composed for
women and men. Consonants were less audible, especially for sopranos, and the
natural vowel sounds required some modification to maintain vocal beauty.
Another important development was the new conception of theater
melody. While Friml, Romberg, and Herbert wrote soaring vocal lines, George
M. Cohan and Irving Berlin composed melodies of diatonic simplicity (utilizing
primarily the pianos white keys in C major). These songs were free of intervallic
leaps with little chromaticism. While this style was prevalent in 19th-century folk
songs, Cohan, Berlin, and other Tin Pan Alley composers constructed their songs
on direct repetition of short melodic motives. Yes Sir, Thats My Baby is


21
Lehmann Engel. Getting Started in the Theater: A Handbook for Breaking into Show Business
(New York, Macmillan, 1975), 85-86.


22
Morales, 41-2.

12
perhaps the best example. This novel style is called riff-songwriting,
23
and many
examples of the riff song survive from this era. Berlins Alexanders Ragtime
Band although not from a musical, has an initial four-note motive repeated
twice, then again three times at a higher pitch. Riff songs could be described as
under-composed, with short, repeated, catchy patterns. Other examples include
George M. Cohans World War I anthem Over There, Vincent Youmans Tea
for Two, and I Wish I Were in Love Again, in which Richard Rodgers repeats
the same riff six times in the opening. In each of these songs, the tessitura lies in
the middle of the voice and imitates speaking.
Berlin, Rodgers, Jerome Kern, and George Gershwin took Herberts cue by
simplifying the melody and developing riff songs influenced by operatic style.
Berlins Cheek to Cheek begins with a riff he borrowed from Chopins A-flat
major Polonaise Op. 53. He repeats the riff, then uses soaring lines similar to
those found in a Herbert or Romberg melody. Gershwins Mine contains
continual riffs as well as chromatic intervals characteristic of operatic melody.
Rodgers Johnny One Note, a belters staple, uses pure riffs interspersed with
gradually larger vocal leaps.
24
Although memorable, riff songs lack vocal power
and deep emotion. A classically trained vocalist has few opportunities to
showcase dynamic and pitch range, or capacity to hold long notes.
25

The development of the microphone, invented in the 1870s and gradually
perfected over ensuing decades, transformed both popular music and musical


23
Grant, 29.


24
Ibid. 30.


25
Ibid.

1S
theater. The microphone gained currency in the 1920s and projection became less
of a necessity. Singing styles became relaxed and more speech-like, lyrics gained
importance, and songs were more often written in keys that centered in the
speaking range, regardless of voice type. The approach to singing became more
personalized, with singers adding variations that reflected their own style.
26

The period from 1927-1966 is considered the golden age of the Broadway
musical and saw the heyday of some of the greatest singing actors. Jazz
improvisation and a personalized song style influenced theater songwriting.
27

Ethel Merman was the iconic belter of this era, recognizable by her personalized
style. Critics often described her belting style as brassy. Mermans chest voice
was highly unusual in not being dusky but rather bright and almost a spinto
soprano in timbre in a word, brassy.
28

She made her Broadway debut in 1930 with Gershwins Girl Crazy, and
became an overnight sensation. She is credited with single-handedly making
belting style legitimate during her 40-year singing career. In 1970, Walter Kerr
called her voice exactly as trumpet-clean, exactly as pennywhistle-piercing,
exactly as Wurlitzer wonderful as it always was.
29

The golden age of Broadway musicals paralleled the rise of the great
signature pop song stylists. During the Big Band Era of the 1930s-1950s, singers
who sang with the top bands gained celebrity status. This era represents the


26
Lebon, Ph.D. diss., 10.


27
Grant. 44.


28
Ibid. 38.


29
Brian Kellow, Ethel Merman: A Life (New York: Viking, 2007), 223.

14
fusion of European-American and African-American elements in music. In the
past 30 years, musical theater has become the repository for every popular music
style on the market.
30
Shows such as Mamma Mia!, Movin Out, The Look of Love,
and American Idiot are straightforward revues of the music of ABBA, Billy Joel,
Burt Bacharach, and Green Day respectively. Many pop singers have graced the
Broadway stage in the past 40 years, including Sting (The Last Ship); Adam Pascal
(Rent, Aida, Cabaret); Reba McIntyre (Annie Get Your Gun); Carly Rae Jepsen
(Cinderella); Elton John (Composer of The Lion King, Aida, Billy Elliott: The
Musical); U2 (Spiderman: Turn Off the Dark); Tommy Shaw of STYX and Kevin
Cronin of REO Speedwagon (both appearing in Rock of Ages). During this time,
virtually no opera singers had crossed over to the Broadway stage.
Rock singing may be described as modern day bel canto. In the mid-
nineteenth century the school of bel canto became the measuring stick of vocal
technique. Likewise, rock singing which emphasizes improvisatory
ornamentation and the delivery of broad strokes of emotion, and places the main
focus on vocal style draws attention away from the plot of the song. This is a
pivotal development in the history of singing. The rock singing in Rent is as
important as the bel canto singing in La Sonnambula. Rock-style singing draws
attention to the singer and away from the character. Both rock singing and bel
canto have this in common. The performers emotion can become prefabricated,
taking the specificity out of the dramaturgy.
31

Musicals with psychological complexity, such as those of Stephen
Sondheim, require the singer to subordinate their personal style to the demands


30
Grant. 45.


31
Ibid. 46.
1S
of the music. Megamusicals, such as Andrew Lloyd Webbers the Phantom of the
Opera, or Claude-Michele Schnbergs Les Misrables and Miss Saigon, marry
memorable melodies with a contemporary pop sound. Body microphones have
made it possible for voices to compete with the amplified instruments of a rock
band or a large pit orchestra, in a 3,000-seat hall, ensuring preservation of the
vast musical theater repertoire of the past. Singing in musical theater can be
distinguished from other popular music idioms in that the singer typically does
not perform directly on microphone. There have been many shifts in style from
the origins of musical theater to the present. Belting has changed from the coon
shouters of the early 20
th
century, to the riff songs of the 1920s, to the soaring
lines of today, and every popular music idiom in between.
16
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

These authois anu voice teacheis weie chosen foi liteiatuie ieview in this
stuuy because they aie expeits in the ait of belting anu my own teaching has been
influenceu by theii wiitings.

Rachel Lebon
Rachel Lebon is Professor of Jazz Vocal Performance at the University of
Miami. She has written two books: The Professional Vocalist and The Versatile
Vocalist. Her Ph.D. thesis is entitled The Effects of a Pedagogical Approach
Incorporating Videotaped Demonstrations on the Development of Female
Vocalists Belted Vocal Technique. All three publications are excellent
resources for information about belting and contemporary styles of singing.
Chapter 3 of Lebons dissertation is organized like a classical vocal pedagogy
text. She examines aspects of registration, resonance, respiration, attack in
phonation, and articulation. Lebon is an advocate for the exercise and use of the
entire vocal range, including falsetto for men, and whistle register for women.
Vennard describes these as the unused registers. Blend and equalize the registers
to avoid fragmentation of the registers, where one extreme of timbre and
dynamic is altered abruptly to the other extreme. Negotiate passaggio in a covered
rather than an open manner.
Many students and performers of the mass music idioms believe head
voice is not a useful tool for development. Lebon advocates for integration of
17
head voice or mixed voice into the singers speaking range. No integration
results in an uneven development of the registers. Developing the unused
register builds strength, flexibility, facilitates equalization of the voice, and helps
vocal preservation.
Lebon also notes that the manner in which a singer uses chest voice is
significant. Much popular music emanates from the speaking or modal register.
She makes a distinction between chest voice and modal register, as head voice
resonance and tone focus can be used in modal register. Modal register is used
most frequently in speech and singing in most languages. Chest voice, however,
excludes head resonance. Lebon believes a good belt voice will coordinate with
head voice and mixed voice, rather than a chest voice that is too heavily
produced and without resonance.
Those belters with longevity, such as Barbra Streisand, Melissa
Manchester, Ethel Merman, and Linda Ronstadt, use more head and mixed voice
in their coordination. Having a well-supported, equalized, and resonant
speaking voice will help the singer transfer this type of balance in singing that
proceeds from the speaking range.
Using covered voice as a method to blend and smooth transitions between
registers is fundamental to a good vocal technique. Singing with a covered voice
is a beneficial way to counteract the exertion required of the vocalis muscle when
belting. In covered voice, the soft palate is arched and the larynx is lowered.
Moreover, the vocal cords do not lengthen as the pitch rises, and are shorter,
thinner, and more relaxed. Covered voice, or voce piena in testa, means the proper
acoustical space and balance with a relaxed tongue to navigate the passaggio.
18
Covered voice is very similar to belt voice, except in belting the vowel is not
darkened.
Successful belters will direct resonance sensations away from the throat
and aim these sensations toward the teeth and head cavities. Lebon considers it a
fundamental dimension of vocal efficiency. This strategy also helps to relieve the
natural tension in the throat and neck experienced during belting. The palate
should be arched, although not as extremely as in classical singing, to prevent a
twang or other constricted voice quality.
It has been shown since Lebon wrote her dissertation that the larynx is
slightly raised when belting, but this is in comparison to the lower position of the
larynx for classical singing. A neutral larynx may prove better for belting, as
some singers may press to try to raise the larynx. Release the larynx when
inhaling. Not releasing will cause vocal fatigue. This allows for a moment of rest
between phrases.
There has also been some research involving the Closed Quotient (CQ) of
the vocal folds during belting. Vocal folds produce sound by oscillation, and the
vocal folds are more closed up to 70 percent closed thus producing less
oscillation and less airflow. Lebon effectively addresses this in her discussion of
respiration and intensity. She believes the voice should be efficiently produced,
regardless of idiom, and she provides teaching strategies to solve problems
associated with inefficient belt technique.
Lebon devotes only 15 pages of her book The Professional Vocalist to
belting. However, the book is a good resource for any classical voice teacher with
questions about teaching any of the CCM idioms. Much of the section on musical
theater is devoted to arriving at a definition of belting. She defines it as vocal
19
production that proceeds out of the speaking range, with the prosody of speech,
and promotes a sense of spontaneity and aggressiveness.
32
She prescribes
spoken exercises to teach inflection and projection, but no vocalises. She does not
address the physiological aspects of belting.
In Lebons last publication, The Versatile Vocalist: Singing Authentically in
Contrasting Styles and Idioms, she mentions belting only twice. This book contains
information on popular singing styles, voice use with microphone, and singing
in ensembles.
Conclusions: This author asserts that physiological function in belting is a
very important aspect for developing technique. Belting feels different, as there is
more physical exertion. The discussion of covered voice as a possibility to access
belting is interesting, but somewhat confusing. Covered voice emanates from a
more vertical timbre, while belting is more horizontal. Vocalises addressing these
issues could provide more clarity.

