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Recycling is a process of collection and reuse of materials that would otherwise be
thrown away. Materials ranging from precious metals to broken glass, from old newspapers
to plastic spoons, can be recycled. The recycling process reclaims the original material and
uses it in new products.
Fig 1
An average city dweller may produce a ton of refuse in a year, a volume that
rapidly overflows local dumps. ities running out of space for landfill often turn to
incinerating their waste or transporting it to other areas, although up to !" percent of the
material might have been recycled.
#n general, using recycled materials to make new products costs less and re$uires
less energy than using new materials. Recycling can also reduce pollution, either by
reducing the demand for high%pollution alternatives or by minimi&ing the amount of
pollution produced during the manufacturing process. Recycling decreases the amount of
land needed for trash dumps by reducing the volume of discarded waste.
Recycling can be done internally 'within a company( or e)ternally 'after a product
is sold and used(. #n the paper industry, for e)ample, internal recycling occurs when
leftover stock and trimmings are salvaged to help make more new product. *ince the
recovered material never left the manufacturing plant, the final product is said to contain
reconsider waste. +)ternal recycling occurs when materials used by the customer are
returned for processing into new products. Materials ready to be recycled in this manner,
such as empty beverage containers, are called post consumer waste.
,ust about any material can be recycled. -n an industrial scale, the most commonly
recycled materials are those that are used in large $uantities.metals such as steel and
aluminum, plastics, paper, glass, and certain chemicals.
:.1 'TEEL
There are two methods of making steel using recycled material/ the basic oxygen
furnace '0-F( method and the electric arc furnace '+AF( method. The 0-F method
involves mi)ing molten scrap steel in a furnace with new steel. About 12 percent of the new
product is recycled steel. *teel made by the 0-F method typically is used to make sheet%
steel products like cans, automobiles, and appliances. The +AF method normally uses 1""
percent recycled steel. *crap steel is placed in a furnace and melted by electricity that arcs
between two carbon electrodes. 3imestone and other materials are added to the molten steel
to remove impurities. *teel produced by the +AF method usually is formed into beams,
reinforcing bars, and thick plate.
Appro)imately 42 percent of all steel is recycled5 making it one of the worlds6s
most recycled materials.
Fig 1
. About 1 kg 'about 7 lb( of ore, a mi)ture of aluminum o)ides called bau)ite, are
needed to make ".8 kg '1 lb( of aluminum. Aluminum cans almost always produce a profit
in community recycling programs. A number of states re$uire deposits for beverage
containers and have established redemption centers at supermarkets. The overall recycling
rate of all forms of aluminum is about 98 percent.
ans brought to collection centers are crushed, baled, and shipped to regional mills
or reclamation plants. The cans are then shredded to reduce volume and heated to remove
coatings and moisture. :e)t, they are put into a furnace, melted, and formed into ingots, or
bars, weighing 1",""" kg '9",""" lb( or more. The ingots go to another mill to be rolled
into sheets. The sheets are sent to a container plant and cut into disks from which new cans
are formed. The cans are printed with the beverage makers6 logos and are shipped 'with
tops separate( to the filling plant.
About 1"" billion aluminum beverage cans are used each year in the ;nited *tates
and about 48 percent of these are then recycled. The average aluminum can in the ;nited
*tates contains 7" percent post consumer recycled aluminum. About !< percent of all soft
drink cans and !! percent of all beer cans are made of aluminum.
:.3 ;LA'TIC'
Fig 9
products are
marked to
tell which
plastics can
be recycled.
sorting, and
plastics is an
Although automated plastic sorting machines are being developed, many recycling
operations sort plastic by hand, as shown here. =lastics are more difficult to recycle than
metal, paper, or glass. -ne problem is that any of seven categories of plastics can be used
for containers alone. For effective recycling, the different types cannot be mi)ed. Most
states re$uire that plastic containers have identification codes so they can be more easily
identified and separated.
The code assigns a particular number to each of the seven plastics used in
packaging. The number 1 refers to polyethylene teraphthalate '=+T( and the number 1
refers to high%density polyethylene '>?=+(. =+T can be made into carpet, or fiberfill for
ski @ackets and clothing. >?=+ can be recycled into construction fencing, landfill liners,
and a variety of other products. =lastics coded with the number 4 are polystyrene '=*(,
which can be recycled into cafeteria trays, combs, and other items.
The recycling process for plastic normally involves cleaning it, shredding it into
flakes, and then melting the flakes into pellets. The pellets are melted into a final product.
*ome products work best with only a small percentage of recycled content. -ther products,
such as >?=+ plastic milk cases, can be made successfully with 1"" percent recycled
content. The plastic container industry has concentrated on weight reduction and source
:.4 ;A;ER AN8 ;A;ER ;RO89CT'
Fig 7
:ewspapers are shredded and bailed Recyclable ollection enter. The papers will be used
for making recycled paper products. Mi)ed resource collection necessitates costly
separation of paper from metal and plastics, while collection of paper alone reduces the
recycling costs.
=aper products that can be recycled include cardboard containers, wrapping paper,
and office paper. The most commonly recycled paper product is newsprint.
#n newspaper recycling, old newspapers are collected and searched for contaminants
such as plastic bags and aluminum foil. The paper goes to a processing plant where it is
mi)ed with hot water and turned into pulp in a machine that works much like a big kitchen
blender. The pulp is screened and filtered to remove smaller contaminants. The pulp then
goes to a large vat where the ink separates from the paper fibers and floats to the surface.