Karen S. Hall
Karen S. Hall
33
maintains a private voice studio: Songwerks in Santa Fe,
N.M. She is associate editor for the Journal of Singing for the Independent
Teacher column. This summer Scarecrow Press will publish her book, So You
Want to Sing Music Theater. This book is based on research completed for her
dissertation, Music Theater Vocal Pedagogy and Styles: An Introductory
Teaching Guide for Experienced Classical Singing Teachers. Hall chose to focus


32
Lebon, The Professional Vocalist, 112.


33
Dr. Karen S. Hall and I taught together briefly at Mahidol University in Bangkok,
Thailand in the summer of 2010.
2u
on experienced classical singing teachers because they have a developed set of
teaching skills. A classical singing teachers ability to use observation to detect
tension in a singers voice and body is one of the critical skills, Hall says. One of
the biggest challenges for musical theater singing teachers is helping their
students sing with functional freedom. Note that functional freedom does not
mean singing without tension. Especially helpful is a chart that details stylistic
and pedagogical differences between classical and musical theater singing on
pages 132 and 133. Also helpful are examples of the character physical types
found in musical theater and on page 134 gives an example role for each type.
Hall explains that classical and musical theater students both learn
abdominal breathing. Musical theater students will have had varying degrees of
dance training. Dancers are trained to pull in the abdominal muscles to create a
strong core in the body. This causes high intake of air into the lungs, resulting in
clavicular breathing. Teach these students to release the lower abdominals on the
intake of air.
34

She also notes that less airflow is used during belt singing, as the closed
phase of the glottis is longer. She recognizes that voices have different weights,
colors, and ranges. This knowledge informs her technique for belting: the lighter
the voice, the lighter the belt. Hall notes that more airflow is present in lighter
voices while belting.
She believes that posture is essentially the same in classical singing and
musical theater singing. It is vitally important that the head and neck be free of
tension. Head position may be different in musical theater. In belting, the larynx


34
Hall, 136.

21
rises and the singer may tilt the head upward to accommodate this laryngeal
position. In classical singing, the female singer tilts her head upward in whistle
tone.
35
Whistle register is the highest phonational register. Vibration of the vocal
folds occurs only in the anterior portions. The epiglottis closes over the larynx
and the resonating chamber assumes its smallest dimensions.
36

Hall describes the use of chest and head registers as the defining
difference between musical theater and classical singing. Female musical theater
singing requires more use of chest register, especially in the middle voice.
Classical singing almost exclusively uses head voice in this tessitura.
She also stresses that mixed voice has a very different meaning in musical
theater singing, compared to voix mixte in classical singing. Musical theater
mixed register, she explains, is a blend of head and chest registers with a
predominance of chest register, while the head register predominates in classical
singing voix mixte.
37
She also notes that perceptual results will be different
depending on the weight of the voice. She recommends belting only on occasion
and to emphasize dramatic parts in the music or story line. The healthy balance
uses more mixed voice and belt voice for emphasis. However some singers
successfully use more belt voice than mixed. This is an area for further study by
voice scientists. Most musical theater singers will use more head voice as they
ascend in range, but rarely as much head voice as a classical singer.
38



35
Ibid.


36
McKinney.


37
Hall. 138.


38
Ibid. 139.

22
Musical theater singers favor a brighter, more speech-like approach to
resonance. The vowel shape is altered to a more forward, but not nasal
placement. The shape of the mouth is horizontal in musical theater singing and
vertical in classical singing. The pharyngeal shape resembles speech, in musical
theater singing, rather than stretched for classical singing. The text or style of a
musical theater song determines the type of resonance.
The range is also lower for both men and women in most musical theater
pieces. In some of the literature for men, the range is actually higher than in
classical singing and encompasses the tenor, baritone, and bari-tenor tessitura.
Contemporary composers often look for non-classical sounds in the high range,
such as falsetto and belt.
39
Much of the tessitura is written in the middle range,
facilitating clear enunciation of the text. Dynamics also need to be developed
throughout the entire range from pianissimo to fortissimo.
Many styles of singing are associated with musical theater, including
country, folk, gospel, jazz/swing, pop, rock, and R&B. Hall gives the definitions
of these styles and describes them in their purest form. These sub-genres are not
musical theater forms; rather, musical theater has adapted them. The teacher
must listen to and understand these styles of singing in their original form. Hall
gives examples of musicals that represent these styles.
Hall draws on the commonalities (use of register, posture, breathing)
between musical theater and classical singing as the basis for pedagogy, and
points out the areas of difference (use of larynx, pharynx, and articulators). She
stresses that experimentation and creativity with technique and styles is a must,


39
Ibid. 141.

2S
just as much as continual study and knowledge of the current and rapidly
changing repertoire.
40

Conclusions: Halls discussion of whistle register is somewhat outdated
and does not account for current research in this area. Although the parallel she
draws between the head positions for belting and whistle register are interesting.
There is also a parallel in the function of the epiglottis between whistle register
and belting. As the epiglottis closes over the larynx, it is difficult to film the
action of the vocal folds.

Robert Edwin
Robert Edwin maintains a private voice studio in Cinnaminson, N.J. His
column The Bach to Rock Connection (1985-2002) was the first column in the
NATS Bulletin (which became the NATS Journal of Singing), to address CCM or
non-classical vocal pedagogy. He also served as associate editor of the Journal of
Singing for the Popular Song and Music Theater column. He is also a member
of the prestigious American Academy of Teachers of Singing, elected in 2001.
Edwin advocates for college and university vocal pedagogy programs to
include CCM voice technique and repertoire in the syllabus. College and
university musical theater continues to be heavily populated with classical
singers, as it is commonly believed that If you learn to sing classically, you can
sing anything.
41
Edwin disputes this idea by drawing a sports analogy: if you


40
Ibid. 152.


41
Robert Edwin, Popular Song and Music Theater: Contemporary Music Theater:
Louder Than Words, Journal of Singing, 61:3 January/February 2005, 291-292.

24
can learn to play tennis, you can play any sport.
42
Edwin urges less disparity
between CCM and classical singing, in pedagogy and repertoire.
Edwin states that by singing with less vocal intensity, the student cannot
master non-classical singing styles. The student will find measurable differences
in vibrato, mouth positions, and loudness levels between classical and non-
classical vocalizations. He advises that when preparing to cross over into non-
classical singing, a singer might develop a non-classical vocal technique so as to
sing that new style spontaneously and naturally. Many classical singers do not
allow themselves to experiment with these new sounds.
Another important point Edwin makes is about the use of microphones by
classical singers. Classical singers should not decrease their sound when using a
microphone for non-classical singing, he argues, or they will hold back their
emotions as well.
43
Many classical singers discover that they need to acquire new
communication skills with a different emotional base when crossing over to non-
classical singing. Style is more that just sound. Vocal technique, characterization,
use of language, point of view, traditional expectations of the audience, and the
desire to tell a story honestly and entertainingly: these all inform style.
44

In Edwins strong opinion, teaching non-classical vocal technique requires
commitment and scholarship. Teachers of non-classical singers should immerse
themselves in the music, the literature, and the culture of non-classical genres
just as teachers of classical singing commit to a full understanding of classical


42
Ibid.


43
Robert Edwin, From Classical to Pop: A Case Study, Journal of Singing 56:3 January
2000, 72.


44
Ibid.

2S
music. If teachers are not willing to commit to the scholarship necessary to teach
non-classical singing, he says, they should not try to teach it. A teacher imposing
classical vocal technique by using low larynx, long mouth, and full vowels can
harm belters. He advises not to demonstrate non-classical singing for their
students unless they are able to do so in a professional manner.
45

Edwin classifies vocal categories for Broadway as: traditional legit,
contemporary legit, traditional belt, and contemporary belt. Legit is shorthand
for legitimate, referring to singing in a classical-like style. In traditional legit, the
vocal tone will have a chiaroscuro fullness, the vowels and consonants will have
clarity of sound that is more sung than spoken, and the vibrato will be active
throughout the phrases. Chiaroscuro in Italian literally means light-dark. Used in
the Italian singing technique known as bel canto, it incorporates vocal brilliance
(chiaro) with a dark timbre or color (oscuro).
46
Traditional legit favors a sound that
is classical in nature and is heard in many of the pre-1960s musicals, such as
Carousel. Contemporary legit is less formal and more speech-like in sound, and
will include pop or rock-influenced sounds.
47
Traditional belt predates rock and
roll and is sung with a fuller tone quality. It has minimum use of vocal
ornaments, as in Anything Goes. Contemporary belt makes full use of vocal
ornaments (melismatic runs, growls, slides) associated with pop, rock, R&B, jazz,
and gospel. Contemporary belt appears prominently in The Whos rock opera,


45
This is summarized from the following article: Robert Edwin, The Bach to Rock
Connection: Apples and Oranges: Belting Revisited, Journal of Singing 57:2 November 2000 44.


46
Daniel Orama, The School of Singing, [website]
http://www.theschoolofsinging.com/chiaroscuro/ Accessed July 20, 2014.


47
Robert Edwin. A Broader Broadway, Journal of Singing 59:5 May 2003 431.

26
Tommy. Voice qualities can be breathy, raspy, whiny, and nasal. Belt ranges are
extremely high for both men and women.
Edwin challenges teachers to identify and understand the vocal styles
used in musicals and then provide the vocal technique, performance skills, and
repertoire to help their students be successful in the style they wish to sing. One-
size-fits-all vocal training, he warns, is not conducive to helping singers become
more diverse.
The supply of singing teachers is not keeping up with the demand of the
CCM vocal community. Many singers do not receive assistance with CCM
technique and repertoire from their private and independent teachers.
48
Edwin
urges voice teachers to have good belting sounds stored in their aural memory.
Belting is not chest voice singing, though it is chest voice dominant. Singers
trying to belt by carrying their chest voice up through the lower passaggio with a
classical vocal posture put a tremendous strain on the vocal mechanism. This is
more common for females than for males. Male belting is closer in vocal function
to male classical singing.
49

Singers need to achieve balance in vocal function to become well-rounded
performers. Cross training is good vocal pedagogy. Edwin relates the story of a
classically trained DMA student who came to him to study principles of belt
voice with the permission of her classical teacher. The agreement was that if the
lessons with Edwin compromised her classical vocal technique in any way the


48
Robert Edwin, Popular Song and Music Theater: Whats Going on on Broadway?,
Journal of Singing 66:1 September 2009, 71.


49
Robert Edwin, The Bach to Rock Connection: Belting 101, Part 2, Journal of Singing,
55:2, November 1998, 61.

27
lessons would end. The opposite happened. The students voice and overall
performance skills improved. Learning how to belt brought more texture,
flexibility, and expression to her classical voice.
50

It is advised not to dismiss belting as categorically unsafe, abusive, or
artistically inferior singing. The professional music world is full of vocally
healthy, critically acclaimed belters, and teachers who teach them. Beltings
negative reputation, Edwin argues, is based on a lack of knowledge of belters,
and of belting technique, physiology, and tradition.
51
The question is no longer
Should belting be considered a legitimate use of the voice? but How can we
most effectively and efficiently teach the belting style of singing?
Edwin advises that just as classical singers listen to their vocal idols like
Luciano Pavarotti, Rene Fleming, Sherrill Milnes, and Lily Pons, the belter-to-be
should acquire belting vocal models such as Christina Aguilera, Tina Turner, Eric
Clapton, Barbra Streisand, Sutton Foster, Linda Eder, Idina Menzel, and Adam
Pascal. He advises that role types be physically and emotionally similar to the
size of the singers own instrument He further recommends exploring the new
sound of belting under the guidance of a voice teacher or colleague who can
expertly monitor and inform the singers efforts.
Edwin divides the study of belt voice into three categories: sound, feel,
and look. The sound of belt voice, using a chiaroscuro scale, is very chiaro, using
bright, speech-like, colloquial vowels in contrast to the taller, fuller, more formal


50
Robert Edwin, Popular Song and Music Teacher: Cross Training for the Voice,
Journal of Singing, 65:1, September 2008, 76.


51
Robert Edwin, The Bach to Rock Connection: Belting 101, Journal of Singing, 55:1,
September 1998, 53.

28
vowels of classical singing. Nasality is not a prerequisite for belting, although
some singers will choose to lower the soft palate to introduce nasality to the belt
voice.
As noted before, belted vocal production is not as challenging for male
classical singers, since both male classical singers and male belt singers
(baritones) use a chest-dominant voice to produce their respective sounds. Some
singing teachers state that the only belters are altos and baritones. Female belters
switch registers and are required to use a more thyroarytenoid, chest-dominant
voice versus cricothyroid, head-dominant voice. (Appendix 1.) This is a radical
difference in non-classical female vocal production and often draws the most
negative comments from the classical voice community regarding belting.
52

Modern voice science has shown that most vocal activity is shared muscle
activity, and that the TA and CT muscle groups work together, closing and
stretching, respectively, to produce vocalized sound.
53

For the beginning female belter, the increased TA activity and the longer
closed phase of the vocal folds produces the effect of less air escaping. This
creates a heightened sense of awareness of tension in the body, specifically the
throat. In belting, the vocal adjustment is radical. Edwin (and other teachers such
as Mary Saunders Barton and Joan Melton) have found the best way to introduce
the novice belter to the sound and feel of belting is through the use of the []
vowel, as in the word apple. If during a beginners lesson, belting is produced
in an exaggerated fashion, the twangy, bright [] vowel virtually assures the


52
Robert Edwin, Popular Song and Music Theater: Belt Yourself, Journal of Singing,
60:3, January 2004, 286.


53
Ibid.
29
classically trained singer will use more TA-dominant vocal production. It
discourages the singer from producing full, formal, classical vowels in the TA-
dominant voice, and prevents the singer from introducing a personally familiar
aesthetic beauty of tone. Eventually, other vowels may be introduced,
producing a more balanced, less twangy belt tone. Belt voice will inherently
possess some element of twang. Twang quality can be nasalized or oral
depending on the position of the velopharyngeal port: open or closed. Accessing
this quality helps boost vocal resonance and helps develop the singers formant.
Imitating ducks quacking or cats yowling are great exercises to access and
develop this quality. Belting does have a look: The mouth will be in a horizontal,
narrow position with more teeth showing, especially when ascending in pitch.
Edwin warns new belters that they might tire easily because belting
involves different muscle activity. Beginning sessions on belting should be
limited until the student develops the stamina to deal with the new muscle
activity. Allow for diversity: There is no one belt sound, just as there is no one
classical sound. Vocalize on front vowels in the beginning, as it is easier to keep
them twangy, forward, and bright. Some classical teachers will use the term
healthy belting, actually referring to faux belting or no belting. Chest-voice-
dominant, loud, and high singing can be done in a healthy manner and this is the
type of belting the CCM world wants to hear. Edwin advises beginning belters to
get acquainted with the look, feel, and sound of their own belting through the
use of mirrors and audio/video recording. Early guidance from a trusted teacher
or colleague familiar with belting is essential.
Conclusions: This author asserts that Edwin has much to offer as a leading
pedagogue in belting. However, there is a clear bias in his writings. He discusses
Su
a lack of diversity of technique in many vocal studios. Still, the use of similar
vocalises and technical exercises are important measures of student progress.

Anne Peckham
Anne Peckham is chair of voice for Berklee College of Music and the
author of Elements of Vocal Technique for the Contemporary Singer and Vocal
Workouts for the Contemporary Singer. Peckhams books provide good basic
information for beginning singers, recreational adult singers, and contemporary
singers. They are suitable for beginning voice classes. The information on belting
is perfunctory and serves as an introduction to the style. Peckham uses simple
language in presenting the practical tools and fundamental principles for
singing.
Conclusions: Although focused on the contemporary singer, the book
contains no section on singing technique using a microphone. Contemporary
singers are often reluctant to vocalize due to a lack of understanding of the
purpose of vocal exercises and inability to vocalize independently. Peckhams
books help this type of singer. However, it is recommended they be used with
the guidance of a professional voice teacher.

Jeannette LoVetri
Jeannette LoVetri founded the CCM Vocal Pedagogy Institute at
Shenandoah University in 2003 to address the needs of 21st-century singing and
teaching. CCM has become a multibillion-dollar business and is quickly
becoming the dominant force in musical theater. However, few institutes exist
S1
where the student can learn to sing, teach, and adjudicate CCM singing. The lack
of knowledgeable, experienced teachers of CCM not only creates problems in the
studio setting, but in competitions.
LoVetri stresses the importance of understanding the source of vocal
sound before dealing with issues of the filter. The vocal tract, including its
component parts source and filter is an almost infinitely variable tube,
capable of many resonance possibilities.
54
Without an understanding of the
function of the vocal folds, the student will not understand the actions of the
mouth and articulators (filters). Also essential to the achievement of personal
goals in singing is an understanding of the function of register. Other important
points LoVetri makes in her writings:
The TA and CT muscles are the driving forces of register change.
55

The voice does not have to be restricted to a particular physical coordination.
Change is allowed depending on the style of music.
As long as teachers of singing look for one type of vocal behavior or one type of
production, an impasse concerning CCM styles of singing will continue to exist.
Teachers are advised to be creative and resourceful in acquiring and
implementing new vocal techniques.
56

Classical singing puts more emphasis on resonance than on registration.
This leads to confusion about belting as a quality, and is one reason why many


54
Jeannette LoVetri, Contemporary Commercial Music: More Than One Way to Use the
Vocal Tract, Journal of Singing, 58:3, January 2002, 249.


55
Jeannette LoVetri. A Conversation with Jeannette LoVetri. interview by Joan
Melton (New York City, 2004), In Singing in Musical Theatre: The Training of Singers and Actors
(New York: Allworth Press, 2007), 47.


56
Ibid. 250.

S2
opera singers are unsuccessful as pop singers. When changing registration, the
singer should be mindful of the vocal musculature and differences in
physiological response. Register qualities cannot all be treated the same. LoVetri
insists that chest-dominant vocal production should feel different from head-
dominant production and that this is not a bad thing.
57
The differences between
registers lie not just in style, but also in physiological processes. Although
changes in breathing, posture, nasality, or resonance will change the sound, the
registration (meaning the function) of the source will not change. LoVetri
emphasizes that this information is vital to any classical teacher wanting to take
on non-classical students.
Conclusions: This author appreciates LoVetris discussion of registration
provides an excellent basis for teaching belting technique. Specific vocalises
would be a helpful addition.

Lisa Popeil
Lisa Popeil is a celebrity voice coach and one of Americas foremost
experts in singing. She is the creator of the Voiceworks Method and the Total
Singer instructional DVD. In her teaching, Popeil has made the conscious choice
to sidestep the terms head voice and chest voice. Instead, she focuses on an
increasing awareness of different sensations in the larynx. A singer can make a
visceral and direct connection with voice registers, she states, by directing
attention to vocal fold thickness, tension, and length.


57
Ibid.
SS
Popeil notes that the singer will find many timbres of belt in musical
theater, and that this sonic diversity can be used as a teaching tool. The different
timbres of belt convey different emotional contexts and characterizations. The
heavy belt can convey age and anger; nasal belt is used for heightened projection
and conviction; twangy belt is penetrating and is used in comedic settings or for
dominating characters; brassy belt (like Ethel Merman) is associated with
confident and mature characters; speech-like belt is used for pleasant, natural,
and sincere characters. Popeil believes style choices in musical theater should be
character-driven rather than based on the singers limitations. The more versatile
performer will thus be better able to express human emotion.
Popeil has found that the biggest challenge for a classical teacher new to
teaching belting is to understand what makes speech-like sound, speech-like.
The sung sound will not have residual sympathetic vibrations in the head. The
belted sound feels as if it is coming straight out of the mouth. CT activity
continues while the TA remains active.
In the September 2007 Journal of Singing column, Popular Song and
Music Theater: The Multiplicity of Belting, Popeil gives good aural examples of
each belt type. These are particularly helpful to the classical teacher. Popeil also
reminds the classical singing teacher that vocal beauty is not the primary goal of
musical theater singing.
In the same column, Popeil lists the qualities that characterize belt
production:
thicker edge of vocal fold; tenser TA muscle;
lack of zippering action in vocal fold opening/closing (more of a clapping
action and high speed quotient);
S4
vocal folds shutting quickly;
a high closed quotient (longer closed phase over 50 percent).
Belting is characterized by an even distribution of amplified harmonics up
to 4 kHz and spectral energy up to 15 kHz.
58
There will be an increased sensation
of breath-holding during the belt, plus heightened activity of jaw and extrinsic
laryngeal muscles, possible pulling forward of the hyoid bone, higher larynx
position (yet with the ability to lift and lower the larynx), a more horizontal
epiglottis, decreasing space in vallecula, and increased sub glottal pressure.
Vallecula is an anatomic term for a space, depression, or furrow. Popeil
refers to the epiglottic vallecula, which is just behind the root of the tongue
between the folds in the throat. It serves as a spit trap to prevent inhalation of
spit during the swallowing reflex.
In Popeils opinion, vocal pedagogues can benefit from analysis of their
preconceived notions of vocal beauty and become more aware of CCM singing
styles. Listening and learning is recommended, rather than painting belting
technique with one broad brush.
59

Conclusions: This author disagrees with Popeils assertion that vocal
beauty is not a primary goal for musical theater singing. Voice teachers want
their students sounding as good and singing as healthily, as possible. This
involves some aspect of vocal beauty.



58
Lisa Popeil, Popular Song and Music Theater: The Multiplicity of Belting, Journal of
Singing, 64:1, September 2007, 80.