The ink is skimmed off, dried and reused as ink or burned as boiler fuel. The cleaned pulp
is mi)ed with new wood fibers to be made into paper again.
+)perts estimate the average office worker generates about < kg 'about 18 lb( of
wastepaper 'about 1,8"" sheets( per month. +very ton of paper that is recycled saves about
1.7 cu m 'about 8" cu ft( of landfill space. -ne ton of recycled paper saves 1< pulpwood
trees 'trees used to produce paper(.
:.< GLA''=
*crap glass taken from the glass manufacturing process, called cullet, has been
internally recycled for years. The scrap glass is economical to use as a raw material because
it melts at lower temperatures than other raw materials, thus saving fuel and operating
Alass that is to be recycled must be relatively free from impurities and sorted by
color. Alass containers are the most commonly recycled form of glass, and their colors are
flint 'clear(, amber 'brown(, and green. -ther glass, such as window glass, pottery, and
cooking utensils, are considered contaminants because they have different compositions
than glass used in containers. The recycled glass is melted in a furnace and formed into new
Alass containers make up !" percent of the total glass used. -ther uses for recycled
glass include glass art and decorative tiles. ullet mi)ed with asphalt forms a paving
material called glassphalt.
Rare materials, such as gold and silver, are recycled because ac$uiring new supplies
is e)pensive. -ther materials may not be as e)pensive to replace, but they are recycled to
conserve energy, reduce pollution, conserve land, and to save money.
3.1 Re(0+*4e C0%(e*vti0% Re4y4/i%5
This conserves natural resources by reducing the need for new material. *ome
natural resources are renewable, meaning they can be replaced, and some are not. =aper,
corrugated board, and other paper products come from renewable timber sources. Trees
harvested to make those products can be replaced by growing more trees. #ron and
aluminum come from nonrenewable ore deposits. -nce a deposit is mined, it cannot be
3.: E%e*5y C0%(e*vti0% Re4y4/i%5
This saves energy by reducing the need to process new material, which usually
re$uires more energy than the recycling process. The amount of energy saved in recycling
one aluminum can is e$uivalent to the energy in the gasoline that would fill half of that
same can. To make an aluminum can from recycled metal takes only 8 percent of the total
energy needed to produce the same aluminum can from unrecycled materials, a !8 percent
energy savings. Recycled paper and paperboard re$uire <8 percent less energy to produce
than new products. *ignificant energy savings result in the recycling of steel and glass, as
3.3 ;0//+ti0% Re2+4ti0% Re4y4/i%5
This reduces pollution because recycling a product creates less pollution than
producing a new one. For every ton of newspaper recycled, < fewer kg '14 lb( of air
pollutants are pumped into the atmosphere. Recycling can also reduce pollution by
recycling safer products to replace those that pollute. *ome countries still use
chlorofluorocarbons 'Fs( to manufacture foam products such as cups and plates. Many
scientists suspect that Fs harm the atmosphere6s protective layer of o&one. ;sing
recycled plastic instead for those products eliminates the creation of harmful Fs.
3.4 L%2 C0%(e*vti0% Re4y4/i%5
This saves valuable landfill space, land that must be set aside for dumping trash,
construction debris, and yard waste 'see *olid Baste ?isposal/ Landfill(. #n the ;nited
*tates, each person on average discards almost a ton of municipal solid waste 'M*B( per
year. M*B is raw, untreated garbage of the kind discarded by homes and small businesses.
Baste from industry and agriculture normally is not part of M*B, but construction and
demolition wastes are. The ;nited *tates has the highest M*B discard level of any country
in the world.
3andfills fill up $uickly and acceptable sites for new ones are difficult to find
because of ob@ections by neighbors to noise and smells, and the ha&ard of leaks into
underground water supplies. The two ma@or ways to reduce the need for new landfills are to
generate less initial waste and to recycle products that would normally be considered waste.
#n 1!!7 about 4.2 million metric tons '<.8 million ;.*. tons( of food and yard debris
were composted in the ;nited *tates, accounting for about one%si)th of the overall 19.4
percent recycling rate. The combined effort of reducing waste and recycling resulted in 71
million fewer metric tons '78 million ;.*. tons( of material going to landfills.
*olid waste can also be burned instead of buried in the ground. Typically, waste%to%
energy 'BT+( facilities burn trash to heat water for steam%turbine electrical generators.
This BT+ recycling keeps another 14 percent of municipal solid waste out of the landfills.
3.< E40%0,i4 'vi%5( Re4y4/i%5
This in the short term is not always economically profitable or a break%even
financial operation. Most e)perts contend, however, that the economic conse$uences of
recycling are positive in the long term. Recycling will save money if potential landfill sites
are used for more productive purposes and by reducing the number of pollution%related
The above%discussed kinds of wastes are the common types that are available as tones
of stocks occupying a considerable land space for dumping them. >ence we suggest the ways
that can work effectively and economically to reuse those waste materials and the advantages
which in turn will be caused by following them. Reusing the materials will bring about a
change in economy of the same. Thus the management of solid wastes can be done all over
the world with the effective tool called CRecyclingD on a large scale or by part that suits the
efficiency of the nation in order to control the accumulation of wastes, preserve the e)isting
environment, improve the surroundings and to secure a better atmosphere of life for the
future inhabitants on this watery planet.