S9
Ibid.
SS
Ingo Titze
Ingo Titze, Distinguished Professor of Speech Science and Voice at the
University of Iowa and executive director of the National Center for Voice and
Speech, explains why the larynx is higher in belted singing. In his column,
Voice Research and Technology: Belting and a High Larynx Position,
published in the Journal of Singing in May 2007, Titze states that in belting,
acoustically there is an advantage to having the first formant frequency rise
with pitch.
60
He also stresses that singers who wish to perform in multiple styles
in a healthy manner must strike a healthy balance among those styles.
Titze also found it very likely that singers will seek out certain vocal tract shapes
to reinforce the sound source for a style of singing, but the hypothesis needs
more support, especially in how the pharyngeal and epilaryngeal portions of the
vocal tract change in comparing classical singers with belters.
Conclusions: More theoretical, Dr. Titzes writings detail the anatomy,
physiology, and physics of acoustics. This information is helpful from a teachers
perspective although for beginning students of belting compellingly scientific.


60
Ingo Titze, Voice Research and Technology: Belting and a High Larynx Position,
Journal of Voice 63:5, May 2007, 557.
S6
CHAPTER 3
APPLICATION IN THE VOICE STUDIO
Back to Basics
Although the following information may be considered basic to an
advanced teacher or singer, but it is essential to start with the basics. This
information is an amalgamation of many pedagogies, including my own
creations. These exercises and training methods are employed regularly in my
own studio teaching.

First Steps
With the changing face of voice teaching in the 21st century, it is
imperative for voice teachers to seek to understand the distinctive characteristics
of excellent theater singing.
61
It is paramount to develop both chest and head
registers completely so that they possess equal vigor. By bringing parity to the
two registers, one fosters mixed voice. Once able to sustain a mixed voice at a
mezzoforte dynamic, the singer may advance to belt voice training. When
embarking on this training please note that vowel modification is radically
different for classical singers and belters. Classical singers modify vowels by
lengthening the space in the mouth (long, tall vowels). Belters modify by
widening that space. (Figures 4-9.) It is difficult to advance mixed or belt voice
training using the classical singing standard. Belters with longevity have voices


61
Julie E. Balog, Popular Song and Music Theater: A Guide to Evaluating Music Theater
Singing for the Classical Teacher, Journal of Voice 61, no. 4 (March 2005), 404.
S7
that are well developed across the full vocal range, including chest, mixed, and
head voice.

Breath and Alignment
Breath provides the power to create vocal sound. Developing an efficient
breath management system is key to sustainable vocal technique. Kinesthetic
awareness is crucial to the resolution of various alignment issues singers face.
Mismanagement of breath can create too much or too little subglottic pressure
and create muscular tensions, producing inadequate tone, and, in worst cases,
vocal pathologies. Concepts of alignment and breath should be taught from a
solid knowledge basis in anatomy. Using movement to release physical tension is
useful, but it is important for singers to be able to access freedom of movement
on their own.
Musical theater is a physically demanding art form, requiring singers to
perform lying down, dancing, and bent over while singing. Full body awareness
and optimal function are essential. Singers are required to dance and freely move
about the stage. Flexibility and grace is essential for healthy breath/vibration
coordination. Singers face many breath management challenges because of
advanced stage movement and heightened emotional states required.
A balanced, flexible approach to posture provides a sense of physical
freedom and can lead to more flexibility and clarity in the voice. Exercises such
as circular arm swinging while rising on the toes, or the rag doll exercise are
useful to establish a buoyant feeling while singing. In the rag doll exercise, the
S8
torso becomes limp and moves around as if attached to a string, thus avoiding
rigidity and stiffness.
Belted vocal production is easier to achieve while maintaining an engaged
posture. Noble posture for singing consisting of a lifted sternum and expanded
rib cage. This allows for strong yet flexible interactions between the upper chest,
intercostals, and abdominal muscles. Another example of an engaged posture is
spreading the arms when approaching a high note. This also allows for flexible
interactions between the large muscle groups listed above and counterbalances
gravitys effects. This can be an important tool to achieve a clean, grounded belt
sound.
Movement studies such as Alexander Technique can be helpful for
correcting habitual poor posture, while more specifically addressing balance of
the head on the Atlanto-Occipital (A-O) Joint. When belting, the head tends to jut
out, contracting numerous neck muscles resulting in constricted tone and
discomfort. Singers sometimes tuck the jaw down to achieve the feeling of an
open throat. Practical experience involving the optimal function of the A-O Joint
allows singers to free their neck and laryngeal muscles by slightly tilting the
head up. Unaddressed alignment issues can become significant in an eight-
performances-per-week schedule of the musical theater performer. (Figure 3)
S9


Figure 3: The Atlanto-Occipital Joint, Henry Gray, Anatomy: Descriptive and
Surgical, 20th ed. (Grammercy Books, New York, 1918): Figure 305. The 20th
edition of Grays Anatomy is available in public domain in the USA.



This author asserts that flexible and elastic balance between inhalatory
and exhalatory muscles of the ribcage and abdomen, or balanced breathing is
optimal for belting. The singer achieves finer control via muscular antagonism
4u
over the exhalation process. The inhalation muscles (diaphragm, external
intercostals, pectoralis major, sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, serratus anterior,
serratus posterior superior, and latissimus dorsi) stay active in order to delay the
action of the exhalation muscles (rectus abdominus, external oblique, internal
oblique, and transverse abdominus). Balanced breathing technique avoids the
feeling of holding the breath in, which creates unnecessary muscular tension.
Richard Miller analyzed this as follows:
Neither physical exertion nor excessive energy produces
skillful singing. However, beginning singers of all ages
tend to use energy levels befitting folk-like [singing].
The normal breath cycle appropriate to speech is not
identical to that required for singingthe tasks of
skillful singing require higher rates of breath energy
Elongation of the breath cycle for singing is dependent
on a learned techniqueappoggiothat results from
the thorax and the abdominal wall [the tranverse
abdominus, the internal oblique, the external oblique,
and to a lesser extent, the rectus abdominus.
62


Body mapping, the study of brain maps or the conception of the structure,
function, and size of our own bodies and how that conception affects the use of
our bodies,
63
may be a useful tool for students unaware of the location of these
muscles. Balanced breathing avoids the collapse of the ribcage and high position
of the diaphragm and is essential for healthy vocal function in all styles of
singing.



62
Richard Miller, Training Soprano Voices, London: Oxford University Press, 2000: 36.


63
Amy Likar, Musicians as Movers: Body Mapping and the Alexander Technique for
Musicians and Music Educators [website] available from http://bodymap.org/main/?p=301
Accessed June 10, 2014.

41
Vocalises for Belting
Healthy belting requires smooth transitions between the registers. Specific
vocalises train muscle memory and strength for mixed voice and belted
production.

1. Calling-Voice Exercise
The first example is a calling-voice exercise, engaging the upper head
register, as though calling to someone about 20 feet away. Calling-voice exercises
produce a bright, clear tone at a high pitch level. Vowels such as [] and [i] (as in
the word taxi) are most effective. Singers might experience a buzzy
sensation in the cheekbones, lips, molars or even behind the nose.

2. Siren Exercise
Exercises resembling the sound of sirens, as in a police car or ambulance
are especially effective for developing the high belt sound required in a song like
Fly, Fly Away from Catch Me If You Can, or Defying Gravity from Wicked. A
siren utilizes the complete spectrum of an individuals vocal range. These
exercises are effective in teaching all singers, but are especially suited to giving
lighter classical soprano voices better access to the belt. The siren exercise helps
to smooth the transition between registers. If, initially, the sirens are too stressful
if for example you experience excessive cracking (which is tiring and abusive to
the voice), try singing cross-register scales on a lip buzz or tongue trill. (Figure 4)


42

Figure 4: Siren Exercise.



3. Cross-Register Arpeggios
Also essential are cross-register arpeggios that leap over breaks rather
than pass directly through them. Extending overlap between the registers is
important to cricothyroid-dominant production throughout the range.
Establishing mixed voice is easier in the lower part of register overlap. (Figure 5)




Figure 5: Cross-register arpeggios.



4. Messa di voce exercise
Messa di voce exercises are excellent for exploration of the transitions
between the different timbres required for musical theater singing. Choose one
note in an easy, conversational register on the vowel [] or [i], beginning with a
Voice
Glissando
Head Speech
Head Speech
Speech
Head
Speech Head
Head Speech Head
Vocalize Belt
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4S
soft, balanced onset and increasing volume, with the apex of the crescendo
becoming a belted vocal production. (Figure 6)




Figure 6: Messa di voce Exercise.



Pay special attention to breath management. The use of a resistance band can
help counteract this: The student pulls the two ends of the band apart during the
crescendo, but not so much that the band gets thin and rigid, thus helping the
student physicalize and visualize the transverse and oblique action of the
intercostals required for smooth vocal transitions. This extends the range of the
belt voice and ensures vocal health.

5. Vocal tudes from repertoire
Inventing vocal tudes from the singers selected repertoire is an effective
tool when approaching a vocal challenge, especially if the singers repertoire
moves back and forth between belted and operatic vocal production such as
selections from Wicked. This allows the singer to understand the technical
demands of both the belt and operatic voice. Using fragments as tudes helps
avoid unnecessary tensions associated with learning new repertoire.
Sing


Voice 2
44
Mouth, Head, and Jaw Position for Belting
The difference in mouth position, between classical singing and belting, is
noteworthy. (Figures 7 through 12.) Experimentation is vital, as relatively little
pedagogical study has been devoted to mouth position. Familiarity with and
ability to model the technique allows beginning belters to benefit from good
aural examples.
Classical singers are trained to use the inside smile which raises the soft
palate. Belters need to actually smile. The horizontal mouth shape brings the
resonance forward, which is a necessary for belting A suggested rectangular
shape, even to the back of the pharynx, provides the edginess required of a
belted sound.
In Figures 7 and through 12, note the clear contrast between the classical
and belting postures, head positions, facial expressions, and mouth position.
When belting, the head is positioned higher, the eyebrows are not raised, and the
mouth is clearly in a horizontal position.




Figure 7: The author demonstrating a classical mouth position, taken by Brian
Kastens with Nikon D-60. July 21, 2014. Photography Copyright Release in
Appendix C.

4S



Figure 8: The author demonstrating a belting mouth position, taken by Brian
Kastens with Nikon D-60. July 21, 2014. Photography Copyright Release in
Appendix C.




Figure 9: The author in profile singing classical style, taken by Brian Kastens with
Nikon D-60. July 21, 2014. Photography Copyright Release in Appendix C.

46




Figure 10: The author in profile, singing belt style, taken by Brian Kastens with
Nikon D-60. July 21, 2014. Photography Copyright Release in Appendix C.



47

Figure 11: The author singing classical style, taken by Brian Kastens with Nikon
D-60. July 21, 2014. Photography Copyright Release in Appendix C.



48

Figure 12: The author singing belting style, taken by Brian Kastens with Nikon
D-60. July 21, 2014. Photography Copyright Release in Appendix C.



Twang Resonance
Narrowing the aryepiglottic folds (Figure 13) creates twang resonance,
which amplifies the resonances at about 3 kHz, also known as the singers
formant. The throat should not feel constricted. Constricted twang will likely feel
brittle or stuck. The bridge of the nose and area above the upper lip are focus
points are optimal twang resonance.
49

Figure 13: The aryepiglottic fold, Henry Gray, Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical,
20th ed. (Grammercy Books, New York, 1918): Figure 953. The 20th edition of
Grays Anatomy is available in public domain in the USA.



Methodology for Specific Repertoire
Ten songs have been selected in order to provide detailed teaching
strategies for a young beginning to more advanced students of belting. This
author charted where to use belt or other types of registration in Tables 1
Su
through 10. Appendix B contains a list of representative videos for these
selections. Appendix C contains the references for the source scores used for
study.
1. Roxie, from Chicago
This song is recommended for the beginning student, as its range is not
extensive and the belted parts are not extremely high, even though the role as
whole is challenging when one considers the acting, dancing, and singing
requirements. Although the range is low for a soprano, belt emanates from
speech. A young soprano for whom the range is problematic can speak-sing the
beginning line from mm. 4-8. In mm. 10, the singer will find an opportunity to
introduce mixed voice on the first syllable of rakin. The first chance to belt
comes in mm. 28-30 on the word art. Belted production also comes back at the
end, from mm. 67 beginning with the words And Sophie Tuckerll shit. This
song possesses so much joie de vivre, and thus an uninformed choice would be to
belt the entire piece. Keep in mind, though, that the purpose of belting is to
underscore the drama. The voice teacher has an obligation to young students to
guide them by identifying areas of rest where less vocal intensity is required.
(Table 1)



S1
Table 1: Roxie from Chicago.



2. On the Steps of the Palace, from Into the Woods

On the Steps of the Palace is appropriate for a young, slightly more
advanced singer because of range, tessitura, intervallic leaps, and both rhythmic
and comedic timing required. The intervallic leaps often require a sudden change
of register. Good musicianship, and acting skills are also required. The singer
will use a combination of mixed voice (CT dominant) or head voice (CT
dominant) for a majority of the song. The few opportunities to use belt voice
occur in mm. 63, on the second syllable of the word scary, to mm. 72 on the
word steps, and mm. 105 to mm. 107. In these ending measures, it is important
to keep the CT engaged while belting so that the vocal folds will have the
necessary length. The singer will encounter a few places where the mixed voice
should be sung in CT dominant rather than TA dominant registration, so the
mixed voice will have more emphasis on head rather than chest voice. These
occur in mm. 3-4, mm. 9-21, as an option in mm. 27-29, mm. 30-34, and as an
Measure Range Registration
5-9 A-flat to G Mix (TA dominant)
10 G to D (descending) Belt (TA dominant)
11-28 A-flat to G Mix (TA dominant)
End of 28-30 G (single note) Belt (TA dominant)
End of 30-37 Middle C to A-flat Mix (TA dominant)
42-65 B-flat to A-flat Mix (TA dominant)

S2
option in mm. 47-63. The registration is especially challenging in mm. 39-46
where the singer is required to shift quickly between mixed voice that is TA
dominant and mixed voice that is CT dominant.
(Table 2)

SS
Table 2: On the Steps of the Palace from Into the Woods.





Measure Range Registration
3-4 B to A (ascending) Mix (CT dominant
except, possibly, the lowest
note B)
5-6 E to C-sharp (ascending) Head (CT dominant)
7-8 A octave (descending) Mix (TA dominant)
9-21 C-sharp octave Mix (CT dominant)
22-23 F-sharp to D Head (CT dominant)
24-26 D to B (descending) Mix (TA dominant)
End of 26- 27 (caught) F-sharp to D Head (CT dominant)
End of 27-29 A octave Mix (TA or CT dominant)
End of 30-34 F-natural to C-natural Mix (CT dominant)
End of 35-37 F-sharp to D (ascending) Head (CT dominant)
End of 37-39 A to B (descending 7
th

interval)
Mix (TA dominant)
End of 39-46 D to A (descending) Mix (Using both CT and
TA dominant registration)
End of 47- 63 D octave Mix or Head (CT
dominant)
End of 63 (ry of sca-ry) -
72 (steps)
D to B-flat Mix or Belt (TA dominant)
End of 72 (better)- 77 D to B Head (CT dominant),
possible Chest (TA
dominant) on sion of
collision
End of 77 83 A B-flat (ascending 9
th
) Mix (TA dominant)
84-88 E octave Head (CT dominant)
End of 88-104 A octave Mix (TA dominant)
105-107 E to D Belt (TA dominant, with
CT engaged)
S4
3. Adelaides Lament from Guys and Dolls
Adelaides Lament is appropriate for beginners as the range is limited,
but does require a good sense of comedic timing and the ability to act. Good
musicianship skills are important because the vocal line is often exposed. The
ability to change vocal style between sung and spoken text quickly, as in mm. 8-9
and 29 is important. In the effort to portray having a cold for most of the show, it
is also important not to lose the integrity of the mixed or belt voice. Regular
alternation between mixed and belt voice with TA dominant registration is
recommended. Loesser gives the instruction with sweet meditation in mm. 35,
CT dominant registration is recommended here through mm. 38.
This is one of the greatest character pieces in the repertoire. Scott Simon,
host of the National Public Radio broadcast on the 50
th
-anniversary retrospective,
observed Adelaides Lament is a perfect comic song.
64
Simon interviewed
lyricist Fred Ebb, who provided his take on its appeal:
Heres a girl whos got a cold all through the play and she
says she has a cold cause somebody isnt going to marry
her. Thats a very rich comic notion. And shes got these
hilarious punch lines. You know, if shes getting a kind of
a name for herself and the name aint his; if shes tired of
getting the fish eye from the hotel clerk. Every line in it is
worth something. It means something; has impact. It has
vitality. It has humor and charm and appropriateness.
And I dont know how you can get much better than that.
65


(Table 3)



64
Scott Simon (host). Creation of the musical Guys and Dolls, Weekend Edition Saturday,
National Public Radio, November 25, 2000. [website] Accessed June 22, 2014. Clip 14
http://www.npr.org/programs/weekend-editionsaturday/2000/11/25/13003410/


65
Ibid.
SS
Table 3: Adelaides Lament from Guys and Dolls.



4. Always a Bridesmaid from I Love You, Youre Perfect, Now Change
Another great comic song, Always a Bridesmaid is especially good for
beginning belters whose head voice is relatively undeveloped. The song has a
decided country-western feel. Twang resonance, typical of that style, is very
helpful in strengthening the belt voice. A more advanced belter will appreciate
this song for acting and comedic possibilities. At times it is quite low for a
soprano, with a G-sharp and F-sharp in mm.24 and mm. 25. This is a great
Measures Range Registration
1a-8a A-flat to B-flat (ascending) Mix (TA dominant), top B-
flat could be belted
10a-16a A-flat octave Mix (TA dominant),
possible belt from mm. 14-
16
End of 17a 25a D-flat to C-flat Mix (TA dominant)
End of 25a 27a E-flat to C-flat Belt (TA dominant)
End of 27a 29 D-flat to B-flat Mix (TA dominant)
Repeat: end of 29-9b A-flat to B-flat (ascending) Mix (TA dominant), top B-
flat could be belted
Repeat: 10b-13b A-flat to G natural Mix (TA dominant)
Repeat: end of 13b 16b E-flat to repeated A-flat Belt (TA Dominant)
Repeat: End of 17b 25b D-flat to C-flat Mix (TA dominant)
Repeat: End of 25b 30 D-natural to C-flat Belt (TA dominant)
End of 30-34 D-natural to C- natural Mix (TA dominant)
End of 34 38 E to B-flat Head (CT dominant)
End of 38 40 E to C Belt (TA dominant)
End of 40 48 D to B Mix (TA dominant)
49-51 D to G (descending) Belt (TA dominant)

S6
opportunity for a higher-voiced singer to employ speak-singing. Mostly sung in
TA dominant mixed or belt voice, there is an opportunity to CT dominant head
voice production in mm. 104-111 and 130-135. (Table 4)

S7
Table 4: Always a Bridesmaid from I Love You, Youre Perfect, Now
Change.




Measures Range Registration
4-33 F-sharp to G-sharp (ascending
9
th
)
Mix or Chest (TA
dominant)
34-37 B to G-sharp Belt (TA dominant)
39-43 B to G-sharp Mix (TA dominant)
43-46 G-sharp to C-sharp
(descending)
Belt (TA dominant)
End of 46-49 G-sharp to B (descending) Mix (TA dominant)
50 D-sharp to G-sharp
(ascending perfect 4
th
)
Mix (TA dominant) to
Head (CT dominant); like a
yodel
51-52 D-sharp to G-sharp Mix (TA dominant)
53-55 E to B (descending) Belt (TA Dominant)
End of 55-57 B to G-sharp Mix (TA dominant)
End of 57-59 Approximately D to F-sharp
(descending)
Speech Singing (TA
dominant)
End of 59-70 B to G-sharp Mix (TA dominant)
71-79 C-natural to A Mix (TA dominant)
End of 79-86 C to G Belt (TA dominant); End of
mm. 82 to beginning of
mm. 83 can be speech
singing
88-104 A to C Mix (TA dominant)
End of 104-111 A to F-sharp (descending) Head (CT dominant)
112-115 C to A (ascending) Belt (TA dominant)
End of 115-121 G to C Mix (TA dominant)
122-130 C to B-flat (ascending) Belt (TA dominant)
End of 130-135 A to C (descending) Head (CT dominant)
136-144 A to C (descending) Belt (TA dominant)

S8
5. I Know the Truth from Elton John and Tim Rices Aida
This is appropriate for a young singer comfortable with rhythm and blues
style and improvisation. R & B is sung slightly behind the beat. The
improvisations can be sung in the CCM genre that best suits the voice, such as
gospel or pop/rock, and most improvisations will occur at the end of a vocal line
or with a note substitution. This author recommends the song begin and end
with CT dominant alternation between head and mixed voice, reserving TA
dominant alternation between belt and mixed voice for the middle section. Most
R & B improvisation is recommended for the middle section between mm. 41-47.
The musical is based on Giuseppe Verdis opera of the same name and the
childrens storybook version of the opera written by Leontyne Price. This
character is a powerful and manipulative princess. (Table 5)



Table 5: I Know the Truth from Elton John and Tim Rices Aida
Measures Range Registration
1-15 G to F-sharp Head (CT dominant)
16-28 F-sharp to B (ascending
perfect 11
th
, compound
interval)
Mix (CT dominant)
End of 29-31 B octave Head (CT dominant)
33-39 A to F-sharp Mix (TA dominant)
41-44 B to D (descending) Belt (TA dominant)
45-55 A octave Mix (TA dominant)
56-60 D to E (descending) Belt (TA dominant)
End of 60-63 B octave (ascending) Mix (CT dominant)
64-66 B to G (descending M3) Head (CT dominant)


S9
6. I Got Rhythm from Girl Crazy or Crazy for You
This song is appropriate for an intermediate to advanced belter as the
range is high when sung in Gershwins original key of D-flat major. Any note
that may be too high to belt could be sung in head voice with similar vowel
quality and vibrato rate. There are opportunities for improvisation, based on
Ethel Mermans iconic interpretation of the song, in the repeat from mm. 29b-
44b.
The song has become a jazz standard. Its chord progression, known as
rhythm changes, can be called in any key. The form of the refrain is a 32-bar
AABA. It is commonly performed in B-flat major. (Table 6)



Table 6: I Got Rhythm from Girl Crazy or Crazy for You.


Measures Range Registration
3-26 G to D Mix (CT dominant)
29a-44a F to E-flat Mix (TA dominant)
45a-52a E-natural to G Mix (TA dominant); could
be Belt (TA dominant)
53a-59a F to E-flat Mix (TA dominant)
60a F Head (CT dominant)
End of 60a-62 E-flat to B-flat (descending
P4)
Mix (TA dominant)
Repeat: 29b-36b F to E-flat Belt (TA dominant)
Repeat: 37b-56b F to E-natural Mix (TA Dominant)
Repeat: 57b-60b F octave Belt (TA dominant)
Repeat: End of 60b-63 E-flat to B-flat (descending
P4)
Mix (TA dominant)

6u
7. Look at Me, Im Sandra Dee from Grease
This song is appropriate for the beginning belter as the range not
challenging. There are lots of opportunities to either belt or use speak-singing
(mm. 38-53, 71-78, and the end of mm. 82 to the beginning of mm. 83) if the belt
voice is not fully developed. This is a fun song, but not musically demanding.
The original stage version lyrics reference former teen idol Sal Mineo. He was
stabbed to death one year before 1978 film began production, so the line was
changed to refer to Elvis Presley instead. (Table 7)



Table 7: Look at Me, Im Sandra Dee from Grease.



Measures Range Registration
7-18 A octave Mix (TA dominant)
End of 18-21 E to B Belt (TA dominant)
23-35 A octave Mix (TA dominant)
End of 35-37 G-sharp to B Belt (TA dominant)
38-53 E to B Mix (TA dominant); can be
speech singing
55-66 A octave Mix (TA dominant)
End of 66-70 G to B Belt (TA dominant)
71-78 C to A Mix (TA Dominant); can be
speech singing, text
changed in film version
79-82 B-flat octave Mix (TA dominant)
End of 82-beginning of 83 Approximately G Speech Singing (TA
dominant)
End of 83-89 A to C Belt (TA dominant)

61
8. My New Philosophy from Youre a Good Man, Charlie Brown
This song is appropriate for a young singer with strong musicianship
skills due the exposed nature of the vocal line. A common pitfall to be avoided is
constriction to achieve a child-like sound. The song alternates between mixed
and belt voice TA dominant production and there are several opportunities to
employ speak-singing in mm. 19-23, 49-50, and 53-54. The song appears as a duet
between Sally and Schroeder with a guest appearance by Lucy at the end in the
show. The composer Andrew Lippa, as a solo version for publication, created the
score used for study in this essay. (Table 8)



62
Table 8: My New Philosophy from Youre a Good Man, Charlie Brown.



9. Blow, Gabriel, Blow from Anything Goes
This song is for an intermediate to advanced student with well-established
belt voice as the range is quite high. A charismatic performer with the ability to
command the stage as a singer, actor, and dancer is recommended. The song
begins with speak-singing in mm. 1-8 then regularly alternates between belt and
mixed TA dominant production. Students without well established high belt
technique could sing the highest notes in head voice with similar vowel quality
and vibrato rate. (Table 9)
Measures Range Registration
3-17 B octave Mix (TA dominant)
19-23 Approximately B Speech Singing (TA
dominant)
25-38 D octave Mix (TA dominant)
39-45 B to E-flat Belt (TA dominant)
47-48 E to B-flat Mix (TA dominant)
49-50 Approximately G Speech Singing (TA
dominant)
51-52 E to B Mix (TA dominant)
53-54 Approximately G Speech Singing (TA
dominant)
55-60 C to F-natural Mix (TA dominant)
61-62 C to F-sharp Belt (TA dominant)
66-73 B octave Mix (TA dominant)
78-85 (Short Ending) D octave Belt (TA dominant)
78-84 (optional long
ending)
D octave Belt (TA dominant)
End of 89-91 (optional long
ending)
D octave Belt (TA dominant)

6S
Table 9: Blow, Gabriel, Blow from Anything Goes.



10. On My Own from Les Misrables
This ballad could fall into the overdone category and is recommended
for assignment to an intermediate to advanced student with a well developed
mixed and belt voice. On My Own is straightforward in terms of registration
issues. It is suggested that the young singer begin and end the song in CT
dominant head voice, mm. 7-17 and 51-55. It is recommended the singer be
comfortable with the contemporary pop sound. (Table 10)

Measures Range Registration
1-8 Approximately B Speech Singing (TA
dominant)
End of 8-12 F to C Mix (TA dominant)
13-16 D to G (ascending P4) Belt (TA dominant)
End of 16-24 A octave Mix(TA dominant)
End of 24-37 G to A (ascending 9
th
) Mix (TA dominant)
End of 37-40 C to D (descending) Belt (TA dominant)
End of 40-49 G to A (ascending 9
th
) Mix (TA dominant)
End of 49-56 A to C (ascending 10
th
) Belt (TA Dominant)
End of 56-61 C to A Mix (TA dominant)
End of 61-63 E to A Belt (TA dominant)
64-76 A to C (ascending 10
th
) Belt (TA dominant)
End of 76-88 D to C Mix (TA dominant)
End of 88-100 C to E (ascending 10
th
) Belt (TA dominant)

64
Table 1u: "0n Ny 0wn" fiom "#$ %&$'()*+#$,
Measures Range Registration
7-17 A to B-flat (ascending 9
th
) Mix (CT dominant)
End of 17-18 G to D (descending P4) Belt (TA dominant)
19-25a A octave Mix (TA dominant)
End of 25a-27a G to A (descending 7
th
) Belt (TA dominant)
End of 27a-20b (repeat) A to E Mix (TA dominant)
End of 20b-21b (repeat) A to D Belt (TA dominant)
End of 21b-25b (repeat) A to F-sharp Mix (TA dominant)
End of 25b (repeat)-33 D to B-natural Belt (TA Dominant)
End of 33-35 B-flat to E Mix (TA dominant)
End of 35-37 C octave Belt (TA dominant)
End of 37-43 C to B-flat Mix (TA dominant);
possible crescendo to Belt
(TA dominant) at 41-43
End of 43-51 C octave Belt (TA dominant)
End of 51-55 C to A Head (CT dominant)

6S
CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION
Areas for Further Research
Considerable scientific research remains to be done to better understand
the physiological phenomenon of belting. The term belting applies to such a
wide spectrum of repertoire, which is one reason why the term is confusing for
professionals. Jeannette LoVetri states: it is simply not true that there is one way
to make a belt sound, any more than there is one way to sing a classical
soundeach of these kinds of singing requires a different configuration of the
source and filter, different activities in the articulators, and use of the breath.
66

Quantifiable research is sparse on what is aesthetically acceptable for
nonclassical singing. Some nonclassical sounds are not considered beautiful,
but rather thrilling, intense, dramatic, and realistic.
This author plans to further develop a pedagogy by which symbols could
be used to expand on standard western music notation to include color, timbre
and other features specific to belting and flexibility of style. A variety of such
symbols can be seen in nonwestern music notation (Japanese, Korean, etc.) and
can offer a creative solution to teaching voice.
67

Vocal pedagogues could draw upon common ground between classical
singing and belting, while acknowledging the significant differences in source
filter production while embracing those differences. This author recommends


66
LoVetri, More Than One Way to Use the Vocal Tract, 250-251.


67
Correspondence with Dr. Cynthia Schmidt regarding Non-Western notation methods,
June 27, 2014.
66
that university voice teachers engage to familiarize themselves with the sounds,
styles, techniques and performance practices of belting.
67
APPENDIX A
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Pedagogical
Belting (vocal belting) is a technique of singing by which a singer produces
a very loud sound in the upper-middle part of the vocal range. This range is
sometimes referred to as a vocal register, but that term is a misnomer, as the
larynx itself does not change its oscillation during a belt.
68

Chest voice is one of the terms most consistently misused by voice
professionals. It can mean a vocal register, part of the vocal range, a vocal
resonance area, or a specific vocal timbre.
69
For the purpose of this essay, chest
voice describes singing produced primarily by the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscles
of the larynx, resulting in excessive resonance in the lower formants. The vocal
production may be perceived as heavy. Chest voice is used more regularly and
carried higher through the vocal range in musical theater singing than in classical
singing.
The thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle is a paired intrinsic laryngeal muscle that
makes up the bulk of the vocal fold. Also called the vocalis muscle, it is the
primary muscle for producing the lower pitches of the singing voice.
70
In musical
theater singing, this muscle is used at higher pitches than in classical singing.


68
Karyn OConnor, Sing Wise, [website] http://www.singwise.com/cgi-
bin/main.pl?section=articles&doc=BeltingTechnique Accessed July 19, 2014


69
McKinney.


70
Ibid.
68
Head voice denotes a particular part of the vocal range, type of vocal
register, or a vocal resonance area.
71
The term is used to describe singing
produced primarily by the cricothyroid (CT) muscles of the throat. Head voice
has become common parlance to distinguish the sympathetic vibrations in the
head area felt when singing higher pitches. It is produced in the larynx. Classical
singing is dominated by the use of head voice.
The cricothyroid (CT) muscle is a set of paired intrinsic laryngeal muscles
that are used primarily to control the vocal folds and help the vocal folds to
vibrate by stretching them. In the classical female voice, the vocal production is
head voice (CT) dominant, while much of the singing for the musical theater
female voice is chest voice (TA) dominant. The CT muscle also helps to control
pitch and is therefore used in all singing.
72

Mixed voice is more difficult to define than head and chest voice. However,
it is an important vocal technique for any musical theater singer and is the most
common vocal technique used today. It is a blend between chest and head voice,
and is an important transitional technique between the two. While scant research
exists regarding mixed voice, it employs a combination of both TA and CT
muscles, balanced via vowel and resonance tuning to smooth the transition
between head and chest voice. This concept is controversial, as some voice
specialists regard it as a perceptual phenomenon rather than a physiological


71
Ibid.


72
This definition is drawn from two sources, Karyn OConnor, The Larynx: Structure
and Function: Intrinsic Muscles of the Larynx Singwise [website] available from:
http://www.singwise.com/cgibin/main.pl?section=articles&doc=LarynxStructureAndFunction
&page=2 Accessed 12 October 2012 and Mary Saunders Barton, Bel Canto, Can Belto: Teaching
Women to Sing Music Theater producer Penn State Public Broadcasting, Penn State Media Sales,
2007, DVD video.

69
register. An important factor to consider is vocal cord adduction, which is a
critical variable for register manipulation. The shape of the vocal fold medial
surface must be considered as it becomes more convergent when the singer
moves into head voice. This is due to decreasing contraction of the TA muscle.
73

The larynx is an organ in the neck of amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.
The primary function of the larynx is to protect the trachea from food aspiration.
Breathing and sound production are spandrels. This organ houses the vocal
folds, which are essential for phonation.
74
Sound is generated in the larynx and
that is where pitch and volume are manipulated. The larynx is capable of
movement up and down. As it relates to belting, this movement is the subject of
much scientific investigation. Some scientific data show the larynx assumes a
high position in belting, and is lowered in classical singing.
75

The pharynx is part of both the digestive and respiratory systems and is the
region directly above the larynx, below the velum (soft palate) and posterior to
the oral cavity. It is a flexible tube that can both stretch and constrict. In classical
singing, it is stretched, whereas in musical theater singing, the position can be
slightly lowered.
The vocal folds are a paired system of ligaments in the larynx that oscillate
to produce sound. The vocal folds consist of two wedge-shaped, multi-layered
bundles of muscles with ligamental edges covered by a mucous membrane. The
vocal folds are a complex tensing and relaxing system; they can shorten, contract


73
Boardman. 2.


74
McKinney.


7u
laterally, and vary in length and thickness during vibration. Part of them can
tense while the rest stay relaxed.
76
(Figure 13)
Closed Quotient (CQ) refers to the duration of the closed phase of the
vibratory cycle in which the vocal folds close the glottis. Generally, in classical
(CT) vocal production,
77
the CQ is less than 40 percent. Fifty-two percent is the
marker for chest voice (TD) production while belters can exhibit a CQ as high as
70 percent.
Formants are resonances in the vocal tract. Their frequencies and
amplitudes shape the radiated spectrum. To achieve the best sound, singers
regularly modify the dimensions of the vocal tract, adjusting the resonance
frequencies of the vocal tract to amplify certain harmonics of the voice source.
Resonance strategies are well documented for classical singing; they have not
been systematically studied in belting.
78
(Figure 4)
Singers formant is a prominent cluster of intense acoustic energy
consisting of strong third, fourth, and fifth formants. This cluster results from the
cumulative distribution of upper harmonic partials that is present in the
frequency spectra of trained singing voices only. This formant, which seems to be
independent of the particular vowel and pitch, adds brilliance and carrying
power to the voice.
79




76
Boardman. 2.


77
Generally, belting is a Thyroarytenoid dominant type of vocal production, and
classical singing is a more Cricothyroid dominant type of vocal production.


78
Schutte and Besterbreurtje, 194.


79
OConnor.
71

Figure 14: The larynx, Henry Gray, Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical, 20th ed.
(Grammercy Books, New York, 1918): Figure 959. The 20th edition of Grays
Anatomy is available in public domain in the USA.




72



Repertoire

Ballad is a term used in CCM and describes a song in a slower tempo. All
styles of musical theater repertoire that employ a slow tempo are ballads.
80

Up-tempo is a term used in CCM to describe a song with a fast moving
tempo.
81

Triple threat is a term used in theater to describe someone who can sing,
dance, and act.


80
Lebon. 34. Most musical theater auditions require a singer to come prepared with 16
bars of a ballad and 16 bars of an up-tempo selection to demonstrate vocal and stylistic contrast.
In the past, there was no distinction of genre or style, but that is changing.


81
Ibid.

7S
APPENDIX B
CONTEMPORARY COMMERCIAL MUSIC 1930s - PRESENT
Musical exchange between performers gained importance, as the leading
singers of the time acquired their skill and training by performing with big bands
and listening to each others shows and recordings. Female big band singers of
the time included Billie Holliday, performing with Count Basie and Artie Shaw;
Ella Fitzgerald with Chick Webb and Duke Ellingtion; Sarah Vaughan with Billy
Eckstine; and Peggy Lee with Benny Goodman. Two of the marquee
82
male
performers were Frank Sinatra and Bing Crosby.
Rock and roll, and the emergence of rhythm and blues, dominated the
period from 1950-1960. The term rhythm and blues (R&B) became vernacular
in the 1940s when Billboard magazine used it as a substitution for the term race
records. The use of electric guitars distinguished the idiom. Due to the
amplification and the pervasive dance rhythms, singers of rock and roll and R&B
reverted to an aggressive, shouted delivery. The emphasis was on audience
impact rather than content. B.B. King, Chuck Berry, and Little Richard were the
leading artists in this style and influenced the future British rock invasion.
83

The dance-driven style of R&B was eventually adopted and adapted by
white artists, and became popular with white youth. This style, dominated by
male performers like Bill Haley and Elvis Presley, is rock and roll. Top female
performers during this time including Connie Francis, Patti Page, Rosemary


82
A marquee performer is the main performer in a show, whose name will attract the
most attendance.


83
Lebon, 12.

74
Clooney, and Doris Day sang in an understated style. Not many female R & B
performers gained nationwide prominence, with the exception of Dinah
Washington and Della Reese. Washington and Reese performed with a more
aggressive singing style associated with male R & B performers. Several all-
female groups also performed in this style, including the Crystals, the Ronnettes,
and the Chiffons.
84

Female vocalists from the country-western idiom of the 1950s displayed a
more powerful belted vocal delivery. Tammy Wynette, Patsy Cline, Brenda Lee,
and Loretta Lynn all sang within their speaking range, with regional accents. The
incorporation of vocal cry (a sob-like style) was one important aspect in their
interpretations. The merger of country and R&B produced country rock and
rockabilly, typified by the musical styles of Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, and Jerry
Lee Lewis.
85

Another important vocal development was the arrival of the teen idol: a
crooner with a large teenage fan base. These heartthrobs included Fabian, Bobby
Rydell, Bobby Vee, Paul Anka, and Frankie Avalon. Television became an
important medium for the development of hit tunes. By the early 1960s, the
popularity of the crooner and over-commercialized white performers was
waning, setting the stage for the British Invasion.
86

By 1963, several British groups that claimed influence from African-
American musicians such as Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters became popular in


84
Ibid. 30.


85
Ibid. 31.


86
Ibid.

7S
the USA, including the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, the Kinks, and the Who. The
leading British female vocalists of that time, such as Petula Clark, Lulu, and
Leslie Gore, used a more aggressive, belted approach to singing.
87

By the late 1960s, the sought-after vocal style sought was aggressive
belting. Rock music incorporated stylistic elements from soul, folk, country, and
jazz, resulting in hybrid forms such as jazz-fusion, country rock, and funk.
Leading female artists of this time included Grace Slick, Janis Joplin, Linda
Ronstadt, Helen Reddy, and Olivia Newton-John.
88

Soul is a sub-genre of R&B. Ray Charles and Aretha Franklin contributed
to the secularization of gospel into soul. Motown, the Detroit-based recording
company, was the heartbeat of an entire style that provided the connection
between gospel and popular music. Characteristics of the soul vocal style include
slurring into the beginning of the vocal line; improvisations and ornamentations
of words; wide vibrato; and the use of falsetto, growls, screams, wails, and
shouts.
89

The 1970s also brought more sophisticated studio equipment, plus the
development and refinement of electronic drums, keyboards, and synthesizers.
Notable artists of that era include Donna Summer, a belter, and Steven Tyler of
Aerosmith, also known as the Demon of Screamin.
The 1980s continued the high-level wave of vocal exertion. Popular male
belting artists such as Steve Perry of Journey and Lou Gramm of Foreigner had


87
Ibid.


88
Ibid.


89
Ibid.

76
high, edgy voices. Their exploration of chest voice belted to their highest limits
was an inspired progression from the high falsetto singing of the Bee Gees.
Female belters of this era included Irene Cara, Juice Newton, Laura Branigan,
and Pat Benatar.
90



90
Ibid.

77
APPENDIX C
REPRESENTATIVE VIDEOGRAPHY

When this author was first asked to teach musical theater and belting
years ago, there were few pedagogical resources. The belting technique was self-
taught. Observation of live performances and videos were an important resource
for the author to acquire the necessary techniques.

1. Roxie from Chicago performed by Renee Zellweger

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J-_HTUapDQo

Summary: Observe how Renee Zellweger uses the resonance of her
natural speaking voice to her advantage with very little visible tension. Note the
use of TA dominant belt at the end on Sophie Tuckerll shit, I know.
Renee Zellweger had not studied voice before appearing in the film
version of Chicago. In his interview for Playbill, Andew Gans asked:
What was your musical background? Had you
done musicals in high school or college?
RZ: I tried out for Hair in college, and I watched
Hair from the audience and enjoyed it very much . . .
I sang in the shower a lot, and my brother told me
to shut up a lot, and I sang a couple of notes in
"Empire Records." I played a girl who wants to be
a singer but who's too scared to sing and can't really
sing, so there's that. And, then, of course, there were
a couple of fabulous vocal moments in "Bridget Jones."

Q: Did you study voice at all for the film?
RZ: Yeah, we had class. I didn't know how to sing
properly. I didn't know how to enunciate. I thought
singing was hitting the tunes . . . I didn't understand
about the silent breath, the diaphragm. I didn't understand
about enunciating and elongating your words, and I
78
didn't know how to breathe properly and how to protect
your vocal chords. I didn't know, so I learned. And, I
didn't know the songs [laughs], and that's kind of a
problem, so I had to become familiar with that. And that
was all part of singing class at the Rob Marshall School of
"Chicago" in Toronto.
91


2. On the Steps of the Palace from Into the Woods performed by Kim Crosby

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4NV_Cd3csTA

Summary: Notice Kim Crosbys lovely mixed voice quality (CT dominant)
in the opening sung measures. Crosby uses this quality to move easily into her
head voice for the higher pitches. Also employing the natural resonance of her
speaking voice for dramatic or comedic effect.
Into the Woods has been produced many times since its premiere in San
Diego in 1986. The musical intertwines several Brothers Grimm Fairytales and
follows them to explore the characters wishes and quests. It has also been
adapted to a junior version suitable for schools with the entire 2
nd
act removed,
allowing it to fit into a 60- to 80-minute performance time versus the original 3
hours. The song keys are also transposed to be more suitable for young voices.

3. Adelaides Lament from Guys and Dolls performed by Vivian Blaine

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ovsb8_vjWLE&feature=kp
Summary: Vivian Blaine uses forward placement while keeping the naso-
pharyngeal port closed. The soft palate is highly placed. Mostly sung in mixed


91
Andrew Gans, Diva Talk: A Chat with Renee Zellweger, the Hart of Chicago, plus
Diva News, Playbill [website] http://www.playbill.com/celebritybuzz/article/77137-DIVA-
TALK-A-Chat-with-Rene-Zellweger-the-Hart-of-Chicago-PLUS-Diva-News Accessed July 27,
2014.
79
voice that is either TA or CT dominant until the last page where she employs TA
dominant belt voice.
The role of Adelaide was specifically created for Vivian Blaine after she
was not chosen to portray Sarah Brown. The ability to do a dialect could be
helpful as well, dependant upon directors choice. Its a great piece for anyone
beginning to belt; on the other hand, the character should be cast a bit older for
the show, since Adelaide has been engaged to Nathan Detroit for 15 years. This
show is also popular among high school musical directors.

4. Always a Bridesmaid from I Love You, Youre Perfect, Now Change performed
by Traci Laborde
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qhMIvVfmYyA
Summary: Notice Traci Labordes classic belters mouth, narrow,
horizontal shape with lots of teeth showing. She is able to employ the twang
resonance required of the style without using full nasal resonance. Observe the
modified open vowel on own on the last page.
I Love You, Youre Perfect, Now Change is the second longest running Off-
Broadway musical. It closed at the Westside Theater on July 27, 2008 after a run
of 5,003 performances.
92
The musical has been translated into at least fourteen
languages.




92
Andrew Gans, I Love You, Youre Perfect, Now Change Ends NYC Run After More Than
a Decade July 27 [website] http://www.playbill.com/news/article/119818-LAST-CHANCE-
Playbillcoms-Reminder-of-NYC-Shows-Closing-July-27 Accessed June 22, 2014.
8u
5. I Know the Truth from Elton John and Tim Rices Aida performed by Sherie
Ren Scott
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dw0yt8it134
Summary: Sherie Ren Scott begins in CT dominant mixed voice making
the intervallic leaps more accessible. Sung in R & B style, slightly behind the beat.
Scott moves into a TA dominant belt in the second refrain. She also employs
typical R & B ornaments. Scott ends the song in the same registration in which
she began, CT dominant mixed voice.
Disney had acquired the rights for an animated feature film, but the
project was shelved. The source material for the film developed into the
Broadway musical. This song appears in Act II; the singer, Amneris, is trying to
face the fact that her upcoming marriage to Radames is bogus. Sherie Ren Scott
originated the role of Amneris and received the award for Most Promising
Actress in 2000 for her performance. Notable replacements for the role include
Idina Menzel, Taylor Dayne, and Lisa Brescia.

6. I Got Rhythm from Girl Crazy or Crazy for You performed by Ethel Merman
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v4hI-xhGZug Televised in 1956.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lJTsKhool5g Released in 1994.
Summary: Ethel Merman easily switches between nasal and non-nasal
belt. Easily moving into her upper register. Very clear articulation and phrasing.
Girl Crazy introduced Ethel Merman to Broadway in 1930. Mermans tale
of her introduction:
Once upon a time, back in 1930, I stepped out on stage at
the Alvin Theater in New York, got hit in the kisser with a
big spotlight, and found myself in big-time show business.
81
It was in a thing called Girl Crazy, which boasted Ginger
Rogers, Willie Howard, and the DeMarcos, and a great
score by George Gershwin. One of the songs I did that
memorable night was I Got Rhythm. And as I was
riveted in the second chorus I held on to a high C like it
was from Tiffanys, and the last one in the world.
Anyway, it was a show stopper. It sort of launched me
on my way, so I guess you cant blow the whistle on me
for saying its one of my special favorites. It goes like
this. And brother, how it goes.
93


The song is also included in the 1992 Broadway show, Crazy for You.

7. Look at Me, Im Sandra Dee from Grease performed by Stockard Channing
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uz5D-D7VYmY
Summary: Stockard Channing employs the natural resonance of her
speaking voice to her advantage. She mostly uses TA dominant mixed voice,
employing belt or speak-singing for key dramatic moments.
The score of Grease recreates the sound of early 1950s rock and roll. It is
named for the 1950s working class youth subculture known as greasers.
Originally, quite a raunchy show, subsequent productions were sanitized. The
show explores teenage sexuality, class-consciousness and conflict. This song is a
good example of this conflict. In the stage musical the song happens at a picnic.
Betty Rizzo is making fun of Danny Zuko for falling in love with a girl like Sandy
Dumbrowski comparing her to the virtuous teenage screen ingnue Sandra Dee.
In the film, this scene is at Frenchys pajama party where Rizzo makes fun of
Sandy after she falls ill from trying a cigarette, alcohol and getting her ears
pierced by Frenchy. The musical was first performed in 1971 in Chicago. It has


93
Ethel Merman, A Musical Autobiography, Decca DXB 153.
82
been successful on stage and screen. The Chicago production moved to
Manhattan in 1972 and was deemed eligible for the 1972 Tony Awards. The first
New York production was presented Off-Broadway with first-class Broadway
contracts. The film was produced in 1978. The film version of this song was also
presented on the TV show Glee in Season 4, Episode 6. The film version is
included for study with this essay.

8. My New Philosophy from Youre a Good Man, Charlie Brown performed by
Kristin Chenoweth
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tRa7WNmRakY
Summary: Kristin Chenoweth uses her the natural resonance of her
speaking voice to move easily between belt, mixed, and head voice. Observe the
belters mouth especially in the last measures.
This song, composed by Andrew Lippa, is from the 1999 revival of Youre
a Good Man, Charlie Brown. The show is made up of a series of character-centric
vignettes with a musical number for each one. In the revival, the character of
Patty was replaced with Sally Brown. Kristin Chenoweth created the character,
and her performance won her the 1999 Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in
a Musical. Bruce Brantley, reviewer for The New York Times, wrote, Kristin
Chenoweths performance as Sally will be the part that should seal her
reputation.
94
Sally Brown is a cute but angry kindergartener.



94
Ben Brantley, Theater Review: Your Sisters Gutsy, Charlie Brown, [website]
http://www.nytimes.com/1999/02/05/movies/theater-review-your-sisters-gutsy-charlie-
brown.html Accessed June 22, 2014
8S
9. Blow, Gabriel, Blow from Anything Goes performed by Sutton Foster
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L-Ql-fduIdM
Summary: Sutton Foster begins the song with the belters mouth. She
also employs more twang resonance to move easily between the very low range
and the middle range. Notice Fosters very centered, non-athletic breathing in the
dance section in the middle. She conserves breath energy and does not sound
winded in her sung entrance after the dance portion. There is no clavicular
breathing.
Ethel Merman (1937), Patti LuPone (Drama Desk Award 1987), Elaine
Paige (Nominated for Laurence Olivier Award 1989), and Sutton Foster (Tony
Award 2011) have created and re-created the role of Reno Sweeney. This
character is confident, sassy, and sexy. This song should also be assigned to a
triple threat singer who is an excellent tap dancer. In an interview for Dance
Magazine, Sutton Foster describes the role thus:
I had never really delved into a character so unlike me.
Its the showiest, the brassiest the most commanding
role Ive ever played. I had to cover my mirrors with
words like youre awesome , you rock , you deserve
this you know total affirmations, so that I could stand
on stage and be like , Yeeeeah!
95


10. On My Own from Les Misrables performed by Lea Salonga
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VjfmP7h3gBw
Summary: Lea Salonga employs active articulation in the opening
recitative section as well as easily moving between TA and CT dominant mixed
voice. She uses contemporary pop inflection and phrasing when the song begins.


95
Sylviane Gold, Shes the Top, Dance Magazine December 2011 [website]
http://www.dancemagazine.com/issues/december-2011/Shes-the-Top Accessed June 27, 2014
84
Salonga employs TA dominant for the first in the bridge section. She uses
clavicular breathing for dramatic effect on All my life Ive only been
pretending. Notice her vowel modification on known at the end of the song.
One of the most famous songs from this show, this is ponines solo. Les
Misrables opened in 1985 in London by the Royal Shakespeare Company. The
initial reviews were negative. Literary scholars condemned the project for
converting a literary classic into a musical. The public disagreed: Les Miz put
up record numbers at the box office. As of November 2013, the show has
received 11,603 performances in the West End and it is still running. The
Broadway production closed in 2003 after 6,003 performances.
8S
APPENDIX D
REPRESENTATIVE MUSICAL SCORES
1. Roxie from Chicago Music: John Kander, Lyrics: Fred Ebb in The Singers
Musical Theatre Anthology, Volume 4, Mezzo-Soprano/Belter, Milwaukee, WI:
Hal Leonard Corp.

2. On the Steps of the Palace from Into the Woods Music and Lyrics: Stephen
Sondheim in The Singers Musical Theatre Anthology, Volume 4, Soprano,
Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp.

3. Adelaides Lament from Guys and Dolls Music and Lyrics: Frank Loesser in
The Singers Musical Theatre Anthology, Volume 2, Mezzo-Soprano/Belter,
Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp.

4. Always a Bridesmaid from I Love You, Youre Perfect, Now Change Music:
Jimmy Roberts, Lyrics and Book: Joe DiPietro in The Singers Musical Theatre
Anthology, Volume 3, Mezzo-Soprano/Belter, Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp.

5. I Know the Truth from Elton John and Tim Rices Aida Music: Elton John,
Lyrics: Tim Rice in The Singers Musical Theatre Anthology, Volume 4, Mezzo-
Soprano/Belter, Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp.

6. I Got Rhythm from Girl Crazy or Crazy for You Music: George Gershwin,
Lyrics: Ira Gershwin in The New York Times: Gershwin: Years in Song, New York:
Quadrangle: The New York Times Book Co.

7. Look at Me, Im Sandra Dee from Grease Music, Lyrics, and Book: Jim Jacobs
and Warren Casey in The Singers Musical Theatre Anthology, Volume 2, Mezzo-
Soprano/Belter, Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp.

8. My New Philosophy from Youre a Good Man, Charlie Brown Music, Lyrics,
and Book: Clark Gesner; Andrew Lippa added songs for the Broadway revival in
The Singers Musical Theatre Anthology, Volume 3, Mezzo-Soprano/Belter,
Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp.

9. Blow, Gabriel, Blow from Anything Goes Music and Lyrics: Cole Porter in
Anything Goes: Vocal Selections: Revival Edition New York: Warner Bros.
Publications, Inc.

10. On My Own from Les Misrables Music: Claude-Michel Schnberg, Lyrics:
Herbert Kretzmer and Alain Boublil in The Singers Musical Theatre Anthology,
Volume 2, Mezzo-Soprano/Belter, Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard Corp.
86
APPENDIX E
PERMISSIONS


6/19/14 11:59 AM Re: Sciandmed.com Contact Form - MPPA Estill
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Re: Sciandmed.com Contact Form - MPPA Estill
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Sent:Tuesday, June 10, 2014 3:13 PM
To: Jennings, Colleen A

Date: May 22, 2014

Dear Ms. Jennings:

Material:
Figure: page 39 (Fig 2)
Article: Belting and classic voice quality: some physiologic differences.
Estill J.
Med Probl Perform Art 3 (1): 37, March 1988.
Proposed Use: dissertation
Title:
Publisher/university: Univ of Iowa
Pub Date: 2014
Thank you for your note requesting permission to reproduce/excerpt material
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87


88
APPENDIX F
ADDITIONAL VOCALISES FOR BELTING

These exercises can be sung on the vowel of choice. For beginning belters,
closed vowels allow for more facility.
96
Sing these on [] or [i].

Figuie 1S: Auuitional vocalises foi belting. 0se |j oi |ij.

96
Based on exercises from Mary Saunders Bartons Bel Canto, Can Belto.





Voice
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Voice 2
89
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